Frank Elsholz
3 Concepts 4
3.1 Transmission probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2 Ballistic conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.3 Reflectionless contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.4 Transverse modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.5 Distribution Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.6 Number of transverse modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.7 Contact Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4 Landauer Formula 8
6 Multiterminal Devices 10
2
1 Symbols
Quantity Groe Symbol SIUnit
(2D)Conductivity1 (spezifische) Leitf
ahigkeit 1 m1
(2D)Resistivity1 (spezifischer) Widerstand m1
Conductance1 Leitwert G 1
Resistance1 Widerstand R
Band edge energy (bulk) (Leitungs)bandunterkante EC eV
Cutoff energy ? c eV
Transmission function Transmissionsfunktion T
Heavyside function Stufenfunktion
Effective mass Effektive Masse m me
Length L
ange L m
Width Breite w m
Number of transverse modes Anzahl transversaler Moden M
RL I
Rtot = RU + RI + R0 + RL (1) R RI
+ U
But we wont worry bout all these details, so usually we R
calculate the resistors resistance by calculating UDC UDC
UR Figure 1:
R0 = . (2)
I Measuring
On the other hand, we know, that the resistance can be the value of a
expressed by a specific, material dependend but geometry resistance R0 is
independent (2D)resistivity , or, equivalently, its (2 influenced by
D)conductivity , as: several sources
of pratical
L errors.
R0 = G1
0 = , (3)
w
1
Temparture dependent
3
L
w
Contact 1 Conductor
Contact 2
which is not observed experimentally. For the length L going to zero und
for small width w, we find a limiting value limL0 R0 RC (w), which does
depend on the width. To find an explanation, we introduce several concepts.
3 Concepts
We treat the resistor as a conductor sandwiched between two contacts (fig.
2).
4
later. This assumption set us in the position to note, that the +k states
inside a ballistic conductor are populated by electron originating in the left
contact only and vice versa.
5
E
E(kz)
EC+e4
EC+e3
EC+e2
EC+e1
EC+e0
EC
Conductor Contact kz
(a) (b)
1 and 2 :
T =0K
Left contact: f1 (E) = (1 E) Fermi distribution
T =0K
Right contact: f2 (E) = (2 E) Fermi distribution
T =0K
+k states: f + (E) = f1 (E) = (1 E)
Conductor: T =0K
k states: f (E) = f2 (E) = (2 E)
6
electron density for an electron inside a conductor of length L and veff is the
effective velocity of the electrons. So we have:
e X E +
In+ = f (E(k)). (5)
L k h
k
P L
R
By using the formal transition 2 2
dk this yields:
k
Z
2e
In+ = f + (E)dE. (6)
h
n
Here 2e
h
nA
= 80 meV is the current per mode per energy. The same holds for
the k states.
3.7 Contact Resistance
Apply a low voltage U = (1 2 ) /e to a ballistic conductor, such that
M (E)=const=M for 2 < E < 1 , which is referred to as transport at the
Fermi edge. Then the current will be
2e 2e2 (1 2 )
I = I+ I = M (1 2 ) = M
h h e
The conductance will be
I 2e2
GC = = M
U h
and the resistance (contact resistance)is
h
G1
C = 12.9 k
M
2e2 M
These results have been confirmed experimentally (fig. 6).
7
Figure 6: Discrete conductance steps in a narrow conductor (atopted from:
[1]).
4 Landauer Formula
A fully analoguous treatment including a resident scatterer inside the
conductor with transmission probability T yield Landauers formula for the
conductance of a mesoscopic conductor:
2e2
Gtot = h
MT Landauer 1957 (8)
Discrete modes
Ohms law
Ohms law is obtained considerering the limiting case of a long conductor
including many scatterers, which will not be derived here. The interested
reader may be suggested to have a look in [1]. Finally we want to devide the
resistance into two parts: The resistance originating in the transistion to the
contacts and the residual scatterers resistance:
h h h 1T
G1 = = + (9)
2e2 M T 2 2
2e{zM} 2e M{z T }
G1
C G1
s
8
5 Residual scatterers resistance on a micro
scopic scale
m1 S m2
XL L R XR
Distributionfunctions (T=0 K):
+ + + +
f (E)=J(m1E) f (E)=J(m1E) f (E)=J(m2E)+T[J(m1E)J(m2E)] f (E)=J(F''E)
1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0
0 m2 m1 E 0 m2 m1 E 0 m2 F'' m1 E 0 F'' E

f (E)=J(F'E) 

f (E)=J(m2E)

f (E)=J(m2E)
1 f (E)=J(m2E)+(1T)[J(m1E)J(m2E)] 1 1
1
T T T
0 0 0 0
0 F' E 0 m2 F' m1 E 0 m2 F' m1 E 0 m2 F' m1 E
To have a look at the distribution function for the electrons inside the con
ductor for temperature 0K, we first consider the +k states. Coming in from
the left contact (XL), they are Fermi distributed according to the left contact
electrochemical potential 1 and move on to the scatterer (L). Here a frac
tion T transmits the scatterer, the remaining part is reflected back to the left
contact, so these electrons turn into k states. Directly after the scatterer
(R) the +k states are highly nonequilibrium distributed. On their way to
the right contact, however they relaxate and form a new equilibrium Fermi
distribution with some quasipotential F. The same holds for the k states
originating in the right contact: First they are Fermi distributed according
to the right contact electrochemical potential 2 , move on to the scatterer.
Here, in pricipal a fraction T is transmitted and the rest reflected, however
to simplify the matter, we assume the scatterer to act only on the +k states,
so all k states can transmit, which definitely is not quite correct. After
passing the scatterer, the transmitted k states unify with the reflected +k
states, that turned into k states and we again have a highly nonequilibrium
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distribution, which relexates on its way to the left contact. A quasi Fermi
potential F emerges.
In that simplified model the quasiFermi Niveaus are given by:
F 0 = 2 + (1 T )(1 2 ) (10)
F 00 = 2 + T (1 2 ) (11)
Fig. 8 shows the electrochemical potentials for the two species across the
E
m1
F'
F''
m2
S
XL L R XR
equilibrium nonequilibrium equilibrium
distributions distributions distributions
conductor. Clearly we can see, that the voltage drop at the scatterer is:
+k states eVs+ = 1 F 00 = (1 T ) = eG1
s I
0 1
k states eVs = F 2 = (1 T ) = eGs I
whereas the voltage drop at the contacts is:
eVc = T (1 2 ) = eG1
c I
according to eqn. 9.
6 Multiterminal Devices
Now we want to extend our investigations to multiterminal devices, having
more than 2 probes (or electrodes or contacts, generally terminals). Fig. 9
10
mp1 mp2
1 T
m1 S m2
1T
S S
m1 +k k S +k k m2 m1 S m2 m1 S m2
have to treat such multiterminal devices? It was B uttiker, who realized, that
there is no principal difference between voltage probes and current probes, so
we can simply extend the two terminal Landauer formula by summing over
all probes:
2e X
Buttiker: Ip = T qp p T pq q (12)
h q
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Here T qp := Mqp Tqp is the product of transmission probability T from
contact p to contact q and the number of transverse modes M between them,
and is called transmission function. Just let us rewrite this a little:
2e2 P P
Gqp = Gpq
with Gpq := T pq
h q q
q P
Vq := Ip = Gpq (Vp Vq )
e q
V
V2
I1 I2 I3
V1 V3
+
I
12
write:
I1 G11 (V1 V1 ) + G12 (V1 V2 ) + G13 (V1 V3 )
I2 = G21 (V2 V1 ) + G22 (V2 V2 ) + G23 (V2 V3 )
I3 G31 (V3 V1 ) + G32 (V3 V2 ) + G33 (V3 V3 )
G12 + G13 G12 G13 V1
= G21 G21 + G23 G23 V2
G31 G32 G31 + G32 V3
This can be reduced further. From Kirchhoffs knot rule, we know, that
I1 + I2 + I3 = 0, so these three equations are not independent and we can
only solve for I1 and I2 . I3 then follows immediately. Secondly we can choose
a reference potential without changing the physics behind it, so we choose
V3 = 0 to simplify the matter. This yields:
I1 G12 + G13 G12 V1
=
I2 G21 G21 + G23 V2
 {z }
1
2
V1 Raa Rab I1
=
V2 Rba Rbb I2
R can be obtained from the conductance coefficients Gij and these can be
obtained from the scattering matrix Slm , for which we have to solve the
threedimensional problem quantummechanically, e.g. using Greens function.
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References
[1] S. Datta, Electronic Transport in Mesoscopic Systems (Cambridge Uni
versity Press, Cambridge, 1995).
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