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ORGANOLOGY I

By :
Name : Suryadi
Student Number : B1B053023
Section : D1
Group :3
Assistant : Arni Minanti Rahayu

LABORATORY REPORT
PLANT STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT II

MINISTRY OF RESEARCH, TECHNOLOGY AND HIGHER EDUCATION


JENDERAL SOEDIRMAN UNIVERSITY
BIOLOGY FACULTY
PURWOKERTO
2016
I. INTRODUCTION
In plants, just as in animals, similar cells working together form a tissue.
When different types of tissues work together to perform a unique function, they
form an organ; organs working together form organ systems. Vascular plants have
two distinct organ systems: a shoot system and a root system. The shoot system
consists of two portions: the vegetative (non-reproductive) parts of the plant, such as
the leaves and the stems; and the reproductive parts of the plant, which include
flowers and fruits. The shoot system generally grows above ground, where it absorbs
the light needed for photosynthesis. The root system, which supports the plants and
absorbs water and minerals, is usually underground (Saktiyono, 1989).

A plant's organ system works with the roots anchoring the plant and
absorbing water and nutrients, while the shoots transfer the nutrients to the leaves,
which transfer light into energy via photosynthesis. A plants roots, leaves and stems,
the three basic plant organs, work together to allow the plant to function. The plants
shoot system, which includes the leaves, stems, and flowers, is divided into two
sections: the non-reproductive portion and the reproductive portion. The reproductive
portion includes the flowers and fruit. The non-reproductive portion includes the
leaves and stems (Saktiyono, 1989).

II. OBJECTIVE
Event organology laboratory objectives, among others:
1 To observe and describe anatomy of root.
2 To observe and describe anatomy of stem.
3 To observe and describe anatomy of leaf.
III. MATERIALS
The tools used in the cytology lab show them the light microscope, object
glass, cover glass, pipettes, tissue, an interim report and a razor.
The materials used root of Zea mays, leaf of Zea mays, leaf of Citrus sp, stem
of Piper batle, and distilled water.
IV. METHOD
The method is performed in the event cytology lab, among others:
1 Take cross section part of Zea mays root and place it on the glass object, drops of
water and cover with a cover glass.
2 Take cross section part of Zea mays leaf and place it on the glass object, drops of
water and cover with a cover glass.
3 Take cross section part of Piper betle stem and place it on the glass object, drops
of water and cover with a cover glass.
4 Take cross section part of Citrus sp leaf and place it on the glass object, drops of
water and cover with a cover glass.
V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A Result
Explanation:
1. Epidermal
2. Exoderm
3. Parenchyma cortex
4. Endoderm
5. Pericycle
6. Phloem
7. Xylem
8. Pith
Type of vascular bundle:
Radial

Figure 1. Cross Section Part of Zea mays Root 100x Magnification


Explanation:
1. Epidermis
2. Collenchyma
3. Peripheral vascular
4. Sclerenchyma
5. Medullar vascular
6. Pith
7. Secretory gland
Type of vascular bundle:
Closed collateral

Figure 2. Cross Section Part of Piper Betle Stem 100x Magnification


Explanation:
1. Upper epidermis
2. Mesophyll
3. Motor cell/ Bulli
form
4. Vascular bundle
5. Trichrome
6. Lower epidermis

Figure 3. Cross Section Part of Zea Mays Leaf 100x Magnification


Explanation:
1. Upper epidermis
2. Palisade tissue
3. Sponge tissue
4. Crystal CO-Oxalate
5. Vascular bundle
6. Lower epidermis

Figure 4. Cross Section Part of Citrus Sp Leaf 400x Magnification


B. Discussion
Exoderm situated between the epidermis and cortex. Composed of one or
several layers of parenchyma cells thickened by suberin impenetrable by water.
Exoderm function is to replace a protective layer of the epidermis as if the tissue
underneath the epidermis peeling. The exoderm is an insulating layer between the
cortex with a central cylinder. Most cells endodermis have a section like a ribbon
containing cork (substance suberin) or lignin substances. This section is called the
Kasparian ribbon. Endodermis cells can undergo a thickening agent cork on the walls
and formed like dots, called Kasparian ribbon. In the subsequent growth of the cork
thickening agent to the cell wall facing the central cylinder, when observed under a
microscope will look like the letter U, called cells U, so that water cannot get to the
center of the cylinder. But not all the cells of endodermis had thickening, thus
allowing water can enter the central cylinder. Such cells are called successor cell /
cell impregnation. So, endodermis function as a regulator of the course of solution
absorbed from the soil get into the central cylinder (Brotowidjoyo, 1989).
The endoderm only found in the roots. The endoderm is on a tissue composed
of a layer of cells located between the cortex with a central cylinder. Cells
endodermis compact and have thickening by suberin in the secondary wall, so that
water cannot penetrate. The thickening of the cell wall is formed like a ribbon, so-
called ribbon Caspary (Prawiro, 1997).

Perisikel located outside silender center, bordering the endodermis.


Parenkimatis is a network that can differentiate into cork cambium and vascular
cambium (the dicots and gymnosperms). Additionally, perisikel functioning form
lateral roots (monocots and dicots). The outer surface of the leaf has a thin waxy
covering called the cuticle, this layer's primary function is to prevent water loss
within the leaf. (Plants that leave entirely within water do not have a cuticle).
Directly underneath the cuticle is a layer of cells called the epidermis. The vascular
tissue, xylem and phloem are found within the veins of the leaf. Veins are actually
extensions that run from to tips of the roots all the way up to the edges of the leaves.
The outer layer of the vein is made of cells called bundle sheath cells, and they create
a circle around the xylem and the phloem. xylem is the upper layer of cells and is
shaded a little lighter than the lower layer of cells - phloem. Recall that xylem
transports water and phloem transports sugar (food). Within the leaf, there is a layer
of cells called the mesophyll. Mesophyll can then be divided into two layers,
the palisade layer and the spongy layer. Palisade cells are more column-like, and lie
just under the epidermis, the spongy cells are more loosely packed and lie between
the palisade layer and the lower epidermis. The air spaces between the spongy cells
allow for gas exchange. Mesophyll cells (both palisade and spongy) are packed with
chloroplasts, and this is where photosynthesis actually occurs (Radiopoetra, 1997).

Roots are composed of three concentric rings of tissues. These are vascular,
ground & epidermis. This organization is illustrated by Selaginella which is a
seedless plant. It has a solid core of xylem, surrounded by a ring of Phloem which is
surrounded by ground tissue (Cortex). The innermost layer of the Cortex is the
Endodermis. An Epidermis is the outermost ring. The stem and other plant organs are
primarily made from three simple cell types: parenchyma, collenchyma, and
sclerenchyma cells. Parenchyma cells are the most common plant cells. They are
found in the stem, the root, the inside of the leaf, and the pulp of the fruit (Kimball,
1991).

VI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


A Conclusion
Based on the results and discussion, it can be concluded that:
1 Exoderm situated between the epidermis and cortex. Composed of one or several
layers of parenchyma cells thickened by suberin impenetrable by water.
2 The endoderm is on a tissue composed of a layer of cells located between the
cortex with a central cylinder.
3 Roots are composed of three concentric rings of tissues. These are vascular,
ground & epidermis.
4 The stem and other plant organs are primarily made from three simple cell types:
parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma cells.
5 Within the leaf, there is a layer of cells called the mesophyll. Mesophyll can then
be divided into two layers, the palisade layer and the spongy layer.
B Suggestion
Suggestions for lab work this time is in the production of preparations must
be correct according to the procedure for example in the shredding material should
be as thin as possible in order to be seen under a microscope and a microscope used
should really be in good condition and good order in the observation preparation
clearly visible.
REFERENCE
Brotowidjoyo. 1989. Zoologi Dasar. Erlangga. Jakarta
Kimball, J.W. 1991. Biologi. Erlangga. Jakarta
Prawiro. 1997. Biologi Sains. Bumi Aksara. Jakarta
Radiopoetra. 1997. Zoologi. Erlangga. Jakarta
Saktiyono. 1989. Biologi 2. Bumi Aksara. Jakarta