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Hp cht cao phn t v vt liu

polymer

nh ngha:

Nhng hp cht c khi lng phn t rt ln (thng hng ngn, hng triu .v.C)
do nhiu mt xch lin kt vi nhau c gi l hp cht cao phn t hay polime.

V d: Cao su thin nhin, tinh bt, xenluloz l nhng polime thin nhin.

Cao su Buna, polietilen, P.V.C l nhng polime tng hp.

Cu trc v phn loi

1. Thnh phn ho hc ca mch polime

a) Polime mch cacbon:

- Mch C bo ho. V d polietilen.

- Mch C cha bo ho. V d cao su Buna:


- Polime cha nguyn t halogen th. V d P.V.C:

- Ru polime. V d ru polivinylic:

- Polime dn xut ca ru. V d polivinyl axetat:

- Cc polime anehit v xeton. V d poli acrolein.

- Polime ca axit cacboxylic. V d poliacrilic:

- Polime nitril (c nhm - C N). V d poliacrilonitril:

- Polime ca hirocacbon thm. V d polistiren:

b) Polime d mch: Trn mch polime c nhiu loi nguyn t.

- Mch chnh c C v O. V d poliete (poliglicol):

polieste (polietylenglicol terephtalat)


- Mch chnh c C, N. V d polietyleniamin :

- Mch chnh c C, N, O. V d poliuretan :

2. Cu to hnh hc ca mch polime.

Cc phn t polime thin nhin v tng hp c th c ba dng sau.

a) Dng mch thng di: Mi phn t polime l mt chui mch thng di, do cc mt
xich polime kt hp u n to ra.

b) Dng mch nhnh: Ngoi mch thng di l mch chnh, cn c cc mch nhnh do
cc monome kt hp to thnh.

c) Dng mch li khng gian: Nhiu mch polime lin kt vi nhau theo nhiu
hng khc nhau. V d trong cao su lu ha, trong cht do phenolfomanehit.

Tnh cht ca polime.

1. Tnh cht vt l:

- L nhng cht rn tinh th hoc v nh hnh tu thuc vo trt t sp xp cc phn


t polime. Khi cc phn t polime sp xp hn n to thnh trng thi v nh hnh.

- Hp cht polime khng c nhit nng chy xc nh. Phn ln cc polime khi un
nng th u ra ri chy nht. Mt s polime b phn hu khi un nng.
- Phn nhiu polime kh tan trong cc dung mi. C loi polime hon ton khng tan
trong cc dung mi.

2. Tnh cht ho hc:

Ph thuc thnh phn v cu to ca polime.

- Phn ln cc polime bn vng ho hc (i vi axit, kim, cht oxi ho). C cht rt


bn vi nhit v ho cht, v d nh teflon ( - CF2 - CF2 - )n.

- Mt s polime km bn vi tc dng ca axit v baz. V d: Len, t tm, t nilon b


thu phn bi dung dch axit hoc kim do c nhm peptit.

- Nhng polime c lin kt i trong phn t c th tham gia phn ng cng. V d


phn ng lu ho cao su.

iu ch polime:

a) Phn ng trng hp: L qu trnh kt hp nhiu phn t n gin ging nhau


(monome) thnh phn t polime, khi khng c s tch bt cc phn t nh nn thnh
phn nguyn t ca polime v monome ging nhau.

Phn t monome tham gia phn ng trng hp phi c lin kt kp hoc c vng
khng bn.

V d:
- Phn ng trng hp c th xy ra gia 2 loi monome khc nhau, khi gi l ng
trng hp.

b) Phn ng trng ngng: l phn ng to thnh polime t cc monome, ng thi


to ra nhiu phn t nh, n gin nh H2O, NH3, HCl,

c th tham gia phn ng trng ngng, cc phn t monome phi c t nht 2 nhm
chc c kh nng phn ng hoc 2 nguyn t linh ng c th tch khi phn t
monome.

- Trng ngng nhng monome cng loi:

V d:

- Trng ngng gia cc monome khc nhau:

Gia iamin v iaxit:

Gia iaxit v ru 2 ln ru:

(t lapxan)

ng dng ca polime
1. Cht do

a) nh ngha: cht do l nhng vt liu polime c tnh do, tc l c kh nng b


bin dng di tc dng bn ngoi v gi c bin dng sau khi ngng tc dng.

b) Thnh phn:

- Thnh phn c bn: l 1 polyme no . V d thnh phn chnh ca bnit l cao


su, ca xenluloit l xenluloz nitrat, ca bakelit l phenolfomanehit.

- Cht ho do: tng tnh do cho polime, h nhit chy v nht ca polime.
V d ibutylphtalat,

- Cht n: tit kim nguyn liu, tng cng mt s tnh cht. V d aming
tng tnh chu nhit.

- Cht ph: cht to mu, cht chng oxi ho, cht gy mi thm.

c) u im ca cht do:

- Nh (d = 1,05 1,5). C loi xp, rt nh.

- Phn ln bn v mt c hc, c th thay th kim loi.

- Nhiu cht do bn v mt c hc.

- Cch nhit, cch in, cch m tt.

- Nguyn liu r.

d) Gii thiu mt s cht do.

- Polietilen (P.E) : iu ch t etilen ly t kh du m, kh thin nhin, kh than .


L cht rn, hi trong, khng cho nc v kh thm qua, cch nhit, cch in tt.

Dng bc dy in, bao gi, ch to bng thm khng, lm thit b trong ngnh sn
xut ho hc, sn tu thu.

- Polivinyl clorua (P.V.C)

Cht bt v nh hnh, mu trng, bn vi dung dch axit v kim.

Dng ch da nhn to, vt liu mng, vt liu cch in, sn tng hp, o ma, a
ht

- Polivinyl axetat (P.V.A)

iu ch bng cch : cho ri trng hp.

Dng ch sn, keo dn, da nhn to.

- Polimetyl acrilat

v polimetyl metacrilat

iu ch bng cch trng hp cc este tng ng.

L nhng polime rn, khng mu, trong sut.

Polimetyl acrilat dng sn xut cc mng, tm, lm keo dn, lm da nhn to