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Chng 1

NHNG VN CHUNG V VT LIU


COMPOSITE

1.1. KHI NIM V VT LIU COMPOSITE


Vt liu composite l vt liu t hp (mc v m) ca hai hay
nhiu vt liu thnh phn khc nhau v hnh dng hoc thnh phn ha
hc nhm to nn mt vt liu mi c tnh nng vt tri so vi tng vt
liu thnh phn.
Nhiu vt liu c ngun gc t nhin l composite. V d g l mt
composite gm nhng si cellulose trong nn lin kt l lignin, hoc xng
bn v nh c hnh thnh do s kt hp ca cc tinh th apatite (mt hp
cht ca canxi) v nhng si protein collagen. n , Hy Lp v cc
nc khc, rm hoc tru c trn vi t st lm nh cch y hng
trm nm l loi composite si ngn.
S t hp hai hay nhiu vt liu khc nhau trong composite nhm to
nn mt sn phm vi cc tnh cht ti u, bao gm tnh cht c hc, tnh
cht ha hc v tnh cht cht vt l nh tnh cht nhit ( dn nhit, h s
gin n nhit, nhit dung ring, nhit nng chy, nhit chy mm),
tnh cht in ( dn in, tn tht in mi), tnh cht quang hc, tnh
cch m
T nhng nm 1960, xut hin nhu cu ngy cng tng v cc vt liu
yu cu cng v nh hn. Tuy nhin, khng c mt vt liu n no
(monolithic material) c th p ng c yu cu . Xut pht t nhu cu
tng ch to vt liu kt hp t mt s vt liu khc nhau ra i v
to nn mt loi vt liu mi l vt liu t hp hay cn gi l vt liu
composite.
Vt liu composite c xem l vt liu cu to bi hai hay nhiu
thnh phn gm mt hay nhiu loi vt liu gia cng (gin on) phn b
trong thnh phn vt liu nn, lin tc. Vt liu composite ph bin gm hai

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thnh phn chnh: Vt liu gia cng (reinforcing material) v vt liu nn
(matrix) (Hnh 1.1).

Vt liu gia cng Vt liu nn

Hnh 1.1. M hnh vt liu composite

Vt liu nn ng vai tr lin kt cc vt liu gia cng ri rc to nn


mt sn phm lin tc. Di tc dng ngoi lc, vt liu gia cng l thnh
phn chnh chu ti trng v n thng c tnh cht c l cao hn vt liu
nn. Ngc li, vt liu nn thng c bn, cng thp hn v do dai
hn vt liu gia cng. Di tc dng ngoi lc vt liu nn c vai tr
chuyn ng sut sang vt liu gia cng. Ngoi ra, vt liu nn cn ng vai
tr chnh trong vic bo v composite khi s tn cng ca mi trng, ha
cht ng thi ng vai tr quyt nh n bn nhit, kh nng gia
cng ca vt liu composite.

1.2. PHN LOI VT LIU COMPOSITE


Da vo cc tnh cht v ngun gc to ra vt liu, trong khoa hc
phn loi composite theo cc cch sau:

1.2.1. Phn loi theo cu trc vt liu gia cng


Da vo cu trc vt liu gia cng, composite c phn thnh 3
nhm chnh: composite gia cng si (composite ct si), composite gia
cng ht (composite ct ht) v composite cu trc.
a) Composite gia cng si
Composite gia cng si (fibre reinforced composite FRC) l
composite c vt liu gia cng dng si, v d nh composite si thy
tinh, composite si t nhin .

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Trong h composite ny, si chu ti trng chnh, vt liu nn ch ng
vai tr phn b ti trng v truyn ti trng sang si cng nh lin kt cc
si li vi nhau. Ni chung, mc ch thit k FRC nhm to sn phm c
modul ring (modul/khi lng ring) v bn ring ( bn/khi lng
ring) cao. Cc si trong composite c th c phn b ngu nhin hoc c
s nh hng nht nh.
Ty thuc vo t s chiu di (l)/ng knh (d) m composite ct si
c phn thnh composite si lin tc (si di) v composite si gin on
(si ngn) (Hnh 1.2). Composite si di: l composite c t s l/d ca si ti
thiu l 200. Ngc li, khi composite c c l/d ca si nh hn 200 c
xem l composite si ngn.

Hnh 1.2. Composite si di (a) v si ngn (b)

Trong composite gia cng si, hiu qu gia cng v kh nng iu


chnh s sp xp ca si ngn km hn si di. S sp xp ca si ngn
thng km cht ch hn nn hm lng si trong composite si ngn
thng thp hn trong composite si di. Tuy nhin, tnh cht bt ng
hng ca composite si ngn b hn so vi composite si di.
b) Composite gia cng ht
Composite gia cng ht (Particulate reinforced composite): l
composite c gia cng bi cc ht vi cc hnh dng (hnh cu, que,
vy...) v c kch khc nhau nh bt g, than en, talc, cao lanh, vy mica,
st, ng, nhm

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Cc vt liu gia cng ht c kch c macro, micro hoc nano v
thng c cng cao hn vt liu nn. Mt s vt liu gia cng dng ht
c th ci thin cc tnh cht ca composite nh gim co ngt, chng chy,
khng mi mn, chu nhit Tuy nhin, kh nng ci thin tnh cht c l
ca vt liu gia cng dng ht thng b hn rt nhiu so vi vt liu gia
cng dng si v ph thuc rt nhiu vo kt dnh ti b mt ranh gii
phn chia pha. Chnh v vy, vt liu composite ht thng c dng trong
cc ng dng yu cu v bn khng cao.
Trong nhiu trng hp cc ht c s dng trong ch to composite
nhm mc ch gim gi thnh v tng cng sn phm.
c) Composite cu trc
Composite cu trc gm 2 loi chnh: composite dng lp (laminate)
v sandwich panel.
Composite dng lp (Hnh 1.3): c to thnh t cc lp c s, lp
th nht l lp chu lc (thng l cc composite ct si n hng) v lp
th hai ng vai tr lin kt (thng l vt liu ng nht) hoc c th c
to thnh t cng mt loi vt liu (thng l cc composite ct si n
hng), gm nhiu lp sp xp i hng cc lp cho ph hp yu cu thit
k ri p li s thu c cc bn thnh phm dng tm dng trong xy dng
nh ca, lm v thn cnh v ui cc loi my bay

Hnh 1.3. Composite dng lp

Sandwich panel (Hnh 1.4): Cu to gm hai lp mt, l vt liu c


bn v cng cao nh tm cu trc composite dng lp, hp kim nhm,
hp kim titan v lp li gia, l vt liu nh, c bn v cng
tng i b. Lp li c tc dng duy tr khong cch gia hai tm mt v
gim bin dng theo chiu vung gc mt tm, to cng nht nh, trnh
hin tng cong vnh tm. Lp li thng lm bng: polymer bt, cao su

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nhn to, g nh, vt liu dng t ong. Composite loi ny c ng dng
rt rng ri: trn, sn, tng trong xy dng nh ca, lm v thn cnh v
ui cc loi my bay

Lp t ong
Lp kt dnh
Lp b mt
Sn phm
sandwich panel

Hnh 1.4. Sandwich panel

1.2.2. Phn loi theo bn cht vt liu nn


Theo bn cht vt liu nn, composite c chia thnh ba nhm chnh
sau: composite nn polymer, composite nn kim loi v composite nn
ceramic.
a) Composite nn polymer
Composite nn polymer (Polymer matrix composite PMC) l
composite c nn l cc loi polymer nhit do nh polypropylene,
polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyamide hoc cc polymer nhit rn
nh polyester khng no, vinyl ester, phenolic, melamine, polyurethane,
epoxy . Vt liu gia cng l cc si, ht hu c (si Kevlar,
cellulose), v c (thy tinh, carbon) v kim loi (bo, nhm, thp,
molipden).
Loi composite ny c s dng rng ri nh u im rt ln l d
dng gia cng to nhng sn phm c hnh dng phc tp v kch thc ln.
Trong h composite ny, vt liu gia cng c bn v modul cao
cn polymer nn c vai tr truyn ti trng v tng kh nng khng n mn,
chu thi tit cho composite.
b) Composite nn kim loi
Composite nn kim loi (Metal matrix composite MMC) l
composite c nn l cc kim loi nh nhm, magie, titan, st, cobalt, ng

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Vt liu gia cng l cc si, ht v c ceramic (oxide, cacbua silic...) hoc
kim loi (ch, vonfram, molipden...). Vt liu nn thng do dai, vt liu
gia cng thng c tc dng ci thin tnh cht c l, khng mi mn,
chng ro, dn nhit, n nh kch thc ca composite.
u im ln ca composite nn kim loi so vi nn polymer l kh
nng chu nhit tt hn, khng chy v chng li s tn cng ca cc cht
lng hu c tt hn. Tuy nhin, n cng c nhc im so vi composite
nn polymer l gi thnh cao hn v khi lng ring ln hn, d b ph
hy ti b mt tip xc gia vt liu nn v vt liu gia cng do kim loi
d b n mn.
c) Composite nn ceramic
Trong composite nn ceramic (Ceramic matrix composite CMC),
nn ceramic c thnh phn chnh l oxide, carbide, nitride v boride c
gia cng bi cc ht, si v c ceramic hoc kim loi. Do sc cng b mt
ca ceramic nng chy cao nn kh thm t ln cc loi si. Chnh v vy
trong thc t tn ti rt t h composite nn ceramic.
Mt h composite in hnh trn nn ceramic c ng dng rng ri
trong k thut l composite nn carbon gia cng si carbon nh nhng tnh
cht u vit nh chu nhit tt n 2200oC m vn duy tr bn cao, t s
bn/trng lng v cng/trng lng cao, n nh kch thc tt,
chng n mn tt, khng ha cht tt Composite nn carbon gia cng
si carbon c dng trong nhng ng dng cu trc v phi cu trc, c
bit l ng dng cu trc vn hnh nhit cao nh cc b phn ca my
bay, ng c phn lc, tn la Nhc im ln nht ca h composite
ny l gi thnh cao do gi nguyn liu v chi ph sn xut cao.

1.3. VAI TR CA CC VT LIU THNH PHN

1.3.1. Vai tr ca vt liu gia cng


Vt liu gia cng thng ng nhng vai tr chnh sau:
Chu ti trng tc dng ln vt liu composite (n 70 90% ti
trng) nn tnh cht c l ca vt liu gia cng thng cao hn so vi vt
liu nn.
To cng, bn, n nh nhit v cc tnh cht cu trc khc
ca composite.

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To cho sn phm c tnh cch in hoc dn in ty thuc vo
loi vt liu gia cng.

1.3.2. Vai tr ca vt liu nn


Vt liu nn thng chim 30 40% th tch ca composite, n ng
nhng vai tr chnh sau:
Lin kt cc vt liu gia cng li vi nhau.
Phn b ti trng tc dng ln vt liu composite bng cch truyn
ti trng sang vt liu gia cng.
Bo v vt liu khi s tn cng ca ha cht v hi m.
Bo v b mt si khi b ph hy c hc (do mi mn).
To v thm m cho sn phm.
nh hng ln n bn lu, do dai, bn nhit, kh nng
gia cng ca composite. V d vt liu nn do dai s tng do dai cho
sn phm. i vi nhng ng dng yu cu do dai cao nn la chn vt
liu nn l polymer nhit do.
Ngoi ra, m hnh ph hy ca composite b nh hng nhiu bi
loi vt liu nn cng nh tnh tng thch vi vt liu gia cng.

1.4. KT DNH TI B MT TIP XC GIA VT LIU GIA


CNG V VT LIU NN

1.4.1. Gc tip xc
Khi vt liu composite chu tc dng ca ngoi lc, ti trng tc dng
ln vt liu nn s c truyn sang vt liu gia cng qua b mt tip xc.
Nu composite yu cu c bn v cng cao th vt liu gia cng phi
lin kt bn vng vi vt liu nn. Tuy nhin, mt b mt tip xc bn th s
to composite c cng v bn cao nhng kh nng chng li s pht
trin vt nt km do c tnh dn.
Kt dnh gia vt liu nn v vt liu gia cng tt l nh tn ti cc
lin kt, tng tc ti b mt tip xc. Mun cc lin kt ny pht trin th
trc ht phi c s thm t tt vt liu gia cng ln b mt vt liu nn.
Kh nng thm t c nh ngha l mc tri ca cht lng ln mt b
mt rn. Trong gia cng composite vt liu nn thng c chuyn sang
trng thi lng, c nht thp thm t tt nhng ch li lm, g gh

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trn b mt vt liu nn. Kh nng thm t thng c nh gi qua gc
tip xc .
Gc tip xc (Hnh 1.5) c mi tng quan vi cc nng lng b
mt c biu din bng phng trnh Young sau:
Cos = ( S SL )/ L
Vi:
S : Nng lng t do b mt vt liu gia cng (rn solid).
SL : Sc cng b mt tip xc vt liu gia cng (rn)/vt liu nn
(lng liquid)
L : Sc cng b mt nha (lng)
C ba trng hp c th xy ra nh sau:
= 0: Cht lng thm t hon ton b mt vt liu gia cng rn
0 < < 90: Cht lng thm t khng hon ton b mt vt liu gia
cng rn
90 < < 180: Cht lng khng thm t b mt vt liu gia cng rn.

Hnh 1.5. Gc tip xc ca cht lng ln b mt rn

1.4.2. Cc yu t nh hng n bm dnh, lin kt ti b mt


tip xc
Trong qu trnh gia cng, cn iu chnh iu kin gia cng ph hp
c s thm t kt dnh tt gia vt liu nn v vt liu gia cng. Sau
y l cc yu t gip to lin kt tt ti b mt tip xc gia vt liu gia
cng v nha nn:
Gc tip xc b gia vt liu nn v vt liu gia cng
Sc cng b mt vt liu nn lng ( L ) cng b cng tt
nht vt liu nn khi gia cng thp

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Tng p sut gip vt liu nn chy tt
nht sau gia cng ca vt liu nn cao (lm ngui, ng rn...)
Lm sch b mt vt liu gia cng khi bi bn
Loi b cc vt nt, l rng trn b mt vt liu gia cng
B mt vt liu gia cng c nhm ph hp
cng vt liu nn nn b hn vt liu gia cng.
H s gin n nhit ca cc vt liu thnh phn ging nhau.
Thit k composite ph hp.

1.4.3. Cc loi lin kt hnh thnh ti b mt tip xc


Khi vt liu nn thm t vt liu gia cng, mt s lin kt c th
c hnh thnh ti b mt tip xc gm:
Lin kt c hc
Lin kt nh lc tng tc tnh in
Lin kt nh lc khuch tn
Lin kt vt l, ha hc
a) Lin kt c hc
gii thch lin kt c hc hnh thnh ti b mt tip xc, m hnh
thuyt kt dnh c a ra bi MacBain and Hopkins vo nm 1925. Theo
thuyt ny, kt dnh c hnh thnh nh vt liu nn khi gia cng trng
thi lng lp vo nhng khe, l trng v nhng ch g gh trn b mt vt
liu gia cng, khi vt liu nn ha rn nh lm ngui hoc ng rn s
hnh thnh lin kt c hc ti b mt tip xc. V d nh trng hp kt
dnh gia cao su v vi trong cng ngh sn xut lp xe, vi ng vai tr l
vt liu gia cng, cao su ng vai tr l vt liu nn. Trong qu trnh gia
cng nhng mch cao su c linh ng khuch tn vo nhng ch g
gh trn b mt ca vi to lin kt c hc ti b mt tip xc gia cao su
v vi.
Khi nhm b mt vt liu gia cng tng th thm t nha nn
tt (Hnh 1.6) gip pht trin cc lin kt ha hc, hn ch hnh thnh bt
kh ti b mt tip xc, tng cng tng tc c hc gia vt liu nn v vt
liu gia cng dn n bm dnh c hc s tng. Tuy nhin, lm nhm qu
mc s xut hin cc l su trn b mt vt liu gia cng th vt liu nn
lng kh thm vo s gy hiu qu ngc li.

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Lin kt, bm dnh c hc hiu qu khi ngoi lc tc dng song song
vi b mt tip xc. Nu b mt tip xc chu tc dng ca lc ko th
bn thng thp tr khi cc v tr ngon ngoo nh im A (Hnh 1.7) c
mt dy c do s thay i phn b ng sut ti b mt tip xc (Hnh
1.8) din tch vng b mt tip xc tng, ranh gii ngon ngo lm cho s
phn tn ng sut tt. Qu trnh lm nhm cn gip loi b lp km bn trn
b mt vt liu nn nh du m, cht bn, g... .

Hnh 1.6. M hnh thm t nha nn ln b mt nhn v nhm

Hnh 1.7. M hnh lin kt c hc ti b mt tip xc

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Hnh 1.8. M hnh phn b lc tc dng ti b mt tip xc

b) Lin kt nh lc tng tc tnh in


Khi c s tip xc gia vt liu gia cng v vt liu nn, trong mt
s trng hp s c s dch chuyn in t qua vng ranh gii phn chia
pha, lm xut hin lp in tch kp ti b mt tip xc (Hnh 1.9) v hnh
thnh lc tng tc tnh in gip chng li s ph hy b mt ranh gii
phn
chia pha. C ch kt dnh ny c a ra bi Deryaguin v cc cng
s v xy ra in hnh i vi cc h composite kim loi/polymer, thy
tinh/polymer... .
Tng tc tnh in xy ra trong gii hn gn v ch hiu qu trong
khong cch nh tng ng vi nguyn t v s gim hiu qu khi b mt
vt liu nn b nhim bn hoc c kh thm nhp.

Hnh 1.9. M hnh lin kt nh tng tc tnh in

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