You are on page 1of 317

A Review of Trends and Activities in the U.S.

Investment Company Industry


56th edition

WWW.ICIFACTBOOK.ORG
2015 Facts at a Glance

Total worldwide assets invested in regulated open-end funds* $37.2 trillion

U.S. investment company total net assets $18.1 trillion


Mutual funds $15.7 trillion
Exchange-traded funds $2.1 trillion
Closed-end funds $261 billion
Unit investment trusts $94 billion

U.S. investment companies share of:


U.S. corporate equity 31%
U.S. municipal securities 26%
Commercial paper 40%
U.S. government securities 11%

U.S. household ownership of funds


Number of households owning funds 54.9 million
Number of individuals owning funds 93.1 million
Percentage of households owning funds 44.1%
Median mutual fund assets of mutual fundowning households $120,000
Median number of mutual funds owned 3

U.S. retirement market


Total retirement market assets $24.0 trillion
Percentage of households with tax-advantaged retirement savings 60%
IRA and DC plan assets invested in mutual funds $7.1 trillion

U.S. investment company industry employment 174,000 employees

* Regulated open-end funds include mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and institutional funds.
This category represents registered investment companies.
A Review of Trends and Activities in the U.S. Investment Company Industry
56th edition

WWW.ICIFACTBOOK.ORG
The Investment Company Institute (ICI) is the national association of U.S. investment companies. ICI seeks to encourage
adherence to high ethical standards, promote public understanding, and otherwise advance the interests of funds, their
shareholders, directors, and advisers.
Although information or data provided by independent sources is believed to be reliable, ICI is not responsible for its accuracy,
completeness, or timeliness. Opinions expressed by independent sources are not necessarily those of the Institute. If you have
questions or comments about this material, please contact the source directly.
Fifty-sixth edition
ISBN 1-878731-61-0
Copyright 2016 by the Investment Company Institute. All rights reserved.
CONTENTS

Letter from the Chief Economist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii


ICI Research Staff and Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x

PART 1: ANALYSIS AND STATISTICS


List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Chapter 1: U.S.-Registered Investment Companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Chapter 2: Recent Mutual Fund Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Chapter 3: Exchange-Traded Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Chapter 4: Closed-End Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Chapter 5: Mutual Fund Expenses and Fees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Chapter 6: Characteristics of Mutual Fund Owners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Chapter 7: Retirement and Education Savings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

PART 2: DATA TABLES


List of Data Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Section 1: Mutual Fund Totals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Section 2: Closed-End Funds, Exchange-Traded Funds, and Unit Investment Trusts . . . . . . . . . 180
Section 3: Long-Term Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Section 4: Money Market Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Section 5: Additional Categories of Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Section 6: Institutional Investors in Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Section 7: Retirement Account Investing in Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Section 8: Worldwide Regulated Open-End Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

Appendix A: How U.S.-Registered Investment Companies Operate and the Core Principles
Underlying Their Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Appendix B: Significant Events in Fund History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
LETTER FROM THE

Chief
Economist
LETTER FROM CHIEF ECONOMIST BRIAN REID

Recently, I was thinking about a question you may have asked: whether it is more fuel
efficient to cool a car during a drive by running its air conditioner or by rolling its windows
down and leaving the air conditioner off. The answer, just like many things in life, isnt a
simple one. It depends on the cars speed and its design: the faster youre driving, or the
more aerodynamic your car, the better off you are rolling up the windows and using the air
conditioner.

At ICI, we are often asked questions about complex topics that dont have simple answers.
President Harry Trumans famous quip about wanting a one-handed economist (All my
economists say, On the one handon the other hand) sometimes crosses my mind. And
yet, Trumans two-handed economists were doing their jobs when answering questions about
complex topics.

We live in a complicated world. Although we strive for one-handed answers when possible,
its not always what our world allows. Sometimes simple answers can be fundamentally
wrong and lead to public policies that can do more harm than good.

At ICI, we are fortunate to work for an organization whose members support careful,
comprehensive, evidence-based analysis of complex public policy issues.

This winter, ICI published a book authored by one of my colleagues, Peter Brady. How America
Supports Retirement tackles a complex topic through substantive, painstaking work. Peter
challenges the conventional wisdom about who benefits from tax deferral and Social Security,
two mechanisms that the federal government uses to help Americans prepare for retirement.
As he points out, the combined effect of these two programs is poorly understood, leading to
the false notion of an upside-down retirement system that benefits only the wealthy.

Discussions of retirement policy often ignore the substantial benefits that Social Security
provides to households with low and moderate lifetime incomes. These discussions also focus
on the reduction in taxes from tax deferral while ignoring the higher taxes workers will pay in
retirement when they draw down their savings or receive income from a defined benefit plan.
Peters innovative work illustrates that evaluated as a whole, the U.S. retirement system is
progressive, with lifetime benefits proportionately higher for workers with lower lifetime
earnings.

viii LETTER FROM THE CHIEF ECONOMIST


Why is this holistic approach important? Because who benefits from the retirement system?
is a complex question, and simple answers can lead to harmful policies. As Peter explains,
recent tax proposals could actually make the system less fair. For example, several prominent
proposals would further limit employee contributions to retirement plans or change the tax
treatment of these contributions. Such changes would disadvantage private-sector workers
who rely more on defined contribution plans than do public-sector workersas well as
workers who save on their own in an IRA or whose employers do not make contributions to
their retirement plans.

In another line of substantive ICI research, my colleague Shelly Antoniewicz has shown that
the risks of using derivatives are often misunderstood. As she points out, one common
misperception is that funds that use derivatives are leveraged, and therefore are riskier
than funds that dont use derivatives. But a funds use of derivatives does not necessarily
translate into leverage. Leverage is a measure of how a fund increases or amplifies the gains
or losses that its shareholders are exposed to. As Shelly concludes, a fund that makes greater
use of derivatives may be more risky, less risky, or equally risky as a fund that has no
exposure to derivatives.

In addition, derivatives have many benefits for funds and their investors, including hedging
risk, enhancing liquidity, managing cash, or gaining or reducing exposure to certain markets
or asset classes. Such activities may be more difficult, or costly, or even impossible to execute
with direct holdings of securities alone. Therefore, a funds total exposure to derivatives does
not provide a very useful measure of its risks. Indeed, such a simple measure of risk could
lead policymakers, regulators, and investors astray.

These two examples of ICI analysis are good reminders that in a complex world, simple
answers dont always work. At times the dialogue may frustrate policymakers who want a
quick and simple solution, but an informed conversation among legislators, regulators, and
stakeholders is necessary to understand the nuances and intricacies of a problem and its
solutions. It is our job as economists to use our comprehensive analysis to find answers to
questions and to help avoid harmful outcomes.

The 56th Investment Company Fact Book is yet another ICI contribution to a discussion that
leads to better public policies that affect funds, their investors, and financial markets. I hope
that it helps you in your quest to find comprehensive, evidence-based analysis to address
todays vexing policy questions. Thank you for your continued interest in our research and
publications.

ix
ICI RESEARCH STAFF AND PUBLICATIONS

ICI Senior Research Staff


CHIEF ECONOMIST
Brian Reid leads the Institutes Research Department. The department serves as
a source for statistical data on the investment company industry and conducts
public policy research on fund industry trends, shareholder demographics, the
industrys role in U.S. and international financial markets, and the retirement
market. Before joining ICI in 1996, Reid served as an economist at the Federal
Reserve Board of Governors. He has a PhD in economics from the University of
Michigan and a BS in economics from the University of WisconsinMadison.

SENIOR DIRECTOR OF INDUSTRY AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS


Sean Collins heads ICIs research on the structure of the mutual fund industry,
industry trends, and the broader financial markets. Collins, who joined ICI in
2000, is responsible for research on the flows, assets, and fees of mutual funds,
as well as a research initiative to better understand the costs and benefits of
laws and regulations governing mutual funds. Before joining ICI, Collins was an
economist at the Federal Reserve Board of Governors and at the Reserve Bank of
New Zealand. He has a PhD in economics from the University of California, Santa
Barbara, and a BA in economics from Claremont McKenna College.

SENIOR DIRECTOR OF RETIREMENT AND INVESTOR RESEARCH


Sarah Holden leads the Institutes research efforts on investor demographics and
behavior and retirement and tax policy. Holden, who joined ICI in 1999, heads
efforts to track trends in household retirement saving activity and ownership
of funds as well as other investments inside and outside retirement accounts.
Before joining ICI, Holden served as an economist at the Federal Reserve Board
of Governors. She has a PhD in economics from the University of Michigan and a
BA in mathematics and economics from Smith College.

SENIOR DIRECTOR OF STATISTICAL RESEARCH


Judy Steenstra oversees the collection and publication of weekly, monthly,
quarterly, and annual data on open-end mutual funds, as well as data on closed-
end funds, exchange-traded funds, unit investment trusts, and the worldwide
fund industry. Steenstra joined ICI in 1987 and was appointed director of
statistical research in 2000. She has a BS in marketing from The Pennsylvania
State University.

x ICI RESEARCH STAFF AND PUBLICATIONS


ICI Research Department
The ICI Research Department consists of 39 members, including economists and research
analysts. This staff collects and disseminates data for all types of registered investment
companies, offering detailed analyses of fund shareholders, the economics of investment
companies, and the retirement and education savings markets.

2015 ICI Research and Statistical Publications


ICI is the primary source of analysis and statistical information on the investment company
industry. In 2015, the Institutes Research Department released more than 180 statistical
reports examining the broader investment company industry as well as specific segments
of the industry: money market funds, closed-end funds, exchange-traded funds, and unit
investment trusts. In addition to the annual Investment Company Fact Book, ICI released 20
research and policy publications in 2015, examining the industry and its shareholders.

Books
In a new ICI book written in 2015, How America Supports Retirement:
Challenging the Conventional Wisdom on Who Benefits, Senior Economist
Peter J. Brady dispels myths about tax deferral and details how the current
structure of the U.S. retirement system is progressive and provides benefits
to all American workers. Bradys innovative work was highly praised and
its findings bear directly on todays pressing policy debates. The book and
related materials are available at www.ici.org/whobenefits.

The Investment Company Fact Book remains one of ICI Researchs most visible products
garnering more than 38,000 visits and downloads in 2015. In its 56th edition, this ICI
publication continues to provide the public and policymakers with a comprehensive summary
of ICIs data and analysis. The Fact Book is available at www.icifactbook.org in both PDF and
HTML formats. The HTML version contains downloadable data for all charts and tables.

Papers
INDUSTRY AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
The Role and Activities of Authorized Participants of Exchange-Traded Funds, March 2015
The Closed-End Fund Market, 2014, ICI Research Perspective, April 2015
Regulated Funds, Emerging Markets, and Financial Stability, ICI Global Research
Perspective, April 2015

ICI RESEARCH STAFF AND PUBLICATIONS xi


INVESTOR RESEARCH
American Views on Defined Contribution Plan Saving, ICI Research Report, January 2015
Profile of Mutual Fund Shareholders, 2014, ICI Research Report, February 2015
The IRA Investor Profile: Traditional IRA Investors Activity, 20072013, ICI Research
Report, July 2015
The IRA Investor Profile: Roth IRA Investors Activity, 20072013, ICI Research Report,
July 2015
Characteristics of Mutual Fund Investors, 2015, ICI Research Perspective, November 2015
Ownership of Mutual Funds, Shareholder Sentiment, and Use of the Internet, 2015,
ICI Research Perspective, November 2015

RETIREMENT RESEARCH
The Role of IRAs in U.S. Households Saving for Retirement, 2014, ICI Research
Perspective, January 2015
Defined Contribution Plan Participants Activities, First Three Quarters of 2014,
ICI Research Report, February 2015
Defined Contribution Plan Participants Activities, 2014, ICI Research Report, April 2015
The BrightScope/ICI Defined Contribution Plan Profile: A Close Look at ERISA 403(b) Plans,
June 2015
The Economics of Providing 401(k) Plans: Services, Fees, and Expenses, 2014,
ICI Research Perspective, August 2015
Defined Contribution Plan Participants Activities, First Quarter 2015, ICI Research Report,
August 2015
What Does Consistent Participation in 401(k) Plans Generate? Changes in 401(k) Account
Balances, 20072013, ICI Research Perspective, September 2015
Who Benefits from the U.S. Retirement System, ICI Research Perspective, November 2015
Defined Contribution Plan Participants Activities, First Half 2015, ICI Research Report,
November 2015
The BrightScope/ICI Defined Contribution Plan Profile: A Close Look at 401(k) Plans, 2013,
December 2015

ICIs papers and more are available at www.ici.org/research.

xii ICI RESEARCH STAFF AND PUBLICATIONS


Analysis and Commentary: ICI Viewpoints
In addition to research papers, ICI staff produce analysis and commentary for the Institutes
blog, ICI Viewpoints. Below are some examples of the analysis published in 2015. Please visit
www.ici.org/viewpoints to find these and more.

The Wall Street Journals Dangerous Disservice to Investors


Getting the Numbers Right on Investment Advice for Retirement Savers
The IMF Is Entitled to Its Opinion, but Not to Its Own Facts
On Fiduciary Rule, New York Times Relies on Fatally Flawed Research
Correcting a Distorted Picture of Retirement Resources
The IMF on Asset Management: Which Herd to Follow?
High-Yield Bond Mutual Fund Flows: Some Perspective
Changes to Money Market Funds Are Showing Up in Data
Does Liquidity in ETFs Depend Solely on Authorized Participants?
New York Times Paints False Picture of Funds Emerging Market Investments
Why Long-Term Fund Flows Arent a Systemic Risk: Past Is Prologue
The IMF Quietly Changes Its Data, but Not Its Views
The IMF on Asset Management: Handle Empirical Results with Care
Ignore the IMFs Uninformed Call for a Third Round of Reforms to U.S. Money Market Funds
Federal Reserve Reverse Repo Facility Helps Stabilize Short-Term Money Markets
Small Savers at a Loss
Why Long-Term Fund Flows Arent a Systemic Risk: Multi-Sector Review Shows the
Same Result
U.S. Bond ETFs Resilient on August 24
More Unfounded Speculation on Bond ETFs and Financial Stability
High-Yield Bond ETFs: A Source of Liquidity

ICI RESEARCH STAFF AND PUBLICATIONS xiii


Statistical Releases
TRENDS IN MUTUAL FUND INVESTING
A monthly report that includes mutual fund sales, redemptions, assets, cash positions, exchange
activity, and portfolio transactions for the period.

ESTIMATED LONG-TERM MUTUAL FUND FLOWS


A weekly report that provides aggregate estimates of net new cash flows to equity, hybrid, and
bond mutual funds.
MONEY MARKET FUND ASSETS
A weekly report on money market fund assets by type of fund.
MONTHLY TAXABLE MONEY MARKET FUND PORTFOLIO DATA
A monthly report based on data contained in SEC Form N-MFP that provides insights into the
aggregated holdings of prime and government money market funds and the nature and maturity
of security holdings and repurchase agreements.
RETIREMENT MARKET DATA
A quarterly report that includes individual retirement account and defined contribution plan
assets and mutual fund assets held in those accounts by type of fund.
CLOSED-END FUND DATA
A quarterly report on closed-end fund assets, number of funds, issuance, and number of
shareholders.
EXCHANGE-TRADED FUND DATA
A monthly report that includes assets, number of funds, issuance, and redemptions of ETFs.
UNIT INVESTMENT TRUST DATA
A monthly report that includes the value and number of new trust deposits by type and maturity.
WORLDWIDE REGULATED OPEN-END FUND DATA
A quarterly report that includes assets, number of funds, and net sales of funds in countries
worldwide.

These and other ICI statistics are available at www.ici.org/research/stats. To subscribe to ICIs
statistical releases, visit www.ici.org/pdf/stats_subs_order.pdf.

xiv ICI RESEARCH STAFF AND PUBLICATIONS


Acknowledgments
Publication of the 2016 Investment Company Fact Book was directed by Chris Plantier, senior
economist, and Judy Steenstra, senior director of statistical research, working with Miriam
Bridges, editorial director, Candice Gullett, senior copyeditor, and Jodi Weakland, design
director. Contributors from ICIs research team who developed and edited analysis, text, and
data are Shelly Antoniewicz, Steven Bass, Mike Bogdan, James Duvall, Emily Gallagher, Sheila
McDonald, Doug Richardson, Julieth Saenz, Dan Schrass, and Erin Short.

ICI RESEARCH STAFF AND PUBLICATIONS xv


PART ONE

Analysis and
Statistics
FIGURES

Chapter 1
U.S.-REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES
Figure 1.1: Investment Company Total Net Assets by Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2: The United States Has the Worlds Largest Regulated Open-End Fund Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3: Share of Household Financial Assets Held in Investment Companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.4: Household Net Investments in Funds, Bonds, and Equities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.5: Mutual Funds in Household Retirement Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.6: Investment Companies Channel Investment to Stock, Bond, and Money Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.7: More Than Three-Quarters of Fund Complexes Were Independent Fund Advisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.8: Number of Fund Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.9: Fund Complexes with Positive Net New Cash Flow to Long-Term Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
1.10: Share of Mutual Fund and ETF Assets at the Largest Fund Complexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
1.11: Number of Mutual Funds Entering and Leaving the Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.12: Total Net Assets and Number of UITs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.13: Number of Investment Companies by Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.14: Investment Company Industry Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.15: Investment Company Industry Employment by Job Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.16: Investment Company Industry Employment by State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Chapter 2
RECENT MUTUAL FUND TRENDS
Figure2.1: Equity Funds Held More Than Half of Total Mutual Fund Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.2: Institutional and Household Ownership of Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.3: Net New Cash Flow to Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.4: Net New Cash Flow to Equity Funds Is Related to World Equity Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.5: Net New Cash Flow to Long-Term Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.6: Turnover Rate Experienced by Equity Fund Investors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.7: Net New Cash Flow to Bond Funds Is Related to Bond Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.8: Modest Outflows from High-Yield Bond Funds Even During Times of Market Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.9: High-Yield Bond Fund Holdings by Selected Asset Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
2.10: Bond Funds Have Experienced Net Inflows Through Most of the Past Decade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.11: Net New Cash Flow to Index Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.12: Funds Indexed to the S&P 500 Held 31 Percent of Index Mutual Fund Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.13: Index Equity Mutual Funds Share Continued to Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.14: Some of the Outflows from Domestic Equity Mutual Funds Have Gone to ETFs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.15: Assets of Large 401(k) Plans Are Increasingly Held in Collective Investment Trusts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.16: Net New Cash Flow to Money Market Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.17: Money Market Funds Managed 23Percent of U.S. Businesses Short-Term Assets in 2015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.18: Net New Cash Flow to Retail and Institutional Money Market Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.19: Net New Cash Flow to Taxable Retail Money Market Funds Is Related to Interest Rate Spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.20: Prime Money Market Fund Holdings of Treasury and Agency Securities and Repurchase Agreements . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.21: Assets Migrated from Prime Funds into Government Funds in 2015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

2 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Chapter 3
EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS
Figure3.1: The United States Has the Largest ETF Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.2: Total Net Assets and Number of ETFs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.3: Creation of ETF Shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.4: There Are Many ETF Liquidity Providers in the Secondary Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.5: Most ETF Activity Occurs on the Secondary Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.6: High-Yield Bond ETFs Added Liquidity to the High-Yield Bond Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.7: Net Issuance of ETF Shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3.8: Net Issuance of ETF Shares by Investment Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
3.9: Total Net Assets of ETFs Were Concentrated in Large-Cap Domestic Stocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3.10: Number of ETFs Entering and Leaving the Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.11: ETF-Owning Households Held a Broad Range of Investments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3.12: Characteristics of ETF-Owning Households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
3.13: ETF-Owning Households Are Willing to Take More Investment Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Chapter 4
CLOSED-END FUNDS
Figure4.1: Total Assets of Closed-End Funds Were $261 Billion at Year-End 2015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
4.2: Equity Funds Growing Share of the Closed-End Fund Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.3: Closed-End Fund Net Share Issuance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.4: Closed-End Fund Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.5: Closed-End Funds Are Employing Structural and Certain Types of Portfolio Leverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.6: Preferred Shares Comprised the Majority of Closed-End Fund Structural Leverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
4.7: Use of Portfolio Leverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
4.8: Closed-End Fund Investors Owned a Broad Range of Investments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.9: Closed-End Fund Investors Had Above-Average Household Incomes and Financial Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Chapter 5
MUTUAL FUND EXPENSES AND FEES
Figure5.1: Expense Ratios Incurred by Mutual Fund Investors Have Declined Substantially Since 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
5.2: Mutual Fund Expense Ratios Tend to Fall as Fund Assets Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.3: Fund Shareholders Paid Below-Average Expense Ratios for Equity Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
5.4: Assets Are Concentrated in Lower-Cost Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
5.5: Total Net Assets and Number of Index Mutual Funds Have Increased in Recent Years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
5.6: Expense Ratios of Actively Managed and Index Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
5.7: Expense Ratios for Selected Investment Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
5.8: Front-End Sales Loads That Investors Pay Are Well Below the Maximum Front-End Sales Loads
That Funds Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
5.9: Most Net New Cash Flow Was in No-Load Institutional Share Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
5.10: Total Net Assets of Long-Term Mutual Funds Are Concentrated in No-Load Share Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
5.11: A Variety of Arrangements May Be Used to Compensate 401(k) Service Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
5.12: 401(k) Equity Mutual Fund Assets Are Concentrated in Lower-Cost Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

FIGURES 3
Chapter 6
CHARACTERISTICS OF MUTUAL FUND OWNERS
Figure6.1: 43Percent of U.S. Households Owned Mutual Funds in 2015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
6.2: Characteristics of Mutual Fund Investors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
6.3: Incidence of Mutual Fund Ownership Is Greatest Among the Baby Boom Generation and Generation X . . . . . . . . 114
6.4: The Baby Boom Generation Is the Largest Shareholder Group and Holds More Than Half of
Household Mutual Fund Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
6.5: Ownership of Mutual Funds Increases with Household Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
6.6: Most Households That Own Mutual Funds Have Moderate Incomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
6.7: Younger Generations Purchased First Mutual Fund Earlier Than Older Generations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
6.8: Employer-Sponsored Retirement Plans Are Increasingly the Source of First Mutual Fund Purchase . . . . . . . . . . . 119
6.9: Majority of Mutual Fund Investors Focus on Retirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
6.10: 80 Percent of Mutual FundOwning Households Held Shares Inside Employer-Sponsored Retirement Plans . . . . . 122
6.11: Nearly Half of Mutual FundOwning Households Held Shares Through Multiple Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
6.12: Households Mutual Fund Assets by Type of Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
6.13: Most Shareholders View the Mutual Fund Industry Favorably . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
6.14: Households Willingness to Take Investment Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
6.15: Equity Funds Are the Most Commonly Owned Type of Mutual Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
6.16: More Than Eight in 10 Mutual FundOwning Households Have Confidence in Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
6.17: Internet Access Is Nearly Universal Among Mutual FundOwning Households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

4 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Chapter 7
RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS
Figure7.1: Retirement Resource Pyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
7.2: Primary Reason for Household Saving Changes with Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
7.3: Social Security Benefit Formula Is Highly Progressive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
7.4: Near-Retiree Households Across All Income Groups Have Retirement Assets, DB Plan Benefits, or Both . . . . . . . . 136
7.5: U.S. Total Retirement Market Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
7.6: Total U.S. Retirement Assets and Unfunded Pension Liabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
7.7: Many U.S. Households Have Tax-Advantaged Retirement Savings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
7.8: Rates of IRA or Defined Contribution Plan Ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
7.9: Defined Contribution Plan Assets by Type of Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
7.10: 401(k) Sponsors Use a Variety of Plan Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
7.11: Incidence of Investment Options Offered in 401(k) Plans by Type of Investment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
7.12: 401(k) Asset Allocation Varied with Participant Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
7.13: Asset Allocation to Equities Varied Widely Among 401(k) Plan Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
7.14: Target Date Funds 401(k) Market Share . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
7.15: 401(k) Balances Tend to Increase with Participant Age and Job Tenure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
7.16: IRA Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
7.17: 40 Million U.S. Households Owned IRAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
7.18: New Roth IRAs Often Are Opened with Contributions; New Traditional IRAs Often Are Opened with Rollovers . . . 153
7.19: Multiple Sources of Information Are Consulted for the Rollover Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
7.20: IRA Asset Allocation Varied with Investor Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
7.21: Roth IRA Investors Rarely Take Withdrawals; Traditional IRA Investors Are Heavily Affected by RMDs . . . . . . . . 157
7.22: Traditional IRA Withdrawals Among Retirees Often Are Used to Pay for Living Expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
7.23: Substantial Amount of Retirement Assets Are Invested in Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
7.24: Majority of Mutual Fund Retirement Account Assets Were Invested in Equities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
7.25: Target Date and Lifestyle Mutual Fund Assets by Account Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
7.26: Target Date, Lifestyle, and Index Funds Have Risen as a Share of DC Plans Mutual Fund Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
7.27: Section 529 Savings Plan Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
7.28: Characteristics of Households Saving for College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

FIGURES 5
CHAPTER ONE

U.S.-Registered
Investment
Companies

The largest segment of the asset management business in the United States is made
up of registered investment companies. U.S.-registered investment companies play
a major role in the U.S. economy and financial markets, and a growing role in global
financial markets. These funds managed $18.1 trillion in assets at year-end 2015,
largely on behalf of more than 90 million U.S. retail investors. The industry has
experienced strong growth over the past quarter century from asset appreciation
and strong demand from households due to rising household wealth, the aging
U.S. population, and the evolution of employer-based retirement systems. Funds
supplied investment capital in securities markets around the world and were
among the largest groups of investors in the U.S. stock, commercial paper, and
municipal securities markets.
This chapter provides a broad overview of U.S.-registered investment companiesmutual funds,
closed-end funds, exchange-traded funds, and unit investment trustsand their sponsors.

Investment Company Assets in 2015................................................................................................................ 8


Americans Continued Reliance on Investment Companies......................................................................... 11
Role of Investment Companies in Financial Markets . . ................................................................................... 14
Types of Intermediaries and Number of Investment Companies . . ............................................................... 15
Investment Company Employment.................................................................................................................. 23

Investment Company Assets in 2015


U.S.-registered investment companies* managed $18.1 trillion in assets at year-end 2015
(Figure 1.1), approximately $0.1 trillion less than at year-end 2014. Markets were volatile
in 2015, and returns did little to change total net assets in aggregate. International stock
markets posted modest negative returns in dollar terms, for example, contributing to the
slight decrease in total net assets of funds invested in equity markets. The poor dollar returns
on European stock markets, relative to positive local currency returns, were because of U.S.
dollar appreciation against the euro, which lowers the value of equity and bond funds holding
unhedged euro-denominated assets.

The U.S. mutual fund and exchange-traded fund (ETF) marketswith $17.8 trillion in assets
under management at year-end 2015remained the largest in the world, accounting for
48percent of the $37.2 trillion in regulated open-end fund assets worldwide (Figure 1.2).

The majority of U.S. mutual fund and ETF assets at year-end 2015 were in long-term funds,
with equity funds comprising 56 percent. Within equity funds, domestic funds (those that
invest primarily in shares of U.S. corporations) held 41 percent of total assets and world funds
(those that invest significantly in shares of non-U.S. corporations) accounted for 15 percent.
Bond funds held 21 percent of U.S. mutual fund and ETF assets. Money market funds,
hybrid funds, and other fundssuch as those that invest primarily in commoditiesheld the
remainder (23 percent).

* The term investment companies or U.S. investment companies will be used at times throughout this book in place of
U.S.-registered investment companies. U.S.-registered investment companies are open-end mutual funds, closed-end
funds, exchange-traded funds, and unit investment trusts.
As measured by the MSCI All Country World Daily ex-U.S. Gross Total Return Index.
The International Investment Fund Association has expanded its survey of fund assets globally to include some funds not
previously captured. Regulated open-end fund assets outside the United States increased by $3.6 trillion in the fourth
quarter of 2014 due to the broader survey; see www.ici.org/research/stats/worldwide/ww_q1_15_explanation.

8 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE 1.1
Investment Company Total Net Assets by Type
Billions of dollars; year-end, 19982015

Closed-end
Mutual funds1 funds 2 ETFs 3 UITs Total4
1998 5,525 156 16 94 5,790
1999 6,846 147 34 92 7,119
2000 6,965 143 66 74 7,247
2001 6,975 141 83 49 7,248
2002 6,383 159 102 36 6,680
2003 7,402 214 151 36 7,803
2004 8,096 253 228 37 8,614
2005 8,891 276 301 41 9,509
2006 10,398 297 423 50 11,168
2007 12,000 312 608 53 12,974
2008 9,621 184 531 29 10,365
2009 11,113 223 777 38 12,151
2010 11,833 238 992 51 13,114
2011 11,632 242 1,048 60 12,983
2012 13,057 264 1,337 72 14,729
2013 15,051 279 1,675 87 17,091
2014 15,875 289 1,974 101 18,240
2015 15,652 261 2,100 94 18,107

1 Mutual fund data do not include mutual funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds.
2
Closed-end fund data include preferred share classes.
3 ETF data prior to 2001 were provided by Strategic Insight Simfund. ETF data include investment companies not registered

under the Investment Company Act of 1940 and exclude ETFs that primarily invest in other ETFs.
4 Total investment company assets include mutual fund holdings of closed-end funds and ETFs.

Note: Data are for investment companies that report statistical information to the Investment Company Institute. Assets
of these companies are 98 percent of investor assets. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Strategic Insight Simfund

U.S.-REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES 9


Mutual funds recorded $102 billion in net outflows in 2015 (Figure 2.3), while other U.S.-
registered investment companies posted positive net inflows. On net, investors redeemed
$123 billion from long-term mutual funds. Money market funds, by contrast, experienced net
inflows of $21 billion. Mutual fund shareholders reinvested $224 billion in income dividends
and $364 billion in capital gains distributions that mutual funds paid out during the year.
Investor demand for ETFs continued to thrive with net share issuance (including reinvested
dividends) totaling $231 billion in 2015 (Figure 3.7). Unit investment trusts (UITs) had new
deposits of $66 billion, essentially unchanged from last year, and closed-end funds issued
$2 billion in new shares, on net (Figure 4.3).

FIGURE1.2
The United States Has the Worlds Largest Regulated Open-End Fund Market
Percentage of total net assets, year-end 2015

5%
Other Americas
13%
41 Domestic equity funds
Africa and
Asia-Pacific

48% 15 World equity funds


United States
34% 21 Bond funds
Europe

16 Money market funds


8 Hybrid and other funds*

Total worldwide regulated open-end fund assets: Total U.S. mutual fund and ETF assets:
$37.2 trillion $17.8 trillion

* This category includes ETFsboth registered and not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940that invest
primarily in commodities, currencies, and futures.
Note: Regulated open-end funds include mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and institutional funds.
Components may not add to 100 percent because of rounding.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and International Investment Funds Association

10 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Americans Continued Reliance on Investment Companies
Households make up the largest group of investors in funds, and registered investment
companies managed 22 percent of household financial assets at year-end 2015 (Figure1.3).
As households have come to rely more on funds over the past decade, their demand for
directly held equities and bonds has generally fallen over time (Figure 1.4). For example,
from 2009 to 2014, households sold $781 billion, on net, in bonds that they held directly.
In contrast, in 2015, households purchased $308 billion of directly held bonds. Bond
funds recorded moderate outflows in 2015, with investors redeeming $25 billion. Overall,
households invested an additional $187 billion in long-term registered investment companies
in 2015. From 2006 to 2015, households invested an annual average of $366 billion, on net, in
long-term registered investment companies, with net investments each year except 2008. In
contrast, households sold an annual average of $274 billion in directly held equities and bonds,
on net.

FIGURE1.3
Share of Household Financial Assets Held in Investment Companies
Percentage of household financial assets; year-end, 19802015

22

1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015

Note: Household financial assets held in registered investment companies include household holdings of ETFs, closed-end
funds, UITs, and mutual funds. Mutual funds held in employer-sponsored DC plans, IRAs, and variable annuities
are included.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Federal Reserve Board

U.S.-REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES 11


FIGURE1.4
Household Net Investments in Funds, Bonds, and Equities
Billions of dollars, 20062015

Directly held equities


Directly held bonds
Long-term registered investment companies 1

325
897 71
599 308
392 470 455 482 433 418
99 257 187
-132 -71 -91
-31 -86 -310 -296 -249
-332 -252 -422
-338
-640 -1,139 -79

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2 2013 2014 2015

1 Datafor long-term registered investment companies include mutual funds, variable annuities, ETFs, and closed-end funds.
2 In
2012, directly held bonds had outflows of less than $500 million.
Note: Household net investments include net new cash flow and reinvested dividends.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Federal Reserve Board

The growth of individual retirement accounts (IRAs) and defined contribution (DC) plans,
particularly 401(k) plans, explains some of the increased household reliance on investment
companies during the past two decades. At year-end 2015, households had 9.6 percent of
their financial assets in 401(k) and other DC retirement plans, up from 7.6 percent in 1995.
Mutual funds managed 54 percent of the assets in these plans in 2015, more than double the
26 percent in 1995 (Figure1.5). IRAs made up 10.4 percent of household financial assets at
year-end 2015, with mutual funds managing 48 percent of IRA assets that year. Mutual funds
also managed $1.2 trillion in variable annuities outside retirement accounts, as well as
$5.7 trillion of other assets outside retirement accounts.

12 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE1.5
Mutual Funds in Household Retirement Accounts
Percentage of retirement assets in mutual funds by type of retirement vehicle, 19952015

DC plans*

55 56 54
52 52
50
46
44
42

32
26

1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015

IRAs

52 51
48 47 47 49 48
46 46 46
38

1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015

* This category includes private employer-sponsored DC plans (including 401(k) plans), 403(b) plans, 457 plans, and the
Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS) Thrift Savings Plan (TSP).
Sources: Investment Company Institute, Federal Reserve Board, Department of Labor, National Association of Government
Defined Contribution Administrators, American Council of Life Insurers, and Internal Revenue Service Statistics of Income
Division

U.S.-REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES 13


Businesses and other institutional investors also rely on funds. Many institutions use money
market funds to manage some of their cash and other short-term assets. Nonfinancial
businesses held 23 percent of their short-term assets in money market funds at year-end
2015 (Figure2.17). Institutional investors also have contributed to growing demand for
ETFs. Investment managers, including mutual funds and pension funds, use ETFs to invest
in markets, to manage liquidity and investor flows, or to hedge their exposures.

Role of Investment Companies in Financial Markets


Investment companies have been among the largest investors in the domestic financial
markets for much of the past 20 years. They held a large portion of the outstanding shares
of U.S.-issued equities and money market securities at year-end 2015. Investment companies
as a whole were one of the largest groups of investors in U.S. companies that year, holding
31percent of their outstanding stock at year-end 2015 (Figure 1.6).

FIGURE1.6
Investment Companies Channel Investment to Stock, Bond, and Money Markets
Percentage of total market securities held by investment companies, year-end 2015

Mutual funds
Other registered investment companies
40

31
26

19 40
25
23
11
16

10
6
3 <0.5 3 0
U.S. corporate U.S. and foreign U.S. Treasury U.S. municipal Commercial
equity corporate bonds and government securities paper
agency securities

Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.


Sources: Investment Company Institute, Federal Reserve Board, and World Federation of Exchanges

14 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Mutual funds remained the largest investors in the U.S. commercial paper marketan
important source of short-term funding for major corporations around the world. From year-
end 2014 to year-end 2015, mutual funds share of outstanding commercial paper decreased
from 46 to 40 percent (Figure 1.6). Prime money market funds accounted for most of mutual
fund commercial paper holdings. Consequently, mutual fund holdings of commercial paper
tend to fluctuate with the total net assets in prime money market funds. In 2015, assets in
prime money market funds fell $180 billion as these funds adapted to a 2014 SEC rule change
that will be fully implemented in October 2016 (see pages 5253).

At year-end 2015, investment companies held 26 percent of tax-exempt debt issued by


U.S. municipalities, a fairly stable share over the past several years (Figure 1.6). Investment
companies held 11 percent of U.S. Treasury and government agency securities at year-end
2015. Investment companies share of outstanding corporate debt securities remained stable
at 19 percent at year-end 2015.

Types of Intermediaries and Number of Investment Companies


A variety of financial services companies offer registered funds in the United States. At
year-end 2015, 79 percent of fund complexes were independent fund advisers (Figure1.7),
and these firms managed 67 percent of investment company assets. Other types of fund
complexes in the U.S. market include non-U.S. fund advisers, insurance companies, banks,
thrifts, and brokerage firms.

FIGURE1.7
More Than Three-Quarters of Fund Complexes Were Independent Fund Advisers
Percentage of investment company complexes by type of intermediary, year-end 2015

9%
Non-U.S. fund advisers 5%
Insurance companies
5%
Banks or thrifts
79% 3%
Independent fund advisers Brokerage firms

Note: Components do not add to 100 percent because of rounding.

U.S.-REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES 15


In 2015, 873 fund sponsors from around the world competed in the U.S. market to provide
investment management services to fund investors (Figure 1.8). In the 1980s and 1990s,
low barriers to entry attracted many new fund sponsors. But in the early 2000s, increased
competition among these sponsors and pressure from other financial products reversed that
trend. From year-end 2004 to year-end 2009, 248 fund sponsors left the business but just
238 entered, for a net loss of 10 sponsors. Larger fund sponsors acquiring smaller ones,
fund sponsors liquidating funds and leaving the business, and several large sponsors selling
their fund advisory businesses played a major role in the decline. The percentage of fund
companies retaining assets and attracting net new investments generally has been lower since
2000 than in the 1990s, and fell to 38 percent in 2015, its lowest level since 2008 (Figure 1.9).

FIGURE1.8
Number of Fund Sponsors
20052015

Total fund sponsors at year-end


Fund sponsors entering
Fund sponsors leaving 873
867
822
755 789
82
693 691 709 698 682 706 77
88 73
77
62
58
51 53 53
48 47 49
44 46 43 43
40 39
37 37
28

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

16 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE1.9
Fund Complexes with Positive Net New Cash Flow to Long-Term Mutual Funds
Percentage of fund complexes, selected years

72
64 64
57 55 55 56 56 54
53 52
48 49 48
38 38

1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

This steady turnover and merger activity has contributed to somewhat greater concentration
of mutual fund and ETF assets managed by the largest fund complexes. The share of assets
managed by the five largest firms rose from 32 percent in 2000 to 45 percent in 2015, and the
share managed by the 10 largest firms increased from 44 to 56 percent (Figure1.10). Much of
the increase in market share occurred at the expense of the middle tier of firmsthose ranked
from 11 to 25 whose market share fell from 25 percent in 2000 to 19 percent in 2015.

FIGURE 1.10
Share of Mutual Fund and ETF Assets at the Largest Fund Complexes
Percentage of total net assets of mutual funds and ETFs; year-end, selected years

2000 2005 2010 2015

Largest 5 complexes 32 36 42 45

Largest 10 complexes 44 47 55 56

Largest 25 complexes 69 69 74 75

Note: Data include only mutual funds and ETFs registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940. Mutual fund
data do not include mutual funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds. ETFs registered as UITs and ETFs that
invest primarily in other ETFs are excluded.

U.S.-REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES 17


Two other factors also contributed to rising industry concentration. First, the growing
popularity of index funds increased concentration, because the 10 largest fund complexes
manage most of the assets in index mutual funds. Actively managed domestic equity mutual
funds incurred outflows for 10 consecutive years, thus reducing market share for middle-tier
firms, while index domestic equity funds had inflows in each of these years. Second, strong
inflows over the past decade to bond funds (Figure 2.7), which are fewer in number and have
fewer fund sponsors than equity mutual funds, helped boost the share of assets managed by
large fund complexes that offer bond funds.

Nevertheless, in recent years, the number of sponsors has risen once again as the economy
and financial markets have recovered, with a net increase of 191 from year-end 2009 to
year-end 2015 (440 entering and 249 leaving) (Figure 1.8). Many of the entering firms took
advantage of the series trusta cost-effective management solution in which the funds
sponsor arranges for a third party to provide certain services (e.g., audit, trustee, some legal)
through a turnkey setup. The series trust allows the sponsor to focus more on managing
portfolios and gathering assets, and its operating costs are spread across the funds in the
trust.

18 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Macroeconomic conditions and competitive dynamics also affect the number of funds offered
in any given year. Fund sponsors create new funds to meet investor demand, and they merge
or liquidate those that do not attract sufficient investor interest. A total of 594 funds opened
in 2015, fewer than the year before and less than the 2007 peak of 725 and the 20052015
average (Figure 1.11). The rate of fund mergers and liquidations increased significantly from
365 in 2014 to 462 in 2015, leading to the annual net increase being close to the average of
the prior 10 years.

FIGURE1.11
Number of Mutual Funds Entering and Leaving the Industry
20052015

Opened mutual funds


Merged mutual funds
Liquidated mutual funds
870

709 725 711 699


680 362 656 674 664
588 590 571 594
538 516
499 502 502
437 462
257 428
337 196 365
315 261 300 171 177
230 130
508
333 306 285
251 207 223 241 216 257 235

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Note: Data include mutual funds that do not report statistical information to the Investment Company Institute and
mutual funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds.

U.S.-REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES 19


Unit Investment Trusts
Unit investment trusts (UITs) are registered investment companies with characteristics
of both mutual funds and closed-end funds. Like mutual funds, UITs issue redeemable
shares (called units), and like closed-end funds, they typically issue a specific, fixed
number of shares. But unlike either mutual funds or closed-end funds, UITs have a preset
termination date based on the portfolios investments and the UITs investment goals.
Units of UITs investing in long-term bonds might remain outstanding, or in circulation, for
20 to 30 years depending on the maturity of the bonds they hold. UITs investing in stocks
might seek to capture capital appreciation in a few years or less. When a UIT is dissolved,
proceeds from the securities are paid to unit holders or, at a unit holders election,
reinvested in another trust.

UITs fall into two main categories: bond trusts and equity trusts. Bond trusts are either
taxable or tax-free; equity trusts are either domestic or international/global. The first UIT,
introduced in 1961, held tax-free bonds, and historically, most UIT assets were invested in
bonds. Equity UITs, however, have grown in popularity over the past two decades. Since
1998, the assets in equity UITs have exceeded the assets in taxable and tax-free bond
UITs combined each year except 2002, and constituted 85 percent of the assets in UITs in
2015 (Figure 1.12). The number of trusts outstanding began to fall in the mid-1990s, as
sponsors created fewer trusts and existing trusts reached their preset termination dates.

Federal law requires that UITs have a largely fixed portfolioone that is not actively
managed or traded. Once the trusts portfolio has been selected, its composition may
change only in very limited circumstances. Most UITs hold a diversified portfolio, described
in detail in the prospectus, with securities professionally selected to meet a stated
investment goal, such as growth, income, or capital appreciation.

Investors can obtain UIT price quotes from brokerage or investment firms and investment
company websites, and some but not all UITs list their prices on NASDAQs Mutual Fund
Quotation Service. Some broker-dealers offer their own trusts or sell trusts offered by
nationally recognized independent sponsors. Units of these trusts can be bought through
their registered representatives. Units can also be bought from the representatives of
smaller investment firms that sell trusts sponsored by third-party bond and brokerage
firms.

20 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Though only some units of a UIT are sold in a public offering, a trust sponsor is likely to
maintain a secondary market, in which investors can sell their units back to the sponsor
and other investors can buy those units. Even absent a secondary market, UITs are
required by law to redeem outstanding units at their net asset value (NAV), which is
based on the underlying securities current market value.

FIGURE1.12
Total Net Assets and Number of UITs
Year-end, 20002015

Total trusts (right scale)


Tax-free debt trust assets (left scale)
Taxable debt trust assets (left scale)
Equity trust assets (left scale)

Billions of dollars Number of trusts


160 15,000

140
12,000
120
10,072
101
100
12 94 9,000
87
3 11
80 74 72 12 3
60 4
23 16 5,188 6,000
60 53
49 50 51 16 4
4 41 9 8
36 36 37 2 38 13 4 86 80
40 19 10 2 71
11 29 10 4 3,000
4 17 13 2 4 52
48 3 3 43 6 2
20 4 39 41
26 29 34
19 23 20 25
15
0 0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

U.S.-REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES 21


The total number of investment companies has increased since 2005 (the recent low point),
but it remains well below the year-end 2000 peak (Figure 1.13). This largely reflects the sharp
decline in UITs in the early 2000s. The number of UITs continued to decline, falling to 5,188
at year-end 2015 from 5,381 at year-end 2014. The number of mutual funds grew in 2015 for
the fifth straight year to a total of 9,520 funds. The total number of closed-end funds fell to
558 at year-end 2015, the lowest level since 2002. The number of ETFs grew by 13 percent in
2015, with 183 new ones on net. There were 1,594 ETFs at year-end 2015, double the total
number of ETFs at year-end 2009.

FIGURE 1.13
Number of Investment Companies by Type
Year-end, 19972015

Closed-end
Mutual funds* funds ETFs UITs Total
1997 6,778 486 19 11,593 18,876
1998 7,489 491 29 10,966 18,975
1999 8,003 511 30 10,414 18,958
2000 8,370 481 80 10,072 19,003
2001 8,518 489 102 9,295 18,404
2002 8,511 543 113 8,303 17,470
2003 8,426 581 119 7,233 16,359
2004 8,417 618 152 6,499 15,686
2005 8,449 634 204 6,019 15,306
2006 8,721 645 359 5,907 15,632
2007 8,745 662 629 6,030 16,066
2008 8,879 642 728 5,984 16,233
2009 8,611 627 797 6,049 16,084
2010 8,535 624 923 5,971 16,053
2011 8,673 632 1,134 6,043 16,482
2012 8,744 602 1,194 5,787 16,327
2013 8,972 599 1,294 5,552 16,417
2014 9,259 568 1,411 5,381 16,619
2015 9,520 558 1,594 5,188 16,860

* Data include mutual funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds.
Note: Data are for investment companies that report statistical information to the Investment Company Institute. Assets
of these companies are 98 percent of investor assets. ETF data prior to 2001 were provided by Strategic Insight Simfund.
ETF data include investment companies not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 and ETFs that invest
primarily in other ETFs.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Strategic Insight Simfund

22 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Investment Company Employment
Registered investment companies typically do not have employeesinstead, they contract
with other businesses to provide services to the fund. Except for UITs, funds in the United
States have fund boards that oversee the management of the fund and represent the interests
of the fund shareholders. Fund boards must approve all major contracts between the fund
and its service providers including the advisory contract with a funds investment adviser.

Fund sponsors and third-party service providers offer advisory, recordkeeping, administrative,
custody, and other services to a growing number of funds and their investors. Fund industry
employment in the United States has grown 53 percent since 1997, from 114,000 workers in
1997 to 174,000 workers in 2015 (Figure 1.14).

FIGURE1.14
Investment Company Industry Employment
Estimated number of employees of fund sponsors and their service providers, selected years*

168,000 174,000
166,000
154,000 157,000 159,000
149,000 146,000

114,000

1997 1999 2000 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015

*
Years are those in which ICI conducted its employment survey.

Fund investment advisers are one of the prominent providers of services to funds. This
group of service providers is responsible for managing the funds business affairs, ensuring
compliance with laws and regulations, overseeing other third-party service providers the
fund may rely on, and directing funds investments by undertaking investment research
and determining which securities to buy and sell. The adviser will often undertake trading
and security settlement for the fund. In March 2015, 38 percent of the industry worked in
support of fund management functions such as investment research, trading and security
settlement, information systems and technology, and other corporate management functions
(Figure1.15).

U.S.-REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES 23


FIGURE1.15
Investment Company Industry Employment by Job Function
Percentage of employees of fund sponsors and their service providers, March 2015

38% 28%
Fund management Investor servicing

24%
10% Sales and distribution
Fund administration
Total employment: 174,000 employees

The second-largest group of workers (28 percent) provides services to fund investors and
their accounts (Figure 1.15). Shareholder account servicing encompasses a wide range of
activities to help investors monitor and update their accounts. These employees work in
call centers and help shareholders and their financial advisers with questions about investor
accounts. They also process applications for account openings and closings. Other services
include retirement plan transaction processing, retirement plan participant education,
participant enrollment, and plan compliance.

Fund administration, which includes financial and portfolio accounting and regulatory
compliance duties, accounted for 10 percent of industry employment (Figure 1.15).
Employees performing those services are often affiliated with a funds investment adviser.

Fund administration encompasses the middle- and back-office functions necessary to operate
the fund and includes clerical and fund accounting services, data processing, recordkeeping,
internal audits, and compliance and risk management functions. Typically, employees with
administration duties are responsible for regulatory and compliance requirements, such as
preparing and filing regulatory reports, overseeing fund service providers, preparing and
submitting reports to regulators and tax authorities, and producing shareholder reports such
as prospectuses and financial statements of the funds. Administration services also help to
maintain compliance procedures and internal controls, subject to approval by a funds board
and chief compliance officer.

Distribution and sales force personnel together accounted for 24 percent of the workforce
(Figure 1.15). Employees in these areas may work in marketing, product development
and design, or investor communications, and can include sales support staff, registered
representatives, and supermarket representatives.

24 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


For many industries, employment tends to be concentrated in locations where the industry
began. The same is true for investment companies: those located in Massachusetts and New
York, early hubs of investment company operations (Figure 1.16), employ 24 percent of fund
industry workers. As the industry has grown, other statesincluding California, Pennsylvania,
and Texashave become major centers of fund employment. Fund companies in these three
states employed one-quarter of U.S. fund industry employees as of March 2015.

FIGURE1.16
Investment Company Industry Employment by State
Estimated number of employees of fund sponsors and their service providers by state, March 2015

4,000 or more
1,500 to 3,999
500 to 1,499
100 to 499
0 to 99

For More Information


Monthly Trends in Mutual Fund Investing
www.ici.org/research/stats
Money Market Fund Resource Center
www.ici.org/mmfs
Yes, Funds Come and GoWithout Government Help
www.ici.org/viewpoints/view_16_resolution

U.S.-REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES 25


CHAPTER TWO

Recent
Mutual Fund
Trends

With nearly $16 trillion in assets, the U.S. mutual fund industry remained the largest
in the world at year-end 2015. At the same time, investor demand for mutual funds
declined in 2015 with net redemptions from mutual funds amounting to $102 billion,
or 0.6 percent of 2014 year-end assets. Investor demand for certain types of mutual
funds appeared to be driven in large part by an anticipated tightening in monetary
policy, declining oil prices, headwinds from China, and expectations of slower global
growth. As a result, though money market funds experienced modest net inflows,
long-term mutual funds, particularly those most exposed to interest rate risk, the
energy sector, and emerging markets, experienced net outflows for the first time
since 2008.
This chapter describes recent U.S. mutual fund developments and examines the market factors that affect
the demand for equity, bond, hybrid, and money market funds.

Investor Demand for U.S. Mutual Funds......................................................................................................... 28


U.S. Mutual Fund Assets. . .......................................................................................................................... 28
Investors in U.S. Mutual Funds.. ................................................................................................................ 29
Developments in Mutual Fund Flows. . ............................................................................................................. 30
The Global Economy and Financial Markets in 2015............................................................................... 31
Long-Term Mutual Fund Flows.................................................................................................................. 33
The Growth of Other Investment Products.............................................................................................. 44
Demand for Money Market Funds............................................................................................................. 48

Investor Demand for U.S. Mutual Funds


A variety of factors influence investor demand for mutual funds, such as funds ability to
assist investors in achieving their investment objectives. For example, U.S. households rely
on equity, bond, and hybrid mutual funds to meet long-term personal financial objectives
such as preparing for retirement. U.S. households, as well as businesses and other
institutional investors, use money market funds as cash management tools because they
provide a high degree of liquidity and competitive short-term yields. Changing demographics
and investors reactions to U.S. and worldwide economic and financial conditions play
important roles in determining how demand for specific types of mutual fundsand for
mutual funds in generalevolves.

U.S. Mutual Fund Assets


The majority of U.S. mutual fund assets at year-end 2015 were in long-term funds, with
equity funds alone comprising 52 percent of total U.S. mutual fund assets (Figure 2.1).
Bond funds were the second-largest category, with 22 percent of assets. Money market
funds (18percent) and hybrid funds (9 percent) held the remainder.

28 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE2.1
Equity Funds Held More Than Half of Total Mutual Fund Assets
Percentage of total net assets, year-end 2015

18%
Money market

22% 52%
Bond Equity

9%
Hybrid

Total U.S. mutual fund assets: $15.7 trillion

Note: Components do not add to 100 percent because of rounding.

Investors in U.S. Mutual Funds


Demand for mutual funds is, in part, related to the types of investors who hold mutual fund
shares. Retail investors (i.e., households) held the vast majority (89percent) of the nearly
$16 trillion in mutual fund assets (Figure 2.2). The proportion of long-term mutual fund assets
held by retail investors is even higher (95 percent). Retail investors also held substantial
money market fund assets ($1.7 trillion), but that amounted to a relatively small share
(12percent) of their total mutual fund assets.

In contrast, institutional investors such as nonfinancial businesses, financial institutions,


and nonprofit organizations held a relatively small portion of mutual fund assets. At year-
end 2015, institutions held about 11 percent of mutual fund assets (Figure 2.2). One of the
primary reasons institutions use mutual funds is to help manage cash balances. Sixty-two
percent of the $1.7 trillion that institutions held in mutual funds was in money market funds.

RECENT MUTUAL FUND TRENDS 29


FIGURE2.2
Institutional and Household Ownership of Mutual Funds
Billions of dollars, year-end 2015

Households held the majority (89 percent) $1,715


of mutual fund assets Households1 money
market funds
$1,040
Institutional investors
money market funds
$645
Institutional investors
long-term mutual funds 2
$12,253
Households1 long-term 344
mutual funds 2

Total mutual fund assets: $15,652 billion


Total long-term mutual fund2 assets:
182 $12,897 billion
Total money market fund assets: $2,755 billion

1 Mutual funds held as investments in individual retirement accounts, defined contribution retirement plans, variable
annuities, 529 plans, and Coverdell Education Savings Accounts are counted as household holdings of mutual funds.
2 Long-term mutual funds include equity, hybrid, and bond mutual funds.

Note: Components may not add to the totals because of rounding.

Developments in Mutual Fund Flows


Overall demand for mutual funds as measured by net new cash flownew fund sales less
redemptions plus net exchangesdeclined in 2015 (Figure 2.3). Lower demand for equity,
hybrid, and bond mutual funds was only partly offset by greater demand for money market
funds. Overall, mutual funds had a net cash outflow of $102 billion in 2015, in contrast with
a net cash inflow of $104 billion in 2014. In 2015, investors redeemed $123 billion, on net,
from long-term funds, and added $21 billion, on net, to money market funds. A number of
factorsincluding a stronger U.S. dollar, falling oil prices, ongoing demographic trends, and
increased demand for exchange-traded funds (ETFs)appeared to influence mutual fund
flows in 2015.

30 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE2.3
Net New Cash Flow to Mutual Funds
Billions of dollars, 20002015

Equity, bond, and hybrid funds


Money market funds
879

224
426
504 472
388 129
227 654
254 637
229 53 199
375 75 393 177
192
216 210 245 244 200 15 104
159 121 162 98 6
62 28 21
-157 -124 -123
-46 -211
-263 -96 -102
-539 -525
-48

-146 -282
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012* 2013 2014 2015

*
In 2012, investors withdrew less than $500 million from money market funds.
Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

The Global Economy and Financial Markets in 2015


The year 2015 produced an unusual juxtaposition: a growing U.S. economy, but weak or
falling profits for many companies in the major stock market indexes. The combination
produced lackluster results for investors.

Despite difficulties in certain financial markets, the U.S. economy continued to improve in
2015. U.S. real gross domestic product grew 2.4 percent in 2015, matching the previous year.
Unemployment slid from 5.6 percent in December 2014 to 5.0 percent in December 2015,
taking the jobless rate to its lowest level since February 2008. Average hourly earnings,
which have lagged job growth through most of the recovery, rose 2.6 percent during the year,
and total personal income rose 3.9 percent in 2015. Rising wages translated into real buying
power as the Consumer Price Indexused as a measure of inflationrose a mere 0.7 percent
for the year, the result mainly of a fall in energy prices. Real retail sales (including food
services) rose 1.9 percent for the year and the personal saving rate stayed at 5.0 percent,
indicating that consumers used a portion of their income to pay down debt or build assets
or both.

RECENT MUTUAL FUND TRENDS 31


Continued progress in jobs and wages prompted the Federal Reserve to increase the federal
funds target rate for the first time in nearly a decade. The quarter-point move in short-term
rates, which the Fed telegraphed far in advance, had little immediate effect on the market,
and the Fed indicated that further increases would be gradual. Remarkably low inflation made
that approach easier. The personal consumption expenditures price index rose just 0.7 percent
during the year, well below the Feds target of 2 percent inflation. Also easing the Feds task,
the 10-year Treasury bond finished the year yielding 2.27 percent, barely higher than the
2.17 percent yield at the end of 2014. The low yield on long-term bonds indicated market
confidence that inflation would remain low.

Developments abroad overshadowed moderate progress in the U.S. economy. The pace of
growth slowed in China, where the government reported the economy grew just 6.9percent
in 2015, down from the double-digit gains seen earlier in the 2000s. Concerns heightened
that a more tepid Chinese economy would result in weaker Chinese demand for exports from
emerging markets across Asia and Latin America. Europe continued its economic recovery, but
at a pace considerably slower than in the United States.

The result was a divergence in monetary policy across the globe. Asian and European central
banks eased policies, while the Federal Reserve made it clear that tighter policies were ahead.
The divergence in monetary policy favored the U.S. dollar. The Wall Street Journal Dollar
Index rose 8.6 percent over the year as a whole. This factor, among others, hindered American
exports, slowing manufacturing and lowering reported profits of American companies that
do business abroad. Reported 12-month earnings per share for the S&P 500 fell to $87 from
$102 in 2014.

The slide in oil prices, from $60 per barrel at the end of May to $37 per barrel at year-end,
also rattled markets. In the long run, low oil prices are expected to benefit the U.S. economy,
improving the trade balance and leaving consumers with more money to spend. But the more
immediate effect was to reduce profits for energy companies. Furthermore, weakness in
other industrial commoditiesfrom coal to copperprompted some speculation that Chinese
growth might be even weaker than the official statistics indicated.

32 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


All of these factors contributed to a mixed year for global stock markets. Pessimism over
China and emerging markets prompted a decline of 11 percent in the U.S. stock market during
August and September 2015.* Although the stock market bounced back later in the fall, for
the year as a whole, the average large-cap blend domestic equity fund lost 1 percent in total
return. Returns on equity funds that invest primarily in a small-cap stocks (e.g., small-cap
blend funds) tend to be more variable; for 2015 as a whole, small-cap blend funds returned
-5 percent.

Meanwhile, concerns over Federal Reserve policy weighed on bond prices at home and
abroad. Worries over falling oil prices and reduced profits and potential defaults in the energy
sector pushed down high-yield bond prices because energy-related companies had been
significant issuers of high-yield debt in the past few years. In addition, a rising dollar made it
more difficult for foreign companies to pay down their dollar-denominated debts. On average,
high-yield and emerging market bond funds lost 4 and 6 percent in total return in 2015,
respectively.

Long-Term Mutual Fund Flows


Flows into long-term mutual funds, though correlated with market returns, tend to be
moderate as a percentage of assets even during episodes of market turmoil. Several
factors may contribute to this phenomenon. One factor is that households (i.e., retail
investors) own the vast majority of U.S. long-term mutual fund assets (Figure 2.2). Retail
investors generally respond less strongly to market events than do institutional investors.
Most notably, households often use mutual funds to save for the long term, such as for
college or retirement. Many of these investors make stable contributions through periodic
payroll deductions, even during periods of market stress. In addition, many long-term fund
shareholders seek the advice of financial advisers, who may provide a steadying influence
during market downturns. These factors are amplified by the fact that assets in mutual funds
are spread across more than 90 million investors and fund investors have a wide variety
of individual characteristics (such as age or appetite for risk) and goals (such as saving for
the purchase of a home, for education, or for retirement). They are also bound to have a
wide range of views on market conditions and how best to respond to those conditions to
meet their individual goals. As a result, even during months when funds as a group see net
outflows, some investors continue to purchase fund shares.

* As measured by the total return on the S&P 500 index.


As measured by the Morningstar Large Blend fund category total return.
As measured by the Morningstar Small Blend fund category total return.
As measured by the Morningstar High Yield Bond fund category total return and Morningstar Emerging Markets Bond fund
category total return.

RECENT MUTUAL FUND TRENDS 33


Equity Mutual Funds
Flows to equity funds tend to rise and fall with stock prices (Figure 2.4). The MSCI All Country
World Daily Gross Total Return Index, a measure of returns on global stock markets, dropped
2 percent in 2015, on the heels of a 5 percent rise in 2014. At the same time, equity mutual
funds experienced outflows totaling $77 billion in 2015, compared with $25 billion in inflows
in 2014. Flows to equity funds varied throughout 2015 (Figure 2.5). Equity funds received
net inflows of $27 billion in the first three months of the year. As the year progressed, flows
waned and turned negative. Indeed, equity funds experienced net outflows of $37 billion in
December alone.

FIGURE2.4
Net New Cash Flow to Equity Funds Is Related to World Equity Returns
Monthly, 20002015

Percentage of total net assets Percent


1.00 60
Total return 2
0.75
40
0.50
20
0.25

0.00 0

-0.25
-20
-0.50
Net new cash flow1 -40
-0.75

-1.00 -60
2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015

1 Net
new cash flow is the percentage of previous month-end equity fund assets, plotted as a six-month moving average.
2 The
total return on equities is measured as the year-over-year percent change in the MSCI All Country World Daily Gross
Total Return Index.
Sources: Investment Company Institute, Morgan Stanley Capital International, and Bloomberg

34 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE2.5
Net New Cash Flow to Long-Term Mutual Funds
Billions of dollars, September 2014December 2015

Bond funds
Hybrid funds
Equity funds
30
26
13 10 17 15
3 6 5
15 3 6 3
13 9 3 5 1 8
2 5 1 5 7 5
-5 -6 -2 -3 -1 -4 -3 -9 -9
-10 -10
-3 -24 -1 -5 -2 -21
-19 -8 -6 -8
-19 -37
-20 -4
-23 -4 -24 -5
-30
-19 -34
-39 -12
-47

-27

-76
Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr* May Jun* Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
2014 2015

* In April 2015, investors added $275 million to hybrid funds; in June 2015, investors added $42 million to hybrid funds.
Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

Outflows from equity funds in the second half of the year likely were related to a combination
of greater market volatility and increasing demand for ETFs. The Chicago Board Options
Exchange Volatility Index (VIX), which tracks the volatility of the S&P 500 index, is a widely
used measure of market risk. Values greater than 30 typically reflect a high degree of investor
fear and values less than 20 are associated with a period of market calm. During the first
seven months of 2015, the daily VIX averaged 15 and peaked at 22. By comparison, during
the volatile months of August and September 2015, the VIX averaged 22 and peaked at 41 in
August.

RECENT MUTUAL FUND TRENDS 35


In addition, some portion of assets may have shifted from equity mutual funds into equity
ETFs, particularly late in the year. As discussed in chapter 3, the demand for ETFs has been
very robust over the past several years. Outflows from domestic equity mutual funds totaled
$57 billion in the last three months of 2015, alone accounting for nearly three-quarters of
the years outflows from equity funds. Over the same three months, net issuance of domestic
equity ETF shares totaled $58 billion.

Also, investors in the United States increasingly have diversified their portfolios toward equity
mutual funds that invest primarily in foreign markets (world equity funds). Over the past
10 years, domestic equity mutual funds experienced net outflows totaling $834billion. In
the same period, world equity funds received net inflows of $643billion. In 2015, despite a
stronger U.S. dollar, this pattern continued. World equity funds received $94billion of net new
cash while domestic equity funds experienced net outflows of $171billion.

The strong demand for world equity funds over the past decade reflects a number of factors.
One significant factor is that investors have responded to the relative returns realized in
domestic versus overseas markets. Between 2003 and 2010, international stocks* performed
better than domestic stocks, returning an average of 13 percent per year compared with
8 percent for domestic stocks. Since 2010, U.S. stocks have significantly outperformed
international stocks. Some market commentators, however, have advised investors that lower
prices on international stocks relative to earnings could signal that international stocks will
outperform U.S. stocks in coming years. And, in 2015, lower profits among U.S. corporations,
especially at energy companies and firms with large overseas sales, ended a multiyear run-up
in U.S. stock prices. This likely encouraged investors to rebalance portfolios that had become
more heavily weighted toward domestic stocks.

A related factor is that some types of funds, such as target date mutual funds (discussed in
more detail on page 43), rebalance portfolios automatically as part of an asset allocation
strategy. The assets in funds offering asset allocation strategies have grown considerably over
the past decade. These funds typically hold higher weights in foreign equities and bonds than
many U.S. investors had traditionally allocated to foreign investments. In addition, as the U.S.
domestic equity market rose over the past few years, these kinds of asset allocation funds
naturally rebalanced their portfolios away from domestic stocks toward foreign stocks.

* As measured by the MSCI All Country World Daily ex-U.S. Gross Total Return Index.
As measured by the Wilshire 5000 Total Return Index (float-adjusted).

36 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Asset-Weighted Turnover Rate
The turnover ratethe percentage of a funds holdings that have changed over a yearis a
measure of a funds trading activity. The rate is the lesser of purchases or sales (excluding
those of short-term assets) in a funds portfolio divided by average net assets.

To analyze the turnover rate that shareholders actually experience in their funds, it
is important to identify those funds in which shareholders tend to concentrate their
assets. Neither a simple average nor a median takes into account where fund assets are
concentrated. An asset-weighted average gives more weight to funds with large amounts
of assets, and accordingly, indicates the average portfolio turnover actually experienced
by fund shareholders. In 2015, the asset-weighted annual turnover rate experienced by
equity fund investors was 44 percent, well below the average of the past 36 years.

Investors tend to own equity funds with relatively low turnover rates. In 2015, about
52percent of equity fund assets were in funds with portfolio turnover rates of less than
30percent. This reflects the propensity for funds with below-average turnover to attract
shareholder dollars.

FIGURE2.6
Turnover Rate Experienced by Equity Fund Investors
19802015

100

80

60

40 Average over 19802015: 60%

20

0
80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 06 08 10 12 15

Note: The turnover rate is an asset-weighted average. Data exclude mutual funds available as investment choices in
variable annuities.
Sources: Investment Company Institute, Center for Research in Security Prices, and Strategic Insight Simfund

RECENT MUTUAL FUND TRENDS 37


Bond Mutual Funds
Bond fund flows are typically correlated with the performance of bonds (Figure 2.7), which, in
turn, is largely driven by the U.S. interest rate environment. A moderate increase in long-term
interest rates during the second quarter of the year, coupled with expectations that the Fed
would raise short-term interest rates before year-end, contributed to a decline in bond prices.
This lowered the total return on bonds for the year.

FIGURE2.7
Net New Cash Flow to Bond Funds Is Related to Bond Returns
Monthly, 20002015

Percentage of total net assets Percent


3.0 30
2.5 25
2.0 Total return 2 20
1.5 15
1.0 10
0.5 5
0.0 0
-0.5 -5
-1.0 -10
-1.5 -15
Net new cash flow1
-2.0 -20
2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015

1 Net new cash flow is the percentage of previous month-end bond fund assets, plotted as a three-month moving
average. Data exclude flows to high-yield bond funds.
2 The total return on bonds is measured as the year-over-yearpercent change in the Citigroup Broad Investment Grade

Bond Index.
Sources: Investment Company Institute, Citigroup, and Bloomberg

38 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Demand for bond funds fell in the second half of 2015 in response to falling performance
of bond investments. For example, during the first half of 2015, investment grade bond
funds attracted $30 billion in net new cash. In contrast, during the second half of the year,
investors redeemed $31 billion. For all bond fund categories, after investing $43 billion in
2014, investors redeemed $25 billion in 2015. Nonetheless, this outflow was relatively small
representing only 0.7 percent of the total assets of bond funds as of year-end 2014.

Outflows from certain categories of bond funds were more notable. Worries over a slowdown
in China, the credit quality of energy and commodities-related companies, and the impact
of higher future interest rates on bond values contributed to net redemptions from high-
yield bond funds totaling $37 billion in 2015, amounting to 9.8 percent of their year-end
2014 assets. Outflows from high-yield bond funds were greatest in December, amounting
to $15billion. Early in that month came an announcement by Third Avenue Management
LLC that it had suspended redemptions in one of its mutual funds. This particular fund had
experienced outflows for more than a year. To protect the interests of the funds investors, the
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) issued an order allowing the fund to suspend
redemptions and proceed with an orderly liquidation of its remaining assets.

Also in December 2015, world bond funds (which typically hold a mix of bonds denominated
in U.S. dollars and foreign currencies) experienced outflows of $13 billion, or 3 percent of
assets. These flows were, in part, attributable to the Feds quarter-point interest rate hike
on December 16. Higher interest rates in the United States put upward pressure on the U.S.
dollar, in turn reducing dollar returns on bonds denominated in foreign currencies and making
it more expensive for foreign companies to pay off their dollar-denominated debts.

Since the 20072009 financial crisis, some observers have expressed concerns that outflows
from bond funds could pose challenges for fixed-income markets. There are many reasons to
believe such concerns are overstated.

RECENT MUTUAL FUND TRENDS 39


First, though U.S. bond mutual fund assets have risen in the past decade, bond mutual fund
assets were only 9.4 percent of the U.S. bond market at year-end 2015, up from 6.7 percent at
year-end 2005. This means that about 90 percent of the U.S. bond market is held by investors
outside of mutual funds. Furthermore, some of the outflows from bond mutual funds likely
reflect growing investor interest in other types of pooled investment vehicles with exposure to
bonds. Notably, ETFs that invest in bonds had net issuance of $55 billion in 2015. And, though
high-yield bond mutual funds had net redemptions, net issuance of high-yield bond ETFs was
$1.8 billion, or 4 percent of the year-end 2014 assets of high-yield bond ETFs.

Second, though some high-yield bond funds at times have had substantial outflows, other
high-yield funds have had inflows (Figure 2.8). Thus, outflows at one fund, even substantial
outflows that the fund must meet by selling securities, are unlikely to significantly affect bond
markets if other high-yield funds are at the same time buying the same or similar securities.

FIGURE2.8
Modest Outflows from High-Yield Bond Funds Even During Times of Market Stress
Net new cash flow as a percentage of assets; monthly, February 2000December 2015

25

20
Total of high-yield
bond funds
15
Top 10th percentile
10 of funds

-5

-10
Bottom 10th percentile
-15
of funds Financial Eurozone Fed taper
crisis crisis talks
-20
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Note: Data exclude high-yield bond funds designated as floating-rate funds. Data also exclude funds with less than
$10 million in total net assets, mutual funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds, and data for funds in any fund
month where a merger or liquidation takes place. One observation for the top 10th percentile of funds in January 2001
is hidden to preserve the scale.

40 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Third, bond funds have a range of tools they use to meet redemptions. For instance, a long-
term fund can often accommodate the vast majority of its redemptions through sales of new
fund shares to other investors. At almost any time, some investors will be redeeming out of
a given long-term fund while others will be purchasing new fund shares. When redemptions
exceed sales of fund shares, bond funds can sell bonds or reduce their holdings of short-term
securities. Bond funds, especially high-yield, municipal, and international bond funds, may
choose to hold more short-term assets (e.g., Treasury bills) or other highly liquid securities
(e.g., common stocks and investment grade bonds) to help meet redemptions. As Figure 2.9
shows, high-yield bond funds as a group held 14.7 percent of their assets in securities that are
generally easy to liquidate: 5.3 percent in short-term securities, 2.4 percent in equities, and
7.0 percent in investment grade bonds.

FIGURE2.9
High-Yield Bond Fund Holdings by Selected Asset Categories
Percentage of all high-yield bond fund assets, December 2015

3.6% 3.5 BBB-rated bonds


Other

81.6% 14.7% 3.5 AAA- to A-rated bonds


Below investment Short-term securities, equity,
grade bonds* and investment grade bonds 2.4 Equity

5.3 Short-term securities

* Below investment grade bonds include unrated bonds.


Note: Data include funds Morningstar classifies as high-yield bond funds. Short-term securities are those classified by
Morningstar as cash. Data exclude derivatives positions. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.
Source: Morningstar

RECENT MUTUAL FUND TRENDS 41


Funds also use derivatives to help manage flows. Derivatives can be more liquid than their
physical counterparts. Regulations require funds to segregate liquid assets to support their
derivatives positions. These segregated liquid assets provide a ready source of liquidity to
meet redemptions. This is especially true for many so-called liquid alternative funds, which
are explicitly designed to allow frequent investor trading and do so in large measure through
derivatives.

Finally, funds manage their liquidity according to both fund and investor characteristics. For
example, funds with more variable flows tend to hold a greater proportion of their portfolios
in liquid assets. When a funds adviser expects the fund to have more variable flows, the
fund is likely to hold more cash, liquid securities, securities that generate cash (e.g., through
coupon payments or prepayments of principal), and highly liquid derivatives.

Despite several periods of market turmoil, bond funds have experienced inflows through
most of the past decade. Bond funds have received $2 trillion in net inflows and reinvested
dividends since 2005 (Figure 2.10). A number of factors have helped sustain this long-term
demand for bond funds.

FIGURE2.10
Bond Funds Have Experienced Net Inflows Through Most of the Past Decade
Cumulative flows to bond mutual funds, billions of dollars; monthly, 20052015

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

0
05

05

6
07

8
09

09

0
10

11

12

12

3
14

5
4
c0

r1

c1
l0
r0

t0

l1

c1
r1

t1

y
y

v
n

n
g

n
b

g
Ju

Ju
Ap
Ma

Oc

Ma

Oc

De
De

De
Ma
Ma

No
Ja

Ju

Ja
Au

Se
Fe

Au

Note: Bond mutual fund flows include net new cash flow and reinvested dividends. Data exclude mutual funds that invest
primarily in other mutual funds.

42 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Demographics influence the demand for bond funds. Older investors tend to have higher
account balances because they have had more time to accumulate savings and take advantage
of compounding. At the same time, as investors age, they tend to shift toward fixed-income
products. Over the past decade, the aging of Baby Boomers has boosted flows to bond funds.
Although bond funds experienced outflows in 2015, they were likely mitigated, in part, by the
demographic factors boosting bond fund flows over the past decade.

The continued popularity of target date mutual funds also likely helped to limit outflows
from bond funds in 2015. Target date mutual funds invest in a changing mix of equities and
fixed-income investments. As the fund approaches and passes its target date (which is usually
specified in the funds name), the fund gradually reallocates assets away from equities toward
fixed-income investments, including bonds. Target date mutual funds usually invest through a
fund-of-funds approach, meaning they primarily hold and invest in shares of other equity and
bond mutual funds. Over the past 10 years, target date mutual funds have garnered inflows
of $477 billion. In 2015, target date mutual funds had net inflows of $66 billion and ended the
year with assets of $763 billion. The growing investor interest in these funds likely reflects
their automatic rebalancing features as well as their inclusion as an investment option in many
defined contribution (DC) plans. Also, following the adoption of the Pension Protection Act
of 2006, the use of target date funds as default investments for DC plans increased (see
chapter 7).

Hybrid Mutual Funds


Hybrid mutual funds have seen inflows every year in the past decade except 2008 and 2015.
Hybrid funds, sometimes called asset allocation funds or balanced funds, invest in a mix of
stocks and bonds. The funds prospectus may specify the asset allocation that the fund seeks
to maintain, such as investing approximately 60 percent of the funds assets in equities and
40percent in bonds. This approach offers a way to balance the potential capital appreciation
of stocks with the income and relative stability of bonds over the long term. The funds
portfolio may be periodically rebalanced to bring the funds asset allocation more in line with
prospectus objectives, which could be necessary following capital gains or losses in the stock
or bond markets.

Hybrid funds have become an increasingly popular way to help investors achieve a managed,
balanced portfolio of stocks and bonds. Over the past 10 years, investors have added
$258billion in net new cash flow to these funds. In 2015, however, investors redeemed
a modest $21 billion (or 1.5 percent of prior year-end assets).

RECENT MUTUAL FUND TRENDS 43


Outflows in 2015 from hybrid funds were concentrated in flexible portfolio funds, which
have the flexibility to hold any proportion of stocks, bonds, cash, and commodities, both in
the United States and overseas. In many ways, the 2008 crisis led investors to broaden their
portfolios and lower the correlation of their investments with the market or limit downside
risk. Flexible portfolio funds can help investors achieve those goals. As a result, flexible
portfolio funds saw net inflows of $88 billion in the six years following 2008. After a long
bull market, however, and comparably lower returns in funds offering downside protection,
investors redeemed $21 billion (or 6.1 percent of prior year-end assets), on net, from flexible
portfolio hybrid funds in 2015.

The Growth of Other Investment Products


Some of the outflows from long-term mutual funds in 2015 reflect a broader shift, driven
by both investors and retirement plan sponsors, toward other pooled investment vehicles.
This trend is reflected in the outflows from actively managed funds and the growth of index
mutual funds, ETFs, and collective investment trusts (CITs) since 2007.

In 2015, index mutual fundswhich hold all (or a representative sample) of the securities on
a specified indexremained popular with investors. Of households that owned mutual funds,
32 percent owned at least one equity index mutual fund in 2015. As of year-end 2015, 406
index mutual funds managed total net assets of $2.2 trillion. Demand for index mutual funds
remained strong in 2015, with investors adding $166 billion in net new cash flow to these
funds (Figure 2.11). Of the new money that flowed to index mutual funds, 28 percent was
invested in funds tied to domestic stock indexes, 45 percent went to funds tied to world stock
indexes, and another 26 percent was invested in funds tied to bond or hybrid indexes.

Index equity mutual funds accounted for the bulk of index mutual fund assets at year-end
2015. Eighty-one percent of index mutual fund assets were invested in funds that track the
S&P 500 or other domestic or international stock indexes (Figure 2.12). Mutual funds indexed
to the S&P 500 managed 31 percent of all assets invested in index mutual funds. The share of
assets invested in index equity mutual funds relative to all equity mutual funds assets moved
up to 22 percent in 2015 (Figure 2.13).

44 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE2.11
Net New Cash Flow to Index Mutual Funds
Billions of dollars, 20002015

Bond and hybrid 166


World equity
Domestic equity 149
44

49
114

34
75
38
61 60 59 28
58 55
16 49
40 10 27 24 20 29
35 7 33
27 17 8
26 25 2 2 6 28 8 8 52 62
2 8 7 8 19 17 16
2 11 47
1 2 31 8
21 28 28 25
18 17 14 31 14 18 15
11
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

FIGURE2.12
Funds Indexed to the S&P 500 Held 31 Percent of Index Mutual Fund Assets
Percentage of total net assets, year-end 2015

14%
World equity

31%
S&P 500
19%
Bond and hybrid

36%
Other domestic equity

Total index mutual fund assets: $2.2 trillion

RECENT MUTUAL FUND TRENDS 45


FIGURE2.13
Index Equity Mutual Funds Share Continued to Rise
Percentage of equity mutual funds total net assets, 20002015

22.0
20.2
18.4
17.4
16.4
14.7
13.6 13.9
11.7
9.9 10.7 11.1 11.4 11.2 11.4
9.1

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Index domestic equity mutual funds and index-based ETFs have particularly benefited from
the investor trend toward more index-oriented investment products. From 2007 through
2015, index domestic equity mutual funds and ETFs received $1.2 trillion in net new cash and
reinvested dividends (Figure 2.14). Index-based domestic equity ETFs have grown particularly
quicklyattracting almost twice the flows of index domestic equity mutual funds since 2007.
In contrast, actively managed domestic equity mutual funds experienced a net outflow of
$835 billion (despite including reinvested dividends) from 2007 to 2015.

CITs are an alternative to mutual funds for DC plans. Like mutual funds, CITs pool the assets
of investors and (either actively or passively) invest those assets according to a particular
strategy. Much like institutional share classes of mutual funds, CITs generally require
substantial minimum investment thresholds. Unlike mutual funds, which are regulated under
the Investment Company Act of 1940, CITs are regulated under banking laws, which can
reduce their compliance costs as compared to mutual funds.

More retirement plan sponsors have begun offering CITs as options in 401(k) plan lineups. As
Figure 2.15 demonstrates, this trend has translated into a growing share of assets held in CITs
by 401(k) plans with 100 participants or more. That share increased from 6 percent in 2000
to an estimated 16 percent in 2014. This most recent expansion is owed, in part, to growth in
target date fund CITs.

46 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE2.14
Some of the Outflows from Domestic Equity Mutual Funds Have Gone to ETFs
C umulative flows to and net share issuance of domestic equity mutual funds and index ETFs, billions of dollars;
monthly, January 2007December 2015

1,400
1,200
Index domestic
1,000
equity mutual funds
800
600
400
200
Index domestic equity ETFs
0
-200 Actively managed domestic
equity mutual funds
-400
-600
-800
-1,000

5
Oc 5
Ja 1

Ap 2
Ap 7

Oc 0
Fe 8

Fe 3
Se 8

Ju 9

Ma 9

Au 1

Se 3

Ma 4
Ju 4

De 5
Ju 7
No 7

Ma 0

Ju 2
No 2
De 9

De 4

c1
c1
0
v0

1
y1
0

l1
0

1
r1

y1
r0

c0

t1
0

1
v1

1
l0

r1

t1
b
n
n

g
p
b

p
n
Ja

Note: Equity mutual fund flows include net new cash flow and reinvested dividends. Data exclude mutual funds that
invest primarily in other mutual funds.

FIGURE2.15
Assets of Large 401(k) Plans Are Increasingly Held in Collective Investment Trusts
Percentage of assets in 401(k) plans with 100 participants or more, 20002014

16
14
13 13
12
11 11
9 9 9 9 9
8
7
6

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Note:Assets exclude Direct Filing Entity (DFE) assets that are reinvested in collective investment trusts. Data prior to
2014 come from the Department of Labor Form 5500 Research Files. Data for 2014 are preliminary, based on Department
of Labor 2014 Form 5500 Latest Data Sets.
Source: Investment Company Institute tabulations of Department of Labor Form 5500 data

RECENT MUTUAL FUND TRENDS 47


Demand for Money Market Funds
In 2015, money market funds received a modest $21 billion in net inflows. Like demand for
long-term funds, however, demand for money market funds fluctuated in 2015. In particular,
money market funds experienced outflows in the first four months of 2015, with investors
redeeming $162 billion, on net (Figure 2.16). Tax payments by corporations in mid-March and
individuals in mid-April were likely key drivers behind these redemptions. Outflows abated
and money market funds received net inflows of $183 billion over the last eight months of the
year. About half of these flows went to government money market funds.

FIGURE2.16
Net New Cash Flow to Money Market Funds
Billions of dollars, September 2014December 2015

Tax-exempt
Prime
Government
80
9

30 48 46
22 36 3 1 35
1 13 27 27 8
19 22 3 8
36 41 31 9
19 13 26 2 2 19
3 8 1 3 5 17 11 1 17 15
-12 -3 -17 -2 -16 -10 -5 -4 -3 -15
-2 -19 -3 -6
-29
-12 -14
-2 -2
-33 -33
-52

-14
-82
Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb* Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
2014 2015

* In February 2015, investors withdrew $429 million from tax-exempt money market funds.
Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

48 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Institutions rely more heavily on money market mutual funds to manage their cash today
than they did in the early 1990s. For example, in 2008, U.S. nonfinancial businesses held
37 percent of their cash balances in money market funds, up from just 6 percent in 1990
(Figure 2.17). Though this portion has declined since the 20072009 financial crisis, it remains
substantial, measuring 23 percent in 2015. Part of this demand reflects the outsourcing of
institutions cash management activities to asset managers. Depending on the amount of
cash an institutional client wishes to invest and how the client wants the assets managed,
it may invest in a money market fund or, alternatively, in a separate accountan account
wholly owned by the institutional investor and managed on its behalf by an asset manager.
Institutional money market fundsused by businesses, pension funds, state and local
governments, and other large-account investorshad net inflows of $16 billion in 2015,
following a net inflow of $37 billion in 2014 (Figure 2.18).

FIGURE2.17
Money Market Funds Managed 23Percent of U.S. Businesses Short-Term Assets in 2015
Percent; year-end, selected years

37

31
28 28 28
23 23 24 24 24 24 23
21 21 21 22

1990 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Note: U.S. nonfinancial businesses short-term assets consist of foreign deposits, checkable deposits, time and savings
deposits, money market funds, repurchase agreements, and commercial paper.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Federal Reserve Board

RECENT MUTUAL FUND TRENDS 49


Individual investors tend to withdraw cash from money market funds when the difference
between yields on money market funds and interest rates on bank deposits narrows or
becomes negative. Because of Federal Reserve monetary policy, short-term interest rates
remained near zero through most of 2015. Yields on money market funds, which track short-
term open market instruments such as Treasury bills, also hovered near zero and remained
below yields on money market deposit accounts offered by banks (Figure 2.19). Retail money
market funds, which principally are sold to individual investors, saw a small net inflow of
$5 billion in 2015, following a net outflow of $31 billion in 2014 (Figure 2.18).

FIGURE2.18
Net New Cash Flow to Retail and Institutional Money Market Funds
Billions of dollars, 20002015

Retail
Institutional
654 637
173 114

375
36
245 523
482
159 339 97
44
62 149 6
116 34 60 2 1 15 21
27 37 5
-80 -112 -68 -123 -1 -12 -31 16
-46 -89 -231 -1
-151 -157 -124
-401
-263
-308
-124
-539 -525
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012* 2013 2014 2015

* In 2012, investors added $1 billion to institutional money market funds and withdrew $1 billion from retail money
market funds. On net, investors withdrew less than $500 million from money market funds.
Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

50 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE2.19
Net New Cash Flow to Taxable Retail Money Market Funds Is Related to Interest
Rate Spread
Monthly, 20002015

Percentage of total net assets Percentage points


5 5

4 4

3 Interest rate spread 2 3

2 2

1 1

0 0

-1 -1

-2 -2
Net new cash flow1
-3 -3
2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015

1 Net new cash flow is the percentage of previous month-end taxable retail money market fund assets, plotted as a six-
month moving average.
2 The interest rate spread is the difference between the taxable retail money market fund yield and the average interest

rate on money market deposit accounts.


Sources: Investment Company Institute, iMoneyNet, and Bank Rate Monitor

RECENT MUTUAL FUND TRENDS 51


Recent Reforms to Money Market Funds
The SEC has amended Rule 2a-7, a regulation governing money market funds, several times
since 1983, placing greater limits on the maturity and credit quality of the securities that
these funds are allowed to hold, adding diversification requirements, requiring minimum
levels of liquidity for the funds, and expanding required disclosure. In response to the 2007
2009 financial crisis, the SEC significantly reformed Rule 2a-7 in 2010. Among other things,
these reforms required money market funds to hold a certain amount of liquidity and imposed
stricter maturity limits.

One outcome of these provisions is that prime funds have become more like government
money market funds. To a significant degree, prime funds adjusted to the SECs 2010
amendments to Rule 2a-7 by adding to their holdings of Treasury and agency securities. They
also boosted their assets in repurchase agreements (repos). A repo can be thought of as a
short-term collateralized loan, such as to a bank or other financial intermediary. Repos are
collateralizedtypically by Treasury and agency securitiesto ensure that the loan is repaid.
Prime fund holdings of Treasury and agency securities and repos have risen substantially
as a share of portfolios, from 12 percent in spring 2007 to a peak of 36 percent in fall 2012
(Figure2.20). In December 2015, this share was 34 percent of prime fund assets, still more
than double the value before the financial crisis and subsequent reforms.

In July 2014, the SEC adopted additional rules for money market funds, precluding the use of
amortized cost accounting by institutional funds that invest more than one-half of 1percent of

FIGURE2.20
Prime Money Market Fund Holdings of Treasury and Agency Securities and
Repurchase Agreements
Percentage of prime funds total net assets; month-end, 20002015

40
36
35 34

30

25

20

15

10 12

0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

52 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


their assets in nongovernment securities, and by requiring that such funds price their shares
to the nearest one-hundredth of a cent (i.e., float their NAVs [net asset values]). Additionally,
under the July 2014 rules, nongovernment money market fund boards can impose liquidity
fees and gates (temporary halt redemptions) when a funds weekly liquid assets fall below
30 percent of its total net assets (the regulatory minimum). The July 2014 rules also include
additional diversification, disclosure, and stress testing requirements, as well as updated
reporting by money market funds.

Because the new rules will not be fully implemented until late 2016, it is not yet clear how
the reforms will affect investor demand for money market funds. In late 2015, however, some
money market fund sponsors altered their product offerings on the view that demand for
prime money market funds, both from institutional and retail investors, will decline once the
July 2014 rules are fully implemented. In late 2015, a total of $188 billion in assets migrated
from prime funds into government funds through mergers with existing funds or through
changes in funds investment strategies. As a result of these and other factors, the total net
assets of institutional and retail classes of prime money market funds fell by $77 billion and
$103 billion, respectively, during the last two months of 2015. As expected, these reductions
were offset by growth in the assets of government money market funds (Figure 2.21). By
the end of 2015, assets in prime funds were at their lowest level since 2004 and assets in
government funds were at their highest level since 2008.

FIGURE2.21
Assets Migrated from Prime Funds into Government Funds in 2015
Billions of dollars; monthly, 2015

1,000
Prime institutional assets
900
Government institutional assets
800

700

600
Prime retail assets
500

400

300
Government retail assets
200

100

0
15

15

15

15

15

5
r1

r1

y1

l1

t1

v1

c1
n

p
g
b

Ju
Ma

Ap

Oc

De
Ma

No
Ju
Ja

Au

Se
Fe

RECENT MUTUAL FUND TRENDS 53


The Federal Reserves Overnight Reverse Repo Facility
In 2013, anticipating the need to begin absorbing excess liquidity from the financial system,
the Federal Reserve introduced a program of fixed-rate, full-allotment, overnight, and term
reverse repos. The introduction and expansion of the Feds reverse repo facilities over the
past three years has greatly increased the central banks role as a repo counterparty.

Through these facilities, money market funds (and other market participants) engage with
the Fed in overnight or term repos. At the end of 2015, the Federal Reserve was the repo
counterparty for 54 percent of the $718 billion in repurchase agreements entered into by
taxable money market funds. This share has risen from 29 percent at the end of 2013, the
year the program began.

The rise, however, reflects a strong seasonal pattern. Money market fund repurchase
agreements with the Fed tend to spike at quarter-ends, in large part because of changes in
bank regulations, especially in Europe. Historically, European banks have been major repo
counterparties with money market funds. Due to regulatory changes, however, European
banks have generally become less willing to borrow from U.S. money market funds, especially
at the end of the quarter. In such instances, money market funds, seeking to remain fully
invested at quarter-ends, have engaged in repurchase agreements with the Fed. This explains
the seesaw pattern that emerges in 2014 and 2015 (Figure 2.20).

2014 Fund Reclassification


To reflect changes in the marketplace, ICI modernized its investment objective (IOB)
classifications for open-end mutual funds in 2014.

ICI reports data on open-end mutual funds at several levels. At the macro level, the ICI
data categoriesdomestic equity, world equity, taxable bond, municipal bond, hybrid,
taxable money market, and tax-exempt money market fundshave remained the same.

The update reclassified the categories at a more detailed level. This means that there is
a break in the time series for some of the data in Fact Book.

Learn More
2014 Mutual Fund Reclassification FAQs
Mutual Fund Investment Objective Definitions

Available at www.ici.org/iob_update.

54 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


For More Information
Money Market Fund Resource Center
www.ici.org/mmfs
Changes to Money Market Funds Are Showing Up in Data
www.ici.org/viewpoints/view_15_mmf_changes
Understanding the Risks of Bond Mutual Funds: Are They Right for Me?
www.ici.org/faqs
Why Long-Term Fund Flows Arent a Systemic Risk: Past Is Prologue
www.ici.org/viewpoints/view_15_fund_flow_01
High-Yield Bond Mutual Fund Flows: Some Perspective
www.ici.org/viewpoints/view_15_hybf_flows

RECENT MUTUAL FUND TRENDS 55


CHAPTER THREE

Exchange-Traded
Funds

For investors seeking to gain or shed exposure to broad market indexes, particular
sectors or geographical regions, or specific rules-based investment strategies, ETFs
are a convenient, cost-effective tool. Over the past decade, demand for ETFs has
grown markedly as investorsboth institutional and retailincreasingly turn to
them as investment options. In the past 10 years, nearly $1.6 trillion of net new ETF
shares have been issued. With the increase in demand, sponsors have offered more
ETFs with a greater variety of investment objectives. With $2.1 trillion in assets,
the U.S. ETF industry remained the largest in the world at year-end 2015. Though
ETFs share some basic characteristics with mutual funds, there are key operational
and structural differences between the two types of investment products.
This chapter provides an overview of exchange-traded funds (ETFs)how they are created, how they differ
from mutual funds, how they trade, the demand by investors for ETFs, and the characteristics of
ETF-owning households.

What Is an ETF? . . ................................................................................................................................................ 58


ETFs and Mutual Funds. . .................................................................................................................................... 59
Key Differences.. ......................................................................................................................................... 59
U.S. ETF Assets.. ................................................................................................................................................. 60
Origination of an ETF.. ....................................................................................................................................... 61
Creation and Redemption of ETF SharesPrimary Market Activity...................................................... 62
How ETFs Trade.................................................................................................................................................. 65
Secondary Market Trading in ETF Shares................................................................................................. 66
Demand for ETFs................................................................................................................................................ 69
Characteristics of ETF-Owning Households................................................................................................... 73

What Is an ETF?
An ETF is a pooled investment vehicle with shares that investors can buy and sell throughout
the day on a stock exchange at a market-determined price. Investors may buy or sell ETF
shares through a broker or in a brokerage account just as they would the shares of any
publicly traded company. In the United States, most ETFs are structured as open-end
investment companies, like mutual funds, and governed by the same regulations. Other
ETFsprimarily those investing in commodities, currencies, and futureshave different
structures and are subject to different regulatory requirements.

ETFs have been available as an investment product for more than 20 years in the United
States. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) approved the first ETFa broad-based
domestic equity fund tracking the S&P 500 indexin 1993. Until 2008, the SEC only approved
ETFs that tracked specified indexes. These ETFs, commonly referred to as index-based ETFs,
are designed to track the performance of their designated indexes or, in some cases, a
multiple of or an inverse (or a multiple of an inverse) of their indexes.

In early 2008, the SEC granted approval to several fund sponsors to offer fully transparent,
actively managed ETFs meeting certain requirements. Each business day, these actively
managed ETFs must disclose on their publicly available websites the identities and weightings
of the component securities and other assets held by the ETF. Actively managed ETFs do not
seek to track the return of a particular index. Instead, an actively managed ETFs investment

58 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


adviser, like that of an adviser to an actively managed mutual fund, creates a unique mix
of investments to meet a particular investment objective and policy. At year-end 2015, 134
actively managed ETFswith nearly $28 billion in assetswere registered with the SEC as
investment companies.

ETFs and Mutual Funds


An ETF is a registered investment company that is similar to a mutual fund because it offers
investors a proportionate share in a pool of stocks, bonds, and other assets. Like a mutual
fund, an ETF is required to post the mark-to-market net asset value (NAV) of its portfolio at
the end of each trading day and must conform to the main investor protection mechanisms of
the Investment Company Act, including limitations on leverage, daily valuation and liquidity
requirements, prohibitions on transactions with affiliates, and rigorous disclosure obligations.
Also like mutual funds, creations and redemptions of ETF shares are aggregated and executed
just once per day at NAV. Despite these similarities, key features differentiate ETFs from
mutual funds.

Key Differences
One major difference is that retail investors buy and sell ETF shares on the secondary market
(stock exchange) through a broker-dealer, much like they would any other type of stock. In
contrast, mutual fund shares are not listed on stock exchanges, but are purchased and sold
through a variety of distribution channels, including through investment professionalsfull-
service brokers, independent financial planners, bank or savings institution representatives,
or insurance agentsor directly from a fund company or discount broker.

Pricing also differs between mutual funds and ETFs. Mutual funds are forward priced,
which means that although investors can place orders to buy or sell shares throughout the
day, all orders placed during the day will receive the same pricethe NAVthe next time it
is computed. Most mutual funds calculate their NAV as of 4:00 p.m. eastern time because
that is the time U.S. stock exchanges typically close. In contrast, the price of an ETF share
is continuously determined on a stock exchange. Consequently, the price at which investors
buy and sell ETF shares on the secondary market may not necessarily equal the NAV of the
portfolio of securities in the ETF. Two investors selling the same ETF shares at different times
on the same day may receive different prices for their shares, both of which may differ from
the ETFs NAV, whichlike a mutual fundis calculated as of 4:00 p.m. eastern time.

EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS 59
U.S. ETF Assets
The U.S. ETF marketwith 1,594 funds and $2.1 trillion in assets under management at year-
end 2015remained the largest in the world, accounting for 72 percent of the $2.9 trillion in
ETF assets worldwide (Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2).

The vast majority of assets in U.S. ETFs are in funds registered with and regulated by the
SEC under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (Figure 3.2). At year-end 2015, about
2percent of assets were held in ETFs that are not registered with or regulated by the SEC
under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (non1940 Act ETFs); these ETFs invest primarily
in commodities, currencies, and futures. Non1940 Act ETFs that invest in commodity or
currency futures are regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) under
the Commodity Exchange Act and by the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933. Those that
invest solely in physical commodities or currencies are regulated by the SEC under the
Securities Act of 1933.

FIGURE3.1
The United States Has the Largest ETF Market
Percentage of total net assets, year-end 2015

2%
9% Other
Africa and Americas
Asia-Pacific

17%
Europe
72%
United States

Total worldwide ETF assets: $2.9 trillion

Sources: Investment Company Institute and ETFGI

60 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE3.2
Total Net Assets and Number of ETFs
Billions of dollars; year-end, 20062015

Total net assets of non1940 Act ETFs1


Total net assets of 1940 Act ETFs2 2,100
1,974 48
57
1,675
64
1,337
120
992 1,048 2,052
101 109 1,918
777
75 1,611
608 1,217
29 531
423 36 891 939
15 703
580 496
408

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Number of ETFs
359 629 728 797 923 1,134 1,194 1,294 1,411 1,594

1 The funds in this category are not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 and invest primarily in
commodities, currencies, and futures.
2 The funds in this category are registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940.

Note: Data for ETFs that invest primarily in other ETFs are excluded from the totals. Components may not add to the
total because of rounding.

Origination of an ETF
An ETF originates with a sponsora company or financial institutionthat chooses the
investment objective of the ETF. In the case of an index-based ETF, the sponsor chooses
both an index and a method of tracking its target index. Index-based ETFs track their target
index in various ways. Many early ETFs tracked traditional indexes, mostly those weighted by
market capitalization. More-recently launched index-based ETFs follow benchmarks that use
an array of index construction methodologies, with weightings based on market capitalization,
as well as other fundamental factors, such as sales or book value. Others follow factor-based
metricsindexes that first screen potential securities for a variety of attributes, including
value, growth, or dividend paymentsand then weight the selected securities equally or by
market capitalization. Other customized index approaches include screening, selecting, and
weighting securities to minimize volatility, maximize diversification, or achieve a high or low
degree of correlation with the market.

EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS 61
An index-based ETF may replicate its index (that is, it may invest 100 percent of its
assets proportionately in all the securities in the target index) or it may sample its index
by investing in a representative sample of securities in the target index. Representative
sampling is a practical solution for ETFs that track indexes containing thousands of securities
(such as broad-based or total stock market indexes) that have restrictions on ownership or
transferability (certain foreign securities) or that are difficult to obtain (some fixed-income
securities).

The sponsor of an actively managed ETF also determines the investment objective of the fund
and may trade securities at its discretion, much like an actively managed mutual fund. For
instance, the sponsor may try to achieve an investment objective such as outperforming a
segment of the market or investing in a particular sector through a portfolio of stocks, bonds,
or other assets.

Creation and Redemption of ETF SharesPrimary Market Activity


The creation or redemption of ETF shares is categorized as primary market activity. The
creation/redemption mechanism in the ETF structure allows the number of shares outstanding
in an ETF to expand or contract based on demand (Figure 3.3). Each business day, ETFs
are required to publish the creation and redemption baskets for the next trading day. The
creation/redemption baskets are specific lists of names and quantities of securities, cash,
and/or other assets. Often baskets will track the ETFs portfolio through either a pro rata slice
or a representative sample, but, at times, baskets may be limited to a subset of the ETFs
portfolio and contain a cash component. For example, the composition of baskets for bond
ETFs may vary day to day with the mix of cash and the selection of bonds in the baskets
based on liquidity in the underlying bond market. Typically, the composition of an ETFs daily
creation and redemption baskets mirror one another.

Creation
ETF shares are created when an authorized participant, or AP (see page 64), submits an
order for one or more creation units. A creation unit consists of a specified number of ETF
shares, generally ranging from 25,000 to 250,000 shares. The ETF shares are delivered to
the AP when the specified creation basket is transferred to the ETF. The ETF may permit or
require an AP to substitute cash for some or all of the securities or assets in the creation
basket, particularly when an instrument in the creation basket is difficult to obtain or may not
be held by certain types of investors (such as certain foreign securities). An AP also may be
charged a cash adjustment and/or transaction fee to offset any transaction expenses the fund
undertakes. The value of the creation basket and any cash adjustment equals the value of
the creation unit based on the ETFs NAV at the end of the day on which the transaction was
initiated.

62 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE3.3
Creation of ETF Shares

Primary market

Hold shares
Creation basket

Authorized Sell shares Secondary


Fund or trust market
participant to client

One creation unit


(e.g., 150,000 shares of an ETF) Sell shares on
an exchange

Other
investors

Note: The creation basket represents a specific list of securities, cash, and/or other assets.

The AP can either keep the ETF shares that make up the creation unit or sell all or part
of them to its clients or to other investors on a stock exchange, in a dark pool (private
exchange), or in other trading venues. Any purchases and sales of existing ETF shares among
investors, including APs, are referred to as secondary market trading or activity.

Redemption
The redemption process in the primary market is simply the reverse of the creation process.
A creation unit is redeemed when an AP acquires the number of ETF shares specified in the
ETFs creation unit and returns the creation unit to the ETF. In return, the AP receives the daily
redemption basket of securities, cash, and/or other assets. The total value of the redemption
basket is equivalent to the value of the creation unit based on the ETFs NAV at the end of the
day on which the transaction was initiated.

EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS 63
What Is an AP?
An authorized participant (AP) is typically a large financial institution that enters into a
legal contract with an ETF distributor to create and redeem shares of the fund. In addition,
APs are U.S.-registered, self-clearing broker-dealers that can process all required trade
submission, clearance, and settlement transactions on their own account, as well as full
participating members of the National Securities Clearing Corporation and the Depository
Trust Company.

APs play a key role in the primary market for ETF shares because they are the only
investors allowed to interact directly with the fund. APs do not receive compensation
from an ETF or its sponsor and have no legal obligation to create or redeem the ETFs
shares. APs typically derive their compensation from acting as dealers in ETF shares and
create and redeem shares in the primary market when doing so is a more effective way of
managing their firms aggregate exposure than trading in the secondary market. Some APs
are clearing brokers (rather than dealers) and receive payment for processing creations
and redemptions as an agent for a wide array of market participants such as registered
investment advisers and various liquidity providers, including market makers, hedge funds,
and proprietary trading firms.

Some APs also play another role in the ETF ecosystem by acting as registered market
makers in ETF shares that trade on an exchange. Secondary market trading of ETFs,
however, does not rely solely on these APs. In fact, a host of other entities provide
liquiditytwo-sided (buy and sell) quotesin ETF shares other than APs. These other
entities also help facilitate trading of ETF shares in the secondary market. Domestic equity
ETFs have the most liquidity providers (Figure 3.4). But other types of ETFssuch as
emerging market equity, domestic high-yield bond, and emerging market bondalso have
multiple liquidity providers in the secondary market.

64 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE3.4
There Are Many ETF Liquidity Providers in the Secondary Market
December 2014

Median number of liquidity providers for an ETF1


Median number of APs that are registered market makers for an ETF2

21

17 17 17
14 14

5
4
3 3 3
2 2

All Domestic International Bond and Emerging Domestic Emerging


equity equity hybrid market high-yield market
equity bond bond
Memo

1 For the purposes of the survey, liquidity provider was defined as an entity that regularly provides two-sided quotes
in an ETFs shares.
2 A registered market maker is registered with a particular exchange to provide two-sided markets in an ETFs shares.

Source: Investment Company Institute, The Role and Activities of Authorized Participants of Exchange-Traded Funds

How ETFs Trade


The price of an ETF share on a stock exchange is influenced by the forces of supply and
demand. Though imbalances in supply and demand can cause the price of an ETF share to
deviate from its underlying value, substantial deviations tend to be short-lived for many ETFs.
Two primary features of an ETFs structure promote trading of an ETFs shares at a price that
approximates the ETFs underlying value: portfolio transparency and the ability for APs to
create or redeem ETF shares at the NAV at the end of each trading day.

Transparency of an ETFs holdingseither through full disclosure of the portfolio or through


established relationships of the components of the ETFs portfolio with published indexes,
financial or macroeconomic variables, or other indicatorsenables investors to observe and
attempt to profit from discrepancies between the ETFs share price and its underlying value
during the trading day. ETFs contract with third parties (typically market data vendors) to
calculate an estimate of an ETFs underlying value. This calculation, often called the intraday
indicative value (IIV), is based on the prior days portfolio holdings and is disseminated

EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS 65
at regular intervals during the trading day (typically every 15 seconds). Some market
participants also can make this assessment in real time using their own computer programs
and proprietary data feeds.

When there are discrepancies between an ETFs share price and the value of its underlying
securities, trading can more closely align the ETFs price and its underlying value. For
example, if an ETF is trading at a discount to its underlying value, investors may buy ETF
shares and/or sell the underlying securities. The increased demand for the ETF should
raise its share price and the sales of the underlying securities should lower their share
prices, narrowing the gap between the ETF and its underlying value. If the ETF is trading
at a premium to its underlying value, investors may choose to sell the ETF and/or buy the
underlying securities. These actions should reduce the ETF share price and/or raise the
price of the underlying securities, bringing the price of the ETF and the market value of its
underlying securities closer together.

The ability to create or redeem ETF shares at the end of each trading day also helps an ETF
trade at market prices that approximate the underlying market value of the portfolio. When
a deviation between an ETFs share price and its underlying value occurs, APs (for their
own behalf or on behalf of other market participants) may create or redeem creation units
in the primary market in an effort to capture a profit. For example, when an ETF is trading
at a discount, market participants may find it profitable to buy the ETF shares and sell
short the underlying securities. At the end of the day, APs return ETF shares to the fund in
exchange for the ETFs redemption basket, which is used to cover the short positions in the
underlying securities. When an ETF is trading at a premium, market participants may find it
profitable to sell short the ETF during the day while simultaneously buying the underlying
securities. At the end of the day, the APs (for their own behalf or on behalf of other market
participants) will deliver the creation basket to the ETF in exchange for ETF shares that are
used to cover the ETF short sales. These market participant actions, commonly described as
arbitrage opportunities, help keep the market-determined price of an ETFs shares close to its
underlying value.

Secondary Market Trading in ETF Shares


ETF investors trading in the secondary market (e.g., on an exchange) do not interact with
the ETF directly and do not create transactions in the underlying securities, because only
the ETF shares are changing hands. Although many large institutional investors can access
ETFs in both the primary and secondary markets, most retail investors only access ETFs in

66 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


the secondary market. Most ETF investors trading in the secondary market generally are not
motivated by arbitrage (i.e., the desire to make a profit from the difference between the
market price of the ETF and its underlying value). Across all ETFs, investors make greater
use of the secondary market (trading ETF shares) than the primary market (creations and
redemptions of ETF shares through an AP). On average, 89percent of the total daily activity
in ETFs occurs on the secondary market (Figure 3.5). Even for ETFs with narrower investment
objectivessuch as emerging market equity, domestic high-yield bond, and emerging market
bondthe bulk of the trading occurs on the secondary market (95 percent, 79 percent, and
74 percent, respectively). On average, secondary market trading is a smaller proportion
(77percent) of total trading for bond ETFs than for equity ETFs (90 percent). Because
bond ETFs are a growing segment of the industry, many small bond ETFs tend to have
less-established secondary markets. As they increase their assets under management, the
secondary market for bond ETFs is likely to deepen naturally.

FIGURE3.5
Most ETF Activity Occurs on the Secondary Market
Percentage of secondary market activity 1 relative to total activity; 2 daily, January 3, 2013December 31, 2015

92 95
89 90 90
77 79
74

All Equity Domestic International Bond Emerging Domestic Emerging


equity equity market high-yield market
equity bond bond

Equity Memo

1 Secondary market activity is measured as average daily dollar volume of ETF shares traded in each category over the
756 daily observations in the sample.
2 Total activity is measured as the sum of primary market and secondary market activity. Primary market activity is

computed as daily creations or redemptions for each ETF, which are estimated by multiplying the daily change in
shares outstanding by the daily NAV from Bloomberg. Aggregate daily creations and redemptions are computed by
adding creations and the absolute value of redemptions across all ETFs in each investment objective each day. Average
daily creations and redemptions are the average of the aggregate daily creations and redemptions over the 756 daily
observations in the sample.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Bloomberg

EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS 67
ETF secondary market trading also can act as a source of liquidity to the broader financial
markets. In December 2015, the high-yield bond market experienced periods of stress, as
market participants reassessed the risks of this sector and sent prices for many such bonds
tumbling. During that stressed time, high-yield bond ETFs added substantial liquidity to
the underlying high-yield bond market (Figure 3.6). At the height of the turmoil, trading in
both high-yield bonds and high-yield bond ETFs surgedthe average weekly value traded of
high-yield bond ETFs was $15.7 billion, while average weekly transaction volume in high-
yield bonds was $62.3 billion. Secondary market trading of high-yield bond ETFs added
25percent ($15.7billion/$62.3 billion) to weekly liquidity in the high-yield market during this
tumultuous period. In comparison, in the other weeks of the year, secondary market trading
of high-yield bond ETFs and transaction volume in high-yield bonds averaged $5.4 billion and
$53.0billion, respectivelymeaning that high-yield bond ETFs generally added 10percent
($5.4 billion/$53.0 billion) to liquidity in the high-yield bond market. As investors sought to
shed or gain exposure, depending on their risk appetites and expectations of future returns,
high-yield bond ETFs provided them with an efficient means of transferring risk while limiting
the impact on the underlying high-yield bond market.

FIGURE3.6
High-Yield Bond ETFs Added Liquidity to the High-Yield Bond Market
Secondary market trading; billions of dollars; weekly, 2015

High-yield bond ETFs


High-yield bonds

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Note: Data exclude high-yield bond ETFs designated as floating rate.


Sources: Investment Company Institute, Bloomberg, and FINRA TRACE

68 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Demand for ETFs
In the past decade, demand for ETFs has increased as institutional investors have found ETFs
to be a convenient vehicle for participating in, or hedging against, broad movements in the
stock market. Increased awareness of these investment vehicles by retail investors and their
financial advisers also has influenced demand for ETFs. Assets in ETFs accounted for about
12percent of total net assets managed by investment companies at year-end 2015. Net
issuance of ETF shares was at a near-record pace of $231 billion in 2015 (Figure 3.7).

FIGURE3.7
Net Issuance of ETF Shares
Billions of dollars, 20062015

Non1940 Act ETFs 1


1940 Act ETFs 2
241
231
180 2

177 185
11 9
151
9
116 118 118 243
8 3 229
210
28
74 167 176
8 142
110 115
88
66

-30 -2

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

1 The funds in this category are not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 and invest primarily in
commodities, currencies, and futures.
2 The funds in this category are registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940.

Note: Data for ETFs that invest primarily in other ETFs are excluded from the totals. Components may not add to the
total because of rounding.

EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS 69
Overall net issuance of ETF shares remained strong in 2015, despite lackluster performance
in domestic and international stock and bond markets. Global and international equity ETFs
saw net issuance of $110 billion in 2015, up substantially from $47 billion in 2014 (Figure 3.8).
Net issuance of bond and hybrid ETFs remained steady at $56 billion in 2015 compared with
$53 billion in 2014. Broad-based domestic equity ETFs had positive net issuance ($50billion)
in 2015, though at half their pace in 2014. Declines in energy prices likely tempered demand
for domestic sector equity ETFs, which had $13 billion in net share issuance, down from
$41billion in 2014. Commodity ETFs had net issuance of $2 billion in 2015, compared with
net redemptions of $1 billion in 2014.

FIGURE3.8
Net Issuance of ETF Shares by Investment Classification
Billions of dollars, 20132015

2013
2014
2015
110
99 102

63
53 56
50 47
41
34
13 13
2
-1

-30
Broad-based Domestic Global/International Bond and Commodities 3
domestic equity sector equity 1 equity hybrid 2

1 This category includes funds both registered and not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940.
2 Bond ETFs represented 98 percent of flows in the bond and hybrid category in 2015.
3 This category includes fundsboth registered and not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940that

invest primarily in commodities, currencies, and futures.


Note: Data for ETFs that invest primarily in other ETFs are excluded from the totals.

70 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


ETFs have been available for more than 20 years, and in that time, large-cap domestic equity
ETFs have accounted for the largest proportion of all ETF assets27 percent, or $561 billion,
at year-end 2015 (Figure 3.9). Strong investor demand over the past seven years has made
global/international equity ETFs the second-largest category with 23 percent ($475 billion) of
all ETF assets. Bond and hybrid ETFs accounted for 16 percent ($344 billion) of all ETF assets.

FIGURE3.9
Total Net Assets of ETFs Were Concentrated in Large-Cap Domestic Stocks
Billions of dollars, year-end 2015

561

317 344
267
196
111 98 113
44 49

Large-cap Mid-cap Small-cap Other Domestic Global International 1 Emerging Bond Commodities 3
sector markets and
equity hybrid 2

Broad-based domestic equity Global/International


equity

1 This category includes international, regional, and single country ETFs.


2 Bond ETFs represented 99 percent of the assets in the bond and hybrid category in 2015.
3 This category includes fundsboth registered and not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940that

invest primarily in commodities, currencies, and futures.


Note: Data for ETFs that invest primarily in other ETFs are excluded from the totals.

EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS 71
Increased investor demand for ETFs led to a rapid increase in the number of ETFs created by
fund sponsors in the past decade (Figure 3.10). In the past decade, 1,817 ETFs were created
the peak years came in 2007, with 269 new funds, and 2015, with 258 new funds. Few
ETFs had been liquidated until 2008 when market pressures appeared and sponsors began
liquidating ETFs that had failed to gather sufficient assets. Liquidations occurred primarily
among ETFs tracking virtually identical indexes, those focusing on specialty or niche indexes,
or those using alternative weighting methodologies. In 2012, the number of ETF liquidations
jumped to 81 as two sponsors exited the index-based ETF market. In 2015, ETF liquidations
rose to 75, as several sponsors eliminated some small domestic equity and bond ETFs from
their lineups.

FIGURE3.10
Number of ETFs Entering and Leaving the Industry
20062015

Created
Liquidated/Merged

269
258
226

179 176
156 148 141 144
120

81 75
50 51 59
49 46
15
1 0
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Note: ETF data include ETFs not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 but exclude ETFs that invest
primarily in other ETFs.

72 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Characteristics of ETF-Owning Households
An estimated 6.2 million, or 5 percent of, U.S. households held ETFs in mid-2015. Of
households that owned mutual funds, an estimated 10 percent also owned ETFs. ETF-
owning households tended to include affluent investors who owned a range of equity and
fixed-income investments. In mid-2015, 93 percent of ETF-owning households also owned
equity mutual funds, individual stocks, or variable annuities (Figure 3.11). Sixty-two percent
of households that owned ETFs also held bond mutual funds, bonds, or fixed annuities. In
addition, 42 percent of ETF owning households owned investment real estate.

FIGURE3.11
ETF-Owning Households Held a Broad Range of Investments
Percentage of ETF-owning households holding each type of investment, mid-2015

Equity mutual funds, individual stocks, or variable annuities (total) 93


Bond mutual funds, individual bonds, or fixed annuities (total) 62
Mutual funds (total) 90
Equity 88
Bond 50
Hybrid 45
Money market 58
Individual stocks 71
Individual bonds 24
Fixed or variable annuities 29
Investment real estate 42

Note: Multiple responses are included.

Some characteristics of retail ETF owners are similar to those of households that own mutual
funds and those that own stocks directly. For instance, households that owned ETFslike
households owning mutual funds and those owning individual stockstended to have
household incomes above the national median and to own at least one defined contribution
(DC) retirement plan account (Figure 3.12). ETF-owning households, however, also exhibit
some characteristics that distinguish them from other households. For example, ETF-owning
households tended to have higher education levels and greater household financial assets;
they also were more likely to own an individual retirement account (IRA) than households that
own mutual funds and those that own individual stocks.

EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS 73
FIGURE3.12
Characteristics of ETF-Owning Households
Mid-2015

Households Households
Households owning owning
All U.S. owning mutual individual
households ETFs funds stocks

Median
Age of head of household1 51 51 51 52
Household income 2 $50,500 $110,000 $87,500 $100,000
Household financial assets 3 $75,000 $375,000 $200,000 $300,000

Percentage of households
Household primary or co-decisionmaker for saving and investing
Married or living with a partner 58 75 71 69
Widowed 9 5 6 8
Four-year college degree or more 32 65 51 54
Employed (full- or part-time) 59 71 71 69
Retired from lifetime occupation 28 27 26 29
Household owns
IRA(s) 32 75 61 62
DC retirement plan account(s) 46 74 84 69

1 Age is based on the sole or co-decisionmaker for household saving and investing.
2 Total reported is household income before taxes in 2014.
3 Household financial assets include assets in employer-sponsored retirement plans but exclude the households primary

residence.

ETF-owning households also exhibit more willingness to take investment risk (Figure 3.13).
Fifty-three percent of ETF-owning households were willing to take substantial or above-
average investment risk for substantial or above-average gain in 2015, compared with
21percent of all U.S. households and 31 percent of mutual fundowning households. This
result may be explained by the predominance of equity ETFs, which make up 81 percent of
ETF total net assets (Figure 3.9). Investors who are more willing to take investment risk may
be more likely to invest in equities.

74 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE3.13
ETF-Owning Households Are Willing to Take More Investment Risk
Percentage of all U.S. households, mutual fundowning households, and ETF-owning households, mid-2015

Level of risk willing to take with financial investments


Substantial risk for substantial gain
Above-average risk for above-average gain
Average risk for average gain
Below-average risk for below-average gain
Unwilling to take any risk

6 6 13
15 21%
25 31%
53%
40
33

47
9
38
37 10
12 4
5
All U.S. households Mutual fundowning households ETF-owning households

For More Information


Exchange-Traded Funds Resource Center
www.ici.org/etf_resources
The Creation and Redemption Process and Why It Matters
www.ici.org/viewpoints/view_12_etfbasics_creation
Understanding Exchange-Traded Funds: How ETFs Work
www.ici.org/perspective
The Role and Activities of Authorized Participants of Exchange-Traded Funds
www.ici.org/research/reports
High-Yield Bond ETFs: A Source of Liquidity
www.ici.org/viewpoints/view_15_hybf_etf
U.S. Bond ETFs Resilient on August 24
www.ici.org/viewpoints/view_15_aug24_bond_etfs
Does Liquidity in ETFs Depend Solely on Authorized Participants?
www.ici.org/viewpoints/view_15_aps_etfs
Plenty of Players Provide Liquidity for ETFs
www.ici.org/viewpoints/view_14_ft_etf_liquidity
ETFs Dont Move the MarketInformation Does
www.ici.org/viewpoints/view_14_bond_etfs

EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS 75
CHAPTER FOUR

Closed-End
Funds

Closed-end funds are one of four types of investment companies, along with mutual
(or open-end) funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and unit investment trusts.
Closed-end funds generally issue a fixed number of shares that are listed on a stock
exchange or traded in the over-the-counter market. The assets of a closed-end fund
are professionally managed in accordance with the funds investment objectives and
policies, and may be invested in stocks, bonds, and other securities.
This chapter describes recent closed-end fund developments in the United States and provides a profile
of the U.S. households that own them.

What Is a Closed-End Fund?.. ........................................................................................................................78


Total Assets of Closed-End Funds................................................................................................................79
Net Issuance of Closed-End Funds...............................................................................................................81
Closed-End Fund Distributions.....................................................................................................................82
Closed-End Fund Leverage............................................................................................................................83
Characteristics of Households Owning Closed-End Funds........................................................................86

What Is a Closed-End Fund?


A closed-end fund is a type of investment company whose shares are listed on a stock
exchange or traded in the over-the-counter market. The assets of a closed-end fund are
professionally managed in accordance with the funds investment objectives and policies, and
may be invested in equities, bonds, and other securities. The market price of a closed-end
fund share fluctuates like that of other publicly traded securities and is determined by supply
and demand in the marketplace.

A closed-end fund is created by issuing a fixed number of common shares to investors during
an initial public offering. Subsequent issuance of common shares can occur through secondary
or follow-on offerings, at-the-market offerings, rights offerings, or dividend reinvestments.
Closed-end funds also are permitted to issue one class of preferred shares in addition to
common shares. Preferred shares differ from common shares in that preferred shareholders
are paid dividends but do not share in the gains and losses of the fund. Issuing preferred
shares allows a closed-end fund to raise additional capital, which it can use to purchase more
securities for its portfolio.

Once issued, shares of a closed-end fund generally are bought and sold by investors in
the open market and are not purchased or redeemed directly by the fund, although some
closed-end funds may adopt stock repurchase programs or periodically tender for shares.
Because a closed-end fund does not need to maintain cash reserves or sell securities to
meet redemptions, the fund has the flexibility to invest in less-liquid portfolio securities. For
example, a closed-end fund may invest in securities of very small companies, municipal bonds
that are not widely traded, or securities traded in countries that do not have fully developed
securities markets.

78 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Total Assets of Closed-End Funds
At year-end 2015, 558 closed-end funds had total assets of $261 billion (Figure 4.1). The
number of closed-end funds available to investors remains below its peak of 662 at the end
of 2007 due to the effects of mergers, liquidations, and conversions. Total assets at year-
end 2015 were down 10 percent ($28 billion) from year-end 2014 and remain below the
2007 peak of $312 billion. Several factors have limited the growth in both the assets and the
number of closed-end funds in recent years. First, fewer closed-end funds launched in 2015
than in recent years. Second, several closed-end funds have repurchased shares through
tender offers over the past few years, reducing the number of outstanding shares and the size
of assets under management. Third, a few closed-end funds have liquidated each year and
others have converted into open-end mutual funds or exchange-traded funds (ETFs). Finally,
closed-end fund preferred share assets declined during the financial crisis of 20072009.

FIGURE4.1
Total Assets of Closed-End Funds Were $261 Billion at Year-End 2015
Billions of dollars; year-end, 20052015

312
297 289
276 279
264 261
238 242
223
184

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Number of closed-end funds


634 645 662 642 627 624 632 602 599 568 558

Source: ICI Research Perspective, The Closed-End Fund Market, 2015

CLOSED-END FUNDS 79
Historically, bond funds have accounted for a large share of assets in closed-end funds. At
year-end 2000, 74 percent of all closed-end fund assets were held in bond funds with the
remainder held in equity funds (Figure 4.2). At year-end 2015, assets in bond closed-end
funds were $161 billion, or 62 percent of closed-end fund assets. Equity closed-end fund
assets totaled $100 billion, or 38 percent of closed-end fund assets. These relative shares
have shifted, in part because cumulative net issuance of equity closed-end fund shares has
exceeded that of bond fund shares over the past nine years. In addition, total returns on
U.S. stocks* averaged 5.6 percent annually from year-end 2000 to year-end 2015, while total
returns on bonds averaged 5.0 percent annually.

FIGURE4.2
Equity Funds Growing Share of the Closed-End Fund Market
Percentage of closed-end fund total assets, year-end 2000 and 2015

7%
Global/International bond
17%
Domestic equity

8%
48% Global/International equity
Domestic municipal bond
20%
Domestic taxable bond

2000 total assets: $143 billion

8%
Global/International bond
28%
Domestic equity

34%
Domestic municipal bond
11%
Global/International equity

20%
Domestic taxable bond
2015 total assets: $261 billion

Note: Components may not add to 100percent because of rounding.


Source: ICI Research Perspective, The Closed-End Fund Market, 2015

* As measured by the Wilshire 5000 Total Return Index (float-adjusted).


As measured by the Citigroup Broad Investment Grade Bond Index.

80 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Net Issuance of Closed-End Funds
Net issuance of closed-end fund shares decreased to $1.7 billion in 2015 from $4.9 billion in
2014, as investor demand for equity closed-end funds waned (Figure 4.3). Net issuance of
equity closed-end funds fell to $1.2 billion in 2015 from $4.3 billion in 2014, and demand for
bond closed-end funds edged down to $486 million from $578 million in 2014. For the first
time since 2007, net issuance of global/international equity closed-end funds accounted for
the bulk of the equity fund net issuance.

FIGURE4.3
Closed-End Fund Net Share Issuance1
Millions of dollars, 20072015 2

Equity Bond
Global/ Domestic Domestic Global/
Total Total Domestic International Total taxable municipal International

2007 $28,369 $24,608 $4,949 $19,659 $3,761 $1,966 -$880 $2,675


2008 -22,298 -8,739 -7,052 -1,687 -13,560 -6,770 -6,089 -700
2009 -3,259 -2,520 -2,366 -154 -739 -788 -238 287
2010 5,430 2,054 1,995 59 3,376 1,900 1,119 357
2011 6,018 4,466 3,206 1,260 1,551 724 825 2
2012 11,385 2,953 2,840 113 8,432 3,249 3,102 2,081
2013 13,677 3,554 4,097 -543 10,123 3,921 -220 6,423
2014 4,891 4,314 3,819 494 578 266 523 -212
2015 1,676 1,190 148 1,043 486 678 -87 -104

1 Net share issuance is the dollar value of gross issuance (proceeds from initial and additional public offerings of shares)
minus gross redemptions of shares (share repurchases and fund liquidations). A positive number indicates that
gross issuance exceeded gross redemptions. A negative number indicates that gross redemptions exceeded gross
issuance.
2 Data are not available for years prior to 2007.

Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.


Source: ICI Research Perspective, The Closed-End Fund Market, 2015

CLOSED-END FUNDS 81
Closed-End Fund Distributions
In 2015, closed-end funds distributed $16.8 billion to shareholders (Figure 4.4). Closed-end
funds may make distributions to shareholders from three possible sources: income from
interest and dividends, realized capital gains, and return of capital. Income from interest and
dividends made up 69 percent of closed-end fund distributions, with the majority of income
distributions paid by bond closed-end funds. Return of capital comprised 17 percent of
closed-end fund distributions, and capital gains distributions accounted for 13 percent.

FIGURE4.4
Closed-End Fund Distributions
Percentage of closed-end fund distributions, 2015

17%
Return of capital

13%
Capital gains distributions
69%
Income distributions*

Total closed-end fund distributions: $16.8 billion

* Income distributions include payments from interest and dividends.


Note: Components do not add to 100percent because of rounding.
Source: ICI Research Perspective, The Closed-End Fund Market, 2015

82 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Closed-End Fund Leverage
Closed-end funds have the ability, subject to strict regulatory limits, to use leverage as part
of their investment strategy. The use of leverage by a closed-end fund can allow it to achieve
higher long-term returns, but also increases risk and the likelihood of share price volatility.
Closed-end fund leverage can be classified as either structural leverage or portfolio leverage.
At year-end 2015, at least 365 funds, accounting for 65 percent of closed-end funds, were
using structural leverage, certain types of portfolio leverage (tender option bonds or reverse
repurchase agreements), or both as a part of their investment strategy (Figure 4.5).

FIGURE4.5
Closed-End Funds Are Employing Structural and Certain Types of Portfolio Leverage
Number of funds; end of period, 20122014, 2015:Q12015:Q4

Total 1
Structural 2
Portfolio 3

402 397
360 371 371 367 363 365
343
319 320 317 316 316

219 215
195 194 187 181 183

2012 2013 2014 2015:Q1 2015:Q2 2015:Q3 2015:Q4

1 Components do not add to the total because funds may employ both structural and portfolio leverage.
2 Structural leverage affects the closed-end funds capital structure by increasing the funds portfolio assets through
borrowing and issuing debt and preferred stock.
3 Portfolio leverage results from particular types of portfolio investments, including certain types of derivatives, reverse

repurchase agreements, tender option bonds, and other investments or types of transactions. Data are only available
for reverse repurchase agreements and tender option bonds. Given data collection constraints, and the continuing
development of types of investments/transactions with a leverage characteristic (and the use of different definitions
of leverage), actual portfolio leverage may be materially different from what is reflected above.
Source: ICI Research Perspective, The Closed-End Fund Market, 2015

CLOSED-END FUNDS 83
Structural leverage, the most common type of leverage, affects the closed-end funds capital
structure by increasing the funds portfolio assets. Types of closed-end fund structural
leverage include borrowing and issuing debt and preferred shares. At the end of 2015,
316 funds had a total of $49.3 billion in structural leverage, with a little more than half
(54percent) of those assets from preferred shares (Figure 4.6). Forty-six percent of closed-
end fund structural leverage was other structural leverage. The average leverage ratio* across
those closed-end funds employing structural leverage was 26.0 percent at year-end 2015.
Among closed-end funds employing structural leverage, the average leverage ratio for bond
funds was somewhat higher (27.3 percent) than that of equity funds (22.0 percent).

FIGURE4.6
Preferred Shares Comprised the Majority of Closed-End Fund Structural Leverage
Percentage of closed-end fund structural leverage, year-end 2015

54% 46%
Preferred shares 1 Other structural leverage 2

Total closed-end fund structural leverage: $49.3 billion

1 A closed-end fund may issue preferred shares to raise additional capital, which can be used to purchase more securities
for its portfolio. Preferred stock differs from common stock in that preferred shareholders are paid income and capital
gains distributions, but do not share in the gains and losses in the value of the funds shares.
2 Other structural leverage includes bank borrowing and other forms of debt.

Source: ICI Research Perspective, The Closed-End Fund Market, 2015

* The leverage ratio is the ratio of the amount of preferred shares and other structural leverage to the sum of the amount of
common assets, preferred shares, and other structural leverage.

84 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Portfolio leverage results from particular portfolio investments, such as certain types of
derivatives, reverse repurchase agreements, and tender option bonds. At the end of 2015,
183 closed-end funds had $18.9 billion outstanding in reverse repurchase agreements and
tender option bonds (Figure 4.7).

FIGURE4.7
Use of Portfolio Leverage
Billions of dollars; end of period, 20122014, 2015:Q12015:Q4

Reverse repurchase agreements


Tender option bonds

10.8 10.7
10.3
9.8 10.2 10.0 9.7 9.9
9.0 8.9 8.7 9.0

7.1
6.3

2012 2013 2014 2015:Q1 2015:Q2 2015:Q3 2015:Q4

Note: Portfolio leverage results from particular types of portfolio investments, including certain types of derivatives,
reverse repurchase agreements, tender option bonds, and other investments or types of transactions. Data are only
available for reverse repurchase agreements and tender option bonds. Given data collection constraints, and the
continuing development of types of investments/transactions with a leverage characteristic (and the use of different
definitions of leverage), actual portfolio leverage may be materially different from what is reflected above.
Source: ICI Research Perspective, The Closed-End Fund Market, 2015

CLOSED-END FUNDS 85
Characteristics of Households Owning Closed-End Funds
An estimated 3.4 million U.S. households owned closed-end funds in 2015. These households
tended to include affluent investors who owned a range of equity and fixed-income
investments. In 2015, 92 percent of households owning closed-end funds also owned equity
mutual funds, individual stocks, or variable annuities (Figure4.8). Seventy-three percent
of households that owned closed-end funds also held bonds, bond mutual funds, or fixed
annuities. In addition, 51 percent of these households owned investment real estate.

Because a large number of households that owned closed-end funds also owned stocks and
mutual funds, the characteristics of closed-end fund owners were similar in many respects
to those of stock and mutual fund owners. For instance, households that owned closed-end
funds (like stock- and mutual fundowning households) tended to be headed by college-
educated individuals and had household incomes above the national median (Figure 4.9).

Nonetheless, households that owned closed-end funds exhibited certain characteristics


distinguishing them from mutual fundowning households. For example, households
with closed-end funds tended to have greater household financial assets (Figure 4.9).
Also, 39percent of households owning closed-end funds were retired from their lifetime
occupations, making them more likely to be retired than households owning mutual funds.

FIGURE4.8
Closed-End Fund Investors Owned a Broad Range of Investments
Percentage of closed-end fundowning households holding each type of investment, mid-2015

Equity mutual funds, individual stocks, or variable annuities (total) 92


Bond mutual funds, individual bonds, or fixed annuities (total) 73
Mutual funds (total) 83
Equity 78
Bond 54
Hybrid 51
Money market 61
Individual stocks 72
Individual bonds 39
Fixed or variable annuities 42
Investment real estate 51

Note: Multiple responses are included.


Source: ICI Research Perspective, The Closed-End Fund Market, 2015

86 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE4.9
Closed-End Fund Investors Had Above-Average Household Incomes and
Financial Assets
Mid-2015

Households Households Households


owning owning owning
All U.S. closed-end mutual individual
households funds funds stocks

Median
Age of head of household 1 51 53 51 52
Household income 2 $50,500 $87,500 $87,500 $100,000
Household financial assets 3 $75,000 $250,000 $200,000 $300,000

Percentage of households
Household primary or co-decisionmaker for saving and investing
Married or living with a partner 58 66 71 69
Widowed 9 6 6 8
Four-year college degree or more 32 53 51 54
Employed (full- or part-time) 59 68 71 69
Retired from lifetime occupation 28 39 26 29
Household owns
IRA(s) 32 63 61 62
DC retirement plan account(s) 46 69 84 69

1 Age is based on the sole or co-decisionmaker for household saving and investing.
2 Total reported is household income before taxes in 2014.
3 Household financial assets include assets in employer-sponsored retirement plans but exclude the households primary

residence.
Source: ICI Research Perspective, The Closed-End Fund Market, 2015

For More Information


Closed-End Fund Resource Center
www.ici.org/cef
The Closed-End Fund Market, 2015
www.ici.org/perspective
A Guide to Closed-End Funds
www.ici.org/cef/background/bro_g2_ce
Frequently Asked Questions About Closed-End Funds and Their Use of Leverage
www.ici.org/cef/background/faqs_closed_end

CLOSED-END FUNDS 87
CHAPTER FIVE

Mutual Fund
Expenses and
Fees

Mutual funds provide investors with many investment-related services, and for
those services investors incur two primary types of expenses and fees: ongoing
expenses and sales loads. Average expenses paid by mutual fund investors have
fallen substantially over time. For example, on an asset-weighted basis, average
expense ratios for equity funds fell from 99 basis points in 2000 to 68 basis points
in 2015, a 31 percent decline.
Mutual fund investors, like investors in all financial products, pay for the services they receive. This chapter
provides an overview of mutual fund expenses and fees.

Trends in Mutual Fund Expenses. . .................................................................................................................... 90


Understanding the Decline in Fund Expense Ratios. . ............................................................................. 92
Understanding Differences in the Expense Ratios of Mutual Funds..................................................... 98
Mutual Fund Load Fees.. .................................................................................................................................. 102
Services and Expenses in 401(k) Plans. . ....................................................................................................... 106

Trends in Mutual Fund Expenses


Mutual fund investors incur two primary types of expenses and fees: ongoing expenses and
sales loads. Ongoing expenses cover portfolio management, fund administration, daily fund
accounting and pricing, shareholder services (such as call centers and websites), distribution
charges (known as 12b-1 fees), and other operating costs. These expenses are included in
a funds expense ratiothe funds annual expenses expressed as a percentage of its assets.
Because expenses are paid from fund assets, investors pay these expenses indirectly. Sales
loads are paid at the time of share purchase (front-end loads), when shares are redeemed
(back-end loads), or over time (level loads).

On an asset-weighted basis, average expense ratios* incurred by mutual fund investors have
fallen substantially (Figure 5.1). In 2000, equity fund investors incurred expense ratios of
99basis points, on average, or 99 cents for every $100 invested. By 2015, that average
had fallen to 68basis points, a decline of 31 percent. Hybrid and bond fund expense ratios
also have declined. The average hybrid fund expense ratio fell from 89basis points in 2000
to 77basis points in 2015, a reduction of 13 percent. In addition, the average bond fund
expense ratio fell from 76 basis points in 2000 to 54 basis points in 2015, a decline of
29 percent.

* In this chapter, unless otherwise noted, average expense ratios are calculated on an asset-weighted basis, which gives more
weight to funds with greater assets. It reflects where investors are actually putting their assets, and thus better reflects the
actual expenses, fees, or performance experienced by investors than does a simple average (weighting each fund or share
class equally). ICIs fee research uses asset-weighted averages to summarize the expenses and fees that shareholders pay
through mutual funds. In this context, asset-weighted averages are preferable to simple averages, which would overstate the
expenses and fees of funds in which investors hold few dollars. ICI weights each funds expense ratio by its year-end assets.
Basis points simplify percentages written in decimal form. A basis point equals one-hundredth of 1 percent (0.01 percent), so
100 basis points equals 1 percentage point. When applied to $1.00, 1 basis point equals $0.0001; 100 basis points equals one
cent ($0.01).

90 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE5.1
Expense Ratios Incurred by Mutual Fund Investors Have Declined Substantially
Since 2000
Basis points, 20002015

Equity funds

99 99 100 100 95 91 88 86 87
83 83 79 77 74 70 68

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Hybrid funds

89 89 89 90 85 81 84 82 80 79 80
78 77 77 78 77

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Bond funds

76 75 74 75 72 69 67 64 64
61 63 62 61 61 57 54

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Note: Expense ratios are measured as asset-weighted averages. Data exclude mutual funds available as investment choices
in variable annuities and mutual funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Lipper

MUTUAL FUND EXPENSES AND FEES 91


Understanding the Decline in Fund Expense Ratios
Several factors help account for the steep drop in expense ratios. First, expense ratios often
vary inversely with fund assets. Some fund costs included in expense ratiossuch as transfer
agency fees, accounting and audit fees, and directors feesare more or less fixed in dollar
terms. That means that when a funds assets rise, these costs contribute less to a funds
expense ratio. Thus, if the assets of a fixed sample of funds rise over time, the samples
average expense ratio tends to fall (Figure 5.2).

Another factor in the decline of the average expense ratios of long-term funds is the shift
toward no-load share classes,* particularly institutional no-load share classes, which tend to
have below-average expense ratios. In part, this shift reflects a change in how investors pay
for services from brokers and other financial professionals (see Mutual Fund Load Fees on
page 102).

FIGURE5.2
Mutual Fund Expense Ratios Tend to Fall as Fund Assets Rise
Share classes of domestic equity mutual funds continuously in existence since 20001

Basis points Billions of dollars


100 2,500
Total net assets
2,287 2,330
1,961 2,203
2,072 2,122 2,056
95 Average expense
ratio 2 2,000
1,848 1,733
1,631 1,706 1,669
90 1,623 1,578
1,500
1,263 1,294
85

1,000
80

500
75

70 0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

1 Calculationsare based on a fixed sample of share classes. Data exclude mutual funds available as investment choices in
variable annuities and mutual funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds.
2 Expense ratios are measured as asset-weighted averages.

Sources: Investment Company Institute and Lipper

* See page 101 for a description of no-load share classes.

92 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Mutual fund expense ratios also have fallen because of economies of scale and competition.
Investor demand for mutual fund services has increased dramatically in recent years. From
1990 to 2015, the number of households owning mutual funds more than doubledfrom
23.4 million to 53.6 million. All else equal, this sharp increase in demand would tend to boost
fund expense ratios. Any such tendency, however, was mitigated by downward pressure on
expense ratiosfrom competition among existing fund sponsors, new fund sponsors entering
the industry, competition from products such as exchange-traded funds (ETFs) (see chapter
3), and economies of scale resulting from the growth in fund assets.

Finally, shareholders tend to invest in funds with below-average expense ratios (Figure5.3).
The simple average expense ratio of equity funds (the average for all equity funds offered for
sale) was 131 basis points in 2015. The asset-weighted average expense ratio for equity funds
(the average shareholders actually paid) was far lowerjust 68 basis points.

FIGURE5.3
Fund Shareholders Paid Below-Average Expense Ratios for Equity Funds
Basis points, 20002015

Simple average expense ratio


Asset-weighted average expense ratio

160 165 166 168 159 154 151 150


146 146 146 142 140 136 133 131
99 99 100 100 95 91 88 86 87
83 83 79 77 74 70 68

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Note: Data exclude mutual funds available as investment choices in variable annuities and mutual funds that invest primarily
in other mutual funds.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Lipper

160FUND165
MUTUAL 166 AND168
EXPENSES FEES 159 93
154 151 146 146 150 146 142 140 136 133
Another way to illustrate this tendency is to examine how investors allocate their assets
across funds. At year-end 2015, equity funds with expense ratios in the lowest quartile held
74 percent of equity funds total net assets, while those with expense ratios in the upper three
quartiles held only 26 percent (Figure 5.4). This pattern holds for actively managed equity
funds, index equity funds, and target date funds (funds that adjust their portfolios, typically
toward fixed income, as the fund approaches and passes its target date). Index equity funds
with expense ratios in the lowest quartile held 77 percent of index equity fund assets at year-
end 2015.

FIGURE5.4
Assets Are Concentrated in Lower-Cost Funds
Percentage of total net assets, 2015

Funds with expense ratios in the upper three quartiles


Funds with expense ratios in the lowest quartile
77
74
69
61

39
31
26
23

All equity funds 1 Actively managed Index equity funds 1 Target date funds 2
equity funds 1

1 Data exclude mutual funds available as investment choices in variable annuities and mutual funds that invest primarily in
other mutual funds.
2 Data include mutual funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds, but exclude mutual funds available as investment

choices in variable annuities. Ninety-seven percent of these funds invest primarily in other mutual funds.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Lipper

94 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Index Mutual Fund Expenses
Growth in index mutual funds has contributed to the decline in equity and bond fund
expense ratios.* Index fund assets have grown substantially in recent years, from
$327billion in 2002 to $2.2 trillion in 2015 (Figure 5.5). Investor demand for index bond
funds and index hybrid funds has grown in the past few years, but as of December 2015,
81percent of index fund assets were invested in index equity funds.

Index funds tend to have lower-than-average expense ratios for several reasons. The first
is their approach to portfolio management. An index fund generally seeks to mimic the
returns on a given index. Under this approach, often referred to as passive management,
portfolio managers buy and hold all, or a representative sample of, the securities in their
target indexes.

FIGURE5.5
Total Net Assets and Number of Index Mutual Funds Have Increased in Recent
Years
Billions of dollars, 20022015

Total net assets of index bond funds and index hybrid funds 2,207
Total net assets of index equity funds 2,054
418
1,734 373

305
1,311
1,094 281
1,017
855 835 193 238
747 1,681 1,790
107 158 1,429
554 619 83 619
455 71 121 1,031
60 856
327 51 748 824
46 404 548 665 678
494 499
281
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Number of index funds


313 321 328 322 343 354 360 357 365 382 372 371 383 406

Note: Data exclude mutual funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds. Components may not add to the total
because of rounding.

* Unless otherwise noted, the discussion and figures in this section exclude exchange-traded funds (ETFs), which are
examined separately in chapter 3.

MUTUAL FUND EXPENSES AND FEES 95


By contrast, under an active management approach, managers have discretion to increase
or reduce their exposure to the sectors or securities in their investment mandates. This
approach offers investors the chance to enjoy superior returns. It also, however, entails
more-intensive analysis of securities or sectors, which can be costly.

A second reason index funds tend to have below-average expense ratios is their
investment focus. Historically, the assets of index equity funds have been concentrated
most heavily in large-cap blend funds that target U.S. large-cap indexes, notably the
S&P 500. Assets of actively managed funds, on the other hand, have been divided among
stocks of varying levels of market capitalization, international regions, or specialized
business sectors. Managing portfolios of mid- or small-cap, international, or sector stocks
is generally acknowledged to be more expensive than managing portfolios of U.S. large-
cap stocks.

Third, index funds are larger on average than actively managed funds, which helps
reduce fund expense ratios through economies of scale. In 2015, the average index equity
fund had $5.1 billion in assets, more than triple the $1.4 billion for the average actively
managed equity fund.

Finally, index fund investors who hire financial professionals might pay for that service
out of pocket, rather than through the funds expense ratio. Actively managed funds more
frequently bundle those costs in the funds expense ratio, through a 12b-1 fee.

These reasons, among others, help explain why index funds generally have lower expense
ratios than actively managed funds. Note, however, that both index and actively managed
funds have contributed to the decline in mutual funds overall average expense ratios
shown in Figure 5.1. The average expense ratios incurred by investors in both index and
actively managed funds have fallenand by similar amounts. From 2000 to 2015, the
average expense ratio of index equity funds fell 16 basis points, similar to the decline of
22 basis points in the expenses of actively managed equity funds (Figure 5.6). Over the
same period, the average expense ratio of index bond funds and actively managed bond
funds fell 11 basis points and 18 basis points, respectively.

96 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE5.6
Expense Ratios of Actively Managed and Index Funds
Basis points, 20002015

120 Actively managed equity funds


106
100
Actively managed bond funds 84
78
80

60
60

40 Index equity funds


27
20 11
21
Index bond funds 10
0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Note: Expense ratios are measured as asset-weighted averages. Data exclude mutual funds available as investment
choices in variable annuities and mutual funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Lipper

In part, the downward trend in the average expense ratios of both index and actively
managed funds reflects investors tendency to buy lower-cost funds. Investor demand for
index funds is concentrated in the very lowest-cost funds. In 2015, for example, 69percent
of index equity fund assets were held in funds with expense ratios that were among the
lowest 10 percent of all index equity funds. This phenomenon is not unique to index funds,
however; the proportion of assets in the lowest-cost actively managed funds is also high.

MUTUAL FUND EXPENSES AND FEES 97


Understanding Differences in the Expense Ratios of Mutual Funds
Like the prices of most goods and services, the expense ratios of individual mutual funds
differ considerably across the array of available products. The expense ratios of individual
funds depend on many factors, including investment objective, fund assets, and payments
to intermediaries.

Fund Investment Objective


Fund expense ratios vary by investment objective (Figure 5.7). For example, bond and money
market funds tend to have lower expense ratios than equity funds. Among equity funds,
expense ratios tend to be higher for funds that specialize in a given sectorsuch as healthcare
or real estateor those that invest in equities around the world, because such funds tend
to cost more to manage. Even within a particular investment objective, fund expense ratios
can vary considerably. For example, 10 percent of equity funds that focus on growth stocks
have expense ratios of 74 basis points or less, while the top 10 percent have expense ratios
of 199basis points or more. This variation reflects, among other things, the fact that some
growth funds focus more on small- or mid-cap stocks and others focus more on large-cap
stocks. This is important because portfolios of small- and mid-cap stocks tend to cost more
to manage.

98 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE5.7
Expense Ratios for Selected Investment Objectives
Basis points, 2015

10th 90th Asset-weighted Simple


Investment objective percentile Median percentile average average

Equity funds 1 71 124 205 68 131


Growth 74 119 199 81 126
Sector 78 135 215 78 140
Value 71 115 194 77 123
Blend 45 105 188 44 109
World 85 135 218 82 143
Hybrid funds 1 70 123 206 77 134
Bond funds 1 48 85 165 54 97
Taxable 46 89 170 54 98
Municipal 50 79 158 55 93
Money market funds 1 5 9 21 13 11
Memo:
Target date funds 2 45 90 153 55 94
Index equity funds 1 8 45 158 11 71

1 Data exclude mutual funds available as investment choices in variable annuities and mutual funds that invest primarily in
other mutual funds.
2 Data include mutual funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds, but exclude mutual funds available as investment

choices in variable annuities. Ninety-seven percent of these funds invest primarily in other mutual funds.
Note: Data include index mutual funds but exclude exchange-traded funds.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Lipper

MUTUAL FUND EXPENSES AND FEES 99


Mutual Fund Fee Structures
Mutual funds often are categorized by the class of shares that fund sponsors offer,
primarily load or no-load classes. Load classes generally serve investors who buy shares
through financial professionals; no-load classes usually serve investors who buy shares
without the assistance of a financial professional or who choose to compensate their
financial professional separately. Funds sold through financial professionals typically offer
more than one share class in order to provide investors with alternative ways to pay for
financial services.

12b-1 Fees
Since 1980, when the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission adopted Rule 12b-1
under the Investment Company Act of 1940, funds and their shareholders have had the
flexibility to compensate financial professionals and other financial intermediaries through
asset-based fees. These distribution fees, known as 12b-1 fees, enable investors to pay
indirectly for some or all of the services they receive from financial professionals (such
as their broker) and other financial intermediaries (such as retirement plan recordkeepers
and discount brokerage firms). Funds also use 12b-1 fees to a very limited extent to help
defray advertising and marketing costs.

Load Share Classes


Load share classes include a sales load, a 12b-1 fee, or both. Sales loads and 12b-1 fees
are used to compensate brokers and other financial professionals for their services.

Front-end load shares, which are predominantly Class A shares, were the traditional
way investors compensated financial professionals for assistance. These shares generally
charge a sales loada percentage of the sales price or offering priceat the time of
purchase. They also generally have a 12b-1 fee, often 0.25 percent (25 basis points). Front-
end load shares are used in employer-sponsored retirement plans sometimes, but fund
sponsors typically waive the sales load for purchases made through such retirement plans.
Additionally, front-end load fees often decline as the size of an investors initial purchase
rises (called breakpoint discounts), and many fund providers offer discounted load fees
when an investor has total balances exceeding a given amount in that providers funds.

100 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Back-end load shares, often called Class B shares, typically do not have a front-end load.
Investors using back-end load shares pay for services provided by financial professionals
through a combination of an annual 12b-1 fee and a contingent deferred sales load
(CDSL). The CDSL is paid if fund shares are redeemed before a given number of years of
ownership. Back-end load shares usually convert after a specified number of years to a
share class with a lower 12b-1 fee (for example, Class A shares). The assets in back-end
load shares have declined substantially in recent years.

Level-load shares, which include Class C shares, generally do not have front-end loads.
Investors in this share class compensate financial advisers with an annual 12b-1 fee
(typically 1 percent) and a CDSL (also typically 1 percent) that shareholders pay if they
sell their shares within a year of purchase.

No-Load Share Classes


No-load share classes have no front-end load or CDSL, and have a 12b-1 fee of
0.25percent (25 basis points) or less. Originally, no-load share classes were sold directly
by mutual fund sponsors to investors. Now, investors can purchase no-load funds
through employer-sponsored retirement plans, discount brokerage firms, and bank trust
departments, as well as directly from mutual fund sponsors. Some financial professionals
who charge investors separately for their services, rather than through a load or 12b-1 fee,
help investors select a portfolio of no-load funds.

MUTUAL FUND EXPENSES AND FEES 101


Mutual Fund Load Fees
Many mutual fund investors engage an investment professional, such as a broker, an
investment adviser, or a financial planner. Among households owning mutual fund shares
outside employer-sponsored retirement plans, 78 percent own fund shares through
investment professionals (Figure 6.10). These professionals can provide many benefits
to investors, such as helping them identify financial goals, analyzing an existing financial
portfolio, determining an appropriate asset allocation, and (depending on the type of financial
professional) providing investment advice or recommendations to help investors achieve
their financial goals. The investment professional also may provide ongoing services, such as
responding to investors inquiries or periodically reviewing and rebalancing their portfolios.

Over the past few decades, the way that fund shareholders compensate financial advisers
has changed significantly, moving away from front-end loads toward asset-based fees. One
important outcome of the changing distribution structure has been a marked decline in load
fees paid by mutual fund investors. The maximum front-end load fee that shareholders might
pay for investing in mutual funds has changed little since 1990 (Figure 5.8). But front-end
load fees that investors actually paid have declined markedly, from nearly 4 percent in 1990
to around 1 percent in 2015. This in part reflects the increasing role of mutual funds in
helping investors save for retirement. Funds that normally charge front-end load fees often
waive load fees on purchases made through defined contribution (DC) plans, such as 401(k)
plans. Also, front-end load funds offer volume discounts, waiving or reducing load fees for
large initial or cumulative purchases (see Mutual Fund Fee Structures on page 100).

102 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE5.8
Front-End Sales Loads That Investors Pay Are Well Below the Maximum Front-End
Sales Loads That Funds Charge
Percentage of purchase amount, selected years

Average front-end sales load that


Maximum front-end sales load1 investors actually paid2
Equity Hybrid Bond Equity Hybrid Bond
1990 5.0 5.0 4.6 3.9 3.8 3.5
1995 4.8 4.7 4.1 2.5 2.4 2.1
2000 5.2 5.1 4.2 1.4 1.4 1.1
2005 5.3 5.3 4.0 1.3 1.3 1.0
2010 5.4 5.2 3.9 1.0 1.0 0.8
2015 5.4 5.2 3.8 1.1 1.0 0.7

1 The maximum front-end sales load is a simple average of the highest front-end load that funds may charge as set forth in
their prospectuses.
2 The simple average front-end sales load that investors actually paid is the total front-end sales loads that funds collected

divided by the total maximum loads that the funds could have collected based on their new sales that year. This ratio is
then multiplied by each funds maximum sales load. The resulting value is then averaged across all funds.
Note: Data exclude mutual funds available as investment choices in variable annuities and mutual funds that invest
primarily in other mutual funds.
Sources: Investment Company Institute, Lipper, and Strategic Insight Simfund

Another important element in the changing distribution structure of mutual funds has been
a shift toward asset-based fees, which are assessed as a percentage of the assets that the
financial professional helps an investor manage. Increasingly, these fees compensate brokers
and other financial professionals who sell mutual funds. An investor may pay an asset-based
fee indirectly through a funds 12b-1 fee, which is included in the funds expense ratio, or
directly (out of pocket) to the financial professional, in which case it is not included in the
funds expense ratio.

MUTUAL FUND EXPENSES AND FEES 103


In part because of the shift toward asset-based fees (either through the fund or out of
pocket), the market shares of front-end and back-end load share classes have declined in
recent years, while those in no-load share classes have increased substantially. For example,
from year-end 2006 to year-end 2015, front-end and back-end load share classes had net
outflows totaling $823 billion (Figure 5.9); in addition, their share of long-term mutual fund
assets fell from 28 percent to 16 percent (Figure 5.10).

FIGURE5.9
Most Net New Cash Flow Was in No-Load Institutional Share Classes
Billions of dollars, 20062015

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

All long-term
$227 $224 -$211 $393 $244 $28 $200 $162 $98 -$123
mutual funds
Load 18 -2 -156 9 -62 -129 -77 -69 -173 -131
Front-end1 44 18 -105 2 -56 -100 -67 -56 -159 -102
Back-end 2 -47 -42 -39 -24 -27 -23 -16 -11 -9 -7
Level 3 22 25 -13 31 21 -6 6 -2 -4 -22
Other4 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) -1 (*) (*) (*)
Unclassified 5 -1 -2 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 1
No-load 6 156 165 -59 328 265 170 300 271 339 77
Retail 71 59 -90 143 55 -46 21 39 112 8
Institutional 85 106 30 185 210 215 279 232 226 69
Variable annuities 24 25 -26 29 8 -21 -26 -51 -65 -67
R share classes7 29 37 30 27 33 9 3 11 -4 -2

1 Front-end load > 1percent. Primarily includes Class A shares; includes sales where front-end loads are waived.
2 Front-end load = 0percent and contingent deferred sales load (CDSL) > 2percent. Primarily includes Class B shares.
3 Front-end load 1percent, CDSL 2percent, and 12b-1 fee > 0.25percent. Primarily includes Class C shares; excludes

institutional share classes.


4 All other load share classes not classified as front-end load, back-end load, or level load.

5 Load share classes with missing load fee data.

6 Front-end load = 0percent, CDSL = 0percent, and 12b-1 fee 0.25percent.

7 R shares include assets in any share class that ICI designates as a retirement share class. These share classes are sold

predominantly to employer-sponsored retirement plans. However, other share classesincluding retail and institutional
share classesalso contain investments made through 401(k) plans or IRAs.
(*) = inflow or outflow of less than $500 million
Note: Components may not add to the totals because of rounding. Data exclude mutual funds that invest primarily in other
mutual funds.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Lipper

104 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE5.10
Total Net Assets of Long-Term Mutual Funds Are Concentrated in No-Load Share
Classes
Billions of dollars, 20062015

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

All long-term
$8,060 $8,914 $5,788 $7,797 $9,030 $8,941 $10,364 $12,333 $13,151 $12,897
mutual funds
Load 2,630 2,795 1,722 2,185 2,352 2,176 2,362 2,652 2,615 2,454
Front-end1 2,027 2,190 1,374 1,750 1,882 1,751 1,893 2,148 2,116 2,000
Back-end 2 241 204 102 98 78 50 39 32 24 15
Level 3 340 379 237 328 381 367 417 459 468 429
Other4 15 10 7 8 8 7 11 10 7 8
Unclassified 5 8 13 2 2 4 2 2 2 1 2
No-load 6 4,073 4,588 3,073 4,255 5,091 5,224 6,262 7,598 8,383 8,361
Retail 2,799 3,091 1,957 2,666 3,069 2,991 3,469 4,148 4,645 4,593
Institutional 1,274 1,496 1,116 1,589 2,022 2,233 2,794 3,450 3,738 3,767
Variable annuities 1,225 1,346 854 1,130 1,291 1,251 1,400 1,632 1,674 1,599

R share classes7 132 186 139 226 296 290 339 451 479 483

1 Front-end load > 1percent. Primarily includes Class A shares; includes sales where front-end loads are waived.
2 Front-end load = 0percent and contingent deferred sales load (CDSL) > 2percent. Primarily includes Class B shares.
3 Front-end load 1percent, CDSL 2percent, and 12b-1 fee > 0.25percent. Primarily includes Class C shares; excludes

institutional share classes.


4 All other load share classes not classified as front-end load, back-end load, or level load.

5 Load share classes with missing load fee data.

6 Front-end load = 0percent, CDSL = 0percent, and 12b-1 fee 0.25percent.

7 R shares include assets in any share class that ICI designates as a retirement share class. These share classes are sold

predominantly to employer-sponsored retirement plans. However, other share classesincluding retail and institutional
share classesalso contain investments made through 401(k) plans or IRAs.
Note: Components may not add to the totals because of rounding. Data exclude mutual funds that invest primarily in other
mutual funds.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Lipper

MUTUAL FUND EXPENSES AND FEES 105


By contrast, no-load share classes have seen net inflows and rising assets over the past 10
years. No-load share classes have accumulated the bulk of the inflows to long-term funds in
the past decade. At year-end 2015, no-load share classes accounted for 65 percent of long-
term fund assets, up from 51 percent in 2006.

Some of the shift toward no-load share classes can be attributed to do-it-yourself investors.
A larger factor, however, is the growth of sales through DC plans as well as sales of no-load
share classes through sales channels that compensate financial professionals (for example,
discount brokers, fee-based advisers, full-service brokerage platforms) with asset-based fees
outside of funds.

Services and Expenses in 401(k) Plans


Two competing economic pressures confront employers: the need to attract and retain quality
workers with competitive compensation packages and the need to keep their products and
services competitively priced. In deciding whether to offer 401(k) plans to their workers,
employers must decide if the benefits of offering a plan (in attracting and retaining quality
workers) outweigh the costs of providing the plan and plan services. These costs are both
the contributions the employer may make to an employees 401(k) account and the costs
associated with setting up and administering the 401(k) plan on an ongoing basis.

To provide and maintain 401(k) plans, regulations require employers to obtain a variety of
administrative, participant-focused, regulatory, and compliance services. Employers offering
401(k) plans typically hire service providers to operate these plans, and these providers
charge fees for their services.

106 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


As with any employee benefit, the employer generally determines how the costs of providing
the benefit will be shared between the employer and employee. 401(k) plan fees can be paid
directly by the plan sponsor (the employer), directly by the plan participant (the employee),
indirectly by the participant through fees or other reductions in returns paid to the investment
provider, or by some combination of these methods (Figure 5.11).

FIGURE5.11
A Variety of Arrangements May Be Used to Compensate 401(k) Service Providers

Services provided
Fee payment/Form of fee payment

Direct fees: dollar per participant;


percentage based on assets; transactional fees
Recordkeeper/
Employer/Plan Retirement service
Recordkeeping and administration; provider
plan service and consulting;
Direct fees: dollar per participant; legal, compliance, and regulatory
percentage based on assets; Recordkeeping/
transactional fees Administrative
payment
Participant service, education, advice, and communication
(percentage of
assets)
Recordkeeping;
distribution
Asset management; investment products
Investment
Participants
provider(s)
Expense ratio (percentage of assets)

Note: In selecting the service provider(s) and deciding the cost-sharing for the 401(k) plan, the employer/plan sponsor
will determine which combinations of these fee arrangements will be used in the plan.
Source: ICI Research Perspective, The Economics of Providing 401(k) Plans: Services, Fees, and Expenses, 2014

MUTUAL FUND EXPENSES AND FEES 107


One key driver of 401(k) plan fees is plan size. A Deloitte/ICI study of 361 DC plans in 2013
created and analyzed a comprehensive plan fee measure, the all-in fee. The study found that
plans with more participants and larger average account balances tended to have lower all-in
fees than plans with fewer participants and smaller average account balances. This observed
effect likely results in part from fixed costs required to start up and run the plan, much of
which are driven by legal and regulatory requirements. It appears that economies of scale
are gained as a plan grows because these fixed costs can be spread across more participants,
a larger asset base, or both. Plans with a higher percentage of their assets in equity
investments tended to have higher all-in fees, reflecting the higher expense ratios associated
with equity investing compared with fixed-income investing. The study also examined types
of service providers, automatic enrollment, the number of investment options, and variables
relating to plans relationships with their service providersbut found little impact on fees. In
addition, a BrightScope/ICI study of 2013 data for nearly 33,000 401(k) plans also found that
plans with more assets had lower total plan cost than those with less assets.

Sixty percent of 401(k) assets at year-end 2015 were invested in mutual funds. Participants in
401(k) plans holding mutual funds tend to invest in lower-cost funds and funds with below-
average portfolio turnover. Both characteristics help to keep down the costs of investing in
mutual funds through 401(k) plans. For example, at year-end 2014, 45 percent of 401(k)
equity mutual fund assets were in funds that had total annual expense ratios of less than
50 basis points, and another 43 percent had expense ratios between 50 and 100 basis points
(Figure 5.12). On an asset-weighted basis, the average total expense ratio incurred on 401(k)
participants holdings of equity mutual funds through their 401(k) plans was 54 basis points
in 2014, less than the asset-weighted average total expense ratio of 70 basis points for equity
mutual funds industrywide. Similarly, equity mutual funds held in 401(k) accounts tend to
have lower turnover in their portfolios. The asset-weighted average turnover rate of equity
funds held in 401(k) accounts was 34 percent in 2014, less than the industrywide asset-
weighted average of 43 percent.

108 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE5.12
401(k) Equity Mutual Fund Assets Are Concentrated in Lower-Cost Funds
Percentage of 401(k) equity mutual fund assets, 2014

45 43

11
1
<50 50 to <100 100 to <150 150
Total expense ratio*

* The total expense ratio, expressed in basis points, includes fund operating expenses and any 12b-1 fees.
Note: Data exclude mutual funds available as investment choices in variable annuities.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Lipper. See ICI Research Perspective, The Economics of Providing 401(k)
Plans: Services, Fees, and Expenses, 2014.

For More Information


Data on average expense ratios for equity, hybrid, and bond mutual funds
www.ici.org/pressroom/news/16_news_trends_expenses
Trends in the Expenses and Fees of Mutual Funds, 2013
www.ici.org/perspective
The Economics of Providing 401(k) Plans: Services, Fees, and Expenses, 2014
www.ici.org/perspective
The BrightScope/ICI Defined Contribution Plan Profile: A Close Look at 401(k) Plans, 2013
www.ici.org/pubs/research/reports
The BrightScope/ICI Defined Contribution Plan Profile: A Close Look at ERISA 403(b) Plans
www.ici.org/pubs/research/reports
Inside the Structure of Defined Contribution/401(k) Plan Fees, 2013
www.ici.org/pubs/research/reports

MUTUAL FUND EXPENSES AND FEES 109


CHAPTER SIX

Characteristics
of Mutual Fund
Owners

The percentage of U.S. households owning mutual funds grew eightfold in the 1980s
and 1990s, and has held steady for the past 15 years, averaging about 45 percent
since 2000. In mid-2015, 43 percent of all U.S. households owned mutual funds. The
estimated 91 million people who owned mutual funds in mid-2015 belong to all age and
income groups, have a variety of financial goals, and buy and sell mutual funds through
three principal sources: investment professionals; employer-sponsored retirement
plans; and fund companies directly, fund supermarkets, or discount brokers. About
half of Baby Boom households owned mutual funds in mid-2015. They accounted for
40 percent of mutual fundowning households and held 53 percent of households
mutual fund assets.
This chapter takes an in-depth look at the characteristics of mutual fundowning households, examines
where they hold their mutual funds, and explores their attitudes on investment risk and mutual fund
investing.

Individual and Household Ownership of Mutual Funds.............................................................................. 112


Mutual Fund Ownership by Age and Income......................................................................................... 114
Households First Mutual Fund Purchase. . .................................................................................................... 118
Savings Goals of Mutual Fund Investors................................................................................................ 120
Where Investors Own Mutual Funds.............................................................................................................. 121
Shareholder Sentiment, Willingness to Take Investment Risk, and Confidence..................................... 125
Shareholder Use of the Internet.. ................................................................................................................... 128

Individual and Household Ownership of Mutual Funds


In mid-2015, an estimated 91 million individual investors owned mutual fundsand at
year-end, these investors held 89 percent of total mutual fund assets (Figure 2.2), directly
or through retirement plans. Household ownership of mutual funds has remained relatively
steady since 2000. Altogether, 43 percent of U.S. householdsor about 53.6 millionowned
mutual funds in mid-2015, slightly less than the 20002015 average of about 45 percent
(Figure 6.1). Mutual funds were a major component of many U.S. households financial
holdings in mid-2015. Among households owning mutual funds, the median amount invested
in mutual funds was $120,000 (Figure 6.2). Seventy-one percent of individuals heading
households that owned mutual funds were married or living with a partner, more than half
were college graduates, and more than seven in 10 worked full- or part-time.

FIGURE6.1
43Percent of U.S. Households Owned Mutual Funds in 2015
Millions of U.S. households owning mutual funds, selected years

53.8 56.7 53.6


50.3 53.2 52.9 53.2
48.6

28.4
23.4
12.8
4.6

1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014* 2015*

Percentage of U.S. households owning mutual funds


5.7 14.7 25.1 28.7 45.7 44.4 45.3 44.1 44.4 46.3 43.3 43.0

* The survey methodology was changed to a dual frame sample of cell phones and landlines in 2014.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and U.S. Census Bureau. See ICI Research Perspective, Ownership of Mutual
Funds, Shareholder Sentiment, and Use of the Internet, 2015.

112 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE6.2
Characteristics of Mutual Fund Investors
Mid-2015

How many people own mutual funds?


90.9 million individuals
53.6 million U.S. households

Who are they?


51 is the median age of the head of household
71 percent are married or living with a partner
51 percent are college graduates
71 percent are employed (full- or part-time)
12 percent are Silent or GI Generation (born 1904 to 1945)
40 percent are Baby Boomers (born 1946 to 1964)
32 percent are Generation X (born 1965 to 1980)
16 percent are Millennial Generation (born 1981 to 2004)*
$87,500 is the median household income

What do they own?


$200,000 is the median household financial assets
$120,000 is the median mutual fund assets
67 percent hold more than half of their financial assets in mutual funds
61 percent own IRAs
84 percent own DC retirement plan accounts
3 mutual funds is the median number owned
88 percent own equity funds

When and how did they make their first mutual fund purchase?
61 percent bought their first mutual fund before 2000
63 percent purchased their first mutual fund through an employer-sponsored retirement plan

Why do they invest?


91 percent are saving for retirement
50 percent are saving for emergencies
49 percent hold mutual funds to reduce taxable income
24 percent are saving for education

* The Millennial Generation is aged 11 to 34 in 2015; survey respondents, however, must be 18 or older.
Sources: ICI Research Perspective, Ownership of Mutual Funds, Shareholder Sentiment, and Use of the Internet, 2015;
ICI Research Perspective, Characteristics of Mutual Fund Investors, 2015; and ICI Research Report, Profile of Mutual
Fund Shareholders, 2015

CHARACTERISTICS OF MUTUAL FUND OWNERS 113


Mutual Fund Ownership by Age and Income
Mutual fundowning households span all generations, but members of the Baby Boom
Generation and Generation X had the highest mutual fund ownership rates in mid-2015.
Forty-nine percent of households headed by a Baby Boomer (head of household born
between 1946 and 1964) and half of households headed by a member of Generation X (born
between 1965 and 1980) owned mutual funds in mid-2015 (Figure 6.3). Thirty-two percent of
Millennial Generation households (born between 1981 and 2004) and 33 percent of Silent and
GI Generation households (born between 1904 and 1945) owned mutual funds in mid-2015.

Among mutual fundowning households in mid-2015, 40 percent were headed by members of


the Baby Boom Generation, 32 percent were headed by members of Generation X, 16percent
were headed by members of the Millennial Generation, and 12 percent were headed by
members of the Silent and GI Generations (Figure 6.4). Heads of mutual fundowning
households had a median age of 51 years (Figure 6.2).

FIGURE6.3
Incidence of Mutual Fund Ownership Is Greatest Among the Baby Boom Generation
and Generation X
Percentage of U.S. households within each generation group, mid-2015

50 49

32 33

Millennial Generation Generation X Baby Boom Generation Silent and GI Generations


(head of household (head of household (head of household (head of household
born between born between born between born between
1981 and 2004)* 1965 and 1980) 1946 and 1964) 1904 and 1945)

Age of head of household in 2015


18 to 34* 35 to 50 51 to 69 70 or older

Head of household generation

* The Millennial Generation is aged 11 to 34 in 2015; survey respondents, however, must be 18 or older.
Note: Generation is based on the age of the household sole or co-decisionmaker for saving and investing.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and U.S. Census Bureau. See ICI Research Perspective, Characteristics of
Mutual Fund Investors, 2015.

114 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Not only were Baby Boomers the largest shareholder group in mid-2015, they also held the
largest percentage of households mutual fund assets, at 53 percent (Figure 6.4). Households
headed by members of Generation X (27 percent), the Silent and GI Generations (15 percent),
and the Millennial Generation (5 percent) held the rest. This pattern of asset ownership
reflects the fact that Millennials are younger and have not had as much time to save as
Baby Boom households that are in their peak earning and saving years.

FIGURE6.4
The Baby Boom Generation Is the Largest Shareholder Group and Holds More
Than Half of Household Mutual Fund Assets
Percentage of mutual fundowning households and household mutual fund assets by generation, mid-2015

Age of head of household


Millennial Generation (head of household born between 1981 and 2004)*
Generation X (head of household born between 1965 and 1980)
Baby Boom Generation (head of household born between 1946 and 1964)
Silent and GI Generations (head of household born between 1904 and 1945)

5
16
27
32

53
40

12 15
Households owning mutual funds Household mutual fund assets

* The Millennial Generation is aged 11 to 34 in 2015; survey respondents, however, must be 18 or older.
Note: Generation is based on the age of the household sole or co-decisionmaker for saving and investing.
Source: ICI Research Perspective, Characteristics of Mutual Fund Investors, 2015

CHARACTERISTICS OF MUTUAL FUND OWNERS 115


Households with higher annual incomes are more likely to own mutual funds than those with
lower annual incomes. In mid-2015, 64 percent of U.S. households with annual income of
$50,000 or more owned mutual funds, compared with 19 percent of households with annual
income of less than $50,000 (Figure 6.5). In fact, lower-income households tend to have less
savings than higher-income households. The typical household with less than $50,000 in
annual income had only $10,000 in savings and investments, while the typical household with
annual income of $50,000 or more held $200,000 in savings and investments.

FIGURE6.5
Ownership of Mutual Funds Increases with Household Income
Percentage of U.S. households within each income group, mid-2015

Household income

$100,000 or more 78

$75,000 to $99,999 61 64%


$50,000 or more

$50,000 to $74,999 47

$35,000 to $49,999 34

19%
$25,000 to $34,999 21 Less than $50,000

Less than $25,000 9

Note: Total reported is household income before taxes in 2014.


Sources: Investment Company Institute and U.S. Census Bureau. See ICI Research Perspective, Ownership of Mutual
Funds, Shareholder Sentiment, and Use of the Internet, 2015.

116 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


U.S. households owning mutual funds had a range of annual incomes in mid-2015: 20 percent
had annual income of less than $50,000; 19 percent had between $50,000 and $74,999;
16percent had between $75,000 and $99,999; and the remaining 45 percent had $100,000 or
more (Figure 6.6). The median income of mutual fundowning households in mid-2015 was
$87,500 (Figure 6.2).

FIGURE6.6
Most Households That Own Mutual Funds Have Moderate Incomes
Percent distribution of all U.S. households and households owning mutual funds by household income, mid-2015

Household income
$200,000 or more 6 11
$100,000 to $199,999
19
$75,000 to $99,999
$50,000 to $74,999 34
12
$35,000 to $49,999
$25,000 to $34,999 17
Less than $25,000 16
13
10 19
10
23
5
5
All U.S. households Households owning
mutual funds

Note: Total reported is household income before taxes in 2014.


Sources: Investment Company Institute and U.S. Census Bureau. See ICI Research Perspective, Ownership of Mutual
Funds, Shareholder Sentiment, and Use of the Internet, 2015.

CHARACTERISTICS OF MUTUAL FUND OWNERS 117


Households First Mutual Fund Purchase
Younger generations tend to start investing in mutual funds earlier than older generations
did. For example, in 2015, when they were aged 18 to 34, the median age of first mutual fund
purchase was 23 for households in the Millennial Generation (Figure 6.7). By comparison,
Generation X households made their first mutual fund purchase at age 25 when they were
aged 20 to 35 in 2000. Similarly, in 2015, when Generation X households were aged 35 to
50, their median age of first mutual fund purchase was 26, while in 2003, when late Baby
Boomers were aged 39 to 47, their median age of first mutual fund purchase was 31. Finally,
in 2015, when they were aged 51 to 59, the median age of first mutual fund purchase was 32
for households in the late Baby Boom Generation, while in 2005, when households in the early
Baby Boom Generation were aged 50 to 59, their median age of first mutual fund purchase
was 37. This pattern reflects the expansion of mutual fund investing, especially as it occurs in
employer-sponsored retirement plans.

FIGURE6.7
Younger Generations Purchased First Mutual Fund Earlier Than Older Generations
Median age of household head when first mutual fund purchase was made by generation group, 20002015

Age of first mutual fund purchase (median)


60 Silent and GI Generations
(head of household born
between 1904 and 1945)
50 Late Baby Boom Generation 45
(head of household born
between 1956 and 1964)
40 Millennial Generation
(head of household born 37 37
between 1981 and 2004)* 31 32
30
25 26
Early Baby Boom Generation
20 23 (head of household born
between 1946 and 1955)

10 Generation X
(head of household born
between 1965 and 1980)
0
19 21 23 25 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 83 85
Average age of household head

* The Millennial Generation is aged 11 to 34 in 2015; survey respondents, however, must be 18 or older.
Note: Generation is based on the age of the household sole or co-decisionmaker for saving and investing. Average age
of the household head is the average age of the generation group at the time of the survey.
Source: ICI Research Perspective, Characteristics of Mutual Fund Investors, 2015

118 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


As 401(k) and other employer-sponsored defined contribution (DC) retirement plans have
grown more popular, the percentage of households that make their first foray into mutual
fund investing inside these plans has increased. Among the households that bought their
first mutual fund shares in 2010 or later, 67 percent did so inside an employer-sponsored
retirement plan (Figure 6.8). Among those that bought their first mutual fund shares before
1990, only 57 percent did so inside an employer-sponsored retirement plan.

FIGURE6.8
Employer-Sponsored Retirement Plans Are Increasingly the Source of First Mutual
Fund Purchase
Percentage of U.S. households owning mutual funds, mid-2015

Year of households first mutual fund purchase Memo: all


mutual
Before 1990 to 1995 to 2000 to 2005 to 2010 or fundowning
1990 1994 1999 2004 2009 later households

Source of first mutual fund purchase


Inside employer-sponsored
57 64 66 65 64 67 63
retirement plan
Outside employer-sponsored
43 36 34 35 36 33 37
retirement plan

Note: Employer-sponsored retirement plans include DC plans (such as 401(k), 403(b), or 457 plans) and employer-sponsored
IRAs (SEP IRAs, SAR-SEP IRAs, and SIMPLE IRAs).
Source: ICI Research Perspective, Characteristics of Mutual Fund Investors, 2015

CHARACTERISTICS OF MUTUAL FUND OWNERS 119


Savings Goals of Mutual Fund Investors
Mutual funds play a key role in the long- and short-term savings goals of U.S. households. In
mid-2015, 91 percent of mutual fundowning households indicated that saving for retirement
was one of their financial goals, and 72 percent said it was their primary financial goal
(Figure 6.9). Retirement, however, is not the only financial goal for mutual fundowning
households50 percent reported saving for emergencies as a goal; 49 percent reported
reducing taxable income as a goal; and 24 percent reported saving for education as a goal.

FIGURE6.9
Majority of Mutual Fund Investors Focus on Retirement
Percentage of U.S. households owning mutual funds, mid-2015

A financial goal*
Primary financial goal

91
Retirement
72

50
Emergency
8

49
Reduce taxable income
4

30
Current income
7

24
Education
5

15
House or other large item
3

4
Other
1

* Multiple responses are included.


Source: ICI Research Perspective, Characteristics of Mutual Fund Investors, 2015

120 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Where Investors Own Mutual Funds
The importance that mutual fundowning households place on retirement saving is reflected
in where they own their funds95 percent of these households held mutual fund shares
inside employer-sponsored retirement plans, individual retirement accounts (IRAs), and other
tax-advantaged accounts in mid-2015. It also is reflected in the type of funds they choose
households are more likely to invest their retirement assets in long-term mutual funds than
in money market funds. Indeed, DC retirement plan and IRA assets held in equity, bond, and
hybrid mutual funds totaled $6.8 trillion at year-end 2015, or 53 percent of those funds total
net assets industrywide. By contrast, DC retirement plan and IRA assets in money market
funds totaled just $356 billion, or 13 percent of those funds total net assets industrywide.

In mid-2015, 80 percent of mutual fundowning households held funds inside employer-


sponsored retirement plans, with 40 percent owning funds only inside such plans
(Figure 6.10). Sixty percent of mutual fundowning households held funds outside
employer-sponsored retirement accounts, with 20 percent owning funds only outside such
plans. For mutual fundowning households without funds in employer-sponsored retirement
plans, 56percent held funds in traditional or Roth IRAs. In many cases, these IRAs held assets
rolled over from 401(k) plans or other employer-sponsored retirement plans (either defined
benefit or DC plans).

CHARACTERISTICS OF MUTUAL FUND OWNERS 121


Households owning mutual funds outside employer-sponsored retirement plans buy their
fund shares through a variety of sources. In mid-2015, 78 percent of these households owned
funds purchased with the help of an investment professional, including registered investment
advisers, full-service brokers, independent financial planners, bank and savings institution
representatives, insurance agents, and accountants (Figure 6.10). Thirty-six percent of these
households owned funds purchased solely with the help of an investment professional, and
another 42 percent owned funds purchased from investment professionals and from fund
companies directly, fund supermarkets, or discount brokers. Fifteen percent solely owned
funds purchased from fund companies directly, fund supermarkets, or discount brokers.

FIGURE6.10
80 Percent of Mutual FundOwning Households Held Shares Inside Employer-
Sponsored Retirement Plans
Mid-2015

Sources of mutual fund ownership Sources for households owning mutual funds outside
Percentage of U.S. households owning employer-sponsored retirement plans
mutual funds Percentage of U.S. households owning mutual
funds outside employer-sponsored retirement plans 1

42%
Investment professionals 2
Outside employer- and fund companies, fund
sponsored retirement 20 supermarkets, or
plans only 1 discount brokers
36%
Investment
Inside and outside professionals
employer-sponsored 40 only 2
retirement plans 1 15%
Fund companies, fund
supermarkets, or discount
Inside employer- 7% brokers only
sponsored retirement 40 Source unknown
plans only1

1 Employer-sponsored retirement plans include DC plans (such as 401(k), 403(b), or 457 plans) and employer-sponsored
IRAs (SEP IRAs, SAR-SEP IRAs, and SIMPLE IRAs).
2 Investment professionals include registered investment advisers, full-service brokers, independent financial planners,

bank and savings institution representatives, insurance agents, and accountants.


Source: ICI Research Perspective, Characteristics of Mutual Fund Investors, 2015

122 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


In mid-2015, nearly half of mutual fundowning households held mutual funds through
multiple sources: 14 percent held mutual funds both inside employer-sponsored retirement
plans and through investment professionals; 6 percent held mutual funds both inside
employer-sponsored retirement plans and from fund companies directly, fund supermarkets,
or discount brokers; and 8 percent held mutual funds through investment professionals
and from fund companies directly, fund supermarkets, or discount brokers (Figure 6.11).
Seventeen percent owned mutual funds through all three source categories. Another 3 percent
owned funds inside and outside employer-sponsored retirement plans, without specifying
their outside purchase source. When owning funds through only one source category, the
most common source was employer-sponsored retirement plans, at 40 percent.

FIGURE6.11
Nearly Half of Mutual FundOwning Households Held Shares Through Multiple
Sources
Percentage of U.S. households owning mutual funds, mid-2015

14%
Inside employer-sponsored 40% 7% Investment professionals 2
retirement plans1

17%
8%
6%
3%

Fund companies, fund supermarkets,


or discount brokers

1 Employer-sponsored retirement plans include DC plans (such as 401(k), 403(b), or 457 plans) and employer-sponsored
IRAs (SEP IRAs, SAR-SEP IRAs, and SIMPLE IRAs).
2 Investment professionals include registered investment advisers, full-service brokers, independent financial planners,

bank and savings institution representatives, insurance agents, and accountants.


Note: Components do not add to 100 percent because 5 percent of mutual fundowning households owned mutual
funds outside of employer-sponsored retirement plans but did not indicate which source was used to purchase funds.
Of this 5 percent, 3 percent owned funds both inside and outside employer-sponsored retirement plans and 2 percent
owned funds only outside of employer-sponsored retirement plans.
Source: ICI Research Perspective, Characteristics of Mutual Fund Investors, 2015

CHARACTERISTICS OF MUTUAL FUND OWNERS 123


At year-end 2015, mutual funds held in DC plans and IRAs accounted for $7.1 trillion, or
30percent, of the $24.0 trillion U.S. retirement market. The $7.1 trillion made up 46 percent
of total mutual fund assets at year-end 2015. DC plans and IRAs held 53 percent of total
net assets in long-term mutual funds, but a much smaller share of total net assets in money
market funds (13 percent). Similarly, mutual funds held in DC plans and IRAs accounted for
55 percent of household long-term mutual funds but only 21 percent of household money
market funds (Figure 6.12).

FIGURE6.12
Households Mutual Fund Assets by Type of Account
Billions of dollars, year-end 2015

Other household accounts 1


Variable annuities outside retirement plans
IRAs 2
DC plans 3

Households long-term Households money


mutual fund assets market fund assets

1 Mutual funds held as investments in 529 plans and Coverdell ESAs are counted in this category.
2 IRAs include traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, and employer-sponsored IRAs (SEP IRAs, SAR-SEP IRAs, and SIMPLE
IRAs).
3 DC plans include 401(k) plans, 403(b) plans, 457 plans, Keoghs, and other DC plans without 401(k) features.

Note: Components do not add to the total because of rounding.

124 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Shareholder Sentiment, Willingness to Take Investment Risk,
and Confidence
Each year, ICI surveys U.S. households about a variety of topics, including shareholder
sentiment. In mid-2015, 67 percent of mutual fundowning households familiar with mutual
fund companies had very or somewhat favorable impressions of fund companies, nearly
the same as in 2014 (Figure 6.13). The share of mutual fundowning households with very
favorable impressions of fund companies remained relatively stable at 16 percent.

FIGURE6.13
Most Shareholders View the Mutual Fund Industry Favorably
Percentage of mutual fundowning households familiar with mutual fund companies, selected years

Very favorable
Somewhat favorable
Somewhat unfavorable
Very unfavorable
No opinion

15 16 10 12 13 17 16
22 16 20

64 67 68 68 67
79 71 74 77 73 54 55
55 59 55 51 51
57 57 57

16 14 9 8 9
10 7 2 10 2 2 2
4 1 1 8 2 4 2
1 21 22 22
16 18 17 14 15 16 17
2001 2003 2005 2007 2008 2009 2010 2013 2014* 2015*

* The survey methodology was changed to a dual frame sample of cell phones and landlines in 2014.
Source: ICI Research Perspective, Ownership of Mutual Funds, Shareholder Sentiment, and Use of the Internet, 2015

Among all U.S. households, the percentage willing to take above-average or substantial
investment risk tends to move with stock market performance. U.S. households tend to
become less tolerant of investment risk following periods of poor stock market performance.
For example, willingness to take above-average or substantial investment risk fell from
23percent in mid-2008, during the 20072009 financial crisis, to 19 percent in mid-2009
(Figure 6.14). Not until mid-2013, more than four years after the stock market bottomed out,
did willingness to take investment risk begin to rebound.

CHARACTERISTICS OF MUTUAL FUND OWNERS 125


FIGURE6.14
Households Willingness to Take Investment Risk
Percentage of U.S. households by mutual fund ownership status, 20082015

Level of risk willing to take with financial investments

Substantial risk for substantial gain


Above-average risk for above-average gain
Average risk for average gain
Below-average risk for below-average gain
Unwilling to take any risk

All U.S. households

5 4 4 4 5 5 6 6
23 19 19 15 19 19 21 21 21
18 15 15 14 16 15 15

37 38 35 35 35 33
37 36

11 10 10 10 10 9 9
8
44 43 46 46 43 44 46
32 40 33 33 36 36 33 35 37

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014* 2015*

Households owning mutual funds

6 5 5 4 5 4 6 6
36 25 30 25 30 25 29 23 28 30 31 31
30 26 25 25

49 49 48 49 48 49 47
50

10 11 10 11 12 10 10
7 14 21 21 23 23 22 20 22
7 11 10 13 12 10 10 12
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014* 2015*

Households not owning mutual funds

4 11 4 11 4 11 4 10 6 5 11 6 7
7 7 7 6 6 12 6 7 13 7 14

26 27 27 25 23 26 24 22

8 9 10 9 9 8 7
11

63 62 62 65 56 65 63 63 57 64
55 53 55 54 55
51

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014* 2015*

* The survey methodology was changed to a dual frame sample of cell phones and landlines in 2014.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and U.S. Census Bureau. See ICI Research Perspective, Ownership of Mutual
Funds, Shareholder Sentiment, and Use of the Internet, 2015.

126 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Households owning mutual funds are far more willing to take investment risk than other
households. In mid-2015, 31 percent of households owning mutual funds were willing to take
above-average or substantial investment risk, more than twice the 14 percent of households
not owning mutual funds (Figure 6.14).

Mutual fundowning households tend to have a larger appetite for investment risk, and this
is reflected in the types of mutual funds they own. Equity funds were the most commonly
owned type of mutual fund in mid-2015, held by 88 percent of mutual fundowning
households (Figure 6.15). In addition, 35 percent owned balanced funds, 42 percent owned
bond funds, and 54 percent owned money market funds.

FIGURE6.15
Equity Funds Are the Most Commonly Owned Type of Mutual Fund
Percentage of U.S. households owning mutual funds, mid-2015

88

54
42
35

Equity funds Balanced funds* Bond funds Money market Other fund
funds type specified
Type of mutual fund owned

* The Investment Company Institute classifies this fund category as hybrid in its data.
Note: Multiple responses are included.
Source: ICI Research Perspective, Characteristics of Mutual Fund Investors, 2015

CHARACTERISTICS OF MUTUAL FUND OWNERS 127


Mutual fundowning households confidence that mutual funds are helping them reach
their financial goals declined in the wake of the financial crisis. In mid-2009, 72 percent of
mutual fundowning households said they were confident in mutual funds ability to help
them achieve their financial goals, down from 85 percent the year before (Figure 6.16).
From mid-2010 through mid-2013, about eight in 10 mutual fundowning households said
they were confident in mutual funds ability to help them achieve their financial goals, with
more than 20percent saying they were very confident. In mid-2014, confidence increased
to 84percent of mutual fundowning households and remained there in mid-2015, with
30percent saying they were very confident that mutual funds could help them meet their
financial goals.

FIGURE6.16
More Than Eight in 10 Mutual FundOwning Households Have Confidence in
Mutual Funds
Percentage of mutual fundowning households by level of confidence that mutual funds can help them meet their
investment goals, 20052015

Very confident
Somewhat confident

86 86 84 85 82 84 84
79 80 80
72
29 32 31 26 21 21 26 30
24 24
17

57 54 59 55 55 61 56 59 58 54
53

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014* 2015*

* The survey methodology was changed to a dual frame sample of cell phones and landlines in 2014.
Note: This question was not included in the survey prior to 2005. The question has four choices; the other two possible
responses are not very confident and not at all confident.
Source: ICI Research Perspective, Ownership of Mutual Funds, Shareholder Sentiment, and Use of the Internet, 2015

Shareholder Use of the Internet


An overwhelming majority of mutual fundowning households have Internet access. In mid-
2015, 91 percent of U.S. households owning mutual funds had Internet access (Figure 6.17),
up from 68 percent in 2000 (the first year for which ICI collected data on shareholder access
to the Internet). Internet access traditionally has been greatest among younger people, in
both mutual fundowning households and the general population. Increasing access among
older households, however, has narrowed the gap considerably.

128 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE6.17
Internet Access Is Nearly Universal Among Mutual FundOwning Households
Percentage of U.S. households with Internet access, mid-2015

Mutual fundowning Households with


All U.S. households households DC plans1

Age of head of household 2


Younger than 35 86 93 90
35 to 49 85 95 94
50 to 64 78 92 91
65 or older 59 84 79

Education level
High school diploma or less 61 82 79
Some college or associates degree 83 92 92
College or postgraduate degree 91 95 95

Household income 3
Less than $50,000 61 79 74
$50,000 to $99,999 88 93 92
$100,000 to $149,999 95 95 97
$150,000 or more 92 96 96

Total 77 91 90

1 DC plans include 401(k), 403(b), 457, and other DC plans.


2 Age is based on the sole or co-decisionmaker for household saving and investing.
3 Total reported is household income before taxes in 2014.

Note: Internet access includes access to the Internet at home, work, or some other location.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and U.S. Census Bureau. See ICI Research Perspective, Ownership of Mutual
Funds, Shareholder Sentiment, and Use of the Internet, 2015.

For More Information


Ownership of Mutual Funds, Shareholder Sentiment, and Use of the Internet, 2015
www.ici.org/perspective
Characteristics of Mutual Fund Investors, 2015
www.ici.org/perspective
Profile of Mutual Fund Shareholders, 2015
www.ici.org/pubs/research/reports
Correcting a Distorted Picture of Retirement Resources
www.ici.org/viewpoints/view_15_epi_retirement_resources
Small Savers at a Loss
www.ici.org/viewpoints/view_15_dol_small_savers

CHARACTERISTICS OF MUTUAL FUND OWNERS 129


CHAPTER SEVEN

Retirement
and Education
Savings

National policies that have created or enhanced tax-advantaged savings accounts


have proven integral to helping Americans prepare for retirement and other long-
term savings goals. Because many Americans use mutual funds in tax-advantaged
accounts to reach these goals, ICI studies the U.S. retirement market; the investors
who use IRAs, 401(k) plans, 529 plans, and other tax-advantaged savings vehicles;
and the role of funds in the retirement and education savings markets.
This chapter analyzes the U.S. retirement market; describes the investors who use IRAs, 401(k) plans,
529 plans, and other tax-advantaged savings vehicles; and explores the role of mutual funds in U.S.
households efforts to save for retirement and education.

The U.S. Retirement System........................................................................................................................132


Retirement Resource Pyramid............................................................................................................132
Snapshot of U.S. Retirement Market Assets......................................................................................136
Defined Contribution Retirement Plans.....................................................................................................141
401(k) and 403(b) Plan Design and Investment Lineup....................................................................142
401(k) Participants: Asset Allocation, Account Balances, and Loan Activity.. ................................145
Individual Retirement Accounts. . ............................................................................................................... 150
IRA Investors.........................................................................................................................................152
IRA Portfolios........................................................................................................................................155
Distributions from IRAs........................................................................................................................157
The Role of Mutual Funds in Retirement Savings.....................................................................................159
Types of Mutual Funds Used by Retirement Plan Investors.. .............................................................160
The Role of Mutual Funds in Education Savings.......................................................................................164

The U.S. Retirement System


American households rely on a combination of resources in retirement, and the role each type
of resource plays has changed over time and varies across households. The traditional analogy
compares retirement resources to a three-legged stool, with resources divided equally
among the legsSocial Security, employer-sponsored pension plans, and private savings. But
Americans retirement resources are best thought of as a five-layer pyramid.

Retirement Resource Pyramid


The retirement resource pyramid has five layers, which draw from government programs,
compensation deferred until retirement, and other savings (Figure 7.1):

Social Security
homeownership
employer-sponsored retirement plans (private-sector and government employer plans,
including both defined benefit [DB] and defined contribution [DC] plans)
individual retirement accounts (IRAs), including rollovers
other assets

132 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE7.1
Retirement Resource Pyramid

Other assets

IRAs
(including rollovers)

Employer-sponsored retirement plans

Homeownership

Social Security

Source: Investment Company Institute, The Success of the U.S. Retirement System

Though the importance of each layer differs by household, together they have enabled recent
generations of retirees, on average, to maintain their standard of living in retirement.

The construction of each households pyramid varies with age and income. Younger
households are more likely to save primarily for reasons other than retirement, such as a
home purchase, family needs, or education (Figure 7.2). By contrast, older households are
more likely to save primarily for retirement, as many already have reached their other savings
goals. The tendency of younger workers to focus less on saving for retirement is consistent
with economic models of life-cycle consumption predicting that most workers delay saving
for retirement until later in their careers. Lower-income households also focus less on saving
for retirement, reflecting the fact that Social Security benefits replace a higher share of pre-
retirement earnings for workers with lower lifetime earnings.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 133


FIGURE7.2
Primary Reason for Household Saving Changes with Age
Percentage of households by age of household head, 2013

Age of household head


21 to 29
30 to 39
40 to 44
45 to 54 43
55 to 64
38
32 33
30

22 23

15
13
9

Home purchase, for the family, or education Retirement


Primary reason for saving

Source: Investment Company Institute tabulations of the 2013 Federal Reserve Board Survey of Consumer Finances. See
ICI Research Perspective, Supplemental Tables: Who Gets Retirement Plans and Why, 2013.

Social Security, the base of the U.S. retirement resource pyramid, is the largest component
of retiree income and the primary source of income for lower-income retirees. Social Security
benefits are funded through a payroll tax equal to 12.4 percent of earnings of covered
workers (6.2 percent paid by employees and 6.2 percent paid by employers) up to a maximum
taxable earnings amount ($118,500 in 2015). The benefit formula is highly progressive, with
benefits representing a much higher percentage of earnings for workers with lower lifetime
earnings. By design, Social Security is the primary means of support for retirees with low
lifetime earnings and a substantial source of income for all retired workers. For individuals
born in the 1960s who claim benefits at age 65, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
projects that mean first-year Social Security benefits will replace 86 percent of average
inflation-indexed lifetime earnings for retired workers in the lowest 20 percent of households
ranked by lifetime earnings (Figure7.3). The mean replacement rate drops to 65 percent
for workers in the second quintile of households, and then declines more slowly as lifetime
household earnings increase. Even for workers in the the top 20 percent, Social Security
benefits are projected to replace a considerable portion (33percent) of earnings.

134 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE7.3
Social Security Benefit Formula Is Highly Progressive
Average projected Social Security replacement rates for workers in the 1960s birth cohort by quintile of lifetime
household earnings, percent

86

65
55
46
33

Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest


Quintile of lifetime household earnings

Note: For each worker, the replacement rate is the ratio of Social Security benefits net of income tax to average inflation-
indexed lifetime earnings. Replacement rates are for workers claiming benefits at age 65. For workers born in the 1960s,
the Social Security full benefit retirement age is 67. If these workers claimed at 67, benefits would increase by about
15percent.
Source: Congressional Budget Office, The 2015 Long-Term Projections for Social Security: Supplemental Data

For many near-retiree households, homeownership is the second most important retirement
resource after Social Security. Older households are more likely to own their homes; more
likely to own their homes without mortgage debt; and, if they still have mortgages, more
likely to have small mortgages relative to the value of their homes. Retired households
typically access this resource simply by living in their homes rent-free.

Employer-sponsored retirement plans and IRAs, which complement Social Security benefits
and are important resources for households regardless of income or wealth, increase in
importance for households for whom Social Security replaces a smaller share of earnings.
In 2013, about eight out of 10 near-retiree households had accrued benefits in employer-
sponsored retirement plansDB and DC plans sponsored by private-sector and government
employersor IRAs (Figure 7.4).

Although less important on average, retirees also rely on other assets in retirement. These
assets can be financialincluding bank deposits, stocks, bonds, and mutual funds owned
outside employer-sponsored retirement plans and IRAs. They also can be nonfinancial
including business equity, investment real estate, second homes, vehicles, and consumer
durables (long-lived goods such as household appliances and furniture). Higher-income
households are more likely to have large holdings of assets in this category.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 135


FIGURE7.4
Near-Retiree Households Across All Income Groups Have Retirement Assets,
DB Plan Benefits, or Both
Percentage of near-retiree households 1 by income quintile, 2 2013

Retirement assets only 3


Both DB plan benefits and retirement assets 3, 4
DB plan benefits only4
94 98
91
81
75
38 51
47
40 40
46

27 48
21 33 46 30
5
15 15 11 8 1 10
Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest All
Less than $34,494 to $55,799 to $86,235 to $136,962
$34,494 $55,799 $86,235 $136,962 or more
Household income quintile 2

1 Near-retireehouseholds are those with a head of household aged 55 to 64, and a working head of household or
working spouse.
2 Income is household income before taxes in 2012.

3 Retirement assets include DC plan assets (401(k), 403(b), 457, thrift, and other DC plans) and IRAs (traditional, Roth,

SEP, SAR-SEP, and SIMPLE), whether from private-sector or government employers.


4 Households currently receiving DB plan benefits and households with the promise of future DB plan benefits, whether

from private-sector or government employers, are counted in this category.


Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.
Source: Investment Company Institute tabulations of the 2013 Federal Reserve Board Survey of Consumer Finances

Snapshot of U.S. Retirement Market Assets


Employer-sponsored retirement plans (DB and DC plans sponsored by private-sector and
government employers), IRAs (including rollovers), and annuities play an important role in the
U.S. retirement system, with assets totaling $24.0 trillion at year-end 2015, about the same
level as at year-end 2014 (Figure 7.5). The largest components of retirement assets were IRAs
and employer-sponsored DC plans, holding $7.3 trillion and $6.7 trillion, respectively, at year-
end 2015 (Figure 7.6). Other employer-sponsored plans include private-sector DB pension
funds ($2.9 trillion), state and local government DB retirement plans ($3.6 trillion), and
federal government DB plans ($1.5 trillion). In addition, annuity reserves outside of retirement
plans were $1.9 trillion at year-end 2015.

136 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE7.5
U.S. Total Retirement Market Assets
Trillions of dollars; year-end, selected years

Other retirement assets 1 24.0 24.0


DC plans 2 22.7
IRAs 3 19.7
17.7 17.9 10.1 9.9
9.7
14.4 13.9 8.7
8.4 8.1
11.6
7.2 6.7 6.2 6.6 6.7
7.0 6.0 5.3
4.6 4.8
3.9 3.7 3.6
3.0 7.3 e 7.3 e
4.7 5.0 5.8 6.8 e
1.7 3.4 3.7
1.3 2.6
1995 2000 2005 2007 2008 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015

1 Other retirement assets includes private-sector DB plans; federal, state, and local DB plans; and all fixed and variable
annuity reserves at life insurance companies less annuities held by IRAs, 403(b) plans, 457 plans, and private pension
funds. Some of these annuity reserves represent assets of individuals held outside retirement plan arrangements and
IRAs; however, information to separate out such reserves is not available. Because ICI estimates of annuities held
in IRAs, 457 plans, and 403(b) plans are netted from the Federal Reserve Boards financial accounts annuities (life
insurance pension fund reserves) figure and reported in their respective categories by ICI, ICI reports a lower annuities
total than in the financial accounts. Federal pension plans include U.S. Treasury security holdings of the civil service
retirement and disability fund, the military retirement fund, the judicial retirement funds, the Railroad Retirement Board,
and the foreign service retirement and disability fund. These plans also include securities held in the National Railroad
Retirement Investment Trust.
2 DC plans include private employer-sponsored DC plans (including 401(k) plans), 403(b) plans, 457 plans, and the

Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS) Thrift Savings Plan (TSP).


3 IRAs include traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, and employer-sponsored IRAs (SEP IRAs, SAR-SEP IRAs, and SIMPLE IRAs).

e Data are estimated.

Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.


Sources: Investment Company Institute, Federal Reserve Board, Department of Labor, National Association of
Government Defined Contribution Administrators, American Council of Life Insurers, and Internal Revenue Service
Statistics of Income Division. See Investment Company Institute, The U.S. Retirement Market, Fourth Quarter 2015.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 137


Retirement assets include individual accountbased savings (e.g., IRAs and DC plans) and
assets held in DB plans. Traditional DB plans promise to pay benefits in retirement typically
based on salary and years of service, and assets held in those plans represent funding for
those promised benefits. Some DB plans do not have sufficient funding to cover promised
benefits that households have a legal right to expect; the total unfunded liabilities of DB
plans were $3.8trillion at year-end 2015 (Figure 7.6). Underfunding is more pronounced
in government-sector pension plans. As of year-end 2015, private-sector DB plans had
$2.9trillion in assets and only $0.3 trillion in unfunded liabilities. On the other hand, state and
local government DB plans had $3.6 trillion in assets and $1.7 trillion in unfunded liabilities,
and federal DB plans had $1.5 trillion in assets and $1.8 trillion in unfunded liabilities.

FIGURE7.6
Total U.S. Retirement Assets and Unfunded Pension Liabilities
Trillions of dollars, year-end 2015

Retirement assets
Unfunded pension liabilities

7.3 e
6.7

3.6
2.9

1.8 1.7 1.9


1.5

0.3

IRAs DC plans Private-sector Federal DB State and local Annuities


DB plans plans government
DB plans

e Dataare estimated.
Sources: Investment Company Institute, Federal Reserve Board, National Association of Government Defined
Contribution Administrators, American Council of Life Insurers, and Internal Revenue Service Statistics of Income
Division. See Investment Company Institute, The U.S. Retirement Market, Fourth Quarter 2015.

138 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Ownership of retirement accumulations is widespread; 60 percent of U.S. households (or
75 million) reported that they had employer-sponsored retirement plans, IRAs, or both in
mid-2015 (Figure 7.7). Fifty-five percent of U.S. households reported that they had employer-
sponsored retirement plansthat is, they had assets in DC plan accounts, were receiving or
expecting to receive benefits from DB plans, or both. Thirty-two percent reported having
assets in IRAs, and 27 percent had both IRAs and employer-sponsored retirement plans. The
households in this snapshot represent a wide range of agesfrom younger than 35 to age 65
or olderand so, they are at different points in the life cycle of saving. Focus on retirement
savings tends to increase with age; for example, about eight out of 10 near-retiree households
have retirement accumulations (Figure 7.4).

FIGURE7.7
Many U.S. Households Have Tax-Advantaged Retirement Savings
Percentage of U.S. households, mid-2015

5%
Had IRA only 1

40% 27%
Did not have IRA or employer-sponsored Had IRA and employer-sponsored
retirement plan retirement plan 1, 2

28%
Had employer-sponsored
retirement plan only 2

Total number of U.S. households: 124.6 million

1IRAs include traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, and employer-sponsored IRAs (SEP IRAs, SAR-SEP IRAs, and SIMPLE IRAs).
2Employer-sponsored retirement plans include DC and DB retirement plans.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and U.S. Census Bureau. See ICI Research Perspective, The Role of IRAs in U.S.
Households Saving for Retirement, 2015.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 139


Ownership of IRA and DC plan assets has tended to increase with each successive generation
of workers, although recent data suggest that ownership rates may have stabilized. For
example, in 1983, when they were 44 to 53 years of age, 44 percent of households born in
the 1930s owned IRAs or DC plan accounts (Figure 7.8). By comparison, households born a
decade later had a 56 percent ownership rate when they were 44 to 53 years old in 1993;
and, among households born in the 1950s, 62 percent had IRAs or DC plan accounts when
they were 44 to 53 years old in 2003. Earlier in their careers, the 1960s birth cohort appeared
to be continuing the trend of increased ownership. In 2013, however, when they were 44 to
53 years old, 57 percent of households born in the 1960s owned IRAs or DC plan accounts.
Recent experience could indicate that long-term growth in ownership has stabilized, or it
could reflect a temporary pause in the long-term trend caused by the weak economy.

FIGURE7.8
Rates of IRA or Defined Contribution Plan Ownership
Percentage of U.S. households owning IRAs or DC plans by decade in which household heads were born, 19832013

1983 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 2013
100

90

80 Born 1950 to 1959


Born 1960 to 1969
Born 1940 to 1949
70

60 Born 1970 to 1979


Born 1930 to 1939
50

40

30
Born 1920 to 1929
20
Born 1980 to 1989
10

0
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
Age at time of survey

Note: Age is the average age of the 10-year birth cohort at the time of the survey. The 10-year birth cohorts are defined
using the age of the head of household.
Source: Investment Company Institute tabulations of the Federal Reserve Board Survey of Consumer Finances

140 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Defined Contribution Retirement Plans
DC plans provide employees with a retirement account funded with employer contributions,
employee contributions, or both, plus investment earnings or losses on those contributions,
less withdrawals. Assets in employer-sponsored DC plans have grown faster than assets in
other types of employer-sponsored retirement plans over the last three decades, increasing
from 26 percent of employer plan assets in 1985 to 46 percent at year-end 2015. At the end
of 2015, employer-sponsored DC planswhich include 401(k) plans, 403(b) plans, 457 plans,
the federal Thrift Savings Plan (TSP), Keoghs, and other private-sector DC plansheld an
estimated $6.7 trillion in assets (Figure 7.9). With $4.7 trillion in assets at year-end 2015,
401(k) plans held the largest share of employer-sponsored DC plan assets. 403(b) plans,
which are similar to 401(k) plans, and which allow employees of educational institutions and
certain nonprofit organizations to receive deferred compensation, held another $0.9 trillion
in assets. In addition, 457 planswhich allow employees of state and local governments
and certain tax-exempt organizations to receive deferred compensationand the Federal
Employees Retirement System (FERS) TSP held a total of $0.7 trillion. Other private-sector
DC plans without 401(k) features held the remaining $0.5 trillion.

FIGURE7.9
Defined Contribution Plan Assets by Type of Plan
Trillions of dollars; year-end, selected years

Other private-sector DC plans*


457 plans and federal Thrift Savings Plan ( TSP)
403(b) plans
401(k) plans
6.6 6.7
6.2 0.5 0.5
0.5 0.7 0.7
5.3 0.6
4.8 0.4 0.9 0.9
4.6
0.4 0.5 0.9
0.5
3.7 0.4 0.5 0.8
3.6
0.4 0.7 0.4 0.7
3.0 0.3 0.3
0.5 0.6
0.2 0.6 4.6 4.7
1.7 4.2
0.5 3.1 3.5
0.5 3.0
2.4
0.3 0.1 2.2
1.7
0.9
1995 2000 2005 2007 2008 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015

* Other private-sector DC plans includes Keoghs and other private-sector DC plans (profit-sharing, stock bonus, and
money purchase) without 401(k) features.
Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.
Sources: Investment Company Institute, Federal Reserve Board, Department of Labor, National Association of
Government Defined Contribution Administrators, and American Council of Life Insurers. See Investment Company
Institute, The U.S. Retirement Market, Fourth Quarter 2015.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 141


401(k) and 403(b) Plan Design and Investment Lineup
Plan Design
Employers who sponsor a 401(k) plan have the option to include features in the plan, such
as employer contributions, access to plan assets through participant loans, and automatic
enrollment of employees into the plan to encourage participation. The most common
of these plan features is employer contributions. In 401(k) plans, employers can make
contributions without regard to employee contributions or by using a matching structure
that gives employees an incentive to contribute to the plan. In 2013, analysis of large 401(k)
plans found that nearly nine in 10 (86 percent) made employer contributions of some type
(Figure 7.10). More than seven in 10 large 401(k) plans had loans outstanding* and nearly a
quarter included automatic enrollment in plan year 2013. An analysis of large 403(b) plans
found that they are similarly likely to have employer contributions but less likely to have
loans outstanding or automatic enrollment.

When designing 401(k) plans, employers tend to select a combination of features that
their employees are likely to value. In 2013, more than four in 10 large 401(k) plans had
both employer contributions and participant loans outstanding, making this the most
common combination of plan features. The next most common plan design was employer
contributions only, offered in 21 percent of plans, followed by 18 percent having all three
featuresemployer contributions, automatic enrollment, and outstanding loans. Only
3percent did not offer employer contributions, did not have participant loans outstanding,
and did not automatically enroll participants.

* Although the availability of a loan feature is not reported on Form 5500, it is possible to determine whether participants have
loans by capturing loan use rather than loan offering. See The BrightScope/ICI Defined Contribution Plan Profile: A Close Look
at 401(k) Plans, 2013, available at www.ici.org/pdf/ppr_15_dcplan_profile_401k.pdf.

142 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE7.10
401(k) Sponsors Use a Variety of Plan Designs
Percentage of plans with selected plan activity combinations, 2013

8.0%
Outstanding loans only
3.4% 2.2%
18.0% No activities Outstanding loans and
Employer contributions, outstanding automatic enrollment
loans, and automatic enrollment
0.5%
Automatic enrollment only

20.8%
43.5% Employer contributions only
Employer contributions
and outstanding loans
3.5%
Employer contributions and
automatic enrollment

Note: The sample is 53,661 plans with $3.5 trillion in assets. The results exclude 403(b) plans with a 401(k) feature and
plans with fewer than 100 participants or less than $1 million in plan assets. A plan was determined to allow participant
loans if any participant had a loan outstanding at the end of plan year 2013. Components do not add to 100 percent
because of rounding.
Sources: BrightScope Defined Contribution Plan Database and Investment Company Institute tabulations of Department
of Labor 2013 Form 5500 Research File. See BrightScope and Investment Company Institute, The BrightScope/ICI Defined
Contribution Plan Profile: A Close Look at 401(k) Plans, 2013.

Investment Lineup
In addition to choosing how to structure contributions to the 401(k) plan, employers also
select the investment options to make available to plan participants. In 2013, domestic equity
funds, international equity funds, and domestic bond funds were offered in nearly all large
401(k) plans (Figure 7.11). Although these three fund types are equally likely to be offered,
when these funds are available in the plan employers tend to offer more domestic equity
funds (10 funds on average) than international equity (three funds) or domestic bond funds
(three funds). Target date funds also are common investment choices, with nearly three
quarters of large 401(k) plans offering nine of these funds on average. In addition, about
half of large 401(k) plans offered one money fund on average and seven in 10 offered one
guaranteed investment contract (GIC). In total, the average large 401(k) plan offered 27
funds to participants in 2013. Large 403(b) plans also offer participants a diverse array of
investment options to choose from.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 143


FIGURE7.11
Incidence of Investment Options Offered in 401(k) Plans by Type of Investment
Percentage of plans with audited 401(k) filings in the BrightScope database, 2013

Type of investment option

Domestic 99
Equity funds
International 98

Target date funds1 73


Balanced funds 2
Nontarget date balanced funds 66

Domestic 98
Bond funds
International 26

Money funds 52

Other funds GICs 70

Other3 62

1 A target date fund typically rebalances its portfolio to become less focused on growth and more focused on income as it
approaches and passes the target date of the fund, which is usually included in the funds name.
2 The Investment Company Institute classifies this fund category as hybrid in its data.

3 Other includes commodity funds, real estate funds, and individual stocks (including company stock) and bonds.

Note: The sample is 34,444 plans with $3.3 trillion in assets. BrightScope audited 401(k) filings generally include plans
with 100 participants or more. Funds include mutual funds, collective investment trusts, separate accounts, and other
pooled investment products. Plans with fewer than four investment options, more than 100 investment options, or less
than $1 million in plan assets are excluded from this analysis.
Source: BrightScope Defined Contribution Plan Database. See BrightScope and Investment Company Institute, The
BrightScope/ICI Defined Contribution Plan Profile: A Close Look at 401(k) Plans, 2013.

144 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


401(k) Participants: Asset Allocation, Account Balances, and Loan Activity
Asset Allocation
The income that 401(k) plan accounts provide in retirement depends, in part, on the asset
allocation decisions of plan participants.

On average, younger participants allocate more of their portfolios to equities (which include
equity mutual funds and other pooled equity investments; the equity portion of balanced
funds,* including target date funds; and company stock of their employers). According to
research conducted by ICI and the Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI), at year-end
2014, individuals in their twenties had 37 percent of their 401(k) assets in equity funds and
company stock; 48 percent in target date funds and nontarget date balanced funds; and only
8 percent in GICs and other stable value funds, money funds, and bond funds (Figure7.12).
All told, participants in their twenties had 78 percent of their 401(k) assets in equities. By
comparison, at year-end 2014, participants in their sixties had 26 percent of their 401(k)
account assets in GICs and other stable value funds, money funds, and bond funds; only
23percent in target date funds and nontarget date balanced funds; and 45 percent in equity
funds and company stock. All told, participants in their sixties had 56 percent of their 401(k)
assets in equities.

* The Investment Company Institute classifies balanced funds as hybrid in its data.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 145


FIGURE7.12
401(k) Asset Allocation Varied with Participant Age
Average asset allocation of 401(k) account balances, percentage of account balances, year-end 2014

Participants in their twenties


Participants in their sixties

32.1
Equity funds
37.8

42.4
Target date funds 1
15.6

6.0
Nontarget date balanced funds 2
7.2

4.4
Bond funds
10.4

1.5
Money funds
5.7

1.9
GICs and other stable value funds
10.1

5.1
Company stock
6.9

6.6
Other
6.3

1 Atarget date fund typically rebalances its portfolio to become less focused on growth and more focused on income as it
approaches and passes the target date of the fund, which is usually included in the funds name.
2 The Investment Company Institute classifies balanced funds as hybrid in its data.

Note: Funds include mutual funds, bank collective trusts, life insurance separate accounts, and any pooled investment
product primarily invested in the security indicated. Percentages are dollar-weighted averages.
Source: Tabulations from EBRI/ICI Participant-Directed Retirement Plan Data Collection Project. See ICI Research
Perspective, 401(k) Plan Asset Allocation, Account Balances, and Loan Activity in 2014.

146 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Portfolio allocation also varies widely within age groups. At year-end 2014, 75 percent
of 401(k) participants in their twenties held more than 80 percent of their account in
equities, and 9 percent of these participants held 20 percent or less (Figure 7.13). Of 401(k)
participants in their sixties, 22 percent held more than 80 percent of their account in equities,
and 18 percent held 20 percent or less.

FIGURE7.13
Asset Allocation to Equities Varied Widely Among 401(k) Plan Participants
Asset allocation distribution of 401(k) participant account balance to equities, percentage of participants,
year-end 2014

Percentage of 401(k) account balance invested in equities


>80 percent
>60 to 80 percent 22
>40 to 60 percent
>20 to 40 percent 16
75
>0 to 20 percent
Zero 31

14
11
4 2 6
1 12
8
Participants in their twenties Participants in their sixties

Note: Equities include equity funds, company stock, and the equity portion of balanced funds. Funds include mutual
funds, bank collective trusts, life insurance separate accounts, and any pooled investment product primarily invested
in the security indicated. Components do not add to 100percent because of rounding. The Investment Company Institute
classifies balanced funds as hybrid in its data.
Source: Tabulations from EBRI/ICI Participant-Directed Retirement Plan Data Collection Project. See ICI Research
Perspective, 401(k) Plan Asset Allocation, Account Balances, and Loan Activity in 2014.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 147


Target Date Funds
Target date funds, introduced in the mid-1990s, have grown rapidly in recent years. A target
date fund (including both target date mutual funds and other pooled target date investments)
follows a predetermined reallocation of assets over time based on a specified target
retirement date. Typically the fund rebalances its portfolio to become less focused on growth
and more focused on income as it approaches and passes the target date, which is usually
indicated in the funds name. Since 2006, the share of 401(k) plans that offer target date
funds, the share of 401(k) plan participants offered target date funds, and the share of 401(k)
participants holding target date funds all have increased (Figure 7.14). At year-end 2014,
target date funds accounted for 18 percent of 401(k) assets, up from 5 percent at year-end
2006.

In 2014, 72 percent of 401(k) plans offered target date funds, and 73 percent of 401(k) plan
participants were offered target date funds (Figure 7.14). Because not all plan participants
choose to allocate assets to these funds, the percentage of 401(k) participants with target
date fund assets was lower than the percentage of participants who were offered the option.

FIGURE7.14
Target Date Funds 401(k) Market Share
Percentage of total 401(k) market; year-end, 2006 and 2014

2006
2014
72 73
62
57
48

19 18

Plans offering Participants offered Participants holding Target date


target date funds target date funds target date funds fund assets

Note: Funds include mutual funds, bank collective trusts, life insurance separate accounts, and other pooled investment
products.
Source: Tabulations from EBRI/ICI Participant-Directed Retirement Plan Data Collection Project. See ICI Research
Perspective, 401(k) Plan Asset Allocation, Account Balances, and Loan Activity in 2014.

148 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


At year-end 2014, 48 percent of 401(k) participants held at least some plan assets in target
date funds. In addition, because not all participants with assets in target date funds allocated
100 percent of their holdings to these funds, and because participants with assets in these
funds were more likely to be younger or recently hired and have lower account balances, the
share of 401(k) assets invested in target date funds was lower than the share of participants
invested in these funds.

Account Balances
Account balances tended to be higher the longer 401(k) plan participants had been working
for their current employers and the older the participant. Participants in their sixties with
more than 30 years of tenure at their current employer had an average 401(k) account
balance of $274,043 at year-end 2014 (Figure 7.15). Participants in their forties with five to
10 years of tenure at their current employer had an average 401(k) balance of $66,173. The
median 401(k) plan participant was 46 years old at year-end 2014, and the median job tenure
was eight years.

FIGURE7.15
401(k) Balances Tend to Increase with Participant Age and Job Tenure
Average 401(k) account balance by participant age and tenure, 2014

$300,000
50s
$250,000

60s
$200,000

$150,000
40s

$100,000
30s
$50,000
20s
$0
0 to 2 >2 to 5 >5 to 10 >10 to 20 >20 to 30 >30
Participant job tenure (years)

Source: Tabulations from EBRI/ICI Participant-Directed Retirement Plan Data Collection Project. See ICI Research
Perspective, 401(k) Plan Asset Allocation, Account Balances, and Loan Activity in 2014.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 149


Plan Loans
Most 401(k) participants do not borrow from their plans, although the majority have access to
loans. At year-end 2014, 20 percent of participants eligible for loans had loans outstanding,
down slightly from 21 percent at year-end 2013. Not all participants, however, have access
to 401(k) plan loansfactoring in all 401(k) participants with and without loan access in
the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database, only 17 percent had loans outstanding at year-end 2014. The
average unpaid loan balances among participants with loans represented about 11percent
of their 401(k) account balances (net of the unpaid loan balances). In aggregate, U.S.
Department of Labor data indicate that outstanding loan amounts were less than 2 percent
of 401(k) plan assets in 2013.

Individual Retirement Accounts


The first type of IRAknown as a traditional IRAwas created under the Employee
Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). IRAs provide all workers with a contributory
retirement savings vehicle and, through rollovers, give workers leaving jobs a means to
preserve the tax benefits and growth opportunities that employer-sponsored retirement plans
provide. Roth IRAs, first available in 1998, were created to provide a contributory retirement
savings vehicle on an after-tax basis with qualified withdrawals distributed tax-free. In
addition, policymakers have added employer-sponsored IRAs (SEP IRAs, SAR-SEP IRAs, and
SIMPLE IRAs) to encourage small employers to provide retirement plans by simplifying the
rules applicable to tax-qualified plans.

150 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Total IRA assets, $7.3 trillion at year-end 2015, accounted for 31 percent of U.S. retirement
assets. Mutual funds accounted for $3.5 trillion of IRA assets at year-end 2015, about the
same as at year-end 2014 (Figure 7.16). Assets managed by mutual funds were the largest
component of IRA assets, followed by the other asset category, which includes ETFs, closed-
end funds, individual stocks and bonds, and other securities held through brokerage accounts
($2.9 trillion at year-end 2015). The mutual fund industrys share of the IRA market was
48percent at year-end 2015, down slightly from year-end 2014.

FIGURE7.16
IRA Assets
Trillions of dollars; year-end, selected years

Other assets 1
Life insurance companies 2
Bank and thrift deposits 3
Mutual funds
7.3 e 7.3 e

5.8 2.9 e
2.8 e
5.0
4.7
2.2
3.7 1.8 0.4 0.4
3.4 1.7 0.5 0.5
0.3
2.6 1.1 0.3 1.3 0.3 0.5
0.3 0.5
0.9 0.3 0.3
0.3 0.4 3.5 3.5
1.3 0.2 2.8
0.3 2.4
0.5 2.4
1.8
0.3 0.1 1.3 1.7
0.5
1995 2000 2005 2007 2008 2010 2012 2014 2015

1 Other assets includes individual stocks, individual bonds, closed-end funds, ETFs, and other assets held through
brokerage or trust accounts.
2 Life insurance company IRA assets are annuities held by IRAs, excluding variable annuity mutual fund IRA assets, which

are included in mutual funds.


3 Bank and thrift deposits include Keogh deposits.

e Data are estimated.

Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.


Sources: Investment Company Institute, Federal Reserve Board, American Council of Life Insurers, and Internal Revenue
Service Statistics of Income Division. See Investment Company Institute, The U.S. Retirement Market, Fourth Quarter
2015.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 151


IRA Investors
More than three out of 10 U.S. households, or about 40 million, owned at least one type of
IRA as of mid-2015 (Figure 7.17). Traditional IRAsthose introduced under ERISAwere the
most common type, owned by about 30 million U.S. households. Roth IRAs, first available in
1998 under the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, were owned by about 20 million U.S. households.
Nearly seven million U.S. households owned employer-sponsored IRAs (SEP IRAs, SAR-SEP
IRAs, or SIMPLE IRAs).

Although most U.S. households are eligible to make contributions to IRAs, few do so. Indeed,
only 14 percent of U.S. households contributed to any type of IRA in tax year 2014. In
addition, very few eligible households made catch-up contributions to traditional or Roth
IRAs.

FIGURE7.17
40 Million U.S. Households Owned IRAs
Number of U.S. Percentage of U.S.
households with households with Assets in IRAs
type of IRA type of IRA (billions of dollars,
Year created (mid-2015) (mid-2015) year-end 2015)

1974
Traditional IRA (Employee Retirement 30.4 million 24.4% $6,174 e
Income Security Act)

1978
SEP IRA
(Revenue Act)
1986
SAR-SEP IRA 6.7 million 5.4% $495 e
(Tax Reform Act)
1996
SIMPLE IRA (Small Business Job
Protection Act)
1997
Roth IRA 20.3 million 16.3% $660 e
(Taxpayer Relief Act)

Any IRA 40.2 million 32.3% $7,329 e

e Dataare estimated.
Note: Households may own more than one type of IRA. SEP IRAs, SAR-SEP IRAs, and SIMPLE IRAs are employer-
sponsored IRAs.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and U.S. Census Bureau. See ICI Research Perspective, The Role of IRAs in
U.S. Households Saving for Retirement, 2015 and The U.S. Retirement Market, Fourth Quarter 2015.

152 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Instead, investment returns and rollovers from employer-sponsored retirement plans have
fueled the growth of IRAs. In any given year, a small portion of traditional IRA investors
make rollovers, but analysis of The IRA Investor Databasewhich contains information on
more than 15 million IRA investorsfinds that, for the most part, the groups that make
rollovers differ from year to year. Rollovers play an important role in opening traditional IRAs.
With the availability of retirement accumulations that can be rolled over, whether from DC
accounts or as lump-sum distributions from DB plans, most (86 percent) new traditional IRAs
in 2013 were opened only with rollovers (Figure 7.18). By contrast, in 2013, 12 percent of
Roth IRAs were opened only with rollovers; the majority (75 percent) were opened only with
contributions.

FIGURE7.18
New Roth IRAs Often Are Opened with Contributions; New Traditional IRAs Often
Are Opened with Rollovers
Percentage of new IRAs opened in 2013 by type of IRA

Combination of activities 5 3
Contribution only 11
Conversion only
Rollover only
75
86

9
12
Roth IRAs Traditional IRAs

Note: New IRAs are accounts that did not exist in The IRA Investor Database in 2012 and were opened by one of the
paths indicated in 2013. The calculation excludes IRAs that changed financial services firms. The samples are 0.3 million
new Roth IRA investors aged 18 or older at year-end 2013 and 0.7 million new traditional IRA investors aged 25 to 74 at
year-end 2013. Components may not add to 100 percent because of rounding.
Source: The IRA Investor Database. See ICI Research Report, The IRA Investor Profile: Roth IRA Investors Activity,
20072013.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 153


Traditional IRAowning households generally researched the decision to roll over money from
their former employers retirement plan into a traditional IRA. The most common source of
information was professional financial advisers. Advisers were consulted by 63 percent of
traditional IRAowning households with rollovers, with nearly half indicating they primarily
relied on financial professionals (Figure 7.19). Older households were more likely to consult
professional financial advisers than younger households. Seven percent of traditional IRA
owning households with rollovers indicated their primary source of information was online
materials from financial services firms, with younger households more likely to rely on online
resources than older households as their primary source of information.

FIGURE7.19
Multiple Sources of Information Are Consulted for the Rollover Decision
Percentage of traditional IRAowning households with rollovers, mid-2015

Source 1
Primary source

63
A financial professional
49

Employer (printed or online 38


materials, seminars, workshops) 11

Printed materials provided by 38


financial services firms 4
Seminars, workshops, or phone
47
representative from financial
services firms 5

43
Spouse or par tner
6

Online materials from financia l 29


services firms 7

30
IRS rules or publications
5

Coworker, friend, or 23
family member 8

Other2 7
5

1 Multipleresponses are included; 81 percent of traditional IRAowning households with rollovers consulted multiple
sources of information.
2 Other responses given included: myself, other online information, bank, and books and magazines.

Source: Investment Company Institute IRA Owners Survey. See ICI Research Perspective, The Role of IRAs in U.S.
Households Saving for Retirement, 2015.

154 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Households owning IRAs generally are headed by middle-aged individuals (median age of
54 years) with moderate household incomes (median income of $87,500). These households
held a median of $50,000 in IRAs. In addition, many households held multiple types of IRAs.
For example, 41 percent of households with traditional IRAs also owned Roth IRAs, and
12percent also owned employer-sponsored IRAs.

IRA Portfolios
At year-end 2013, younger IRA investors tended to have more invested in equities, equity
funds, and target date funds, on average, than older investors, according to The IRA Investor
Database. Older investors were invested more heavily in nontarget date balanced funds*
and fixed-income investments. For example, traditional IRA investors in their thirties had,
on average, 53 percent of their assets in equities and equity funds and another 19 percent
in target date funds (Figure 7.20). Traditional IRA investors in their sixties held 51 percent
and 5percent of their traditional IRA assets, respectively, in these two asset categories.
Traditional IRA investors in their sixties had 41 percent of their assets in money market
funds (12 percent), bonds and bond funds (18 percent), and nontarget date balanced funds
(12percent). By contrast, traditional IRA investors in their thirties held a quarter of their
assets in these three asset categories.

Roth IRA investors display a similar pattern of investing by age, although Roth IRA investors
of all ages tended to have higher allocations to equities and equity funds compared with
traditional IRA investorsfor example, Roth IRA investors in their thirties and sixties held the
same portion of their assets in equities and equity funds (63 percent). Roth IRA investors in
their thirties had, on average, 18 percent of their assets in target date funds, while Roth IRA
investors in their sixties had 4 percent (Figure 7.20). By contrast, Roth IRA investors in their
sixties had nearly a third of their assets in money market funds (9 percent), bonds and bond
funds (10 percent), and nontarget date balanced funds (13 percent). Roth IRA investors in
their thirties held less than one-fifth of their assets in these three asset categories.

* The Investment Company Institute classifies balanced funds as hybrid in its data.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 155


FIGURE7.20
IRA Asset Allocation Varied with Investor Age
Average asset allocation of IRA balances,percentage of assets, year-end 2013

Other investments1
Money market funds
Bonds and bond funds2
Nontarget date balanced funds3
Target date funds4
Equities and equity funds5

Traditional IRA investors


3.3 2.2
12.3 11.6
5.3
7.6 17.8
18.6 11.6
5.4

52.8 51.4

Investors in their thirties Investors in their sixties

Roth IRA investors

6.0 0.9 9.1


1.6
3.3
8.8 9.8
17.6 12.6
4.0

63.4 62.9

Investors in their thirties Investors in their sixties

1 Other investments includes certificates of deposit and unidentifiable assets.


2 Bond funds include bond mutual funds, bond closed-end funds, and bond ETFs.
3 Balanced funds invest in a mix of equities and fixed-income securities. The Investment Company Institute classifies

balanced funds as hybrid in its data.


4 A target date fund typically rebalances its portfolio to become less focused on growth and more focused on income as it

approaches and passes the target date of the fund, which is usually included in the funds name.
5 Equity funds include equity mutual funds, equity closed-end funds, and equity ETFs.

Note:Percentages are dollar-weighted averages. Components may not add to 100percent because of rounding.
Source: The IRA Investor Database. See ICI Research Report, The IRA Investor Profile: Traditional IRA Investors
Activity, 20072013, and ICI Research Report, The IRA Investor Profile: Roth IRA Investors Activity, 20072013.

156 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Distributions from IRAs
Withdrawals from IRAs tend to occur later in life, often to fulfill required minimum
distributions (RMDs). An RMD is equal to a percentage of the IRA balance, based on remaining
life expectancy. Traditional IRA owners aged 70 or older generally must withdraw at least
the minimum amount each year or pay a penalty. In tax year 2014, 61 percent of individuals
who took traditional IRA withdrawals stated they calculated the withdrawal amount based on
RMD rules.

In contrast to traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs have no RMDs (unless they are inherited). As a
result, withdrawal activity is much lower among Roth IRA investors. In 2013, only 4 percent
of Roth IRA investors aged 25 or older made withdrawals, compared with 23 percent of
traditional IRA investors (Figure 7.21). Early withdrawal penalties can apply to both Roth and
traditional IRA investors younger than 59, and withdrawal activity is lower among investors
younger than 60 compared with investors aged 60 or older.

FIGURE7.21
Roth IRA Investors Rarely Take Withdrawals; Traditional IRA Investors Are Heavily
Affected by RMDs
Percentage of IRA investors with withdrawals by type of IRA and investor age, 2013

Roth IRA investors


Traditional IRA investors
80

21 23

9
3 5 5 4

25 to 59 60 to 69 70 or older All (25 or older)


Age of IRA investor

Note: The samples are 5.1 million Roth IRA investors aged 25 or older at year-end 2013 and 10.7 million traditional IRA
investors aged 25 or older at year-end 2013.
Source: The IRA Investor Database. See ICI Research Report, The IRA Investor Profile: Roth IRA Investors Activity,
20072013.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 157


Withdrawals from IRAs tend to be retirement related. Of the 22 percent of traditional IRA
owning households who reported taking withdrawals in tax year 2014, 73 percent reported
that the head of household, the spouse, or both were retired. Of retired households that took
traditional IRA withdrawals in tax year 2014, 48 percent reported using some or all of the
withdrawal amount to pay for living expenses (Figure 7.22). Other uses included reinvesting
or saving in another account (37 percent), paying for a healthcare expense (36 percent), and
buying, repairing, or remodeling a home (25 percent).

Traditional IRAowning households that reported taking withdrawals in tax year 2014 and
were not retired indicated a slightly different pattern for the withdrawals. The nonretired
households with withdrawals were less likely to indicate using some or all of the money for
living expenses (34 percent) or to reinvest or save it in another account (36 percent) than the
retired households (Figure 7.22).

FIGURE7.22
Traditional IRA Withdrawals Among Retirees Often Are Used to Pay for Living
Expenses
Percentage of traditional IRAowning households by retirement status, 1 mid-2015

Purpose of traditional IRA withdrawal Retired1, 2 Not retired3


Took withdrawals to pay for living expenses 48 34
Spent it on a car, boat, or big-ticket item other than a home 12 14
Spent it on a healthcare expense 36 25
Used it for an emergency 23 27
Used it for home purchase, repair, or remodeling 25 27
Reinvested or saved it in another account 37 24
Paid for education 8 12
Some other purpose 11 10

1 The household was considered retired if either the head of household or spouse responded affirmatively to the question:
Are you retired from your lifetime occupation?
2 The base of respondents includes the 16 percent of traditional IRAowning households that were retired in mid-2015 and

took withdrawals in tax year 2014.


3 The base of respondents includes the 6 percent of traditional IRAowning households that were not retired in mid-2015

and took withdrawals in tax year 2014.


Note: Multiple responses are included.
Source: Investment Company Institute IRA Owners Survey. See ICI Research Perspective, The Role of IRAs in U.S.
Households Saving for Retirement, 2015.

158 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Because current withdrawal activity might not be a good indicator of future withdrawal
activity, ICI also asked about plans for future traditional IRA withdrawals. Among traditional
IRAowning households in 2015 that did not take a withdrawal in tax year 2014, 72 percent
said that they were not likely to take a withdrawal before age 70. Traditional IRAowning
households that were either (1) retired and did not take withdrawals in tax year 2014 or
(2) not retired reported a pattern for the expected role of their future IRA withdrawals in
retirement that is consistent with those that withdrew in tax year 2014. Sixty-two percent
of these households reported they plan to use IRA withdrawals to pay for living expenses in
retirement, and 45 percent reported they plan to reinvest or save their IRA withdrawals in
another account.

The Role of Mutual Funds in Retirement Savings


At year-end 2015, mutual funds held in DC plans and IRAs accounted for $7.1 trillion, or
30 percent, of the $24.0 trillion U.S. retirement market. The $7.1 trillion in mutual fund
retirement assets made up 46 percent of all mutual fund assets at year-end 2015. Mutual
funds accounted for 54 percent of DC plan assets and 48 percent of IRA assets (Figure7.23).
Additionally, retirement investors tend to hold long-term mutual funds. At year-end 2015,
DC plans and IRAs held 53 percent of equity, hybrid, and bond mutual funds, but only
13 percent of money market funds.

FIGURE7.23
Substantial Amount of Retirement Assets Are Invested in Mutual Funds
Assets, billions of dollars, year-end 2015

Other investments Other investors


Mutual funds DC plans and IRAs

12,897

6,124
7,329 e
6,736

3,106 3,830
6,773 2,755
53%
3,630 54% 3,499 48% 2,399
356 13%
DC plans IRAs Equity, hybrid, Money market
and bond mutual funds funds

e Data
are estimated.
Sources: Investment Company Institute, Federal Reserve Board, American Council of Life Insurers, and Internal Revenue
Service Statistics of Income Division. See Investment Company Institute, The U.S. Retirement Market, Fourth Quarter
2015.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 159


Across the entire U.S. retirement market, mutual funds play a major role in IRAs and
employer-sponsored DC plans, such as 401(k) plans. At year-end 2015, investors held slightly
more mutual fund assets in DC plans ($3.6 trillion, or 54 percent of total DC plan assets) than
in IRAs ($3.5 trillion, or 48 percent of total IRA assets) (Figure 7.24). Among DC plans, 401(k)
plans held the most assets in mutual funds, with $2.8 trillion, followed by 403(b) plans
($429 billion), other private-sector DC plans ($286 billion), and 457 plans ($110 billion).

Types of Mutual Funds Used by Retirement Plan Investors


Retirement investors tend to hold equity investments. At year-end 2015, 58 percent of the
$7.1 trillion in mutual fund retirement assets held in DC plans and IRAs were invested in
domestic or world equity funds (Figure 7.24). By comparison, about 52 percent of overall fund
industry assetsretirement and nonretirement accountswere invested in domestic or world
equity funds. Domestic equity funds alone constituted about $3.1 trillion, or 44percent, of
mutual fund assets held in DC plans and IRAs.

FIGURE7.24
Majority of Mutual Fund Retirement Account Assets Were Invested in Equities
Billions of dollars, year-end 2015

Equity
Domestic World Hybrid1 Bond Money market Total

IRAs 2 1,460 465 783 576 216 3,499


DC plans 1,688 503 887 411 141 3,630
401(k) plans 1,262 415 747 286 96 2,805
403(b) plans 264 35 76 35 20 429
457 plans 61 16 18 14 2 110
Other DC plans 3 102 37 47 76 24 286
Total $3,148 $968 $1,670 $987 $356 $7,130

1 Hybrid funds invest in a mix of equities and fixed-income securities. Most target date and lifestyle funds are counted in
this category.
2 IRAs include traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, and employer-sponsored IRAs (SEP IRAs, SAR-SEP IRAs, and SIMPLE

IRAs).
3 Other DC plans includes Keoghs and other private-sector DC plans without 401(k) features.

Note: Components may not add to the totals because of rounding.


Source: Investment Company Institute, The U.S. Retirement Market, Fourth Quarter 2015

160 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Retirement investors also gain exposure to equities and fixed-income securities through
hybrid funds. At year-end 2015, 23 percent of mutual fund assets held in DC plans and IRAs
were held in hybrid funds, which invest in a mix of equity, bond, and money market securities
(Figure 7.24). At year-end 2015, the remaining 19 percent of mutual fund assets held in DC
plans and IRAs were invested in bond funds and money market funds. Bond funds held
$987 billion, or 14 percent, of mutual fund assets held in DC plans and IRAs, and money
market funds accounted for $356 billion, or 5 percent.

Target Date and Lifestyle Mutual Funds


Target date and lifestyle mutual funds, generally included in the hybrid fund category, have
grown more popular among investors and retirement plan sponsors over the past decade. A
target date fund follows a predetermined reallocation of assets over time based on a specified
target retirement date. Typically the fund rebalances its portfolio to become less focused on
growth and more focused on income as it approaches and passes the target date, which is
usually indicated in the funds name. A lifestyle fund maintains a predetermined risk level
and generally uses words such as conservative, moderate, or aggressive in its name to
indicate the funds risk level.

Assets in target date and lifestyle mutual funds totaled $1.1 trillion at year-end 2015, about
the same as at year-end 2014 (Figure 7.25). Target date mutual funds assets were up
9percent in 2015, increasing from $703 billion to $763 billion. Assets in lifestyle mutual funds
fell 9 percent in 2015, dropping from $395 billion to $361 billion. Most target date mutual
fund assets (88 percent) were held in retirement accounts, compared with 43 percent of
lifestyle mutual fund assets.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 161


FIGURE7.25
Target Date and Lifestyle Mutual Fund Assets by Account Type
Billions of dollars; year-end, 20042015

Other investors 763


IRAs 1 703 91
DC plans 2
77
618
Target date mutual funds 3
64 160
149
481 127
46
376 96
340 36
33
74
256 66 511
21 477
183 49 427
15 160 340
115 40 11 265
32 240
71 26 9 185
44 7 16 128 116
5 80
29 9 49
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Lifestyle mutual funds 4

395
359 361
293
264 262 223
238 231 206 206
189 176 162
120 127 145 145
131
94 93 93
85 71 86
63 46 43 50 50 58
46 34 33
21 82
16 47 61 72 49 62 70 67 73 78 69
24
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

1 IRAs include traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, and employer-sponsored IRAs (SEP IRAs, SAR-SEP IRAs, and SIMPLE IRAs).
2 DC plans include 401(k) plans, 403(b) plans, 457 plans, Keoghs, and other DC plans without 401(k) features.
3 A target date mutual fund typically rebalances its portfolio to become less focused on growth and more focused on

income as it approaches and passes the target date of the fund, which is usually included in the funds name.
4 A lifestyle mutual fund maintains a predetermined risk level and generally uses conservative, moderate, or

aggressive in its name.


Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.
Source: Investment Company Institute, The U.S. Retirement Market, Fourth Quarter 2015

162 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Target date, lifestyle, and index mutual funds have grown as a share of mutual fund assets
in DC plans. Target date mutual funds increased 12 percentage points as a share of DC
plans mutual fund assets from 2004 to year-end 2015, rising from 2 percent to 14 percent
(Figure7.26). At year-end 2015, target date, lifestyle, and index mutual funds made up
35percent of mutual fund assets in DC plans compared to only 13 percent in 2004.

FIGURE7.26
Target Date, Lifestyle, and Index Funds Have Risen as a Share of DC Plans Mutual
Fund Assets
Percentage of mutual fund assets held in DC plans;1 year end, 20042015

Target date funds 2 35


Lifestyle funds 3 32
Index funds 4 30
28
26 14
24 13
22 12
20 12
11 2
18 10 2
16 8
15 5 7 2
13 3 4 3 3
2 3 3
1 3 3 3 3
17 19
12 13 15
10 10 10 10 10 10 11

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

1 DC plans include 401(k) plans, 403(b) plans, 457 plans, Keoghs, and other DC plans without 401(k) features.
2 A target date mutual fund typically rebalances its portfolio to become less focused on growth and more focused on
income as it approaches and passes the target date of the fund, which is usually included in the funds name.
3 A lifestyle mutual fund maintains a predetermined risk level and generally uses conservative, moderate, or

aggressive in its name.


4 Index mutual funds are equity, bond, and hybrid funds that target specific market indexes with the general objective

of meeting the performance of that index. Equity index funds are the most common type of index fund.
Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.
Source: Investment Company Institute, The U.S. Retirement Market, Fourth Quarter 2015

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 163


The Role of Mutual Funds in Education Savings
Twenty-four percent of households that owned mutual funds in 2015 cited education as a
financial goal for their fund investments. Nevertheless, the demand for education savings
vehicles has been historically modest since their introduction in the 1990s, partly because of
their limited availability and investors lack of familiarity with them. The Economic Growth
and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act (EGTRRA), enacted in 2001, enhanced the attractiveness of
Section 529 plans and Coverdell Education Savings Accounts (ESAs)two education savings
vehiclesby allowing greater contributions to them and making them more flexible. The
Pension Protection Act (PPA), enacted in 2006, made the EGTRRA enhancements to Section
529 plans permanent. The Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job
Creation Act of 2010 extended the EGTRRA enhancements to Coverdell ESAs for two years;
the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 made these enhancements permanent.

Assets in Section 529 savings plans increased 3 percent in 2015, with $230 billion at year-
end 2015, up from $224 billion at year-end 2014 (Figure 7.27). As of year-end 2015, there
were 11.3 million 529 savings plan accounts, with an average account size of approximately
$20,300.

164 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


FIGURE7.27
Section 529 Savings Plan Assets
Billions of dollars; year-end, selected years

223.9 229.8
203.9

145.0
112.3 116.2
89.1
68.7
34.8
8.6

2001 2003 2005 2007 2008 2009 2011 2013 2014 2015

Note: Data were estimated for a few individual state observations in order to construct a continuous time series.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and College Savings Plans Network. See Investment Company Institute, 529 Plan
Program Statistics, December 2015.

In mid-2015, as a group, households saving for college through 529 plans, Coverdell ESAs,
or mutual funds held outside these accounts tended to be headed by younger individuals,
with 43 percent younger than 45 (Figure 7.28). Heads of households saving for college had a
range of education attainment: 44 percent had less than a college degree and 56 percent had
a college degree or more. These households also had a range of incomes: 32 percent earned
less than $75,000; 15 percent earned between $75,000 and $99,999; and more than half
earned $100,000 or more. Nearly six in 10 of these households had children (younger than
18) in the home, and 34 percent had more than one child in the home.

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 165


FIGURE7.28
Characteristics of Households Saving for College
Percentage of U.S. households saving for college, 1 mid-2015

Age of head of household 2


Younger than 35 21
35 to 44 22
45 to 54 29
55 to 64 16
65 or older 12

Education level
High school diploma or less 17
Associates degree or some college 27
Completed college 24
Some graduate school or completed graduate school 32

Household income 3
Less than $25,000 7
$25,000 to $34,999 5
$35,000 to $49,999 7
$50,000 to $74,999 14
$75,000 to $99,999 14
$100,000 or more 53

Number of children in home 4


None 42
One 24
Two 22
Three or more 12

1 Households saving for college are households that own education savings plans (Coverdell ESAs or 529 plans) or that said
paying for education was one of their financial goals for their mutual funds.
2 Age is based on the sole or co-decisionmaker for saving and investing.

3 Total reported is household income before taxes in 2014.

4 The number of children reported is children younger than 18 living in the home.

166 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


For More Information
Individual Retirement Account Resource Center
www.ici.org/iraresource
401(k) Resource Center
www.ici.org/401k
Target Retirement Date Funds Resource Center
www.ici.org/trdf
529 Plan Program Statistics
www.ici.org/research/stats/529s
How America Supports Retirement: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom on Who Benefits
www.ici.org/whobenefits
Getting the Numbers Right on Investment Advice for Retirement Savers
www.ici.org/viewpoints/view_15_fiduciary_data
On Fiduciary Rule, New York Times Relies on Fatally Flawed Research
www.ici.org/viewpoints/view_15_fatal_flaw

RETIREMENT AND EDUCATION SAVINGS 167


DATA SECTION 1

PART TWO

Data Tables
DATA SECTION 1
DATA TABLES

Section 1
MUTUAL FUND TOTALS
Table 1: Total Net Assets, Number of Funds, and Number of Share Classes of the Mutual Fund Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
2: Total Sales, New Sales, Exchange Sales, Redemptions, and Exchange Redemptions of the Mutual Fund Industry . . . . . 173
3: Total Net Assets of the Mutual Fund Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
4: Total Net Assets of the Mutual Fund Industry by Composite Investment Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
5: Number of Funds of the Mutual Fund Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
6: Number of Funds of the Mutual Fund Industry by Composite Investment Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
7: Number of Share Classes of the Mutual Fund Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
8: Number of Share Classes of the Mutual Fund Industry by Composite Investment Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

Section 2
CLOSED-END FUNDS, EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS, AND UNIT INVESTMENT TRUSTS
Table 9: Closed-End Funds: Total Assets and Number of Funds by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
10: Closed-End Funds: Gross Issuance, Gross Redemptions, and Net Issuance by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
11: Exchange-Traded Funds: Total Net Assets by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
12: Exchange-Traded Funds: Number of Funds by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
13: Exchange-Traded Funds: Net Issuance by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
14: Unit Investment Trusts: Total Net Assets, Number of Trusts, and New Deposits by Type of Trust . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

Section 3
LONG-TERM MUTUAL FUNDS
Table 15: Liquid Assets and Liquidity Ratio of Long-Term Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
16: Liquidity Ratio of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Composite Investment Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
17: Net New Cash Flow of Long-Term Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
18: Net New Cash Flow and Components of Net New Cash Flow of Equity Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
19: Net New Cash Flow and Components of Net New Cash Flow of Hybrid Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
20: Net New Cash Flow and Components of Net New Cash Flow of Bond Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
21: Net New Cash Flow of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Composite Investment Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
22: New Sales of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Composite Investment Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
23: Exchange Sales of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Composite Investment Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
24: Redemptions of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Composite Investment Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
25: Exchange Redemptions of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Composite Investment Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
26: Annual Redemption Rates of Long-Term Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
27: Portfolio Holdings of Long-Term Mutual Funds and Percentage of Total Net Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
28: Portfolio Holdings of Long-Term Mutual Funds as a Percentage of Total Net Assets by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
29: Paid and Reinvested Dividends of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
30: Paid and Reinvested Capital Gains of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
31: Total Portfolio, Common Stock, and Other Securities: Purchases, Sales, and Net Purchases
by Long-Term Mutual Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
32: Total Portfolio, Common Stock, and Other Securities: Purchases, Sales, and Net Purchases by Equity Mutual Funds . . 203
33: Total Portfolio, Common Stock, and Other Securities: Purchases, Sales, and Net Purchases by Hybrid Mutual Funds . . 204
34: Total Portfolio, Common Stock, and Other Securities: Purchases, Sales, and Net Purchases by Bond Mutual Funds . . . 205

170 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Section 4
MONEY MARKET FUNDS
Table 35: Money Market Funds: Total Net Assets, Number of Funds, and Number of Share Classes
by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
36: Total Net Assets of Money Market Funds by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
37: Net New Cash Flow of Money Market Funds by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
38: Net New Cash Flow and Components of Net New Cash Flow of Money Market Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
39: Paid and Reinvested Dividends of Money Market Funds by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
40: Asset Composition of Taxable Government Money Market Funds as a Percentage of Total Net Assets . . . . . . . . . . . 211
41: Asset Composition of Taxable Prime Money Market Funds as a Percentage of Total Net Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

Section 5
ADDITIONAL CATEGORIES OF MUTUAL FUNDS
Table 42: Alternative Strategies Mutual Funds: Total Net Assets, Net New Cash Flow, Number of Funds, and
Number of Share Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
43: Emerging Markets Debt Mutual Funds: Total Net Assets, Net New Cash Flow, Number of Funds, and
Number of Share Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
44: Floating-Rate High-Yield Bond Mutual Funds: Total Net Assets, Net New Cash Flow, Number of Funds,
and Number of Share Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
45: Funds of Funds: Total Net Assets, Net New Cash Flow, Number of Funds, and Number of Share Classes . . . . . . . . . . 216
46: Funds of Funds: Components of Net New Cash Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
47: Index Mutual Funds: Total Net Assets and Net New Cash Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
48: Index Mutual Funds: Number of Funds and Number of Share Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
49: Index Mutual Funds: New Sales and Exchange Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
50: Index Mutual Funds: Redemptions and Exchange Redemptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
51: Inflation-Protected and Treasury Inflation-Protected Mutual Funds: Total Net Assets, Net New Cash Flow,
Number of Funds, and Number of Share Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
52: Mutual Funds by Market Capitalization: Total Net Assets and Net New Cash Flow by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
53: Mutual Funds by Market Capitalization: Number of Funds and Number of Share Classes by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . 224
54: Sector Mutual Funds: Total Net Assets and Net New Cash Flow by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
55: Sector Mutual Funds: Number of Funds and Number of Share Classes by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
56: Target Date and Lifestyle Mutual Funds: Total Net Assets, Net New Cash Flow, Number of Funds,
and Number of Share Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
57: Target Date and Lifestyle Mutual Funds: Components of Net New Cash Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
58: Variable Annuity Mutual Funds: Total Net Assets, Net New Cash Flow, and Number of Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
59: Variable Annuity Mutual Funds: Components of Net New Cash Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

Section 6
INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS IN MUTUAL FUNDS
Table 60: Total Net Assets of Mutual Funds Held in Individual and Institutional Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
61: Total Net Assets of Institutional Investors in Mutual Funds by Type of Institution and Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
62: Total Net Assets of Institutional Investors in Taxable Money Market Funds by Type of Institution and Type of Fund . . . 233

Section 7
RETIREMENT ACCOUNT INVESTING IN MUTUAL FUNDS
Table 63: Mutual Fund DC Plan Assets and Estimated Net New Cash Flow by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
64: Mutual Fund IRA Assets and Estimated Net New Cash Flow by Type of Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

Section 8
WORLDWIDE REGULATED OPEN-END FUNDS
Table 65: Worldwide Total Net Assets of Regulated Open-End Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
66: Worldwide Number of Regulated Open-End Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
67: Worldwide Net Sales of Regulated Open-End Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

DATA TABLES 171


TABLE 1
DATA SECTION 1

Total Net Assets, Number of Funds, and Number of Share Classes of the Mutual
Fund Industry
Year-end
Total net assets Number of
Year Billions of dollars Number of funds share classes
1940 $0.45 68
1945 1.28 73
1950 2.53 98
1955 7.84 125
1960 17.03 161
1965 35.22 170
1970 47.62 361
1975 45.87 426
1976 51.28 452
1977 48.94 477
1978 55.84 505
1979 94.51 526
1980 134.76 564
1981 241.37 665
1982 296.68 857
1983 292.99 1,026
1984 370.68 1,243 1,243
1985 495.39 1,528 1,528
1986 715.67 1,835 1,835
1987 769.17 2,312 2,312
1988 809.37 2,737 2,737
1989 980.67 2,935 2,935
1990 1,065.19 3,079 3,177
1991 1,393.19 3,403 3,587
1992 1,642.54 3,824 4,208
1993 2,069.96 4,534 5,562
1994 2,155.32 5,325 7,697
1995 2,811.29 5,725 9,007
1996 3,525.80 6,248 10,352
1997 4,468.20 6,684 12,002
1998 5,525.21 7,314 13,720
1999 6,846.34 7,791 15,262
2000 6,964.63 8,155 16,738
2001 6,974.91 8,305 18,022
2002 6,383.16 8,243 18,982
2003 7,402.12 8,127 19,320
2004 8,095.80 8,045 20,041
2005 8,891.38 7,977 20,554
2006 10,398.16 8,123 21,264
2007 12,000.17 8,041 21,638
2008 9,620.64 8,040 22,263
2009 11,112.62 7,666 21,651
2010 11,833.36 7,555 21,911
2011 11,632.35 7,588 22,283
2012 13,056.68 7,590 22,637
2013 15,050.82 7,715 23,389
2014 15,875.27 7,928 24,227
2015 15,651.96 8,116 25,038
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

172 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 2

DATA SECTION 1
Total Sales, New Sales, Exchange Sales, Redemptions, and Exchange Redemptions
of the Mutual Fund Industry
Billions of dollars, annual

Year Total sales 1 New sales Exchange sales 2 Redemptions Exchange redemptions 3
1945 $0.29 $0.11
1950 0.52 0.28
1955 1.21 0.44
1960 2.10 0.84
1965 4.36 $3.93 1.96
1970 4.63 3.84 2.99
1975 10.06 8.94 9.57
1980 247.42 238.96 $10.10 216.08 $9.94
1981 472.13 452.42 14.44 362.44 14.59
1982 626.94 604.09 28.25 588.35 27.86
1983 547.77 532.04 35.67 565.83 36.03
1984 680.12 661.74 36.66 607.02 37.11
1985 953.85 933.37 46.55 864.88 46.84
1986 1,204.90 1,179.40 107.75 1,015.64 107.96
1987 1,251.19 1,220.27 205.68 1,178.75 207.35
1988 1,176.81 1,143.62 134.28 1,166.67 134.24
1989 1,444.84 1,401.21 130.66 1,327.05 131.95
1990 1,564.81 1,517.41 138.79 1,470.83 140.98
1991 2,037.64 1,990.53 155.75 1,879.69 154.31
1992 2,749.68 2,704.69 197.43 2,548.28 198.15
1993 3,187.49 3,137.76 248.79 2,904.44 253.95
1994 3,075.63 3,019.76 317.55 2,928.62 325.00
1995 3,600.62 3,526.00 351.53 3,314.86 351.08
1996 4,671.44 4,586.71 504.73 4,266.20 503.94
1997 5,801.23 5,704.83 613.44 5,324.29 618.49
1998 7,230.40 7,126.92 742.97 6,649.27 743.37
1999 9,043.58 8,922.96 949.96 8,562.10 947.36
2000 11,109.54 10,970.50 1,149.75 10,586.59 1,145.42
2001 12,866.21 12,747.53 797.34 12,242.32 798.08
2002 13,168.76 13,084.32 747.34 13,011.36 745.65
2003 12,393.59 12,315.40 572.50 12,361.66 573.76
2004 12,191.21 12,101.07 409.00 12,038.96 417.95
2005 13,939.28 13,812.45 420.84 13,546.77 432.42
2006 17,409.26 17,228.70 487.72 16,751.98 492.20
2007 23,470.65 23,236.42 606.47 22,352.20 611.96
2008 26,349.29 26,135.06 735.12 25,714.11 730.11
2009 20,680.22 20,528.82 530.25 20,676.85 528.35
2010 18,210.24 18,053.46 420.18 18,320.28 434.88
2011 17,837.57 17,661.79 448.06 17,739.21 466.52
2012 17,023.43 16,832.69 422.03 16,621.11 434.12
2013 18,158.48 17,969.37 517.69 17,778.80 531.09
2014 18,714.67 18,499.38 425.48 18,387.59 433.36
2015 20,933.30 20,709.41 452.11 20,808.76 454.43
1 Totalsales are the dollar value of new sales plus sales made through reinvestment of income dividends from existing
accounts, but exclude reinvestment of capital gains distributions.
2 Exchange sales are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched into funds within the same fund group.
3 Exchange redemptions are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched out of funds and into other funds within the

same fund group.


Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

MUTUAL FUND TOTALS 173


TABLE 3
DATA SECTION 1

Total Net Assets of the Mutual Fund Industry


Billions of dollars, year-end
Long-term funds Money market
Year Total Equity Bond and income funds
1960 $17.03 $16.00 $1.02
1965 35.22 32.76 2.46
1970 47.62 45.13 2.49
1975 45.87 37.49 4.68 $3.70
1976 51.28 39.19 8.39 3.69
1977 48.94 34.07 10.98 3.89
1978 55.84 32.67 12.31 10.86
1979 94.51 35.88 13.10 45.53
1980 134.76 44.42 13.98 76.36
1981 241.37 41.19 14.01 186.16
1982 296.68 53.63 23.21 219.84
1983 292.99 76.97 36.63 179.39
Long-term funds
Equity Bond Money market funds
Year Total Domestic World Hybrid Taxable Municipal Taxable Tax-exempt
1984 $370.68 $74.55 $5.19 $11.15 $25.45 $20.79 $209.75 $23.80
1985 495.39 103.39 7.94 17.61 83.20 39.44 207.55 36.25
1986 715.67 138.98 15.47 25.76 167.63 75.67 228.35 63.81
1987 769.17 158.02 17.43 29.25 171.40 76.97 254.68 61.42
1988 809.37 171.40 17.98 26.35 168.96 86.73 272.20 65.76
1989 980.67 221.45 23.59 35.64 166.25 105.66 358.62 69.47
1990 1,065.19 211.18 28.30 35.98 171.14 120.25 414.56 83.78
1991 1,393.19 365.21 39.52 52.04 239.77 154.20 452.46 89.98
1992 1,642.54 468.41 45.68 77.63 308.37 196.26 451.35 94.84
1993 2,069.96 626.54 114.13 142.33 367.05 254.60 461.88 103.44
1994 2,155.32 691.57 161.19 161.40 302.84 227.31 501.11 109.89
1995 2,811.29 1,052.57 196.51 206.70 349.21 253.29 631.32 121.69
1996 3,525.80 1,440.81 285.20 248.36 396.56 253.07 763.94 137.87
1997 4,468.20 2,021.66 346.37 311.90 457.50 271.89 901.23 157.66
1998 5,525.21 2,586.31 391.64 360.04 536.96 298.59 1,166.97 184.71
1999 6,846.34 3,456.64 585.25 374.64 545.18 271.48 1,413.25 199.90
2000 6,964.63 3,369.73 564.75 360.92 545.58 278.41 1,611.38 233.87
2001 6,974.91 2,947.93 444.47 358.03 642.96 296.22 2,026.23 259.08
2002 6,383.16 2,273.05 369.37 335.28 810.26 330.13 1,988.78 276.30
2003 7,402.12 3,118.32 535.05 447.57 924.85 336.31 1,749.73 290.29
2004 8,095.80 3,626.37 716.20 552.25 971.03 328.24 1,589.70 312.00
2005 8,891.38 3,929.72 955.73 621.48 1,018.68 338.95 1,690.45 336.37
2006 10,398.16 4,472.13 1,360.45 731.50 1,130.52 365.09 1,969.42 369.03
2007 12,000.17 4,694.65 1,718.57 821.52 1,305.51 374.15 2,617.67 468.09
2008 9,620.64 2,738.82 916.34 562.26 1,233.18 337.79 3,338.56 493.68
2009 11,112.62 3,564.56 1,307.98 717.58 1,748.11 458.50 2,916.96 398.94
2010 11,833.36 4,053.93 1,542.70 842.20 2,117.07 473.95 2,473.51 330.01
2011 11,632.35 3,855.40 1,357.59 883.98 2,346.90 497.53 2,399.25 291.70
2012 13,056.68 4,324.64 1,614.10 1,034.06 2,810.53 580.17 2,405.74 287.43
2013 15,050.82 5,726.85 2,035.87 1,285.01 2,785.99 499.29 2,447.20 270.61
2014 15,875.27 6,233.17 2,081.15 1,376.59 2,893.24 566.48 2,463.85 260.79
2015 15,651.96 6,045.88 2,102.37 1,336.58 2,818.96 593.41 2,499.81 254.93
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. The data contain a series
break beginning in 1984. All funds were reclassified in 1984, and a separate category was created for hybrid funds.
Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

174 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 4
Total Net Assets of the Mutual Fund Industry by Composite Investment Objective
Billions of dollars, year-end
Equity funds Bond funds Money market funds
Capital Investment State National

MUTUAL FUND TOTALS


Year appreciation World Total return Hybrid funds grade High yield World Government Multisector muni muni Taxable Tax-exempt
2000 $1,433.95 $564.75 $1,935.78 $360.92 $245.69 $109.94 $32.98 $124.87 $32.10 $131.92 $146.49 $1,611.38 $233.87
2001 1,105.24 444.47 1,842.69 358.03 311.29 109.20 31.75 154.14 36.57 139.78 156.44 2,026.23 259.08
2002 765.54 369.37 1,507.51 335.28 405.94 108.11 34.12 218.98 43.10 152.72 177.41 1,988.78 276.30
2003 1,041.14 535.05 2,077.18 447.57 473.59 158.99 43.97 197.99 50.31 149.26 187.05 1,749.73 290.29
2004 1,148.56 716.20 2,477.81 552.25 518.25 167.89 52.63 176.61 55.67 144.09 184.15 1,589.70 312.00
2005 1,232.82 955.73 2,696.90 621.48 570.10 159.36 59.95 167.34 61.93 147.46 191.50 1,690.45 336.37
2006 1,319.36 1,360.45 3,152.78 731.50 640.32 175.73 80.90 153.15 80.42 154.42 210.67 1,969.42 369.03
2007 1,419.60 1,718.57 3,275.05 821.52 760.34 175.96 110.01 158.19 101.01 155.94 218.21 2,617.67 468.09
2008 808.69 916.34 1,930.13 562.26 736.40 118.23 105.65 188.04 84.86 135.09 202.70 3,338.56 493.68
2009 1,085.64 1,307.98 2,478.92 717.58 1,050.03 198.06 158.73 210.31 130.99 159.26 299.24 2,916.96 398.94
2010 1,246.24 1,542.70 2,807.69 842.20 1,241.29 243.48 246.41 225.43 160.46 156.16 317.80 2,473.51 330.01
2011 1,176.99 1,357.59 2,678.41 883.98 1,365.08 271.18 294.42 242.09 174.13 158.89 338.64 2,399.25 291.70
2012 1,317.35 1,614.10 3,007.29 1,034.06 1,570.03 341.92 369.02 298.28 231.28 177.53 402.64 2,405.74 287.43
2013 1,723.13 2,035.87 4,003.72 1,285.01 1,448.87 418.53 431.37 239.42 247.80 144.82 354.47 2,447.20 270.61
2014 1,854.17 2,081.15 4,379.00 1,376.59 1,522.03 377.27 466.89 253.88 273.17 156.16 410.32 2,463.85 260.79
2015 1,842.81 2,102.37 4,203.07 1,336.58 1,512.51 325.62 431.52 265.85 283.46 159.84 433.57 2,499.81 254.93
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

175
DATA SECTION 1
TABLE 5
DATA SECTION 1

Number of Funds of the Mutual Fund Industry


Year-end
Long-term funds Money market
Year Total Equity Bond and income funds
1970 361 323 38
1971 392 350 42
1972 410 364 46
1973 421 366 55
1974 431 343 73 15
1975 426 314 76 36
1976 452 302 102 48
1977 477 296 131 50
1978 505 294 150 61
1979 526 289 159 78
1980 564 288 170 106
1981 665 306 180 179
1982 857 340 199 318
1983 1,026 396 257 373
Long-term funds
Equity Bond Money market funds
Year Total Domestic World Hybrid Taxable Municipal Taxable Tax-exempt
1984 1,243 430 29 89 159 111 331 94
1985 1,528 519 43 103 229 174 350 110
1986 1,835 621 57 121 302 247 360 127
1987 2,312 743 81 164 415 366 389 154
1988 2,737 897 109 179 522 420 433 177
1989 2,935 941 128 189 561 443 470 203
1990 3,079 944 155 192 584 463 505 236
1991 3,403 985 206 211 658 523 552 268
1992 3,824 1,086 239 234 773 628 585 279
1993 4,534 1,280 306 281 951 796 627 293
1994 5,325 1,463 423 360 1,104 1,012 649 314
1995 5,725 1,611 528 411 1,167 1,011 676 321
1996 6,248 1,902 668 465 1,244 981 669 319
1997 6,684 2,183 768 500 1,287 933 685 328
1998 7,314 2,622 890 525 1,351 900 687 339
1999 7,791 3,004 949 531 1,375 887 704 341
2000 8,155 3,315 1,055 508 1,367 871 704 335
2001 8,305 3,610 1,085 473 1,308 814 690 325
2002 8,243 3,714 1,018 458 1,295 770 677 311
2003 8,127 3,659 929 474 1,313 779 660 313
2004 8,045 3,651 887 472 1,324 767 639 305
2005 7,977 3,659 912 481 1,315 740 593 277
2006 8,123 3,748 995 500 1,320 713 573 274
2007 8,041 3,678 1,060 496 1,326 676 545 260
2008 8,040 3,655 1,140 511 1,311 640 534 249
2009 7,666 3,419 1,172 481 1,291 599 476 228
2010 7,555 3,321 1,194 495 1,310 583 442 210
2011 7,588 3,259 1,266 520 1,348 563 431 201
2012 7,590 3,217 1,279 564 1,393 557 400 180
2013 7,715 3,193 1,345 606 1,456 560 382 173
2014 7,928 3,238 1,410 666 1,530 557 364 163
2015 8,116 3,277 1,487 717 1,581 573 336 145
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. The data contain a series
break beginning in 1984. All funds were reclassified in 1984, and a separate category was created for hybrid funds.

176 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 6
Number of Funds of the Mutual Fund Industry by Composite Investment Objective
Year-end
Equity funds Bond funds Money market funds
Capital Investment State National

MUTUAL FUND TOTALS


Year appreciation World Total return Hybrid funds grade High yield World Government Multisector muni muni Taxable Tax-exempt
2000 1,555 1,055 1,760 508 575 219 155 323 95 589 282 704 335
2001 1,723 1,085 1,887 473 557 224 140 296 91 550 264 690 325
2002 1,729 1,018 1,985 458 575 212 126 284 98 515 255 677 311
2003 1,680 929 1,979 474 601 212 121 281 98 523 256 660 313
2004 1,650 887 2,001 472 614 217 122 275 96 513 254 639 305
2005 1,631 912 2,028 481 609 228 123 262 93 498 242 593 277
2006 1,669 995 2,079 500 594 221 139 256 110 478 235 573 274
2007 1,577 1,060 2,101 496 605 223 151 243 104 448 228 545 260
2008 1,555 1,140 2,100 511 595 216 161 236 103 415 225 534 249
2009 1,441 1,172 1,978 481 571 207 170 237 106 377 222 476 228
2010 1,391 1,194 1,930 495 583 210 183 229 105 361 222 442 210
2011 1,356 1,266 1,903 520 579 211 217 223 118 346 217 431 201
2012 1,341 1,279 1,876 564 580 218 255 216 124 336 221 400 180
2013 1,325 1,345 1,868 606 593 230 290 214 129 331 229 382 173
2014 1,328 1,410 1,910 666 604 240 348 199 139 322 235 364 163
2015 1,345 1,487 1,932 717 622 240 371 192 156 319 254 336 145
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

177
DATA SECTION 1
TABLE 7
DATA SECTION 1

Number of Share Classes of the Mutual Fund Industry


Year-end
Long-term funds
Equity Bond Money market funds
Year Total Domestic World Hybrid Taxable Municipal Taxable Tax-exempt
1984 1,243 430 29 89 159 111 331 94
1985 1,528 519 43 103 229 174 350 110
1986 1,835 621 57 121 302 247 360 127
1987 2,312 743 81 164 415 366 389 154
1988 2,737 897 109 179 522 420 433 177
1989 2,935 941 128 189 561 443 470 203
1990 3,177 962 166 199 598 490 522 240
1991 3,587 1,021 227 223 687 558 591 280
1992 4,208 1,189 263 257 877 708 616 298
1993 5,562 1,560 385 347 1,207 1,054 672 337
1994 7,697 2,026 630 515 1,605 1,660 858 403
1995 9,007 2,442 845 634 1,844 1,862 953 427
1996 10,352 3,056 1,155 749 2,050 1,889 1,005 448
1997 12,002 3,860 1,449 873 2,293 1,978 1,075 474
1998 13,720 4,872 1,770 964 2,532 1,955 1,137 490
1999 15,262 5,818 1,968 1,026 2,722 1,998 1,230 500
2000 16,738 6,725 2,299 1,007 2,821 2,031 1,331 524
2001 18,022 7,738 2,511 994 2,874 1,957 1,405 543
2002 18,982 8,427 2,515 1,030 3,065 1,939 1,463 543
2003 19,320 8,546 2,369 1,112 3,222 2,040 1,462 569
2004 20,041 9,002 2,357 1,202 3,377 2,050 1,477 576
2005 20,554 9,259 2,501 1,344 3,427 1,992 1,464 567
2006 21,264 9,641 2,775 1,355 3,542 1,938 1,454 559
2007 21,638 9,706 3,030 1,354 3,640 1,893 1,447 568
2008 22,263 9,881 3,386 1,424 3,753 1,829 1,443 547
2009 21,651 9,342 3,550 1,374 3,782 1,757 1,330 516
2010 21,911 9,201 3,715 1,450 3,990 1,774 1,281 500
2011 22,283 9,173 3,949 1,562 4,150 1,719 1,255 475
2012 22,637 9,143 4,042 1,693 4,438 1,698 1,174 449
2013 23,389 9,220 4,262 1,868 4,720 1,748 1,141 430
2014 24,227 9,422 4,532 2,028 4,996 1,743 1,100 406
2015 25,038 9,640 4,776 2,200 5,222 1,773 1,056 371
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

178 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 8
Number of Share Classes of the Mutual Fund Industry by Composite Investment Objective
Year-end
Equity funds Bond funds Money market funds
Capital Investment State National

MUTUAL FUND TOTALS


Year appreciation World Total return Hybrid funds grade High yield World Government Multisector muni muni Taxable Tax-exempt
2000 3,232 2,299 3,493 1,007 1,141 490 311 679 200 1,393 638 1,331 524
2001 3,770 2,511 3,968 994 1,190 524 292 661 207 1,325 632 1,405 543
2002 3,974 2,515 4,453 1,030 1,340 528 291 676 230 1,286 653 1,463 543
2003 3,950 2,369 4,596 1,112 1,461 538 291 703 229 1,333 707 1,462 569
2004 4,068 2,357 4,934 1,202 1,551 571 302 716 237 1,333 717 1,477 576
2005 4,092 2,501 5,167 1,344 1,574 612 315 687 239 1,306 686 1,464 567
2006 4,245 2,775 5,396 1,355 1,604 623 367 666 282 1,258 680 1,454 559
2007 4,158 3,030 5,548 1,354 1,655 661 413 630 281 1,220 673 1,447 568
2008 4,176 3,386 5,705 1,424 1,660 680 491 624 298 1,151 678 1,443 547
2009 3,925 3,550 5,417 1,374 1,629 660 544 633 316 1,069 688 1,330 516
2010 3,832 3,715 5,369 1,450 1,707 690 615 652 326 1,065 709 1,281 500
2011 3,778 3,949 5,395 1,562 1,721 704 744 620 361 1,029 690 1,255 475
2012 3,763 4,042 5,380 1,693 1,796 744 892 626 380 1,002 696 1,174 449
2013 3,762 4,262 5,458 1,868 1,844 796 1,044 631 405 1,010 738 1,141 430
2014 3,788 4,532 5,634 2,028 1,874 833 1,252 601 436 990 753 1,100 406
2015 3,866 4,776 5,774 2,200 1,950 850 1,335 592 495 976 797 1,056 371
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

179
DATA SECTION 1
DATA SECTION 2

180
TABLE 9
Closed-End Funds: Total Assets and Number of Funds by Type of Fund
Total assets Number of funds
Millions of dollars, year-end Year-end
Equity funds Bond funds Equity funds Bond funds
Global/ Domestic Domestic Global/ Global/ Domestic Domestic Global/
Year Total Domestic International taxable municipal International Total Domestic International taxable municipal International
1990 $59,014 $10,791 $5,751 $16,820 $16,482 $9,170 248 41 51 85 53 18
1991 76,092 13,109 6,115 19,403 29,519 7,947 280 40 52 86 87 15
1992 100,581 14,581 7,100 24,632 45,593 8,674 372 43 61 99 149 20
1993 131,438 15,462 12,466 30,909 60,100 12,501 494 48 70 120 227 29
1994 130,586 16,018 21,505 26,604 56,035 10,425 510 50 86 123 219 32
1995 142,540 18,078 23,769 28,678 60,318 11,698 499 49 91 119 207 33
1996 146,908 19,830 27,074 28,418 59,540 12,046 496 50 91 118 205 32
1997 151,767 20,536 29,011 28,315 61,992 11,912 486 45 89 115 205 32
1998 155,749 22,529 25,011 34,127 63,628 10,454 491 44 83 123 211 30
1999 146,940 24,696 16,494 30,888 64,513 10,348 511 49 74 117 241 30
2000 143,066 24,557 11,986 28,581 68,266 9,676 481 53 69 109 220 30
2001 141,185 22,309 8,748 26,559 74,467 9,102 489 52 64 108 238 27
2002 158,664 26,596 6,988 25,643 90,024 9,414 543 63 59 105 291 25
2003 213,756 42,987 9,743 55,428 94,060 11,539 581 75 55 127 297 27
2004 253,382 63,732 18,072 63,890 94,841 12,847 618 95 61 137 295 30
2005 275,932 77,090 27,784 63,935 94,563 12,559 634 120 71 132 280 31
2006 297,236 88,013 33,657 67,962 94,526 13,079 645 128 74 134 276 33
2007 312,371 87,869 57,329 62,571 88,920 15,682 662 136 92 131 269 34
2008 184,175 45,753 26,525 33,673 67,334 10,891 642 128 93 128 260 33
2009 222,894 52,940 34,489 44,126 77,677 13,660 627 117 91 127 260 32
2010 237,790 60,461 36,239 48,985 77,140 14,965 624 117 87 130 258 32
2011 242,387 62,414 33,441 48,009 84,100 14,422 632 125 87 132 256 32
2012 263,618 68,461 32,179 53,638 90,594 18,746 602 125 86 131 223 37
2013 279,287 81,757 32,429 58,489 82,876 23,737 599 131 85 132 210 41
2014 289,191 88,962 30,370 56,820 90,164 22,874 568 126 84 124 194 40
2015 260,611 72,055 27,542 51,672 89,465 19,876 558 121 84 126 188 39
Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding. Totals are inclusive of preferred share classes.

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 10
Closed-End Funds: Gross Issuance, Gross Redemptions, and Net Issuance by Type of Fund
Millions of dollars, annual
Equity funds Bond funds
Global/ Domestic Domestic Global/
Year Total Domestic International taxable municipal International
Gross issuance1
2002 $24,895 $9,191 $3 $2,309 $13,392 $0

DATA SECTION 2
2003 40,810 11,187 50 25,587 2,954 1,032
2004 27,991 15,424 5,714 5,820 5 1,028
2005 21,388 12,559 6,628 2,046 31 124
2006 12,745 7,992 2,505 1,718 196 334
2007 31,086 5,973 19,764 2,221 433 2,695
2008 275 8 145 121 0 0
2009 3,615 549 485 876 1,389 317
2010 14,017 3,719 114 2,374 7,454 358
2011 14,990 3,850 1,469 1,000 8,669 2
2012 16,844 3,815 533 4,088 6,328 2,081
2013 17,012 4,311 106 4,525 1,643 6,428
2014 8,413 4,263 619 677 2,854 1
2015 4,140 496 1,461 1,403 728 51
Gross redemptions 2
2007 $2,717 $1,024 $105 $254 $1,313 $20
2008 22,573 7,060 1,832 6,891 6,089 701
2009 6,875 2,916 639 1,664 1,627 30
2010 8,587 1,724 55 474 6,335 0
2011 8,972 644 209 276 7,843 0
2012 5,459 974 420 838 3,226 0
2013 3,335 214 649 604 1,864 5
2014 3,522 444 124 411 2,330 213
2015 2,463 348 419 725 816 156
Net issuance 3
2007 $28,369 $4,949 $19,659 $1,966 -$880 $2,675
2008 -22,298 -7,052 -1,687 -6,770 -6,089 -700
2009 -3,259 -2,366 -154 -788 -238 287
2010 5,430 1,995 59 1,900 1,119 357
2011 6,018 3,206 1,260 724 825 2
2012 11,385 2,840 113 3,249 3,102 2,081
2013 13,677 4,097 -543 3,921 -220 6,423
2014 4,891 3,819 494 266 523 -212
2015 1,676 148 1,043 678 -87 -104
1 Gross issuance of shares is the value of net proceeds from underwritings, additional offerings, and other issuance. Data are
not available prior to 2002.
2 Gross redemptions of shares is the value of share repurchases and fund liquidations. Data are not available prior to 2007.
3 Net issuance of shares is the dollar value of gross issuance minus gross redemptions. A positive number indicates that gross

issuance exceeded gross redemptions. A negative number indicates that gross redemptions exceeded gross issuance. Data
are not available prior to 2007.
Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding. Totals are inclusive of preferred share classes.

CLOSED-END FUNDS, EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS, AND UNIT INVESTMENT TRUSTS 181


DATA SECTION 2

182
TABLE 11
Exchange-Traded Funds: Total Net Assets by Type of Fund
Millions of dollars, year-end

Investment objective Legal status


Equity 1940 Act ETFs Memo
Domestic equity Global/ Actively Non1940 Act Funds of
Year Total Broad-based Sector1 International Commodities 2 Hybrid Bond Index managed ETFs 3 funds 4
1993 $464 $464 - - - - - $464 - - -
1994 424 424 - - - - - 424 - - -
1995 1,052 1,052 - - - - - 1,052 - - -
1996 2,411 2,159 - $252 - - - 2,411 - - -
1997 6,707 6,200 - 506 - - - 6,707 - - -
1998 15,568 14,058 $484 1,026 - - - 15,568 - - -
1999 33,873 29,374 2,507 1,992 - - - 33,873 - - -
2000 65,585 60,529 3,015 2,041 - - - 65,585 - - -
2001 82,993 74,752 5,224 3,016 - - - 82,993 - - -
2002 102,143 86,985 5,919 5,324 - - $3,915 102,143 - - -
2003 150,983 120,430 11,901 13,984 - - 4,667 150,983 - - -
2004 227,540 163,730 20,315 33,644 $1,335 - 8,516 226,205 - $1,335 -
2005 300,820 186,832 28,975 65,210 4,798 - 15,004 296,022 - 4,798 -
2006 422,550 232,487 43,655 111,194 14,699 - 20,514 407,850 - 14,699 -
2007 608,422 300,930 64,117 179,702 28,906 $119 34,648 579,517 - 28,906 -
2008 531,288 266,161 58,374 113,684 35,728 132 57,209 495,314 $245 35,728 $97
2009 777,128 304,044 82,053 209,315 74,528 169 107,018 701,586 1,014 74,528 824
2010 991,989 372,377 103,807 276,622 101,081 322 137,781 888,198 2,736 101,055 1,294
2011 1,048,134 400,696 108,548 245,114 109,176 377 184,222 934,216 5,049 108,868 1,580
2012 1,337,112 509,338 135,378 328,521 120,016 656 243,203 1,206,974 10,257 119,881 2,227
2013 1,674,616 761,701 202,706 398,834 64,042 1,469 245,862 1,596,691 14,055 63,869 2,659
2014 1,974,377 935,652 267,523 414,805 56,974 3,047 296,376 1,901,331 16,508 56,538 5,204
2015 2,100,443 965,123 267,356 474,640 49,317 3,738 340,270 2,024,438 27,534 48,471 10,690
1 Thiscategory includes funds both registered and not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940.
2 Thiscategory includes fundsboth registered and not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940that invest primarily in commodities, currencies, and futures.
3 The funds in this category are not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940.
4 Data for ETFs that invest primarily in other ETFs are excluded from the totals.

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Strategic Insight Simfund
TABLE 12
Exchange-Traded Funds: Number of Funds by Type of Fund
Year-end
Investment objective Legal status
Equity 1940 Act ETFs Memo
Domestic equity Global/ Actively Non1940 Act Funds of
Year Total Broad-based Sector1 International Commodities 2 Hybrid Bond Index managed ETFs 3 funds 4
1993 1 1 - - - - - 1 - - -
1994 1 1 - - - - - 1 - - -
1995 2 2 - - - - - 2 - - -
1996 19 2 - 17 - - - 19 - - -
1997 19 2 - 17 - - - 19 - - -
1998 29 3 9 17 - - - 29 - - -
1999 30 4 9 17 - - - 30 - - -
2000 80 29 26 25 - - - 80 - - -
2001 102 34 34 34 - - - 102 - - -
2002 113 34 32 39 - - 8 113 - - -
2003 119 39 33 41 - - 6 119 - - -
2004 152 60 42 43 1 - 6 151 - 1 -
2005 204 81 65 49 3 - 6 201 - 3 -
2006 359 133 119 85 16 - 6 343 - 16 -
2007 629 197 191 159 28 5 49 601 - 28 -

CLOSED-END FUNDS, EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS, AND UNIT INVESTMENT TRUSTS


2008 728 204 186 225 45 6 62 670 13 45 15
2009 797 222 179 244 49 5 98 727 21 49 23
2010 923 243 193 298 55 6 128 844 25 54 27
2011 1,134 287 229 368 75 7 168 1,028 33 73 32
2012 1,194 274 222 404 79 13 202 1,070 44 80 45
2013 1,294 292 235 438 76 15 238 1,158 61 75 38
2014 1,411 316 236 494 82 19 264 1,228 111 72 40
2015 1,594 360 266 592 81 21 274 1,387 134 73 50
1 Thiscategory includes funds both registered and not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940.
2 Thiscategory includes fundsboth registered and not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940that invest primarily in commodities, currencies, and futures.
3 The funds in this category are not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940.
4 Data for ETFs that invest primarily in other ETFs are excluded from the totals.

Sources: Investment Company Institute and Strategic Insight Simfund

183
DATA SECTION 2
DATA SECTION 2

184
TABLE 13
Exchange-Traded Funds: Net Issuance by Type of Fund
Millions of dollars, annual
Investment objective Legal status
Equity 1940 Act ETFs Memo
Domestic equity Global/ Actively Non1940 Act Funds of
Year Total Broad-based Sector1 International Commodities 2 Hybrid Bond Index managed ETFs 3 funds 4
1993 $442 $442 - - - - - $442 - - -
1994 -28 -28 - - - - - -28 - - -
1995 443 443 - - - - - 443 - - -
1996 1,108 842 - $266 - - - 1,108 - - -
1997 3,466 3,160 - 306 - - - 3,466 - - -
1998 6,195 5,158 $484 553 - - - 6,195 - - -
1999 11,929 10,221 1,596 112 - - - 11,929 - - -
2000 42,508 40,591 1,033 884 - - - 42,508 - - -
2001 31,012 26,911 2,735 1,366 - - - 31,012 - - -
2002 45,302 35,477 2,304 3,792 - - $3,729 45,302 - - -
2003 15,810 5,737 3,587 5,764 - - 721 15,810 - - -
2004 56,375 29,084 6,514 15,645 $1,353 - 3,778 55,021 - $1,353 -
2005 56,729 16,941 6,719 23,455 2,859 - 6,756 53,871 - 2,859 -
2006 73,995 21,589 9,780 28,423 8,475 - 5,729 65,520 - 8,475 -
2007 150,617 61,152 18,122 48,842 9,062 $122 13,318 141,555 - 9,062 -
2008 177,220 88,105 30,296 25,243 10,567 58 22,952 166,372 $281 10,567 $107
2009 116,469 -11,842 14,329 39,599 28,410 15 45,958 87,336 724 28,410 237
2010 117,982 28,317 10,187 41,527 8,155 144 29,652 108,141 1,711 8,129 433
2011 117,642 34,653 9,682 24,250 2,940 72 46,045 112,437 2,567 2,639 389
2012 185,394 57,739 14,307 51,896 8,889 246 52,318 171,329 5,025 9,041 510
2013 179,885 99,470 34,434 62,807 -29,870 849 12,195 205,323 4,468 -29,906 1,180
2014 240,785 102,335 40,593 46,642 -1,420 1,629 51,007 240,011 2,538 -1,764 2,423
2015 230,919 49,705 13,371 109,668 2,118 1,110 54,949 216,463 12,926 1,530 5,778
1
This category includes funds both registered and not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940.
2 This category includes fundsboth registered and not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940that invest primarily in commodities, currencies, and futures.
3 The funds in this category are not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940.
4 Data for ETFs that invest primarily in other ETFs are excluded from the totals.

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.
Sources: Investment Company Institute and Strategic Insight Simfund
TABLE 14
Unit Investment Trusts: Total Net Assets, Number of Trusts, and New Deposits by Type of Trust
Total net assets Number of trusts New deposits
Millions of dollars, year-end Year-end Millions of dollars, annual
Year Total trusts Equity Taxable debt Tax-free debt Total trusts Equity Taxable debt Tax-free debt Total trusts Equity Taxable debt Tax-free debt
1990 $105,390 $4,192 $9,456 $91,742 12,131 171 722 11,238 $7,489 $495 $1,349 $5,644
1991 102,828 4,940 9,721 88,167 12,388 168 678 11,542 8,195 900 1,687 5,609
1992 97,925 6,484 9,976 81,465 13,598 230 745 12,623 8,909 1,771 2,385 4,752
1993 87,574 8,494 8,567 70,513 13,740 258 679 12,803 9,359 3,206 1,598 4,555
1994 73,682 9,285 7,252 57,144 13,310 306 568 12,436 8,915 3,265 1,709 3,941
1995 73,125 14,019 8,094 51,013 12,979 301 578 12,100 11,264 6,743 1,154 3,367
1996 72,204 22,922 8,485 40,796 11,764 378 591 10,795 21,662 18,316 800 2,546
1997 84,761 40,747 6,480 37,533 11,593 563 513 10,517 38,546 35,855 771 1,919
1998 93,943 56,413 5,380 32,151 10,966 872 414 9,680 47,675 45,947 562 1,166
1999 91,970 62,128 4,283 25,559 10,414 1,081 409 8,924 52,046 50,629 343 1,074
2000 74,161 48,060 3,502 22,599 10,072 1,554 369 8,149 43,649 42,570 196 883
2001 49,249 26,467 3,784 18,999 9,295 1,500 324 7,471 19,049 16,927 572 1,550
2002 36,016 14,651 4,020 17,345 8,303 1,247 366 6,690 11,600 9,131 862 1,607
2003 35,826 19,024 3,311 13,491 7,233 1,206 320 5,707 12,731 10,071 931 1,729
2004 37,267 23,201 2,635 11,432 6,499 1,166 295 5,038 17,125 14,559 981 1,585
2005 40,894 28,634 2,280 9,980 6,019 1,251 304 4,464 22,598 21,526 289 782
2006 49,662 38,809 2,142 8,711 5,907 1,566 319 4,022 29,057 28,185 294 578

CLOSED-END FUNDS, EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS, AND UNIT INVESTMENT TRUSTS


2007 53,040 43,295 2,066 7,680 6,030 1,964 327 3,739 35,836 35,101 298 438
2008 28,543 20,080 2,007 6,456 5,984 2,175 343 3,466 23,590 22,335 557 698
2009 38,336 24,774 3,668 9,894 6,049 2,145 438 3,466 22,293 16,159 2,201 3,933
2010 50,567 34,112 3,780 12,675 5,971 2,212 491 3,268 30,936 25,003 928 5,006
2011 59,931 40,638 3,602 15,691 6,043 2,395 512 3,136 36,026 31,900 765 3,361
2012 71,725 51,905 4,063 15,757 5,787 2,426 553 2,808 43,404 40,012 1,236 2,157
2013 86,504 70,850 3,560 12,094 5,552 2,428 580 2,544 55,628 53,719 916 993
2014 101,136 85,887 3,135 12,114 5,381 2,501 593 2,287 65,529 63,991 624 915
2015 94,127 80,417 2,597 11,113 5,188 2,609 587 1,992 65,949 64,582 492 875
Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

185
DATA SECTION 2
TABLE 15
Liquid Assets and Liquidity Ratio of Long-Term Mutual Funds
Year-end
Liquid assets Liquidity ratio*
Millions of dollars Percent
Equity Hybrid Bond Equity Hybrid Bond
Year Total funds funds funds Total funds funds funds
1984 $12,181 $7,295 $878 $4,007 8.9% 9.1% 7.9% 8.7%
1985 20,593 10,452 1,413 8,728 8.2 9.4 8.0 7.1
1986 30,611 14,612 2,514 13,485 7.2 9.5 9.8 5.5
1987 37,930 16,319 2,730 18,881 8.4 9.3 9.3 7.6
1988 44,980 17,742 2,986 24,252 9.5 9.4 11.3 9.5
1989 44,603 25,602 5,747 13,253 8.1 10.4 16.1 4.9
1990 48,440 27,344 4,198 16,899 8.5 11.4 11.7 5.8
1991 60,385 30,657 3,309 26,419 7.1 7.6 6.4 6.7
DATA SECTION 3

1992 73,984 42,417 6,560 25,007 6.7 8.3 8.5 5.0


1993 99,436 57,539 16,613 25,284 6.6 7.8 11.7 4.1
1994 120,430 70,885 19,929 29,616 7.8 8.3 12.3 5.6
1995 141,755 97,743 19,271 24,741 6.9 7.8 9.3 4.1
1996 151,988 107,667 17,954 26,367 5.8 6.2 7.2 4.1
1997 198,826 145,565 24,645 28,616 5.8 6.1 7.9 3.9
1998 191,393 143,516 25,289 22,588 4.6 4.8 7.0 2.7
1999 219,098 174,692 20,979 23,427 4.2 4.3 5.6 2.9
2000 277,164 225,023 26,798 25,343 5.4 5.7 7.4 3.1
2001 222,475 170,361 26,911 25,203 4.7 5.0 7.5 2.7
2002 208,939 120,500 25,423 63,016 5.1 4.6 7.6 5.5
2003 259,641 154,877 30,654 74,110 4.8 4.2 6.8 5.9
2004 307,111 184,140 36,419 86,552 5.0 4.2 6.6 6.7
2005 303,189 190,906 43,133 69,150 4.4 3.9 6.9 5.1
2006 346,768 218,670 57,461 70,637 4.3 3.7 7.9 4.7
2007 381,679 266,285 56,813 58,581 4.3 4.2 6.9 3.5
2008 314,286 203,282 52,712 58,291 5.4 5.6 9.4 3.7
2009 365,787 169,799 52,845 143,143 4.7 3.5 7.4 6.5
2010 330,355 192,757 61,073 76,525 3.7 3.4 7.3 3.0
2011 461,852 182,548 70,744 208,559 5.2 3.5 8.0 7.3
2012 516,627 200,436 100,800 215,390 5.0 3.4 9.7 6.4
2013 659,196 272,506 149,640 237,050 5.3 3.5 11.6 7.2
2014 742,614 291,692 165,691 285,231 5.6 3.5 12.0 8.2
2015 671,029 258,382 179,572 233,075 5.2 3.2 13.4 6.8
* The liquidity ratio is the ratio of liquid assets divided by total net assets at year-end.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to
the total because of rounding.

186 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 16
Liquidity Ratio of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Composite Investment Objective
Percent, year-end
Equity funds Bond funds
Capital Investment
Year appreciation World Total return Hybrid funds grade High yield World Government Multisector State muni National muni
2000 6.1% 7.7% 4.9% 7.4% 4.5% 9.1% -2.2% -2.8% -2.2% 3.1% 3.5%

LONG-TERM MUTUAL FUNDS


2001 4.9 6.2 4.8 7.5 3.3 7.7 -3.7 -0.5 0.6 2.3 3.2
2002 4.9 5.7 4.1 7.6 10.7 7.9 -2.5 0.5 -1.0 2.6 4.2
2003 3.7 5.8 4.1 6.8 9.7 6.1 3.3 1.7 7.1 2.2 3.7
2004 3.6 5.5 4.2 6.6 8.9 6.1 6.1 3.8 7.5 2.9 6.5
2005 3.3 5.2 3.7 6.9 6.5 5.2 6.1 1.2 6.2 2.5 5.7
2006 3.4 4.3 3.7 7.9 6.9 4.9 12.5 -4.1 2.2 2.0 4.5
2007 4.3 5.2 3.6 6.9 2.3 4.6 17.0 -0.8 2.8 1.8 4.6
2008 6.1 7.9 4.2 9.4 1.1 10.7 13.0 4.4 3.7 1.7 4.9
2009 4.5 3.9 2.8 7.4 6.8 5.4 13.6 4.0 6.6 2.8 6.0
2010 3.5 4.4 2.9 7.3 0.3 5.8 16.5 -2.5 2.7 2.1 5.2
2011 3.8 4.5 2.8 8.0 7.2 7.2 17.5 0.9 5.2 3.1 6.6
2012 3.6 4.0 2.9 9.7 5.4 5.6 15.1 2.8 6.9 3.4 6.2
2013 3.6 4.5 3.0 11.6 6.9 4.4 17.2 1.0 7.0 2.0 6.5
2014 3.3 4.9 2.9 12.0 7.5 4.4 19.3 2.5 8.0 3.6 7.6
2015 3.3 4.3 2.6 13.4 4.7 5.8 15.0 3.2 9.4 4.4 8.2
Note: The liquidity ratio is the ratio of liquid assets divided by total net assets at year-end. Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

187
DATA SECTION 3
TABLE 17
Net New Cash Flow of Long-Term Mutual Funds
Millions of dollars, annual
Year Total Equity funds Hybrid funds Bond funds
1984 $19,194 $4,336 $1,801 $13,058
1985 73,490 6,643 3,720 63,127
1986 129,991 20,386 6,988 102,618
1987 29,776 19,231 3,748 6,797
1988 -23,119 -14,948 -3,684 -4,488
1989 8,731 6,774 3,183 -1,226
1990 21,211 12,915 1,463 6,833
1991 106,213 39,888 7,067 59,258
1992 171,696 78,983 21,725 70,989
1993 242,049 127,261 42,619 72,169
1994 75,160 114,525 21,998 -61,362
DATA SECTION 3

1995 122,208 124,392 3,738 -5,922


1996 231,874 216,937 11,796 3,142
1997 272,030 227,107 15,757 29,166
1998 241,796 156,875 10,265 74,656
1999 169,780 187,565 -13,018 -4,767
2000 228,874 315,711 -36,722 -50,115
2001 129,188 33,439 7,285 88,463
2002 120,583 -29,326 8,043 141,865
2003 215,884 144,055 39,080 32,750
2004 209,890 171,937 53,056 -15,102
2005 192,017 123,967 42,754 25,295
2006 227,078 147,773 19,857 59,448
2007 224,321 73,328 40,384 110,609
2008 -211,197 -215,710 -25,525 30,039
2009 393,030 2,000 19,792 371,238
2010 243,540 -24,414 35,612 232,342
2011 28,197 -129,241 39,771 117,667
2012 199,664 -152,680 46,118 306,226
2013 162,136 159,547 73,754 -71,165
2014 97,678 25,215 28,998 43,465
2015 -123,136 -76,850 -20,790 -25,496
Note: Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges. Data for funds
that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components many not add to the total because of
rounding.

188 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 18
Net New Cash Flow and Components of Net New Cash Flow of Equity Mutual Funds
Millions of dollars, annual
Sales Redemptions
Net new cash New + Regular +
Year flow1 exchange New2 Exchange 3 exchange Regular4 Exchange5
1984 $4,336 $28,705 $16,586 $12,119 $24,369 $10,669 $13,700
1985 6,643 40,608 25,046 15,562 33,965 17,558 16,406
1986 20,386 87,997 50,774 37,224 67,612 26,051 41,561
1987 19,231 139,596 65,093 74,502 120,365 38,601 81,764
1988 -14,948 68,827 25,641 43,186 83,774 33,247 50,528
1989 6,774 89,345 46,817 42,527 82,571 37,229 45,342
1990 12,915 104,334 62,872 41,462 91,419 44,487 46,931
1991 39,888 146,618 90,192 56,427 106,730 53,394 53,336
1992 78,983 201,720 134,309 67,411 122,738 61,465 61,272

DATA SECTION 3
1993 127,260 307,356 213,639 93,717 180,095 91,944 88,151
1994 114,525 366,659 252,887 113,772 252,134 141,097 111,037
1995 124,392 433,853 282,937 150,915 309,461 170,402 139,059
1996 216,937 674,323 442,372 231,951 457,385 240,531 216,854
1997 227,106 880,286 579,064 301,222 653,180 362,022 291,158
1998 156,875 1,065,197 699,554 365,643 908,322 534,256 374,065
1999 187,565 1,410,846 918,600 492,245 1,223,281 744,145 479,136
2000 315,711 1,972,208 1,320,049 652,159 1,656,497 1,032,153 624,345
2001 33,439 1,329,827 953,619 376,208 1,296,387 891,802 404,586
2002 -29,326 1,214,146 894,047 320,099 1,243,471 875,677 367,794
2003 144,055 1,074,175 837,496 236,679 930,120 707,565 222,555
2004 171,937 1,096,540 926,961 169,579 924,603 758,902 165,701
2005 123,967 1,192,654 1,017,225 175,428 1,068,686 878,158 190,528
2006 147,773 1,417,077 1,214,420 202,658 1,269,304 1,047,381 221,923
2007 73,328 1,729,376 1,506,720 222,656 1,656,048 1,389,144 266,905
2008 -215,710 1,526,770 1,331,755 195,014 1,742,480 1,467,491 274,989
2009 2,000 1,194,430 1,032,587 161,843 1,192,430 1,012,070 180,360
2010 -24,414 1,406,727 1,236,968 169,759 1,431,140 1,239,214 191,926
2011 -129,241 1,493,209 1,323,075 170,134 1,622,450 1,418,037 204,413
2012 -152,680 1,449,651 1,260,222 189,428 1,602,331 1,382,128 220,202
2013 159,547 1,864,277 1,641,158 223,119 1,704,730 1,496,822 207,908
2014 25,215 2,008,790 1,797,555 211,235 1,983,576 1,773,315 210,260
2015 -76,850 2,009,473 1,792,535 216,938 2,086,324 1,874,220 212,104
1 Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
2 New sales are the dollar value of new purchases of mutual fund shares. This does not include shares purchased through
reinvestment of dividends in existing accounts.
3 Exchange sales are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched into funds within the same fund group.
4 Regular redemptions are the dollar value of shareholder liquidation of mutual fund shares.
5 Exchange redemptions are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched out of funds and into other funds within the same

fund group.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to
the total because of rounding.

LONG-TERM MUTUAL FUNDS 189


TABLE 19
Net New Cash Flow and Components of Net New Cash Flow of Hybrid Mutual Funds
Millions of dollars, annual
Sales Redemptions
Net new cash New + Regular +
Year flow1 exchange New2 Exchange 3 exchange Regular4 Exchange5
1984 $1,801 $4,118 $3,842 $276 $2,318 $2,017 $301
1985 3,720 7,502 6,976 526 3,782 3,161 621
1986 6,988 13,535 12,342 1,194 6,548 5,162 1,386
1987 3,748 14,948 12,419 2,528 11,200 7,848 3,353
1988 -3,684 6,259 4,601 1,658 9,943 7,521 2,422
1989 3,183 11,139 9,334 1,805 7,956 5,780 2,176
1990 1,463 9,671 7,989 1,682 8,208 5,600 2,608
1991 7,067 16,860 13,754 3,106 9,793 7,011 2,782
1992 21,725 32,772 26,463 6,309 11,047 7,209 3,838
DATA SECTION 3

1993 42,619 60,610 49,526 11,083 17,990 11,735 6,256


1994 21,998 58,541 49,043 9,498 36,544 25,298 11,245
1995 3,738 43,024 35,385 7,640 39,286 27,807 11,479
1996 11,795 56,783 47,436 9,347 44,988 31,413 13,575
1997 15,757 68,347 55,264 13,084 52,590 38,265 14,325
1998 10,265 82,691 67,294 15,397 72,426 53,353 19,073
1999 -13,018 81,917 67,617 14,300 94,934 69,790 25,145
2000 -36,722 70,445 56,973 13,473 107,167 77,219 29,948
2001 7,285 83,546 65,634 17,912 76,260 58,850 17,410
2002 8,043 93,685 75,664 18,021 85,642 67,407 18,234
2003 39,079 115,929 96,811 19,117 76,849 63,329 13,520
2004 53,055 143,463 125,438 18,025 90,407 77,520 12,887
2005 42,754 144,267 126,616 17,651 101,513 86,199 15,314
2006 19,857 146,088 127,532 18,555 126,231 106,066 20,165
2007 40,384 206,415 183,482 22,933 166,031 144,066 21,965
2008 -25,525 181,437 155,076 26,361 206,962 165,396 41,566
2009 19,792 174,217 150,048 24,169 154,425 127,179 27,246
2010 35,612 205,830 181,871 23,959 170,218 146,546 23,672
2011 39,771 264,070 234,481 29,589 224,298 191,199 33,099
2012 46,118 266,743 240,075 26,669 220,625 196,018 24,607
2013 73,754 338,257 301,452 36,805 264,503 233,452 31,052
2014 28,998 321,418 289,915 31,503 292,420 265,208 27,212
2015 -20,790 297,039 265,863 31,176 317,829 283,057 34,771
1 Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
2 New sales are the dollar value of new purchases of mutual fund shares. This does not include shares purchased through
reinvestment of dividends in existing accounts.
3 Exchange sales are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched into funds within the same fund group.
4 Regular redemptions are the dollar value of shareholder liquidation of mutual fund shares.
5 Exchange redemptions are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched out of funds and into other funds within the same

fund group.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to
the total because of rounding.

190 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 20
Net New Cash Flow and Components of Net New Cash Flow of Bond Mutual Funds
Millions of dollars, annual
Sales Redemptions
Net new cash New + Regular +
Year flow1 exchange New2 Exchange 3 exchange Regular4 Exchange5
1984 $13,058 $25,554 $20,774 $4,780 $12,497 $7,344 $5,152
1985 63,127 83,359 74,485 8,874 20,232 13,094 7,137
1986 102,618 158,874 138,240 20,634 56,256 35,776 20,480
1987 6,797 123,528 93,725 29,803 116,731 69,627 47,104
1988 -4,488 72,174 47,378 24,796 76,662 51,558 25,103
1989 -1,226 71,770 48,602 23,168 72,996 48,517 24,480
1990 6,833 80,659 57,106 23,552 73,826 47,978 25,848
1991 59,258 141,674 108,095 33,580 82,416 56,177 26,239
1992 70,989 217,863 171,991 45,872 146,874 96,628 50,246

DATA SECTION 3
1993 72,169 262,300 208,605 53,696 190,131 127,294 62,838
1994 -61,362 186,908 131,351 55,556 248,270 162,823 85,448
1995 -5,922 166,437 110,451 55,986 172,359 114,686 57,673
1996 3,141 203,343 137,886 65,457 200,201 125,486 74,715
1997 29,166 242,309 176,275 66,034 213,143 140,906 72,237
1998 74,656 314,429 230,934 83,495 239,773 160,071 79,702
1999 -4,767 299,198 217,431 81,767 303,965 207,254 96,711
2000 -50,115 250,918 187,188 63,730 301,033 220,868 80,165
2001 88,463 394,211 301,477 92,733 305,748 226,197 79,551
2002 141,865 515,028 402,020 113,009 373,163 285,070 88,093
2003 32,750 520,683 428,553 92,130 487,934 376,840 111,094
2004 -15,102 395,451 340,549 54,902 410,554 341,466 69,088
2005 25,295 402,734 351,116 51,617 377,438 321,639 55,799
2006 59,448 446,377 391,126 55,251 386,929 329,462 57,467
2007 110,609 592,760 506,964 85,796 482,151 410,366 71,785
2008 30,039 709,541 580,855 128,686 679,503 582,615 96,888
2009 371,238 1,006,675 856,834 149,841 635,438 525,214 110,224
2010 232,342 1,089,698 964,459 125,239 857,356 742,628 114,728
2011 117,667 1,103,665 976,073 127,592 985,999 870,097 115,901
2012 306,226 1,246,704 1,121,190 125,514 940,478 838,189 102,289
2013 -71,165 1,307,931 1,158,795 149,136 1,379,096 1,190,730 188,366
2014 43,465 1,278,071 1,174,003 104,068 1,234,606 1,137,777 96,829
2015 -25,496 1,196,485 1,090,043 106,442 1,221,980 1,119,594 102,386
1 Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
2 New sales are the dollar value of new purchases of mutual fund shares. This does not include shares purchased through
reinvestment of dividends in existing accounts.
3 Exchange sales are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched into funds within the same fund group.
4 Regular redemptions are the dollar value of shareholder liquidation of mutual fund shares.
5 Exchange redemptions are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched out of funds and into other funds within the same

fund group.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to
the total because of rounding.

LONG-TERM MUTUAL FUNDS 191


DATA SECTION 3

192
TABLE 21
Net New Cash Flow of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Composite Investment Objective
Millions of dollars, annual
Equity funds Bond funds
Capital Investment
Year appreciation World Total return Hybrid funds grade High yield World Government Multisector State muni National muni
2000 $262,090 $58,195 -$4,574 -$36,722 $5,460 -$15,376 -$4,631 -$16,663 -$4,439 -$5,456 -$9,010
2001 -22,779 -23,206 79,425 7,285 49,253 880 -1,151 24,769 2,436 6,293 5,983
2002 -52,387 -4,451 27,513 8,043 64,670 2,953 -71 53,048 4,380 5,337 11,549
2003 27,126 24,361 92,569 39,079 31,835 21,945 4,029 -22,124 3,903 -8,309 1,471
2004 -11,497 71,583 111,851 53,055 22,382 -3,045 4,310 -26,259 2,857 -7,939 -7,410
2005 -25,359 106,918 42,408 42,754 36,732 -13,529 6,404 -14,211 5,188 1,232 3,480
2006 -26,842 150,935 23,680 19,857 36,993 3,044 10,936 -17,834 11,204 3,876 11,229
2007 -43,061 141,788 -25,399 40,384 76,108 -4,822 21,132 -2,242 9,454 3,358 7,621
2008 -47,898 -66,686 -101,126 -25,525 9,449 -6,360 6,087 20,600 -7,554 -2,302 10,119
2009 -7,228 29,633 -20,405 19,792 202,341 22,384 32,668 18,950 24,515 6,084 64,295
2010 -26,576 56,679 -54,517 35,612 111,385 19,335 70,076 4,059 15,826 -2,838 14,499
2011 -44,180 4,060 -89,121 39,771 51,242 21,587 44,468 3,393 8,593 -9,890 -1,726
2012 -38,754 6,420 -120,346 46,118 104,922 34,257 42,969 33,743 40,162 8,539 41,633
2013 -2,973 141,409 21,111 73,754 -97,530 55,641 66,239 -51,214 14,194 -22,420 -36,074
2014 -41,131 85,338 -18,993 28,998 9,303 -44,275 24,417 5,752 20,280 -1,064 29,051
2015 -54,664 93,887 -116,073 -20,790 -1,096 -36,987 -23,568 12,431 8,932 682 14,109
Note: Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges. Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 22
New Sales of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Composite Investment Objective
Millions of dollars, annual
Equity funds Bond funds
Capital Investment
Year appreciation World Total return Hybrid funds grade High yield World Government Multisector State muni National muni
2000 $574,322 $342,511 $403,217 $56,973 $79,200 $27,405 $8,267 $24,359 $6,787 $16,989 $24,180

LONG-TERM MUTUAL FUNDS


2001 306,550 251,663 395,407 65,634 127,711 36,277 8,948 58,987 12,245 25,028 32,282
2002 250,056 245,152 398,839 75,664 172,587 39,665 10,920 93,874 15,446 26,360 43,168
2003 250,597 205,236 381,662 96,811 186,661 65,577 18,946 71,167 20,968 20,546 44,688
2004 268,027 184,371 474,563 125,438 165,644 48,346 18,132 38,512 18,548 16,820 34,548
2005 263,542 239,620 514,063 126,616 171,630 42,175 23,786 32,063 21,172 21,959 38,331
2006 301,994 354,878 557,548 127,532 183,990 45,724 29,025 29,690 30,147 25,566 46,985
2007 368,273 479,180 659,267 183,482 247,214 55,721 45,546 34,593 39,718 29,590 54,582
2008 340,076 374,604 617,076 155,076 277,177 47,425 53,469 64,527 37,711 30,562 69,983
2009 273,313 284,663 474,610 150,048 426,743 70,370 69,340 90,702 58,029 28,386 113,264
2010 309,299 379,531 548,138 181,871 450,179 96,163 129,602 79,464 71,271 28,530 109,250
2011 340,212 398,368 584,494 234,481 448,943 128,890 138,829 72,240 76,873 19,797 90,501
2012 335,564 362,821 561,838 240,075 489,090 124,107 132,763 109,826 106,435 30,912 128,058
2013 395,452 511,173 734,534 301,452 466,426 172,527 193,007 74,507 116,833 23,833 111,661
2014 424,978 542,981 829,596 289,915 492,785 147,372 194,861 70,546 128,592 22,423 117,425
2015 422,484 583,423 786,628 265,863 466,966 124,283 154,000 80,030 126,728 24,301 113,737
Note: New sales are the dollar value of new purchases of mutual fund shares. This does not include shares purchased through reinvestment of dividends in existing accounts. Data for funds that invest primarily
in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

193
DATA SECTION 3
DATA SECTION 3

194
TABLE 23
Exchange Sales of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Composite Investment Objective
Millions of dollars, annual
Equity funds Bond funds
Capital Investment
Year appreciation World Total return Hybrid funds grade High yield World Government Multisector State muni National muni
2000 $343,618 $169,388 $139,153 $13,473 $16,756 $10,298 $3,011 $15,829 $1,662 $5,304 $10,870
2001 176,020 85,824 114,364 17,912 32,627 11,378 2,057 24,779 2,860 5,348 13,686
2002 144,274 71,084 104,741 18,021 39,454 11,201 2,373 37,280 3,474 5,625 13,602
2003 94,572 41,777 100,330 19,117 33,917 17,110 3,528 18,355 4,713 4,288 10,218
2004 57,575 27,630 84,373 18,025 23,666 8,944 2,056 7,023 4,330 2,750 6,135
2005 55,786 38,396 81,246 17,651 20,833 7,270 2,780 6,575 4,742 2,983 6,435
2006 64,336 56,926 81,396 18,555 21,896 7,295 2,740 5,972 7,027 3,450 6,869
2007 60,884 68,791 92,981 22,933 41,587 7,931 4,630 10,226 5,036 5,706 10,680
2008 58,645 49,364 87,005 26,361 50,417 7,414 8,506 27,495 10,048 7,039 17,767
2009 44,893 47,478 69,472 24,169 76,507 13,182 7,976 18,336 8,641 5,161 20,037
2010 41,940 55,916 71,903 23,959 58,253 13,068 9,482 14,512 10,792 3,852 15,280
2011 48,394 40,005 81,735 29,589 59,218 14,814 10,801 14,323 10,756 3,736 13,944
2012 45,111 47,470 96,847 26,669 54,575 13,407 9,807 14,912 12,957 3,685 16,171
2013 68,215 44,075 110,829 36,805 52,690 18,967 26,824 13,320 10,305 4,900 22,131
2014 61,399 48,136 101,701 31,503 46,085 12,167 10,140 7,231 9,738 3,600 15,107
2015 64,230 55,765 96,943 31,176 41,338 14,497 13,956 9,151 9,379 3,899 14,222
Note: Exchange sales are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched into funds within the same fund group. Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 24
Redemptions of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Composite Investment Objective
Millions of dollars, annual

Equity funds Bond funds


Capital Investment
Year appreciation World Total return Hybrid funds grade High yield World Government Multisector State muni National muni
2000 $367,939 $288,253 $375,961 $77,219 $71,781 $37,560 $11,447 $35,865 $10,431 $21,877 $31,908
2001 307,031 264,414 320,356 58,850 87,986 34,381 9,538 37,939 10,367 18,584 27,401
2002 276,869 243,479 355,328 67,407 117,197 36,207 11,383 53,918 12,043 20,889 33,434
2003 222,877 183,743 300,945 63,329 150,032 47,355 15,501 79,437 17,372 25,700 41,443

LONG-TERM MUTUAL FUNDS


2004 269,656 122,228 367,018 77,520 141,777 49,051 13,819 58,824 15,552 22,817 39,625
2005 274,036 148,065 456,057 86,199 136,146 52,217 18,358 43,913 16,059 20,457 34,488
2006 313,742 223,271 510,369 106,066 146,821 42,462 18,602 43,975 19,707 21,692 36,205
2007 393,843 347,697 647,604 144,066 186,051 57,163 26,374 38,850 29,139 25,838 46,949
2008 375,619 413,224 678,648 165,396 281,433 51,012 49,488 59,781 45,632 32,200 63,070
2009 273,761 254,635 483,675 127,179 248,411 51,338 40,278 69,920 36,084 22,762 56,421
2010 329,283 317,496 592,435 146,546 347,313 79,906 62,812 74,239 55,858 29,101 93,398
2011 376,689 383,010 658,338 191,199 406,914 108,257 95,480 69,572 69,333 28,412 92,128
2012 367,172 354,562 660,394 196,018 393,653 92,111 92,006 77,394 70,412 22,815 89,798
2013 401,109 374,159 721,554 233,452 529,454 121,666 141,365 117,158 101,524 40,542 139,022
2014 464,597 459,184 849,534 265,208 490,355 186,425 170,248 63,799 110,865 23,917 92,168
2015 480,174 500,167 893,879 283,057 467,019 156,729 181,379 68,938 118,959 23,870 102,699
Note: Redemptions are the dollar value of shareholder liquidation of mutual fund shares. Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

195
DATA SECTION 3
DATA SECTION 3

196
TABLE 25
Exchange Redemptions of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Composite Investment Objective
Millions of dollars, annual
Equity funds Bond funds
Capital Investment
Year appreciation World Total return Hybrid funds grade High yield World Government Multisector State muni National muni
2000 $287,910 $165,451 $170,983 $29,948 $18,715 $15,519 $4,463 $20,986 $2,457 $5,872 $12,153
2001 198,317 96,279 109,990 17,410 23,098 12,393 2,618 21,058 2,301 5,499 12,583
2002 169,848 77,208 120,738 18,234 30,174 11,706 1,981 24,188 2,498 5,758 11,787
2003 95,166 38,910 88,479 13,520 38,711 13,387 2,945 32,209 4,407 7,443 11,992
2004 67,443 18,190 80,067 12,887 25,150 11,284 2,059 12,969 4,468 4,692 8,467
2005 70,651 23,033 96,844 15,314 19,585 10,757 1,804 8,936 4,666 3,253 6,798
2006 79,431 37,597 104,895 20,165 22,073 7,513 2,227 9,521 6,264 3,449 6,420
2007 78,376 58,486 130,043 21,965 26,641 11,311 2,670 8,210 6,161 6,099 10,692
2008 71,000 77,430 126,558 41,566 36,712 10,187 6,401 11,642 9,682 7,703 14,562
2009 51,674 47,874 80,812 27,246 52,499 9,830 4,371 20,168 6,071 4,702 12,584
2010 48,532 61,271 82,123 23,672 49,734 9,990 6,195 15,678 10,379 6,119 16,632
2011 56,097 51,303 97,012 33,099 50,005 13,860 9,681 13,597 9,703 5,011 14,043
2012 52,256 49,310 118,636 24,607 45,090 11,146 7,594 13,601 8,817 3,243 12,797
2013 65,531 39,680 102,697 31,052 87,193 14,188 12,228 21,882 11,420 10,611 30,844
2014 62,910 46,595 100,755 27,212 39,212 17,388 10,335 8,225 7,186 3,170 11,313
2015 61,204 45,134 105,765 34,771 42,380 19,037 10,144 7,812 8,215 3,648 11,150
Note: Exchange redemptions are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched out of funds and into other funds within the same fund group. Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were
excluded from the series.

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 26
Annual Redemption Rates of Long-Term Mutual Funds
Percent
Narrow redemption rate1 Broad redemption rate2
Equity Hybrid Bond Equity Hybrid Bond
Year Total funds funds funds Total funds funds funds
1985 17.4% 18.4% 22.0% 15.5% 29.8% 35.6% 26.3% 24.0%
1986 19.8 19.6 23.8 19.6 38.6 50.9 30.2 30.7
1987 26.5 23.4 28.5 28.3 56.7 73.0 40.7 47.5
1988 20.0 18.2 27.1 20.5 36.9 45.9 35.8 30.4
1989 17.9 17.1 18.7 18.4 31.9 38.0 25.7 27.7
1990 17.5 18.4 15.6 17.0 31.0 37.7 22.9 26.2
1991 16.4 16.6 15.9 16.4 28.1 33.1 22.2 24.1
1992 17.0 13.4 11.1 21.5 28.8 26.7 17.0 32.7
1993 17.8 14.7 10.7 22.6 29.9 28.7 16.4 33.8

DATA SECTION 3
1994 21.6 17.7 16.7 28.3 35.2 31.6 24.1 43.1
1995 17.4 16.2 15.1 20.3 28.9 29.4 21.3 30.4
1996 17.0 16.2 13.8 20.0 30.0 30.7 19.8 32.0
1997 17.9 17.7 13.7 20.4 30.5 31.9 18.8 30.9
1998 19.7 20.0 15.9 20.5 32.2 34.0 21.6 30.6
1999 21.7 21.2 19.0 25.1 34.5 34.9 25.8 36.8
2000 25.7 25.9 21.0 26.9 39.9 41.5 29.1 36.7
2001 24.0 24.3 16.4 25.7 34.2 35.4 21.2 34.7
2002 27.9 29.0 19.4 27.4 38.7 41.2 24.7 35.9
2003 24.2 22.5 16.2 31.4 31.5 29.5 19.6 40.6
2004 20.4 19.0 15.5 26.7 24.7 23.1 18.1 32.1
2005 19.7 19.0 14.7 24.2 23.7 23.2 17.3 28.4
2006 19.9 19.5 15.7 23.1 23.9 23.7 18.7 27.1
2007 22.9 22.7 18.6 25.8 27.1 27.0 21.4 30.4
2008 30.1 29.2 23.9 35.8 35.8 34.6 29.9 41.8
2009 24.5 23.7 19.9 27.8 29.2 28.0 24.1 33.6
2010 25.3 23.7 18.8 31.0 29.2 27.3 21.8 35.7
2011 27.6 26.2 22.2 32.0 31.5 30.0 26.0 36.3
2012 25.0 24.8 20.4 26.9 28.6 28.7 23.0 30.2
2013 25.7 21.8 20.1 35.7 29.5 24.9 22.8 41.3
2014 24.9 22.1 19.9 33.7 27.6 24.7 22.0 36.6
2015 25.2 22.8 20.9 32.6 27.8 25.3 23.4 35.6
1 The narrow redemption rate is calculated by taking the sum of regular redemptions for the year as a percentage of average
net assets at the beginning and end of the period.
2 The broad redemption rate is calculated by taking the sum of regular redemptions and exchange redemptions for the year

as a percentage of average net assets at the beginning and end of the period.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

LONG-TERM MUTUAL FUNDS 197


TABLE 27
Portfolio Holdings of Long-Term Mutual Funds and Percentage of Total Net Assets
Year-end
Common and
Total net preferred Long-term U.S. Corporate Municipal Liquid
Year assets stocks government bonds bonds bonds assets Other
Millions of dollars
1995 $2,058,275 $1,215,218 $259,107 $190,837 $245,331 $141,755 $6,026
1996 2,623,994 1,718,203 264,972 238,003 245,183 151,988 5,645
1997 3,409,315 2,358,258 282,272 292,770 266,324 198,826 10,866
1998 4,173,531 3,004,185 286,592 389,213 292,395 191,393 9,753
1999 5,233,193 4,059,429 293,565 388,472 267,426 219,098 5,204
2000 5,119,386 3,910,200 309,752 348,928 269,334 277,164 4,008
2001 4,689,603 3,424,533 379,740 371,436 289,651 222,475 1,768
2002 4,118,082 2,687,959 481,467 417,331 320,477 208,939 1,910
DATA SECTION 3

2003 5,362,097 3,761,034 504,549 501,853 331,981 259,641 3,038


2004 6,194,101 4,489,609 537,297 533,250 318,354 307,111 8,480
2005 6,864,553 5,055,105 612,797 549,980 330,945 303,189 12,536
2006 8,059,704 6,024,800 644,738 668,278 359,163 346,768 15,956
2007 8,914,408 6,609,155 749,428 784,014 369,055 381,679 21,077
2008 5,788,401 3,733,992 705,030 676,684 336,878 314,286 21,532
2009 7,796,729 5,090,647 849,809 1,021,925 451,151 365,787 17,411
2010 9,029,849 5,869,613 1,084,865 1,258,388 479,666 330,355 6,963
2011 8,941,397 5,507,500 1,186,130 1,318,813 506,841 461,852 -39,739
2012 10,363,508 6,295,160 1,379,948 1,605,106 592,863 516,627 -26,196
2013 12,333,012 8,224,236 1,209,184 1,730,932 512,657 659,196 -3,193
2014 13,150,627 8,796,913 1,213,026 1,841,586 568,188 742,614 -11,700
2015 12,897,215 8,622,970 1,251,553 1,794,515 582,835 671,029 -25,686
Percent
1995 100.0% 59.0% 12.6% 9.3% 11.9% 6.9% 0.3%
1996 100.0 65.5 10.1 9.1 9.3 5.8 0.2
1997 100.0 69.2 8.3 8.6 7.8 5.8 0.3
1998 100.0 72.0 6.9 9.3 7.0 4.6 0.2
1999 100.0 77.6 5.6 7.4 5.1 4.2 0.1
2000 100.0 76.4 6.1 6.8 5.3 5.4 0.1
2001 100.0 73.0 8.1 7.9 6.2 4.7 0.0
2002 100.0 65.3 11.7 10.1 7.8 5.1 0.0
2003 100.0 70.1 9.4 9.4 6.2 4.8 0.1
2004 100.0 72.5 8.7 8.6 5.1 5.0 0.1
2005 100.0 73.6 8.9 8.0 4.8 4.4 0.2
2006 100.0 74.8 8.0 8.3 4.5 4.3 0.2
2007 100.0 74.1 8.4 8.8 4.1 4.3 0.2
2008 100.0 64.5 12.2 11.7 5.8 5.4 0.4
2009 100.0 65.3 10.9 13.1 5.8 4.7 0.2
2010 100.0 65.0 12.0 13.9 5.3 3.7 0.1
2011 100.0 61.6 13.3 14.7 5.7 5.2 -0.4
2012 100.0 60.7 13.3 15.5 5.7 5.0 -0.3
2013 100.0 66.7 9.8 14.0 4.2 5.3 0.0
2014 100.0 66.9 9.2 14.0 4.3 5.6 -0.1
2015 100.0 66.9 9.7 13.9 4.5 5.2 -0.2
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to
the total because of rounding.

198 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 28
Portfolio Holdings of Long-Term Mutual Funds as a Percentage of Total Net Assets
by Type of Fund
Year-end
Total net
Common and assets
Total net preferred Long-term U.S. Corporate Municipal Liquid Millions of
Year assets stocks government bonds bonds bonds assets Other dollars
Equity funds
2001 100.0% 94.3% 0.1% 0.5% 0.0% 5.0% 0.0% $3,392,399
2002 100.0 94.2 0.4 0.8 0.0 4.6 0.0 2,642,420
2003 100.0 95.0 0.2 0.5 0.0 4.2 0.0 3,653,370
2004 100.0 95.2 0.1 0.4 0.0 4.2 0.1 4,342,577
2005 100.0 95.5 0.1 0.4 0.0 3.9 0.1 4,885,444
2006 100.0 95.6 0.1 0.4 0.0 3.8 0.1 5,832,582
2007 100.0 95.2 0.1 0.4 0.0 4.2 0.2 6,413,222

DATA SECTION 3
2008 100.0 93.5 0.2 0.5 0.0 5.6 0.3 3,655,162
2009 100.0 95.8 0.1 0.5 0.0 3.5 0.1 4,872,541
2010 100.0 95.7 0.2 0.5 0.0 3.4 0.1 5,596,629
2011 100.0 95.6 0.3 0.6 0.0 3.5 0.0 5,212,989
2012 100.0 95.6 0.3 0.6 0.0 3.4 0.0 5,938,747
2013 100.0 95.6 0.2 0.6 0.0 3.5 0.0 7,762,721
2014 100.0 95.7 0.2 0.6 0.0 3.5 0.1 8,314,321
2015 100.0 96.1 0.2 0.5 0.0 3.2 0.1 8,148,257
Hybrid funds
2001 100.0% 59.9% 11.9% 20.4% 0.2% 7.5% 0.2% $358,027
2002 100.0 57.4 12.4 22.3 0.2 7.5 0.1 335,276
2003 100.0 62.5 10.6 19.7 0.3 6.9 0.0 447,570
2004 100.0 63.5 11.0 18.4 0.4 6.6 0.1 552,250
2005 100.0 62.6 10.5 19.5 0.4 6.9 0.0 621,479
2006 100.0 61.2 10.0 19.5 0.3 8.9 0.1 731,503
2007 100.0 60.5 10.3 20.8 0.3 8.0 0.1 821,522
2008 100.0 55.4 9.8 24.3 0.4 9.6 0.4 562,262
2009 100.0 58.3 9.8 23.4 0.4 7.7 0.5 717,580
2010 100.0 60.7 8.9 22.3 0.5 7.3 0.4 842,198
2011 100.0 59.3 9.4 22.1 0.5 7.9 0.8 883,981
2012 100.0 59.4 8.9 21.1 0.5 9.4 0.8 1,034,058
2013 100.0 61.3 7.8 18.7 0.4 11.2 0.6 1,285,009
2014 100.0 59.5 8.2 19.6 0.5 11.7 0.4 1,376,586
2015 100.0 57.7 8.8 19.6 0.6 13.3 0.0 1,336,584
Bond funds
2001 100.0% 1.1% 35.5% 29.9% 30.8% 2.7% 0.0% $939,177
2002 100.0 0.6 37.6 28.1 28.0 5.5 0.0 1,140,387
2003 100.0 0.8 35.8 31.3 26.2 5.8 0.1 1,261,157
2004 100.0 0.8 36.2 31.7 24.2 6.6 0.4 1,299,274
2005 100.0 0.8 39.6 30.0 23.9 5.1 0.6 1,357,630
2006 100.0 0.8 37.4 33.5 23.6 4.3 0.5 1,495,619
2007 100.0 1.0 38.9 35.0 21.6 3.0 0.6 1,679,664
2008 100.0 0.6 40.8 33.2 21.2 3.6 0.5 1,570,978
2009 100.0 0.8 34.8 37.4 20.1 6.5 0.4 2,206,609
2010 100.0 0.9 38.2 40.0 18.1 3.0 -0.1 2,591,022
2011 100.0 0.8 37.8 38.2 17.4 7.4 -1.7 2,844,428
2012 100.0 0.9 37.0 39.5 17.1 6.5 -1.0 3,390,704
2013 100.0 1.1 32.9 43.7 15.2 7.4 -0.4 3,285,282
2014 100.0 1.1 31.3 43.9 16.1 8.4 -0.7 3,459,721
2015 100.0 0.9 32.7 43.7 16.8 6.9 -0.9 3,412,371
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to
the total because of rounding.

LONG-TERM MUTUAL FUNDS 199


TABLE 29
Paid and Reinvested Dividends of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Type of Fund
Millions of dollars, annual
Paid dividends Reinvested dividends
Equity Hybrid Bond Equity Hybrid Bond
Year Total funds funds funds Total funds funds funds
1984 e $7,238 $2,613 $583 $4,042 $4,655 $1,881 $432 $2,342
1985 12,719 3,229 1,098 8,392 7,731 2,321 768 4,642
1986 22,689 6,328 1,499 14,862 13,991 3,706 1,087 9,197
1987 31,708 7,246 1,934 22,528 18,976 4,841 1,476 12,659
1988 31,966 6,554 1,873 23,539 17,494 4,476 1,217 11,801
1989 34,102 10,235 2,165 21,702 20,584 7,119 1,383 12,082
1990 33,156 8,787 2,350 22,018 21,124 6,721 1,717 12,686
1991 35,145 9,007 2,337 23,801 24,300 7,255 1,898 15,147
1992 58,608 17,023 4,483 37,102 30,393 8,845 2,923 18,625
DATA SECTION 3

1993 73,178 20,230 6,810 46,137 38,116 12,174 4,239 21,703


1994 61,261 17,279 6,662 37,320 39,136 12,971 4,907 21,258
1995 67,229 22,567 8,856 35,806 46,635 18,286 6,792 21,558
1996 73,282 25,061 9,580 38,642 53,213 21,345 8,031 23,837
1997 79,522 27,597 11,319 40,606 58,423 23,100 9,413 25,910
1998 81,011 25,495 11,104 44,413 60,041 22,377 9,328 28,336
1999 95,443 32,543 12,441 50,458 69,973 27,332 10,544 32,096
2000 88,215 27,042 10,848 50,325 66,277 23,786 9,537 32,954
2001 82,967 21,390 10,361 51,216 62,306 19,251 9,270 33,786
2002 82,065 20,472 9,740 51,853 62,413 18,560 8,778 35,076
2003 85,926 24,359 9,920 51,648 66,870 22,127 8,840 35,903
2004 98,131 34,708 12,186 51,237 78,253 31,427 10,668 36,158
2005 115,502 42,413 16,691 56,397 94,024 38,435 14,579 41,011
2006 143,500 60,112 19,134 64,254 119,074 54,210 16,989 47,875
2007 181,014 77,563 25,058 78,393 151,777 69,596 22,092 60,090
2008 182,120 70,598 26,032 85,490 153,100 63,634 23,045 66,421
2009 168,019 58,877 22,213 86,930 140,359 53,098 19,388 67,873
2010 180,989 62,196 23,277 95,516 152,331 56,385 20,671 75,275
2011 202,446 68,706 29,026 104,714 172,526 62,436 25,630 84,461
2012 215,295 83,226 24,937 107,131 186,528 76,125 22,678 87,725
2013 209,487 84,509 24,208 100,769 183,897 77,978 22,146 83,773
2014 237,039 101,055 29,949 106,035 211,694 93,774 27,698 90,222
2015 242,330 108,268 31,358 102,705 218,402 100,850 29,139 88,413
e Portions of the paid dividend totals for equity, hybrid, and bond funds are estimated; the total is not estimated.

Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to
the total because of rounding.

200 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 30
Paid and Reinvested Capital Gains of Long-Term Mutual Funds by Type of Fund
Millions of dollars, annual
Paid capital gains Reinvested capital gains
Equity Hybrid Bond Equity Hybrid Bond
Year Total funds funds funds Total funds funds funds
1984 e $6,019 $5,247 $553 $219 $5,122 $4,655 $338 $129
1985 4,895 3,699 739 457 3,751 3,091 398 261
1986 17,661 13,942 1,240 2,478 14,275 11,851 778 1,646
1987 22,926 18,603 1,605 2,718 17,816 15,449 1,056 1,312
1988 6,354 4,785 620 948 4,769 3,883 364 522
1989 14,766 12,665 540 1,562 9,710 8,744 348 617
1990 8,017 6,833 443 742 5,515 4,975 255 285
1991 13,917 11,961 861 1,095 9,303 8,242 484 577
1992 22,089 17,294 1,488 3,306 14,906 12,233 1,130 1,542

DATA SECTION 3
1993 35,905 27,705 3,496 4,704 25,514 19,954 2,687 2,872
1994 29,744 26,351 2,399 993 24,864 22,038 2,086 740
1995 54,271 50,204 3,322 745 46,866 43,550 2,832 484
1996 100,489 88,212 10,826 1,451 87,416 76,638 9,769 1,009
1997 182,764 160,744 19,080 2,941 164,916 145,358 17,360 2,198
1998 164,989 138,681 21,572 4,737 151,105 127,473 19,698 3,935
1999 237,624 219,484 16,841 1,299 206,508 190,300 15,229 979
2000 325,841 305,994 18,645 1,202 298,429 279,891 17,506 1,032
2001 68,626 60,088 6,105 2,433 64,820 56,965 5,790 2,065
2002 16,097 10,538 907 4,651 14,749 9,838 887 4,024
2003 14,397 7,782 758 5,857 12,956 7,188 703 5,065
2004 54,741 41,581 6,600 6,560 49,896 38,074 6,167 5,655
2005 129,058 113,167 11,895 3,995 117,566 103,208 10,955 3,403
2006 256,915 235,853 18,720 2,342 236,465 217,010 17,509 1,946
2007 413,641 377,682 32,163 3,795 380,921 347,633 30,011 3,277
2008 132,404 110,883 9,786 11,735 123,272 103,801 9,064 10,407
2009 15,300 5,740 771 8,789 13,994 5,418 702 7,874
2010 42,950 15,739 1,290 25,921 38,961 14,785 1,199 22,977
2011 73,284 51,455 5,503 16,326 67,437 48,120 5,275 14,042
2012 100,185 66,771 5,563 27,851 93,350 62,866 5,328 25,157
2013 239,183 201,806 22,834 14,544 227,570 191,961 22,138 13,471
2014 399,582 345,744 40,526 13,312 382,164 330,047 39,564 12,554
2015 379,426 331,241 35,248 12,938 363,847 316,962 34,580 12,305
e Portions of the paid capital gains totals for equity, hybrid, and bond funds are estimated; the total is not estimated.

Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to
the total because of rounding.

LONG-TERM MUTUAL FUNDS 201


DATA SECTION 3

202
TABLE 31
Total Portfolio, Common Stock, and Other Securities: Purchases, Sales, and Net Purchases by Long-Term Mutual Funds
Millions of dollars, annual
Total portfolio Common stock Other securities
Year Purchases Sales Net purchases Purchases Sales Net purchases Purchases Sales Net purchases
1984 $119,273 $98,934 $20,338 $56,588 $50,900 $5,688 $62,685 $48,035 $14,650
1985 259,496 186,985 72,511 80,719 72,577 8,142 178,777 114,408 64,369
1986 500,597 365,087 135,509 134,446 118,026 16,421 366,150 247,062 119,089
1987 530,601 485,271 45,330 198,859 176,004 22,855 331,741 309,267 22,474
1988 410,509 421,223 -10,713 112,742 128,815 -16,073 297,767 292,407 5,359
1989 471,744 445,453 26,291 142,771 141,694 1,077 328,973 303,759 25,214
1990 554,720 505,780 48,940 166,398 146,580 19,817 388,322 359,199 29,123
1991 735,698 608,129 127,569 250,289 209,276 41,013 485,409 398,853 86,556
1992 949,404 758,476 190,928 327,518 261,857 65,661 621,886 496,619 125,268
1993 1,335,514 1,060,359 275,155 506,713 380,855 125,858 828,801 679,504 149,298
1994 1,433,739 1,329,329 104,409 628,668 512,346 116,321 805,071 816,983 -11,912
1995 1,550,510 1,400,702 149,809 790,017 686,756 103,260 760,494 713,946 46,548
1996 2,018,253 1,736,884 281,370 1,151,262 927,266 223,996 866,991 809,618 57,373
1997 2,384,639 2,108,981 275,659 1,457,384 1,268,983 188,401 927,255 839,997 87,258
1998 2,861,562 2,560,074 301,487 1,762,565 1,597,311 165,255 1,098,997 962,764 136,233
1999 3,437,180 3,224,301 212,878 2,262,505 2,088,544 173,962 1,174,674 1,135,757 38,917
2000 4,922,927 4,698,192 224,734 3,560,671 3,330,417 230,254 1,362,255 1,367,775 -5,519
2001 4,688,530 4,393,114 295,416 2,736,933 2,609,657 127,275 1,951,597 1,783,456 168,141
2002 4,018,969 3,807,392 211,578 2,176,363 2,141,754 34,609 1,842,606 1,665,638 176,968
2003 4,281,605 3,998,766 282,840 2,054,379 1,884,711 169,667 2,227,227 2,114,054 113,173
2004 4,310,180 4,019,273 290,907 2,390,924 2,198,578 192,346 1,919,256 1,820,695 98,561
2005 4,834,374 4,532,166 302,208 2,765,100 2,610,805 154,296 2,069,274 1,921,362 147,912
2006 5,737,363 5,398,108 339,255 3,330,057 3,172,222 157,835 2,407,306 2,225,886 181,420
2007 7,098,611 6,721,251 377,360 3,835,574 3,733,130 102,444 3,263,037 2,988,121 274,916
2008 7,353,050 7,294,533 58,518 3,655,854 3,715,557 -59,703 3,697,197 3,578,976 118,221
2009 6,933,548 6,453,779 479,769 2,644,973 2,543,511 101,462 4,288,575 3,910,268 378,306
2010 7,336,284 6,866,563 469,721 2,811,558 2,752,269 59,289 4,524,726 4,114,294 410,432
2011 8,533,641 8,127,548 406,093 3,033,610 3,034,111 -501 5,500,031 5,093,437 406,593
2012 8,196,082 7,608,901 587,181 2,773,356 2,828,018 -54,661 5,422,726 4,780,883 641,842
2013 9,255,798 8,735,929 519,869 3,409,812 3,226,356 183,456 5,845,986 5,509,573 336,414
2014 8,526,007 7,967,642 558,365 3,521,681 3,446,149 75,532 5,004,326 4,521,493 482,833

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


2015 8,880,055 8,425,786 454,269 3,595,161 3,558,715 36,446 5,284,894 4,867,071 417,823
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.
TABLE 32
Total Portfolio, Common Stock, and Other Securities: Purchases, Sales, and Net Purchases by Equity Mutual Funds
Millions of dollars, annual
Total portfolio Common stock Other securities
Year Purchases Sales Net purchases Purchases Sales Net purchases Purchases Sales Net purchases
1984 $54,933 $49,853 $5,080 $49,098 $44,213 $4,885 $5,835 $5,640 $195
1985 77,327 70,685 6,642 66,762 61,599 5,163 10,565 9,086 1,479
1986 129,723 111,233 18,491 110,016 96,512 13,504 19,708 14,721 4,987
1987 196,902 175,292 21,611 170,715 150,705 20,009 26,188 24,586 1,601

LONG-TERM MUTUAL FUNDS


1988 119,861 130,821 -10,959 100,888 113,635 -12,747 18,973 17,186 1,788
1989 148,346 144,753 3,593 128,998 127,026 1,973 19,348 17,728 1,621
1990 187,592 169,373 18,219 151,907 133,630 18,277 35,685 35,743 -59
1991 251,773 207,947 43,827 224,117 186,785 37,333 27,656 21,162 6,494
1992 339,003 268,868 70,135 300,712 242,319 58,393 38,291 26,549 11,742
1993 500,206 382,433 117,773 451,485 345,357 106,128 48,720 37,076 11,644
1994 618,004 508,394 109,610 564,380 456,708 107,672 53,623 51,686 1,937
1995 785,867 678,060 107,807 718,298 621,699 96,599 67,569 56,361 11,208
1996 1,116,906 896,644 220,262 1,050,884 832,486 218,397 66,022 64,157 1,865
1997 1,421,211 1,223,463 197,748 1,352,085 1,166,649 185,436 69,126 56,814 12,312
1998 1,723,752 1,557,212 166,540 1,635,842 1,475,384 160,458 87,909 81,827 6,082
1999 2,232,828 2,049,540 183,288 2,126,860 1,941,505 185,355 105,968 108,035 -2,067
2000 3,515,572 3,258,635 256,937 3,393,017 3,144,116 248,902 122,554 114,519 8,035
2001 2,707,359 2,593,454 113,905 2,571,182 2,464,587 106,595 136,177 128,867 7,310
2002 2,140,797 2,112,759 28,039 2,017,847 1,999,827 18,020 122,950 112,931 10,019
2003 1,965,419 1,822,753 142,666 1,902,718 1,758,142 144,576 62,701 64,611 -1,910
2004 2,278,755 2,110,605 168,150 2,216,948 2,053,652 163,296 61,807 56,953 4,854
2005 2,671,170 2,524,339 146,831 2,592,059 2,452,257 139,803 79,110 72,083 7,028
2006 3,231,135 3,063,822 167,313 3,129,822 2,966,143 163,679 101,313 97,679 3,634
2007 3,760,234 3,658,395 101,838 3,582,758 3,490,174 92,584 177,476 168,221 9,255
2008 3,628,276 3,698,255 -69,979 3,361,901 3,426,442 -64,540 266,375 271,813 -5,439
2009 2,749,913 2,676,641 73,273 2,433,267 2,339,181 94,086 316,646 337,459 -20,813
2010 2,828,781 2,828,824 -44 2,568,443 2,532,634 35,809 260,338 296,191 -35,853
2011 2,914,958 2,943,155 -28,196 2,756,087 2,785,493 -29,406 158,871 157,662 1,209
2012 2,639,806 2,696,126 -56,321 2,499,401 2,571,677 -72,276 140,405 124,449 15,955
2013 3,178,944 2,993,417 185,527 3,043,744 2,877,082 166,662 135,200 116,335 18,864
2014 3,301,070 3,191,111 109,959 3,120,637 3,033,171 87,466 180,433 157,939 22,493
2015 3,385,138 3,309,322 75,817 3,187,955 3,122,235 65,720 197,184 187,087 10,097
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

203
DATA SECTION 3
DATA SECTION 3

204
TABLE 33
Total Portfolio, Common Stock, and Other Securities: Purchases, Sales, and Net Purchases by Hybrid Mutual Funds
Millions of dollars, annual
Total portfolio Common stock Other securities
Year Purchases Sales Net purchases Purchases Sales Net purchases Purchases Sales Net purchases
1984 $11,589 $9,258 $2,331 $7,129 $5,822 $1,308 $4,459 $3,436 $1,023
1985 19,647 14,915 4,732 13,378 10,513 2,865 6,269 4,402 1,867
1986 34,746 28,007 6,739 21,894 19,451 2,443 12,853 8,556 4,297
1987 48,335 44,168 4,168 26,282 23,989 2,293 22,053 20,179 1,874
1988 28,070 31,455 -3,384 10,628 13,833 -3,205 17,442 17,622 -179
1989 26,747 24,864 1,883 12,459 13,598 -1,139 14,288 11,266 3,022
1990 30,606 26,671 3,935 13,327 11,832 1,494 17,279 14,839 2,440
1991 41,999 33,747 8,252 18,657 15,435 3,222 23,342 18,313 5,029
1992 63,564 43,131 20,433 23,965 17,200 6,765 39,599 25,931 13,667
1993 113,314 72,150 41,164 49,686 30,485 19,201 63,628 41,665 21,963
1994 134,972 110,305 24,667 54,808 46,429 8,380 80,163 63,876 16,287
1995 180,638 170,864 9,774 67,616 60,602 7,015 113,021 110,262 2,759
1996 223,905 201,872 22,033 92,485 88,464 4,021 131,420 113,408 18,011
1997 255,207 234,820 20,387 98,109 94,976 3,132 157,099 139,844 17,255
1998 282,651 257,096 25,555 115,703 111,401 4,301 166,948 145,694 21,254
1999 296,235 296,850 -615 128,303 138,923 -10,620 167,932 157,927 10,005
2000 308,821 335,531 -26,711 158,039 174,998 -16,960 150,782 160,533 -9,751
2001 357,557 334,161 23,396 155,235 134,368 20,868 202,322 199,794 2,528
2002 340,650 320,591 20,059 145,370 129,204 16,166 195,280 191,387 3,893
2003 360,653 312,111 48,542 137,490 113,785 23,706 223,163 198,326 24,837
2004 404,955 337,219 67,736 163,795 132,966 30,829 241,160 204,253 36,907
2005 397,695 346,260 51,435 165,487 150,166 15,321 232,208 196,094 36,114
2006 408,861 381,376 27,485 191,740 197,120 -5,380 217,122 184,256 32,865
2007 529,061 465,049 64,011 241,633 230,855 10,778 287,428 234,194 53,233
2008 594,156 577,635 16,521 281,814 273,655 8,159 312,342 303,980 8,363
2009 477,006 443,131 33,876 200,907 194,826 6,081 276,099 248,305 27,794
2010 512,564 463,315 49,250 225,191 204,365 20,826 287,374 258,950 28,424
2011 660,464 596,747 63,716 254,665 229,513 25,152 405,799 367,235 38,564
2012 723,933 662,086 61,847 253,601 237,412 16,189 470,332 424,674 45,658
2013 912,709 832,006 80,704 345,127 327,859 17,268 567,582 504,146 63,435
2014 931,786 864,486 67,300 370,570 385,211 -14,641 561,216 479,275 81,941

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


2015 943,656 910,815 32,841 377,910 403,229 -25,319 565,747 507,587 58,160
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.
TABLE 34
Total Portfolio, Common Stock, and Other Securities: Purchases, Sales, and Net Purchases by Bond Mutual Funds
Millions of dollars, annual
Total portfolio Common stock Other securities
Year Purchases Sales Net purchases Purchases Sales Net purchases Purchases Sales Net purchases
1984 $52,751 $39,823 $12,928 $361 $865 -$504 $52,390 $38,958 $13,432
1985 162,522 101,385 61,137 579 465 114 161,943 100,919 61,024
1986 336,127 225,848 110,279 2,537 2,062 475 333,590 223,785 109,805
1987 285,363 265,812 19,551 1,862 1,310 553 283,501 264,502 18,999

LONG-TERM MUTUAL FUNDS


1988 262,577 258,947 3,630 1,226 1,347 -121 261,351 257,600 3,751
1989 296,651 275,836 20,815 1,314 1,071 243 295,337 274,765 20,572
1990 336,522 309,735 26,787 1,164 1,118 46 335,358 308,617 26,741
1991 441,926 366,435 75,490 7,514 7,056 458 434,411 359,379 75,033
1992 546,837 446,476 100,360 2,840 2,338 502 543,997 444,138 99,858
1993 721,995 605,777 116,218 5,542 5,013 528 716,453 600,763 115,690
1994 680,764 710,631 -29,867 9,479 9,210 269 671,285 701,421 -30,136
1995 584,006 551,779 32,227 4,103 4,456 -353 579,903 547,323 32,580
1996 677,442 638,368 39,075 7,893 6,316 1,578 669,549 632,052 37,497
1997 708,221 650,698 57,523 7,190 7,358 -167 701,031 643,340 57,691
1998 855,159 745,767 109,392 11,020 10,525 496 844,139 735,242 108,897
1999 908,117 877,911 30,205 7,342 8,115 -773 900,774 869,796 30,978
2000 1,098,534 1,104,026 -5,491 9,615 11,303 -1,688 1,088,919 1,092,722 -3,803
2001 1,623,614 1,465,499 158,115 10,515 10,703 -188 1,613,099 1,454,796 158,303
2002 1,537,522 1,374,042 163,480 13,146 12,723 423 1,524,376 1,361,320 163,057
2003 1,955,533 1,863,902 91,632 14,171 12,785 1,386 1,941,363 1,851,117 90,246
2004 1,626,470 1,571,448 55,022 10,181 11,959 -1,779 1,616,290 1,559,489 56,801
2005 1,765,509 1,661,567 103,942 7,554 8,382 -828 1,757,955 1,653,185 104,770
2006 2,097,367 1,952,910 144,456 8,496 8,960 -464 2,088,871 1,943,950 144,921
2007 2,809,317 2,597,806 211,511 11,183 12,100 -917 2,798,134 2,585,706 212,428
2008 3,130,618 3,018,643 111,975 12,138 15,460 -3,321 3,118,480 3,003,183 115,297
2009 3,706,628 3,334,008 372,621 10,798 9,503 1,295 3,695,830 3,324,504 371,326
2010 3,994,939 3,574,424 420,515 17,925 15,271 2,654 3,977,014 3,559,153 417,861
2011 4,958,219 4,587,646 370,573 22,858 19,105 3,752 4,935,361 4,568,541 366,820
2012 4,832,343 4,250,688 581,654 20,354 18,929 1,425 4,811,989 4,231,760 580,229
2013 5,164,145 4,910,506 253,639 20,940 21,415 -475 5,143,205 4,889,091 254,114
2014 4,293,151 3,912,045 381,106 30,474 27,766 2,707 4,262,677 3,884,279 378,398
2015 4,551,261 4,205,649 345,611 29,297 33,251 -3,955 4,521,964 4,172,398 349,566
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

205
DATA SECTION 3
DATA SECTION 4

206
TABLE 35
Money Market Funds: Total Net Assets, Number of Funds, and Number of Share Classes by Type of Fund
Year-end
Total net assets
Millions of dollars Number of funds Number of share classes
Taxable Tax- Taxable Tax- Taxable Tax-
Year Total Government Prime exempt Total Government Prime exempt Total Government Prime exempt
1984 $233,554 $51,800 $157,951 $23,802 425 158 173 94 425 158 173 94
1985 243,802 55,705 151,849 36,249 460 151 199 110 460 151 199 110
1986 292,152 63,736 164,610 63,806 487 147 213 127 487 147 213 127
1987 316,096 67,589 187,087 61,420 543 154 235 154 543 154 235 154
1988 337,954 61,298 210,897 65,758 610 159 274 177 610 159 274 177
1989 428,093 74,685 283,939 69,470 673 160 310 203 673 160 310 203
1990 498,341 109,376 305,189 83,777 741 176 329 236 762 183 339 240
1991 542,442 138,111 314,346 89,984 820 211 341 268 871 228 363 280
1992 546,194 151,043 300,310 94,841 864 235 350 279 914 248 368 298
1993 565,319 149,180 312,701 103,439 920 265 362 293 1,009 286 386 337
1994 611,005 148,139 352,972 109,894 963 276 373 314 1,261 368 490 403
1995 753,018 181,494 449,829 121,695 997 284 392 321 1,380 404 549 427
1996 901,807 223,790 540,146 137,871 988 277 392 319 1,453 413 592 448
1997 1,058,886 254,223 647,005 157,658 1,013 279 406 328 1,549 442 633 474
1998 1,351,678 312,907 854,061 184,711 1,026 277 410 339 1,627 462 675 490
1999 1,613,146 333,726 1,079,523 199,897 1,045 281 423 341 1,730 488 742 500
2000 1,845,248 367,780 1,243,598 233,869 1,039 275 429 335 1,855 534 797 524
2001 2,285,310 461,631 1,564,598 259,081 1,015 269 421 325 1,948 573 832 543
2002 2,265,075 453,157 1,535,621 276,297 988 259 418 311 2,006 581 882 543
2003 2,040,022 410,041 1,339,689 290,291 973 251 409 313 2,031 572 890 569
2004 1,901,700 379,706 1,209,995 311,999 944 240 399 305 2,053 577 900 576
2005 2,026,822 399,330 1,291,119 336,373 870 221 372 277 2,031 570 894 567
2006 2,338,451 426,838 1,542,584 369,029 847 215 358 274 2,013 579 875 559
2007 3,085,760 760,389 1,857,280 468,092 805 203 342 260 2,015 574 873 568
2008 3,832,236 1,490,208 1,848,349 493,680 783 200 334 249 1,990 584 859 547
2009 3,315,893 1,107,035 1,809,923 398,935 704 180 296 228 1,846 561 769 516
2010 2,803,514 855,021 1,618,488 330,006 652 165 277 210 1,781 544 737 500
2011 2,690,950 970,075 1,429,178 291,697 632 166 265 201 1,730 544 711 475

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


2012 2,693,169 928,749 1,476,993 287,426 580 158 242 180 1,623 519 655 449
2013 2,717,808 962,009 1,485,187 270,612 555 152 230 173 1,571 508 633 430
2014 2,724,641 1,010,783 1,453,071 260,787 527 148 216 163 1,506 512 588 406
2015 2,754,743 1,226,422 1,273,390 254,931 481 145 191 145 1,427 522 534 371
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.
TABLE 36
Total Net Assets of Money Market Funds by Type of Fund
Millions of dollars, year-end
All money market funds Retail money market funds Institutional money market funds
Taxable Tax- Taxable Tax- Taxable Tax-

MONEY MARKET FUNDS


Year Total Government Prime exempt Total Government Prime exempt Total Government Prime exempt
1996 $901,807 $223,790 $540,146 $137,871 $592,743 $94,786 $387,844 $110,113 $309,064 $129,003 $152,302 $27,758
1997 1,058,886 254,223 647,005 157,658 663,683 100,991 439,946 122,747 395,202 153,232 207,059 34,911
1998 1,351,678 312,907 854,061 184,711 835,624 121,664 571,834 142,126 516,054 191,243 282,227 42,585
1999 1,613,146 333,726 1,079,523 199,897 965,289 132,915 676,590 155,785 647,856 200,812 402,933 44,111
2000 1,845,248 367,780 1,243,598 233,869 1,062,252 151,837 731,699 178,716 782,996 215,943 511,900 55,154
2001 2,285,310 461,631 1,564,598 259,081 1,135,500 169,883 776,132 189,484 1,149,810 291,748 788,466 69,597
2002 2,265,075 453,157 1,535,621 276,297 1,065,333 157,011 716,297 192,025 1,199,743 296,146 819,324 84,272
2003 2,040,022 410,041 1,339,689 290,291 939,224 141,248 607,364 190,612 1,100,798 268,793 732,326 99,679
2004 1,901,700 379,706 1,209,995 311,999 853,187 126,473 534,920 191,794 1,048,514 253,233 675,076 120,205
2005 2,026,822 399,330 1,291,119 336,373 876,493 126,244 546,843 203,406 1,150,328 273,085 744,276 132,968
2006 2,338,451 426,838 1,542,584 369,029 1,008,656 140,483 644,129 224,043 1,329,796 286,354 898,455 144,986
2007 3,085,760 760,389 1,857,280 468,092 1,226,440 185,526 755,324 285,590 1,859,321 574,863 1,101,955 182,503
2008 3,832,236 1,490,208 1,848,349 493,680 1,370,803 289,731 777,860 303,212 2,461,433 1,200,476 1,070,489 190,467
2009 3,315,893 1,107,035 1,809,923 398,935 1,080,913 214,478 631,052 235,383 2,234,981 892,556 1,178,872 163,553
2010 2,803,514 855,021 1,618,488 330,006 958,744 189,694 563,075 205,975 1,844,770 665,327 1,055,412 124,031
2011 2,690,950 970,075 1,429,178 291,697 950,737 203,677 550,610 196,451 1,740,213 766,398 878,568 95,247
2012 2,693,169 928,749 1,476,993 287,426 949,381 205,513 540,892 202,975 1,743,788 723,236 936,101 84,451
2013 2,717,808 962,009 1,485,187 270,612 936,920 205,056 535,602 196,262 1,780,889 756,954 949,585 74,350
2014 2,724,641 1,010,783 1,453,071 260,787 907,028 199,533 517,492 190,003 1,817,613 811,250 935,579 70,784
2015 2,754,743 1,226,422 1,273,390 254,931 941,244 346,452 410,049 184,743 1,813,500 879,970 863,341 70,188
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

207
DATA SECTION 4
DATA SECTION 4

208
TABLE 37
Net New Cash Flow* of Money Market Funds by Type of Fund
Millions of dollars, annual
All money market funds Retail money market funds Institutional money market funds
Taxable Taxable Taxable
Tax- Tax- Tax-
Year Total Government Prime exempt Total Government Prime exempt Total Government Prime exempt
1996 $89,422 $20,572 $58,935 $9,915 $52,940 $6,181 $39,559 $7,200 $36,481 $14,391 $19,376 $2,715
1997 103,466 20,129 69,107 14,231 46,745 4,781 32,206 9,758 56,721 15,347 36,901 4,473
1998 235,457 45,178 167,909 22,370 131,072 15,835 100,508 14,728 104,386 29,343 67,401 7,642
1999 193,681 8,486 174,957 10,238 82,215 -757 73,145 9,827 111,466 9,243 101,812 411
2000 159,365 14,412 118,354 26,599 43,576 504 24,417 18,655 115,789 13,908 93,937 7,944
2001 375,291 86,621 267,329 21,340 36,449 13,579 12,827 10,043 338,842 73,043 254,502 11,297
2002 -45,937 -11,131 -51,060 16,254 -80,065 -10,174 -71,219 1,328 34,128 -957 20,159 14,925
2003 -263,403 -50,998 -222,179 9,774 -151,260 -20,609 -125,743 -4,908 -112,143 -30,389 -96,436 14,682
2004 -156,744 -36,125 -139,213 18,593 -88,769 -15,871 -75,331 2,433 -67,975 -20,254 -63,882 16,160
2005 62,085 13,182 28,009 20,895 2,358 -3,652 -4,781 10,791 59,728 16,834 32,790 10,103
2006 245,162 19,615 200,115 25,432 96,543 9,317 71,069 16,157 148,619 10,297 129,046 9,276
2007 654,412 319,240 251,219 83,953 172,657 38,769 83,264 50,624 481,755 280,471 167,955 33,329
2008 637,155 697,443 -73,523 13,235 114,128 98,267 2,099 13,763 523,027 599,176 -75,621 -528
2009 -539,150 -414,948 -28,571 -95,631 -308,406 -104,057 -136,444 -67,906 -230,744 -310,891 107,873 -27,725
2010 -525,064 -253,927 -201,765 -69,372 -124,196 -25,964 -69,827 -28,404 -400,869 -227,962 -131,938 -40,968
2011 -124,073 107,294 -192,713 -38,654 -1,331 20,461 -12,527 -9,265 -122,742 86,833 -180,186 -29,389
2012 -178 -43,343 47,096 -3,930 -1,185 -781 -7,592 7,187 1,007 -42,563 54,687 -11,117
2013 15,037 29,348 2,473 -16,784 -12,214 -1,143 -4,279 -6,792 27,251 30,491 6,752 -9,993
2014 6,235 48,232 -31,890 -10,107 -30,631 -5,843 -18,302 -6,486 36,865 54,075 -13,588 -3,621
2015 21,462 40,831 -13,868 -5,501 5,301 20,728 -11,271 -4,156 16,160 20,103 -2,598 -1,345
Note: Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges. Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components
may not add to the total because of rounding.

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 38
Net New Cash Flow and Components of Net New Cash Flow of Money Market Funds
Millions of dollars, annual
Sales Redemptions
Net new New + Regular +
Year cash flow1 exchange New2 Exchange 3 exchange Regular4 Exchange5
1984 $35,077 $640,021 $620,536 $19,485 $604,944 $586,990 $17,953
1985 -5,293 848,451 826,858 21,592 853,743 831,067 22,676
1986 33,552 1,026,745 978,041 48,704 993,193 948,656 44,537
1987 10,072 1,147,877 1,049,034 98,843 1,137,805 1,062,671 75,133
1988 106 1,130,639 1,066,003 64,636 1,130,534 1,074,346 56,188
1989 64,132 1,359,616 1,296,458 63,158 1,295,484 1,235,527 59,957
1990 23,179 1,461,537 1,389,439 72,098 1,438,358 1,372,764 65,594
1991 6,068 1,841,131 1,778,491 62,640 1,835,063 1,763,106 71,957
1992 -16,006 2,449,766 2,371,925 77,841 2,465,772 2,382,976 82,796
1993 -13,890 2,756,282 2,665,987 90,295 2,770,172 2,673,464 96,707
1994 8,525 2,725,201 2,586,478 138,722 2,716,675 2,599,400 117,275
1995 89,381 3,234,216 3,097,225 136,990 3,144,834 3,001,968 142,866
1996 89,422 4,156,985 3,959,014 197,971 4,067,563 3,868,772 198,791
1997 103,466 5,127,328 4,894,226 233,102 5,023,863 4,783,096 240,767
1998 235,457 6,407,574 6,129,140 278,434 6,172,116 5,901,590 270,526
1999 193,681 8,080,959 7,719,310 361,649 7,887,278 7,540,912 346,367

DATA SECTION 4
2000 159,365 9,826,677 9,406,287 420,391 9,667,312 9,256,350 410,962
2001 375,291 11,737,291 11,426,804 310,487 11,362,000 11,065,468 296,533
2002 -45,937 12,008,801 11,712,587 296,215 12,054,738 11,783,209 271,530
2003 -263,403 11,177,118 10,952,544 224,574 11,440,521 11,213,929 226,592
2004 -156,744 10,874,608 10,708,117 166,492 11,031,353 10,861,076 170,277
2005 62,085 12,493,636 12,317,491 176,145 12,431,551 12,260,771 170,779
2006 245,162 15,706,879 15,495,624 211,255 15,461,717 15,269,074 192,643
2007 654,412 21,314,339 21,039,253 275,086 20,659,927 20,408,620 251,307
2008 637,155 24,452,430 24,067,371 385,059 23,815,275 23,498,612 316,663
2009 -539,150 18,683,752 18,489,354 194,399 19,222,902 19,012,386 210,516
2010 -525,064 15,771,387 15,670,167 101,220 16,296,451 16,191,894 104,558
2011 -124,073 15,248,902 15,128,158 120,744 15,372,976 15,259,873 113,102
2012 -178 14,291,619 14,211,202 80,417 14,291,797 14,204,776 87,021
2013 15,037 14,976,597 14,867,969 108,629 14,961,561 14,857,792 103,769
2014 6,235 15,316,582 15,237,910 78,672 15,310,347 15,211,292 99,055
2015 21,462 17,658,517 17,560,966 97,551 17,637,056 17,531,891 105,164
1 Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
2 New sales are the dollar value of new purchases of mutual fund shares. This does not include shares purchased through
reinvestment of dividends in existing accounts.
3 Exchange sales are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched into funds within the same fund group.
4 Regular redemptions are the dollar value of shareholder liquidation of mutual fund shares.
5 Exchange redemptions are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched out of funds and into other funds within the same

fund group.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to
the total because of rounding.

MONEY MARKET FUNDS 209


TABLE 39
Paid and Reinvested Dividends of Money Market Funds by Type of Fund
Millions of dollars, annual

Paid dividends Reinvested dividends


Taxable Tax-exempt Taxable Tax-exempt
money market money market money market money market
Year Total funds funds Total funds funds
1984 $16,435 $15,435 $1,000 $13,730 $13,061 $669
1985 15,708 14,108 1,600 12,758 11,760 998
1986 14,832 12,432 2,400 11,514 9,981 1,533
1987 15,654 12,833 2,821 11,946 10,136 1,810
1988 21,618 17,976 3,642 15,692 13,355 2,337
1989 28,619 24,683 3,936 23,050 20,294 2,756
1990 30,258 26,448 3,810 26,282 23,226 3,056
1991 28,604 25,121 3,483 22,809 19,998 2,811
1992 20,280 17,197 3,083 14,596 12,567 2,029
1993 18,991 15,690 3,302 11,615 10,007 1,607
1994 23,737 20,504 3,233 16,739 14,626 2,113
1995 37,038 32,855 4,183 27,985 24,873 3,111
1996 42,555 38,446 4,108 31,516 28,448 3,068
1997 48,843 44,185 4,658 37,979 34,425 3,554
1998 57,375 52,164 5,211 43,443 39,580 3,863
DATA SECTION 4

1999 69,004 63,229 5,775 50,648 46,602 4,046


2000 98,219 90,158 8,061 72,771 66,890 5,881
2001 79,307 73,361 5,946 56,367 51,949 4,418
2002 32,251 29,397 2,854 22,033 19,940 2,093
2003 17,041 15,124 1,917 11,314 9,916 1,398
2004 18,390 15,899 2,491 11,889 10,080 1,809
2005 50,186 43,547 6,638 32,803 27,951 4,852
2006 96,423 85,018 11,405 61,488 53,268 8,220
2007 127,907 113,177 14,730 82,457 71,938 10,519
2008 93,857 82,727 11,130 61,134 53,455 7,680
2009 18,619 16,590 2,030 11,035 9,999 1,037
2010 7,161 6,708 453 4,447 4,196 252
2011 5,237 4,888 349 3,261 3,074 187
2012 6,618 6,345 273 4,212 4,068 144
2013 8,020 7,794 226 5,206 5,089 117
2014 7,565 7,323 242 5,000 4,876 124
2015 7,907 7,703 204 5,328 5,223 105
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to
the total because of rounding.

210 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 40
Asset Composition of Taxable Government Money Market Funds as a Percentage of Total Net Assets
Year-end
U.S.
Total net assets U.S. Other government Average
Millions of Treasury Treasury agency Repurchase Certificates of Eurodollar Commercial Bank Corporate Other maturity
Year dollars bills securities issues agreements deposit CDs paper notes1 notes 2 assets 3 Days
1984 $51,800 21.0% 7.5% 20.4% 33.9% 4.3% 4.3% 7.3% 1.3% 46
1985 55,705 23.9 4.9 15.9 38.2 2.9 6.3 6.2 1.6 44
1986 63,736 22.8 7.9 14.4 39.1 4.1 4.9 4.3 2.5 51

MONEY MARKET FUNDS


1987 67,589 4.6 11.2 22.0 44.9 4.8 7.4 4.0 1.1 35
1988 61,298 5.0 9.7 20.5 58.4 1.2 0.1 3.2 2.0 28
1989 74,685 5.0 6.9 20.6 62.7 0.2 0.1 3.0 1.5 31
1990 109,376 11.1 12.2 20.6 45.7 0.0 0.0 0.3 9.9 46
1991 138,111 21.5 16.5 20.3 40.9 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.3 58
1992 151,043 26.0 16.5 21.6 34.7 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.6 55
1993 149,180 30.3 14.1 20.7 32.8 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.8 61
1994 148,139 24.4 12.6 26.3 34.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0% 2.2 37
1995 181,494 19.8 13.9 28.5 34.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 3.1 48
1996 223,790 17.7 18.5 25.4 35.2 0.0 0.1 0.7 0.0 2.4 49
1997 254,223 15.2 17.6 25.1 37.8 0.1 0.0 1.2 0.1 2.9 50
1998 312,907 14.3 17.7 30.4 33.4 0.3 0.0 1.7 0.1 0.2% 2.0 52
1999 333,726 17.1 13.0 37.1 28.2 0.1 0.0 1.4 0.1 1.1 1.9 48
2000 367,780 14.2 10.1 32.0 37.9 0.0 0.0 1.6 0.1 1.2 2.9 45
2001 461,631 19.2 9.2 34.5 31.7 0.2 0.0 0.5 0.0 1.5 3.3 55
2002 453,157 20.5 6.4 33.2 35.5 0.1 0.0 0.5 0.0 1.7 2.1 52
2003 410,041 20.0 7.2 33.8 36.3 0.3 0.0 0.9 0.0 1.8 -0.3 52
2004 379,706 21.4 4.9 34.5 35.9 0.2 0.0 0.9 0.1 0.8 1.2 36
2005 399,330 15.8 4.4 28.1 50.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.8 0.5 27
2006 426,838 14.9 4.1 21.5 58.6 0.1 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.3 32
2007 760,389 16.3 5.1 24.1 53.7 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 31
2008 1,490,208 30.5 6.2 36.2 26.8 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 -0.1 48
2009 1,107,035 25.6 6.0 35.4 30.6 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.2 0.3 0.7 47
2010 855,021 22.9 8.5 33.3 33.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.1 0.4 0.9 47
2011 970,075 23.2 13.2 28.9 31.6 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.1 0.4 1.5 45
2012 928,749 25.6 12.6 26.7 33.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.1 1.4 46
2013 962,009 27.1 14.3 29.4 27.9 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.8 48
2014 1,010,783 21.2 13.5 31.3 34.7 0.1 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.1 -1.2 44
2015 1,226,422 17.2 17.2 32.8 32.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.4 40
1
Prior to 1994, bank notes are included in other assets.
2
Prior to 1998, corporate notes are included in other assets.
3 Other assets include bankers acceptances, municipal securities, and cash reserves.

Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to 100 percent because of rounding.

211
DATA SECTION 4
DATA SECTION 4

212
TABLE 41
Asset Composition of Taxable Prime Money Market Funds as a Percentage of Total Net Assets
Year-end
U.S.
Total net assets U.S. Other government Average
Millions of Treasury Treasury agency Repurchase Certificates of Eurodollar Commercial Bank Corporate Other maturity
Year dollars bills securities issues agreements deposit CDs paper notes1 notes 2 assets 3 Days
1984 $157,951 5.9% 0.8% 4.1% 3.3% 13.6% 12.0% 47.2% 13.1% 42
1985 151,849 4.6 1.0 6.1 3.1 10.0 10.2 55.4 9.5 42
1986 164,610 3.6 1.6 3.6 4.4 10.0 11.6 56.0 9.3 42
1987 187,087 1.0 0.9 6.5 4.8 16.2 8.9 52.3 9.4 34
1988 210,897 1.0 0.2 2.8 2.8 15.2 14.1 54.6 9.4 32
1989 283,939 1.3 0.8 2.0 2.8 14.4 9.3 62.3 7.1 43
1990 305,189 4.4 2.2 4.7 2.9 6.9 8.9 65.5 4.7 48
1991 314,346 5.7 2.9 4.2 3.7 10.6 6.9 60.1 5.8 56
1992 300,310 2.7 2.5 7.5 4.9 10.4 6.9 57.7 7.4 59
1993 312,701 2.6 2.4 11.9 5.9 8.0 3.2 52.6 13.3 58
1994 352,972 2.4 1.3 11.4 5.6 6.4 4.5 53.4 2.4% 12.7 38
1995 449,829 1.4 0.9 9.2 6.2 8.9 4.5 52.5 3.7 12.7 60
1996 540,146 0.5 1.6 9.0 5.1 12.8 4.3 51.0 2.3 13.5 56
1997 647,005 0.4 0.5 5.4 5.3 14.7 3.7 52.0 3.2 14.8 57
1998 854,061 0.4 0.8 9.6 4.6 13.0 3.6 48.7 3.9 5.8% 9.6 58
1999 1,079,523 0.3 0.3 6.8 4.8 12.8 3.9 49.2 3.1 8.4 10.4 49
2000 1,243,598 0.3 0.1 5.9 3.9 11.7 6.6 50.9 3.6 10.5 6.5 53
2001 1,564,598 0.4 0.3 12.3 6.0 14.9 7.3 41.7 1.5 11.1 4.5 58
2002 1,535,621 1.3 0.3 11.8 8.1 13.8 7.0 40.1 1.4 12.0 4.2 54
2003 1,339,689 1.4 0.3 14.9 8.1 11.6 5.1 35.6 2.0 16.2 4.6 59
2004 1,209,995 0.3 0.1 12.0 8.5 14.1 5.7 33.9 2.6 17.9 4.9 41
2005 1,291,119 0.6 0.1 4.1 11.8 14.5 6.0 38.5 2.3 17.9 4.0 38
2006 1,542,584 0.1 0.2 2.9 9.9 13.9 4.4 39.6 2.2 21.6 5.2 49
2007 1,857,280 0.8 0.2 3.1 11.3 15.2 5.5 36.9 4.0 16.7 6.3 44
2008 1,848,349 1.9 0.5 12.7 8.4 21.5 4.7 34.1 3.1 9.3 3.8 47
2009 1,809,923 2.3 1.3 8.9 8.3 31.6 5.5 28.1 2.9 6.4 4.8 50
2010 1,618,488 2.7 1.9 7.8 12.8 28.6 6.7 24.3 3.2 6.2 5.8 44
2011 1,429,178 3.1 3.8 9.2 13.5 28.4 3.1 24.6 2.7 4.5 7.1 40
2012 1,476,993 3.4 4.2 6.9 16.8 29.5 3.0 23.1 3.5 3.5 6.1 45
2013 1,485,187 2.2 4.3 5.7 15.7 33.3 2.3 23.9 2.7 4.2 5.7 46
2014 1,453,071 2.1 2.6 5.1 20.9 35.7 1.7 23.0 1.6 3.9 3.5 44

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


2015 1,273,390 1.9 2.8 5.1 23.9 34.7 0.9 23.4 2.0 3.0 2.3 31
1
Prior to 1994, bank notes are included in other assets.
2
Prior to 1998, corporate notes are included in other assets.
3 Other assets include bankers acceptances, municipal securities, and cash reserves.

Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to 100 percent because of rounding.
TABLE 42
Alternative Strategies Mutual Funds: Total Net Assets, Net New Cash Flow, Number of Funds, and Number of Share Classes
Equity funds Bond funds Equity funds Bond funds
Hybrid Hybrid
Year Total Domestic World funds Multisector World Total Domestic World funds Multisector World
Total net assets Net new cash flow*
Millions of dollars, year-end Millions of dollars, annual
2007 $41,504 $20,343 $1,149 $18,619 $1,392 -$780 $445 -$47 -$632 -$546
2008 31,276 17,097 431 12,574 1,174 -1,239 -1,013 -446 208 12
2009 58,317 24,432 3,355 28,892 1,638 21,025 7,241 2,572 10,789 424
2010 112,951 32,620 1,776 55,078 1,796 $21,680 36,448 7,295 726 14,930 241 $13,256
2011 129,167 33,729 3,987 64,171 2,136 25,143 15,838 -3,747 954 14,798 420 3,412

ADDITIONAL CATEGORIES OF MUTUAL FUNDS


2012 148,873 41,045 3,897 80,421 2,145 21,366 12,026 6,088 822 4,358 -46 803
2013 220,211 50,193 6,666 110,367 1,862 51,124 64,028 9,804 2,054 23,493 116 28,560
2014 239,457 58,766 7,920 102,491 2,288 67,993 22,443 6,959 1,298 -1,093 123 15,156
2015 227,172 51,718 10,907 110,353 2,337 51,857 -15,343 -5,848 2,618 3,051 -186 -14,978
Number of funds Number of share classes
Year-end Year-end
2007 181 126 16 21 18 426 296 35 54 41
2008 204 138 22 27 17 499 320 58 80 41
2009 208 132 24 34 18 507 300 65 98 44
2010 243 139 24 52 20 8 649 330 72 157 52 38
2011 301 149 39 79 23 11 800 350 103 238 52 57
2012 337 154 35 111 23 14 903 361 85 340 52 65
2013 364 153 42 130 23 16 1,012 366 104 412 48 82
2014 437 167 52 159 26 33 1,243 408 145 502 64 124
2015 488 176 57 188 29 38 1,347 416 157 572 66 136
* Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

213
DATA SECTION 5
TABLE 43
Emerging Markets Debt Mutual Funds: Total Net Assets, Net New Cash Flow,
Number of Funds, and Number of Share Classes
Total net Net new
assets cash flow* Number of Number of
Millions of dollars, Millions of dollars, funds share classes
Year year-end annual Year-end Year-end
2000 $2,442 -$288 23 48
2001 2,129 -412 24 50
2002 2,585 311 22 46
2003 4,297 691 19 43
2004 5,543 635 19 43
2005 7,590 1,245 18 42
2006 12,963 2,193 23 60
2007 16,966 2,275 28 79
2008 13,589 257 31 98
2009 19,739 2,016 33 104
2010 37,888 14,902 36 126
2011 45,009 12,569 48 165
2012 75,322 19,891 66 217
2013 64,668 -4,701 88 291
2014 58,881 -5,627 103 351
2015 44,812 -10,721 97 355
* Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.
DATA SECTION 5

214 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 44
Floating-Rate High-Yield Bond Mutual Funds: Total Net Assets, Net New Cash
Flow, Number of Funds, and Number of Share Classes
Total net Net new
assets cash flow* Number of Number of
Millions of dollars, Millions of dollars, funds share classes
Year year-end annual Year-end Year-end
2000 $23,791 -$2,626 16 30
2001 19,718 -5,114 23 56
2002 13,392 -5,792 22 52
2003 14,968 -310 20 49
2004 24,032 7,449 23 62
2005 27,485 2,195 25 73
2006 33,620 5,445 23 84
2007 33,667 -2,448 29 103
2008 17,128 -8,170 31 126
2009 28,330 4,362 31 122
2010 47,109 15,041 32 127
2011 59,877 10,158 38 156
2012 76,619 10,625 41 169
2013 140,898 59,580 51 199
2014 118,254 -22,232 52 203
2015 93,332 -22,628 56 225
* Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

DATA SECTION 5

ADDITIONAL CATEGORIES OF MUTUAL FUNDS 215


DATA SECTION 5

216
TABLE 45
Funds of Funds:1 Total Net Assets, Net New Cash Flow, Number of Funds, and Number of Share Classes
Total net assets Net new cash flow2 Number of funds Number of share classes
Millions of dollars, year-end Millions of dollars, annual Year-end Year-end
Hybrid and Hybrid and Hybrid and Hybrid and
Year Total Equity bond Total Equity bond Total Equity bond Total Equity bond
1990 $1,426 $211 $1,215 $131 -$21 $152 20 11 9 20 11 9
1991 2,313 403 1,910 475 97 378 20 10 10 20 10 10
1992 3,722 651 3,072 1,134 205 929 21 10 11 21 10 11
1993 5,403 900 4,503 1,160 154 1,006 24 12 12 24 12 12
1994 6,170 1,367 4,803 567 342 225 32 15 17 32 15 17
1995 9,063 2,288 6,774 1,135 633 503 36 19 17 37 19 18
1996 13,404 4,596 8,808 2,457 1,572 885 45 24 21 56 28 28
1997 21,480 7,305 14,175 3,380 1,552 1,828 94 38 56 148 55 93
1998 35,368 11,862 23,506 6,376 1,951 4,426 175 72 103 305 109 196
1999 48,310 18,250 30,060 6,572 3,400 3,171 212 80 132 394 134 260
2000 56,911 11,919 44,992 10,401 3,146 7,255 215 58 157 414 95 319
2001 63,385 11,159 52,226 8,929 1,313 7,617 213 58 155 450 94 356
2002 68,960 10,311 58,649 11,593 1,532 10,061 268 68 200 625 118 507
2003 123,029 19,367 103,662 29,859 3,006 26,853 299 70 229 716 118 598
2004 199,197 27,729 171,469 50,481 5,260 45,222 372 69 303 957 126 831
2005 305,749 41,279 264,470 79,550 5,885 73,665 472 90 382 1,292 185 1,107
2006 469,377 70,897 398,480 101,347 13,782 87,565 598 119 479 1,849 258 1,591
2007 638,073 96,660 541,413 126,407 17,276 109,131 704 124 580 2,331 295 2,036
2008 469,333 42,860 426,473 60,480 5,712 54,768 839 123 716 2,782 312 2,470
2009 680,121 55,266 624,856 70,169 4,146 66,022 945 131 814 3,051 325 2,726
2010 914,743 80,580 834,164 118,374 4,964 113,410 980 147 833 3,140 348 2,792
2011 1,035,850 80,700 955,151 119,741 3,011 116,730 1,085 158 927 3,407 362 3,045
2012 1,269,378 93,075 1,176,304 93,915 -2,651 96,566 1,154 164 990 3,737 410 3,327
2013 1,558,494 128,782 1,429,713 109,706 12,621 97,084 1,257 174 1,083 4,003 417 3,586
2014 1,693,357 128,171 1,565,185 68,584 11,706 56,878 1,331 175 1,156 4,239 420 3,819
2015 1,721,622 137,237 1,584,385 58,086 9,095 48,991 1,404 180 1,224 4,569 449 4,120
1 Funds
of funds are mutual funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds.
2 Net
new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.
TABLE 46
Funds of Funds:1 Components of Net New Cash Flow2
Millions of dollars, annual
Sales Redemptions
New + exchange New3 Exchange 4 Regular + exchange Regular5 Exchange 6
Hybrid Hybrid Hybrid Hybrid Hybrid Hybrid
Year Total Equity and bond Total Equity and bond Total Equity and bond Total Equity and bond Total Equity and bond Total Equity and bond
1990 $416 $68 $348 $351 $58 $293 $65 $10 $55 $285 $89 $196 $186 $87 $99 $100 $3 $97
1991 772 192 580 579 142 437 194 50 143 298 95 203 185 79 105 113 16 97
1992 1,617 371 1,246 1,255 294 961 362 76 286 483 166 318 303 130 174 180 36 144
1993 1,953 358 1,594 1,533 293 1,240 419 65 354 793 205 588 453 156 297 340 49 291
1994 1,781 583 1,197 1,341 389 952 439 194 245 1,213 241 972 682 166 517 531 75 456
1995 2,362 987 1,376 1,750 692 1,059 612 295 317 1,227 354 873 768 233 535 459 121 338
1996 4,522 2,321 2,201 3,621 1,847 1,774 901 474 428 2,066 749 1,317 1,290 519 771 776 230 546
1997 6,317 2,765 3,553 4,753 1,957 2,796 1,565 808 757 2,937 1,213 1,725 1,749 768 981 1,189 445 744
1998 12,931 4,247 8,684 9,938 3,446 6,492 2,993 801 2,192 6,554 2,296 4,258 3,766 1,490 2,277 2,788 807 1,981
1999 16,749 6,722 10,028 12,759 5,458 7,301 3,990 1,263 2,727 10,178 3,321 6,856 6,638 2,465 4,173 3,540 856 2,684
2000 24,092 5,493 18,599 18,607 4,493 14,114 5,485 1,000 4,485 13,690 2,347 11,344 9,250 1,925 7,325 4,440 422 4,019
2001 22,577 3,914 18,663 17,606 3,255 14,351 4,971 659 4,312 13,647 2,601 11,046 9,546 2,018 7,528 4,101 583 3,518
2002 28,194 4,937 23,256 23,063 4,149 18,914 5,131 789 4,342 16,600 3,405 13,195 12,209 2,875 9,335 4,391 530 3,861

ADDITIONAL CATEGORIES OF MUTUAL FUNDS


2003 46,920 5,914 41,006 38,406 4,824 33,582 8,515 1,090 7,425 17,062 2,909 14,153 12,785 2,452 10,333 4,277 456 3,820
2004 76,677 9,285 67,392 63,004 7,409 55,595 13,674 1,876 11,798 26,196 4,026 22,171 19,742 3,459 16,283 6,455 567 5,888
2005 122,744 11,395 111,349 105,973 9,035 96,938 16,771 2,360 14,411 43,194 5,510 37,685 35,168 4,747 30,421 8,027 763 7,264
2006 163,033 22,354 140,679 138,808 17,618 121,190 24,225 4,736 19,489 61,686 8,572 53,114 48,972 7,182 41,790 12,714 1,390 11,324
2007 226,977 33,410 193,567 193,640 26,126 167,515 33,336 7,285 26,052 100,569 16,134 84,435 81,898 13,073 68,825 18,671 3,061 15,610
2008 210,801 25,028 185,773 181,189 20,752 160,437 29,613 4,276 25,337 150,321 19,316 131,006 119,872 16,056 103,816 30,449 3,260 27,190
2009 190,511 19,788 170,723 171,433 18,309 153,123 19,079 1,479 17,600 120,343 15,642 104,701 102,091 14,236 87,855 18,252 1,406 16,845
2010 290,435 21,531 268,904 265,197 20,330 244,868 25,237 1,201 24,036 172,060 16,567 155,494 150,065 15,167 134,898 21,996 1,400 20,596
2011 350,637 20,730 329,907 322,898 19,619 303,279 27,739 1,112 26,628 230,897 17,720 213,177 202,789 16,237 186,552 28,108 1,483 26,625
2012 330,536 18,465 312,071 304,536 17,100 287,436 26,001 1,366 24,635 236,622 21,116 215,505 211,417 19,615 191,802 25,205 1,501 23,704
2013 402,464 33,319 369,145 362,400 30,718 331,682 40,064 2,601 37,463 292,759 20,698 272,061 259,712 19,202 240,510 33,046 1,496 31,551
2014 409,154 34,767 374,386 368,559 32,827 335,732 40,594 1,940 38,654 340,569 23,061 317,508 289,442 21,681 267,761 51,127 1,380 49,748
2015 456,106 39,372 416,734 403,874 37,345 366,529 52,232 2,028 50,205 398,020 30,277 367,743 338,929 28,239 310,690 59,091 2,038 57,053
1 Funds
of funds are mutual funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds.
2
Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
3 New sales are the dollar value of new purchases of mutual fund shares. This does not include shares purchased through reinvestment of dividends in existing accounts.
4
Exchange sales are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched into funds within the same fund group.
5
Regular redemptions are the dollar value of shareholder liquidation of mutual fund shares.
6
Exchange redemptions are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched out of funds and into other funds within the same fund group.
Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

217
DATA SECTION 5
DATA SECTION 5

218
TABLE 47
Index Mutual Funds: Total Net Assets and Net New Cash Flow
Millions of dollars
Total net assets Net new cash flow*
Year-end Annual
Equity funds Equity funds
Other Hybrid Other Hybrid
Year Total S&P 500 domestic World and bond Total S&P 500 domestic World and bond
1993 $27,805 $19,790 $3,338 $1,281 $3,396 $6,428 $3,994 $953 $501 $980
1994 32,573 22,752 3,863 2,095 3,863 3,348 1,871 515 436 525
1995 57,042 41,744 6,442 2,846 6,009 11,815 8,820 1,038 512 1,446
1996 97,759 73,856 11,241 4,124 8,538 24,780 18,447 3,192 1,033 2,108
1997 170,302 129,857 21,221 5,329 13,895 34,847 25,208 5,230 818 3,591
1998 264,998 201,791 35,051 7,962 20,193 46,143 30,977 8,499 1,568 5,099
1999 387,411 284,588 63,386 13,130 26,307 61,603 38,063 16,102 2,241 5,197
2000 384,039 272,462 72,009 12,645 26,923 25,592 10,783 10,668 1,664 2,477
2001 370,560 249,452 73,598 11,128 36,381 26,735 9,113 8,859 1,181 7,582
2002 327,417 200,989 69,426 11,050 45,952 25,255 4,818 12,153 1,669 6,616
2003 455,293 273,691 112,480 18,218 50,903 35,234 14,231 16,538 2,199 2,266
2004 554,044 317,826 147,819 28,236 60,163 40,130 11,739 16,078 5,661 6,651
2005 618,699 334,012 171,377 42,792 70,518 27,877 -317 11,731 8,456 8,007
2006 747,491 379,765 218,166 66,647 82,913 32,974 -5,908 20,134 10,674 8,074
2007 854,715 394,593 257,850 95,695 106,577 61,139 -1,440 29,193 16,915 16,473
2008 619,474 252,956 177,975 67,871 120,672 48,624 7,666 23,337 7,697 9,924
2009 835,422 328,647 256,365 92,507 157,903 59,928 8,195 16,646 7,951 27,135
2010 1,016,713 375,949 325,276 122,751 192,736 57,560 -808 15,024 19,076 24,268
2011 1,093,749 376,582 357,625 121,445 238,098 54,828 -6,869 24,600 17,202 19,895
2012 1,311,077 429,698 439,633 161,212 280,534 59,043 -7,139 22,134 15,523 28,525
2013 1,733,629 574,380 638,869 215,545 304,835 114,376 5,541 46,541 28,309 33,985
2014 2,053,656 669,483 768,289 242,925 372,959 149,070 12,567 49,009 38,403 49,091
2015 2,207,297 691,070 795,436 303,007 417,784 165,870 14,788 32,311 74,961 43,810
*
Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 48
Index Mutual Funds: Number of Funds and Number of Share Classes
Year-end
Number of funds Number of share classes
Equity funds Equity funds
Other Hybrid Other Hybrid
Year Total S&P 500 domestic World and bond Total S&P 500 domestic World and bond
1993 70 39 15 6 10 74 43 15 6 10
1994 82 43 17 7 15 96 54 17 10 15
1995 87 48 18 7 14 110 63 19 11 17
1996 105 60 22 7 16 143 86 25 11 21
1997 132 72 27 12 21 205 115 38 21 31
1998 156 86 37 15 18 252 148 52 25 27
1999 197 97 59 20 21 323 166 95 31 31
2000 271 120 99 26 26 465 221 163 43 38

ADDITIONAL CATEGORIES OF MUTUAL FUNDS


2001 286 126 110 24 26 518 238 197 43 40
2002 313 132 124 28 29 578 255 221 53 49
2003 321 128 134 30 29 601 253 243 56 49
2004 328 127 146 28 27 633 262 269 55 47
2005 322 119 147 29 27 647 258 279 62 48
2006 343 125 157 33 28 699 272 303 70 54
2007 354 125 159 37 33 735 276 312 83 64
2008 360 122 163 42 33 755 278 316 96 65
2009 357 113 151 49 44 756 259 291 107 99
2010 365 111 161 50 43 776 253 301 121 101
2011 382 111 169 57 45 856 260 337 144 115
2012 372 103 166 58 45 871 247 349 153 122
2013 371 96 171 58 46 881 234 364 156 127
2014 383 95 183 58 47 909 232 403 148 126
2015 406 95 194 64 53 967 234 433 162 138
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

219
DATA SECTION 5
DATA SECTION 5

220
TABLE 49
Index Mutual Funds: New Sales and Exchange Sales
Millions of dollars, annual
New + exchange New1 Exchange2
Equity funds Equity funds Equity funds
Other Hybrid and Other Hybrid and Other Hybrid and
Year Total S&P 500 domestic World bond Total S&P 500 domestic World bond Total S&P 500 domestic World bond
1993 $13,399 $9,029 $1,560 $746 $2,064 $11,308 $7,926 $1,283 $455 $1,644 $2,091 $1,104 $277 $291 $420
1994 11,980 8,106 1,283 824 1,767 10,257 7,187 1,130 579 1,361 1,723 919 153 245 405
1995 21,853 15,916 2,107 1,019 2,811 17,669 13,095 1,883 800 1,891 4,184 2,821 224 219 920
1996 42,680 31,829 4,893 1,855 4,103 34,903 26,165 4,182 1,463 3,093 7,776 5,664 711 392 1,010
1997 73,274 54,494 10,219 2,173 6,388 54,093 41,160 6,562 1,816 4,555 19,181 13,334 3,657 357 1,834
1998 102,843 75,186 15,515 3,014 9,128 79,382 59,457 11,406 2,157 6,362 23,461 15,728 4,109 857 2,767
1999 145,582 101,675 26,755 4,544 12,608 112,686 81,540 18,994 3,232 8,920 32,896 20,135 7,761 1,312 3,688
2000 136,385 92,019 29,049 6,091 9,225 107,344 75,990 20,141 4,863 6,351 29,041 16,029 8,908 1,229 2,875
2001 122,247 72,936 28,055 4,643 16,612 94,018 58,654 20,960 3,946 10,458 28,229 14,282 7,096 697 6,154
2002 127,752 68,085 34,211 5,161 20,295 99,640 57,060 24,922 4,505 13,154 28,112 11,026 9,289 656 7,141
2003 136,830 67,688 44,593 5,998 18,550 104,703 54,472 31,681 5,178 13,372 32,127 13,216 12,913 820 5,178
2004 159,310 74,967 53,947 9,403 20,992 128,162 63,371 40,622 7,915 16,254 31,148 11,597 13,325 1,488 4,739
2005 163,344 70,763 56,374 13,523 22,684 131,335 58,818 43,402 11,275 17,840 32,009 11,945 12,972 2,248 4,844
2006 189,915 69,619 73,333 19,890 27,074 152,437 59,125 57,381 16,061 19,871 37,478 10,494 15,953 3,829 7,203
2007 259,419 93,691 92,086 30,539 43,102 200,041 76,300 71,958 23,650 28,133 59,378 17,391 20,129 6,889 14,969
2008 253,056 87,082 82,141 29,733 54,099 203,402 74,132 64,725 24,545 40,000 49,654 12,951 17,416 5,188 14,099
2009 244,203 69,398 66,309 25,752 82,744 182,247 60,024 52,130 19,915 50,177 61,956 9,374 14,178 5,837 32,567
2010 279,015 70,013 84,010 50,914 74,078 212,865 59,437 64,649 32,063 56,717 66,151 10,577 19,361 18,851 17,362
2011 330,845 93,679 107,165 44,919 85,081 268,319 80,167 83,055 36,824 68,274 62,526 13,512 24,110 8,096 16,807
2012 338,948 93,429 110,994 44,029 90,496 277,651 79,206 89,369 35,357 73,720 61,296 14,223 21,625 8,672 16,776
2013 432,830 111,144 146,421 59,647 115,619 345,802 95,555 119,032 50,086 81,129 87,028 15,588 27,389 9,561 34,490
2014 512,273 142,880 179,064 72,752 117,577 437,048 121,824 153,388 62,364 99,473 75,225 21,056 25,677 10,388 18,104
2015 594,431 144,544 195,687 121,269 132,932 511,663 125,770 166,956 107,144 111,794 82,767 18,773 28,731 14,125 21,138
1 Newsales are the dollar value of new purchases of mutual fund shares. This does not include shares purchased through reinvestment of dividends in existing accounts.
2 Exchangesales are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched into funds within the same fund group.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 50
Index Mutual Funds: Redemptions and Exchange Redemptions
Millions of dollars, annual
Regular + exchange Regular1 Exchange2
Equity funds Equity funds Equity funds
Other Hybrid and Other Hybrid and Other Hybrid and
Year Total S&P 500 domestic World bond Total S&P 500 domestic World bond Total S&P 500 domestic World bond
1993 $6,971 $5,036 $607 $245 $1,084 $5,304 $4,022 $449 $118 $715 $1,667 $1,014 $158 $127 $369
1994 8,632 6,236 768 387 1,241 7,177 5,426 645 243 863 1,455 810 123 144 379
1995 10,038 7,096 1,069 507 1,365 7,721 5,738 935 337 711 2,316 1,358 135 170 654
1996 17,900 13,382 1,700 822 1,995 13,578 10,330 1,429 566 1,253 4,321 3,052 271 256 743
1997 38,427 29,286 4,989 1,355 2,797 24,753 19,825 2,469 779 1,681 13,674 9,462 2,520 576 1,116
1998 56,700 44,208 7,016 1,446 4,029 40,024 32,563 4,256 973 2,232 16,676 11,646 2,760 473 1,797
1999 83,979 63,612 10,653 2,303 7,411 60,809 48,336 7,050 1,276 4,146 23,170 15,276 3,603 1,027 3,265
2000 110,793 81,237 18,381 4,427 6,749 80,788 61,735 11,959 2,816 4,278 30,005 19,501 6,422 1,611 2,471

ADDITIONAL CATEGORIES OF MUTUAL FUNDS


2001 95,512 63,823 19,196 3,462 9,030 68,474 47,792 12,731 2,597 5,353 27,038 16,030 6,465 865 3,677
2002 102,497 63,267 22,059 3,493 13,679 74,963 48,625 15,223 2,820 8,296 27,534 14,642 6,835 673 5,383
2003 101,596 53,457 28,056 3,800 16,284 76,804 42,814 20,548 3,407 10,035 24,792 10,643 7,508 393 6,249
2004 119,180 63,228 37,869 3,742 14,341 90,044 50,340 26,886 3,061 9,756 29,136 12,888 10,982 681 4,585
2005 135,467 71,080 44,643 5,067 14,677 102,053 54,621 32,287 4,108 11,036 33,414 16,459 12,356 959 3,641
2006 156,941 75,527 53,200 9,215 18,999 118,531 59,556 39,112 6,775 13,089 38,410 15,971 14,088 2,441 5,910
2007 198,280 95,131 62,894 13,625 26,630 141,059 71,405 42,808 10,081 16,764 57,221 23,726 20,086 3,544 9,865
2008 204,432 79,416 58,804 22,036 44,175 156,303 62,324 43,144 16,547 34,288 48,129 17,093 15,660 5,489 9,887
2009 184,275 61,203 49,663 17,801 55,609 129,835 49,794 38,167 14,348 27,525 54,440 11,409 11,495 3,453 28,084
2010 221,455 70,821 68,985 31,839 49,810 162,504 56,993 54,782 14,737 35,991 58,952 13,828 14,203 17,102 13,819
2011 276,017 100,548 82,565 27,717 65,187 219,553 81,877 64,654 20,333 52,689 56,464 18,671 17,911 7,384 12,497
2012 279,905 100,568 88,860 28,506 61,971 212,633 79,623 62,278 21,662 49,071 67,273 20,946 26,582 6,844 12,901
2013 318,454 105,603 99,880 31,338 81,634 248,683 89,331 81,112 25,139 53,100 69,772 16,272 18,768 6,199 28,534
2014 363,204 130,313 130,056 34,349 68,486 308,645 112,519 109,911 28,142 58,073 54,559 17,795 20,144 6,207 10,413
2015 428,561 129,756 163,376 46,308 89,122 367,242 112,114 140,139 38,972 76,016 61,320 17,642 23,237 7,336 13,106
1 Regular
redemptions are the dollar value of shareholder liquidation of mutual fund shares.
2 Exchangeredemptions are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched out of funds and into other funds within the same fund group.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

221
DATA SECTION 5
TABLE 51
Inflation-Protected and Treasury Inflation-Protected Mutual Funds: Total Net
Assets, Net New Cash Flow, Number of Funds, and Number of Share Classes
Treasury Treasury
Inflation- inflation- Inflation- inflation-
Total protected protected Total protected protected
Total net assets Net new cash flow*
Year Millions of dollars, year-end Millions of dollars, annual
2010 $108,438 $98,326 $10,112 $9,181 $7,346 $1,835
2011 133,330 120,065 13,266 11,425 9,900 1,525
2012 150,342 137,116 13,226 7,338 8,289 -951
2013 108,160 95,942 12,218 -31,504 -31,383 -120
2014 107,328 92,360 14,968 -3,089 -5,869 2,780
2015 105,776 86,206 19,570 -976 -5,821 4,845
Number of funds Number of share classes
Year-end Year-end
2010 59 50 9 200 170 30
2011 63 52 11 217 183 34
2012 68 56 12 234 197 37
2013 69 57 12 242 205 37
2014 65 56 9 232 205 27
2015 68 59 9 258 230 28
* Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to
the total because of rounding.
DATA SECTION 5

222 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 52
Mutual Funds by Market Capitalization: Total Net Assets and Net New Cash Flow by Type of Fund
Millions of dollars
Total net assets
Year-end
Growth funds Value funds Blend funds
Year Small cap Mid cap Large cap Multi cap Small cap Mid cap Large cap Multi cap Small cap Mid cap Large cap Multi cap
2004 $101,728 $144,182 $365,645 $348,495 $97,716 $111,824 $418,598 $156,404 $97,094 $146,278 $804,228 $645,668
2005 106,921 153,494 377,231 381,045 108,707 135,441 464,347 169,401 108,504 164,955 843,752 701,795
2006 114,522 156,733 379,207 414,190 130,100 155,866 570,240 197,391 123,102 193,651 974,531 807,898
2007 119,593 177,801 393,968 480,751 122,045 158,450 577,987 203,448 119,792 202,391 1,017,004 873,932
2008 67,787 91,840 225,666 275,749 78,536 88,564 339,613 111,339 71,867 109,537 637,320 493,352
2009 94,830 127,591 295,647 364,987 104,214 121,027 416,722 140,989 96,987 149,165 817,289 632,531
2010 116,796 159,110 328,493 397,753 130,444 146,334 456,880 159,686 120,735 182,499 923,238 687,874
2011 107,182 145,853 327,906 354,792 120,523 135,540 435,524 156,211 116,873 172,318 911,626 629,791
2012 115,862 160,870 386,194 377,054 133,265 152,976 471,673 175,270 144,896 192,146 1,038,038 699,030
2013 165,727 212,801 508,170 490,835 175,869 209,657 591,375 243,129 207,615 265,990 1,402,130 907,960
2014 158,834 211,628 554,856 507,123 170,461 221,981 630,383 273,179 208,371 287,573 1,621,977 965,078

ADDITIONAL CATEGORIES OF MUTUAL FUNDS


2015 153,514 199,694 563,088 508,747 145,787 200,397 563,767 258,110 196,653 279,240 1,633,905 925,211
Net new cash flow*
Annual
Growth funds Value funds Blend funds
Year Small cap Mid cap Large cap Multi cap Small cap Mid cap Large cap Multi cap Small cap Mid cap Large cap Multi cap
2004 -$1,510 -$6,726 -$10,973 $3,442 $7,451 $21,072 $28,751 $5,632 $8,729 $9,117 $12,460 $18,639
2005 -2,380 -6,191 -16,583 -3,324 2,970 13,677 19,863 3,018 3,312 3,159 -12,397 8,807
2006 -3,781 -8,471 -18,896 4,041 3,653 -1,544 21,344 6,181 885 1,152 -14,435 6,444
2007 -4,434 -704 -27,204 9,005 -4,619 -1,511 -4,610 5,730 -5,886 -4,612 -4,973 -4,918
2008 -3,970 -9,602 -13,915 -11,300 -1,936 -8,764 -18,892 -15,187 -7,609 -14,118 -3,444 -31,176
2009 1,860 -993 -9,396 -9,317 1,124 2,486 -7,584 -3,438 1,383 -1,019 3,485 -16,841
2010 -1,783 -1,116 -12,751 -19,341 1,313 375 -13,519 -2,275 150 -650 -10,097 -29,813
2011 -5,467 -6,713 6,620 -33,673 -4,981 -4,838 -18,593 -130 -472 -5,656 -12,230 -42,220
2012 -6,430 -5,394 1,627 -38,500 -8,699 -7,296 -29,470 -10,684 -6,223 -5,774 -10,905 -41,294
2013 3,136 -2,942 -12,376 -16,672 -3,930 2,864 -25,901 14,452 7,768 7,980 29,365 -11,486
2014 -10,104 -15,150 -16,671 -28,496 -10,199 -3,975 -20,623 9,049 -7,551 -2,099 40,280 -23,874
2015 -3,204 -11,724 -17,543 -21,516 -13,995 -7,453 -43,245 -5,690 -4,113 -1,660 4,324 -44,242
* Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

223
DATA SECTION 5
DATA SECTION 5

224
TABLE 53
Mutual Funds by Market Capitalization: Number of Funds and Number of Share Classes by Type of Fund
Year-end
Number of funds
Growth funds Value funds Blend funds
Year Small cap Mid cap Large cap Multi cap Small cap Mid cap Large cap Multi cap Small cap Mid cap Large cap Multi cap
2004 258 255 412 247 193 156 384 195 176 137 504 256
2005 266 255 406 243 208 166 397 199 182 139 482 255
2006 267 256 390 232 214 185 398 199 187 142 497 257
2007 246 245 351 209 219 196 400 200 196 146 490 254
2008 237 244 348 208 221 202 395 203 186 149 491 253
2009 213 219 331 190 202 191 369 190 177 140 464 245
2010 207 206 318 180 197 186 358 192 171 134 458 234
2011 204 197 311 168 203 182 339 201 173 140 440 225
2012 198 188 301 163 209 179 329 211 167 136 420 225
2013 191 179 289 164 205 176 322 213 179 131 414 228
2014 188 178 290 159 213 186 325 218 188 129 418 233
2015 183 178 288 161 215 188 324 213 199 135 425 233
Number of share classes
Growth funds Value funds Blend funds
Year Small cap Mid cap Large cap Multi cap Small cap Mid cap Large cap Multi cap Small cap Mid cap Large cap Multi cap
2004 657 671 1,033 592 474 409 972 496 414 325 1,224 620
2005 675 686 1,042 593 524 447 1,048 507 439 343 1,205 654
2006 688 698 1,023 592 558 502 1,075 512 451 353 1,266 679
2007 653 699 960 544 582 533 1,106 532 480 374 1,257 684
2008 652 692 1,004 548 595 563 1,109 551 471 405 1,303 708
2009 606 631 957 530 560 530 1,024 503 450 383 1,249 718
2010 580 607 921 516 561 540 1,025 516 431 360 1,236 700
2011 591 589 909 489 582 543 994 545 436 382 1,224 689
2012 581 565 896 470 598 547 956 570 438 378 1,184 709
2013 560 552 879 481 593 552 949 599 478 366 1,186 735
2014 560 553 892 461 610 590 981 621 521 355 1,216 740
2015 549 559 909 468 629 597 1,000 603 570 357 1,247 771

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.
TABLE 54
Sector Mutual Funds: Total Net Assets and Net New Cash Flow by Type of Fund
Millions of dollars
Total net assets
Year-end
Natural Precious Real Technology/ Other
Year Consumer Financial Health resources metals estate Telecom Utilities sectors
2000 $1,042 $16,087 $45,921 $2,955 $1,108 $11,675 $103,853 $22,908 $3,917
2001 1,290 13,901 40,545 2,429 1,276 13,509 62,339 17,744 2,940
2002 1,096 10,885 30,087 2,230 2,431 17,745 31,308 11,275 2,082
2003 1,436 13,138 36,803 3,307 4,158 31,653 46,929 13,481 2,412
2004 1,631 12,917 40,147 5,844 4,215 49,927 42,403 19,201 2,974
2005 1,405 11,837 45,398 12,048 6,928 59,158 34,366 28,390 3,189
2006 1,928 12,269 44,744 14,723 9,741 81,329 32,891 34,589 3,950
2007 2,147 8,518 43,967 22,312 11,804 53,738 34,169 45,669 4,826
2008 1,776 4,857 31,337 9,967 7,776 33,503 16,331 23,240 1,766
2009 2,439 5,941 32,440 17,496 14,785 44,126 27,610 30,327 2,986
2010 3,113 6,286 32,507 22,853 22,926 55,120 30,738 33,332 4,597
2011 3,546 4,548 35,884 20,998 17,029 60,155 26,680 34,785 3,906
2012 4,675 5,901 44,105 22,041 15,293 75,340 28,570 35,400 5,001
2013 6,431 9,285 74,767 30,960 6,790 77,363 41,486 40,149 8,173
2014 7,017 9,415 103,447 36,904 6,005 104,288 45,358 41,556 8,969
2015 9,514 10,222 124,538 29,232 4,477 101,459 47,088 32,516 7,006
Net new cash flow*
Annual
Natural Precious Real Technology/ Other
Year Consumer Financial Health resources metals estate Telecom Utilities sectors
2000 -$122 -$534 $9,256 $236 -$203 $339 $43,837 $1,015 -$187
2001 254 -962 236 -182 -28 430 -4,458 -953 -198

DATA SECTION 5
2002 11 -1,603 -2,895 -70 480 3,612 -6,211 -2,076 -288
2003 9 -940 -767 327 456 5,177 73 -292 -145
2004 3 -1,535 -387 1,414 419 7,050 -6,165 1,571 148
2005 -209 -1,586 836 3,483 1,016 3,000 -8,541 3,311 121
2006 29 -1,017 -4,137 789 717 4,395 -4,456 556 -49
2007 94 -2,617 -3,378 1,724 -214 -15,282 -2,745 1,992 257
2008 209 96 -3,025 -268 832 1,791 -3,847 -3,397 -488
2009 82 -457 -3,163 1,767 2,249 492 1,768 254 386
2010 101 -626 -2,407 1,470 2,353 1,746 -1,391 -848 724
2011 262 -885 478 1,193 -1,336 1,018 -2,346 701 -286
2012 544 56 1,385 564 152 4,490 -1,515 -1,994 173
2013 794 859 8,582 5,411 -1,425 315 1,972 -1,409 977
2014 47 -256 7,645 5,823 -165 5,279 85 3,783 91
2015 2,235 978 11,007 -654 -37 -4,552 288 -2,585 -1,510
* Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

ADDITIONAL CATEGORIES OF MUTUAL FUNDS 225


TABLE 55
Sector Mutual Funds: Number of Funds and Number of Share Classes by Type of Fund
Year-end
Number of funds
Natural Precious Real Technology/ Other
Year Consumer Financial Health resources metals estate Telecom Utilities sectors
2000 7 34 38 19 11 74 132 34 16
2001 9 41 57 18 10 75 155 40 17
2002 12 42 63 15 11 79 145 35 19
2003 11 38 58 16 11 91 124 33 19
2004 14 40 59 17 11 94 115 34 20
2005 14 41 53 18 11 93 103 32 19
2006 18 40 57 20 12 97 108 38 23
2007 19 40 52 20 11 96 98 39 25
2008 19 38 48 21 11 92 88 41 22
2009 19 36 41 20 11 90 79 37 23
2010 19 35 38 21 11 87 74 35 21
2011 19 32 34 26 10 83 69 33 21
2012 20 33 35 28 11 84 66 36 24
2013 19 32 35 32 11 87 68 41 24
2014 19 31 34 36 11 87 67 37 24
2015 19 31 34 44 11 90 67 39 24
Number of share classes
Natural Precious Real Technology/ Other
Year Consumer Financial Health resources metals estate Telecom Utilities sectors
2000 12 73 91 33 19 151 283 75 23
2001 17 88 145 32 21 156 350 89 25
2002 22 92 171 26 24 172 348 91 28
2003 19 85 155 33 26 214 290 88 28
DATA SECTION 5

2004 27 92 159 34 27 238 279 91 29


2005 26 95 137 38 27 240 260 94 27
2006 33 93 147 41 30 246 267 107 37
2007 41 95 133 47 34 252 249 113 42
2008 42 91 124 52 37 246 218 117 33
2009 42 80 101 50 37 246 199 105 41
2010 42 79 97 54 38 246 190 96 36
2011 43 72 80 75 33 238 184 89 36
2012 47 73 83 85 36 241 182 100 43
2013 41 72 83 97 34 256 188 109 44
2014 41 70 80 106 34 266 181 96 40
2015 39 70 80 141 34 281 180 101 39
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series.

226 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 56
Target Date and Lifestyle Mutual Funds:1 Total Net Assets, Net New Cash Flow, Number of Funds, and Number of Share Classes
Total net assets Net new cash flow2 Number of funds Number of share classes
Millions of dollars, year-end Millions of dollars, annual Year-end Year-end
Year Total Target date Lifestyle Total Target date Lifestyle Total Target date Lifestyle Total Target date Lifestyle
1995 $2,746 $487 $2,259 $1,194 $185 $1,009 26 6 20 50 10 40
1996 6,497 805 5,693 2,583 216 2,367 44 9 35 70 9 61
1997 14,314 1,408 12,906 4,138 193 3,945 77 12 65 141 17 124
1998 25,413 4,508 20,905 6,015 1,153 4,862 110 17 93 199 23 176
1999 34,849 7,014 27,835 4,928 1,311 3,618 130 19 111 240 30 210
2000 39,716 8,788 30,928 7,581 3,598 3,983 146 24 122 279 42 237
2001 45,467 12,372 33,095 7,696 3,795 3,902 147 25 122 351 82 269
2002 49,425 14,902 34,523 8,095 3,709 4,387 171 25 146 432 82 350
2003 81,733 25,901 55,832 19,040 7,221 11,819 192 45 147 499 120 379
2004 129,170 43,756 85,414 28,336 12,903 15,433 241 84 157 740 263 477

ADDITIONAL CATEGORIES OF MUTUAL FUNDS


2005 202,017 71,223 130,794 57,166 22,256 34,910 324 127 197 1,128 465 663
2006 303,594 114,560 189,034 66,792 33,023 33,769 422 184 238 1,559 783 776
2007 420,863 182,905 237,958 91,920 56,200 35,720 494 245 249 1,837 1,035 802
2008 335,419 159,828 175,591 54,424 41,897 12,527 613 338 275 2,214 1,366 848
2009 486,540 255,590 230,950 52,116 43,442 8,674 643 379 264 2,350 1,513 837
2010 603,927 339,772 264,155 48,615 44,431 4,184 638 377 261 2,327 1,491 836
2011 637,856 375,810 262,046 40,473 41,557 -1,084 676 412 264 2,488 1,620 868
2012 773,331 480,743 292,588 50,288 52,948 -2,660 684 430 254 2,602 1,754 848
2013 976,805 618,016 358,789 55,282 52,968 2,314 762 491 271 2,931 2,031 900
2014 1,097,376 702,632 394,744 41,676 44,583 -2,908 799 528 271 3,040 2,142 898
2015 1,134,541 762,540 372,001 52,682 66,223 -13,541 840 573 267 3,202 2,301 901
1
Categories includedata for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds.
2 Netnew cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

227
DATA SECTION 5
DATA SECTION 5

228
TABLE 57
Target Date and Lifestyle Mutual Funds:1 Components of Net New Cash Flow2
Millions of dollars, annual

Sales Redemptions
New3 Exchange 4 Regular5 Exchange 6
Year Total Target date Lifestyle Total Target date Lifestyle Total Target date Lifestyle Total Target date Lifestyle
1995 $1,289 $282 $1,008 $364 $9 $355 $304 $100 $203 $155 $5 $151
1996 3,393 622 2,771 564 12 552 989 406 583 385 11 373
1997 5,580 513 5,067 1,067 33 1,033 1,763 331 1,432 746 23 723
1998 8,856 1,306 7,549 2,782 1,354 1,428 3,557 641 2,916 2,066 867 1,199
1999 10,663 1,831 8,832 3,144 1,707 1,436 6,102 1,000 5,102 2,776 1,227 1,549
2000 15,034 4,267 10,767 4,621 2,845 1,776 8,302 1,654 6,648 3,772 1,861 1,912
2001 15,408 4,787 10,621 4,179 2,576 1,602 8,510 1,844 6,665 3,381 1,724 1,656
2002 18,235 5,282 12,953 3,691 2,307 1,384 10,901 2,340 8,561 2,930 1,541 1,389
2003 27,581 8,084 19,498 5,321 3,390 1,931 11,038 2,521 8,518 2,824 1,731 1,093
2004 41,670 16,442 25,228 8,713 5,474 3,239 17,571 6,275 11,296 4,477 2,739 1,738
2005 77,111 26,754 50,358 11,647 7,692 3,955 25,919 8,633 17,287 5,673 3,558 2,116
2006 89,497 39,913 49,584 17,113 11,157 5,956 31,232 12,662 18,571 8,586 5,385 3,201
2007 137,672 76,155 61,517 23,456 17,041 6,415 56,638 28,507 28,131 12,570 8,490 4,080
2008 127,517 78,539 48,978 22,099 16,120 5,979 73,878 38,386 35,492 21,314 14,376 6,938
2009 118,467 80,328 38,138 15,172 11,554 3,618 68,193 39,388 28,805 13,329 9,053 4,277
2010 149,974 107,619 42,356 20,606 16,623 3,983 104,940 67,373 37,567 17,025 12,437 4,588
2011 172,546 131,659 40,887 22,271 17,914 4,356 132,000 90,802 41,198 22,343 17,215 5,129
2012 182,811 143,656 39,155 19,668 15,988 3,680 133,084 92,070 41,014 19,107 14,626 4,481
2013 217,821 171,407 46,415 30,991 25,303 5,687 167,016 121,592 45,424 26,514 22,150 4,364
2014 240,263 186,196 54,067 33,593 28,093 5,500 187,301 129,048 58,253 44,879 40,658 4,221
2015 279,227 239,068 40,160 45,529 40,478 5,051 220,743 166,728 54,015 51,331 46,595 4,737
1
Categories include data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds.
2
Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
3 New sales are the dollar value of new purchases of mutual fund shares. This does not include shares purchased through reinvestment of dividends in existing accounts.
4 Exchange sales are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched into funds within the same fund group.
5 Regular redemptions are the dollar value of shareholder liquidation of mutual fund shares.
6 Exchange redemptions are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched out of funds and into other funds within the same fund group.

Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 58
Variable Annuity Mutual Funds: Total Net Assets, Net New Cash Flow, and Number of Funds
Total net assets Net new cash flow* Number of funds
Millions of dollars, year-end Millions of dollars, annual Year-end
Hybrid and Money Hybrid and Money Hybrid and Money
Year Total Equity bond market Total Equity bond market Total Equity bond market
1990 $28,749 $14,974 $8,355 $5,420 $3,083 $1,866 $323 $895 331 145 134 52
1991 91,056 69,138 13,734 8,184 6,174 5,097 1,498 -420 354 150 147 57
1992 109,868 80,934 21,046 7,888 12,884 8,708 4,363 -188 366 157 151 58
1993 152,403 104,823 39,740 7,841 26,088 16,423 9,834 -169 428 192 176 60
1994 176,370 121,153 44,339 10,878 22,066 15,998 3,763 2,305 507 245 202 60
1995 259,813 187,702 60,042 12,069 20,824 18,604 2,214 5 665 344 250 71
1996 349,341 260,959 73,189 15,193 40,133 32,699 5,063 2,371 800 435 290 75
1997 473,331 364,286 92,571 16,474 40,470 33,743 6,316 411 937 535 323 79
1998 615,152 474,961 116,337 23,853 44,259 27,857 10,362 6,040 1,162 703 377 82

ADDITIONAL CATEGORIES OF MUTUAL FUNDS


1999 818,958 656,877 128,349 33,732 38,543 30,736 -460 8,267 1,353 868 404 81
2000 816,800 652,421 131,342 33,037 48,461 58,314 -7,790 -2,063 1,562 1,051 431 80
2001 742,258 558,654 138,848 44,756 21,583 4,861 8,035 8,687 1,750 1,248 413 89
2002 638,949 438,603 152,276 48,070 -1,286 -12,763 11,151 327 1,903 1,389 422 92
2003 837,443 619,018 182,773 35,652 29,827 34,969 6,929 -12,071 1,889 1,364 437 88
2004 973,910 738,444 202,106 33,361 33,505 33,592 2,595 -2,683 1,881 1,351 443 87
2005 1,072,894 822,105 217,090 33,699 16,404 13,254 4,449 -1,299 1,882 1,356 443 83
2006 1,266,934 975,532 249,210 42,192 29,712 17,018 7,192 5,501 1,926 1,391 454 81
2007 1,398,318 1,052,868 292,727 52,723 31,780 1,581 22,948 7,251 1,900 1,367 455 78
2008 928,693 598,524 255,199 74,971 -6,059 -30,615 5,018 19,538 1,897 1,369 449 79
2009 1,187,610 792,083 338,231 57,296 10,033 -3,644 32,483 -18,806 1,830 1,307 450 73
2010 1,339,959 886,357 405,048 48,554 -1,996 -25,375 33,090 -9,711 1,773 1,256 447 70
2011 1,299,386 800,129 450,383 48,873 -21,121 -48,213 26,956 136 1,738 1,222 452 64
2012 1,444,379 875,004 525,443 43,932 -31,604 -55,367 28,895 -5,132 1,726 1,195 471 60
2013 1,671,751 1,050,470 581,489 39,792 -53,709 -61,392 10,321 -2,638 1,735 1,180 498 57
2014 1,710,993 1,065,125 608,744 37,124 -67,342 -58,536 -6,142 -2,665 1,730 1,150 524 56
2015 1,637,860 1,006,711 592,105 39,043 -64,971 -53,821 -12,956 1,806 1,707 1,127 527 53
* Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

229
DATA SECTION 5
DATA SECTION 5

230
TABLE 59
Variable Annuity Mutual Funds: Components of Net New Cash Flow1
Millions of dollars, annual
Sales Redemptions
New2 Exchange 3 Regular4 Exchange5
Hybrid and Money Hybrid and Money Hybrid and Money Hybrid and Money
Year Total Equity bond market Total Equity bond market Total Equity bond market Total Equity bond market
1990 $9,994 $4,714 $1,808 $3,473 $1,082 $450 $183 $449 $6,993 $2,941 $1,465 $2,587 $1,000 $357 $203 $440
1991 16,408 9,034 3,368 4,006 838 331 174 333 10,294 3,967 1,920 4,407 778 301 124 352
1992 24,779 13,294 6,634 4,851 1,568 740 350 478 12,014 4,745 2,348 4,921 1,450 581 273 596
1993 42,392 22,738 13,146 6,508 1,131 576 325 230 16,352 6,425 3,410 6,517 1,084 467 227 390
1994 48,010 25,661 10,907 11,443 7,017 4,064 429 2,525 25,933 9,941 6,830 9,161 7,029 3,786 742 2,501
1995 53,101 31,661 9,326 12,114 8,674 4,984 727 2,963 32,283 13,201 7,234 11,849 8,668 4,840 606 3,223
1996 84,933 53,188 13,056 18,689 12,656 7,190 864 4,602 44,729 20,497 8,041 16,191 12,726 7,182 815 4,729
1997 105,222 67,005 15,290 22,926 24,210 13,017 2,348 8,846 65,377 33,408 9,905 22,063 23,586 12,871 1,417 9,298
1998 141,464 83,457 23,227 34,780 37,136 18,967 5,502 12,668 99,141 54,024 14,964 30,153 35,199 20,542 3,403 11,254
1999 212,025 130,900 22,004 59,120 40,818 22,080 2,985 15,753 174,418 100,392 22,275 51,750 39,883 21,853 3,174 14,856
2000 334,936 222,945 20,128 91,863 36,326 22,822 1,852 11,652 287,230 166,186 27,483 93,561 35,571 21,267 2,288 12,017
2001 346,166 197,831 33,707 114,628 31,716 15,928 5,185 10,604 325,676 190,977 27,510 107,189 30,623 17,921 3,346 9,356
2002 342,193 183,758 48,179 110,256 34,170 16,428 7,160 10,583 344,224 194,374 38,908 110,942 33,425 18,574 5,281 9,570
2003 283,007 169,043 54,392 59,572 28,791 15,307 5,944 7,540 253,526 136,061 46,632 70,832 28,445 13,319 6,774 8,351
2004 261,715 170,082 46,592 45,042 26,407 14,396 5,711 6,300 228,278 136,344 44,382 47,552 26,340 14,543 5,325 6,472
2005 246,396 162,387 48,220 35,789 19,598 10,599 3,403 5,595 230,118 148,067 44,472 37,578 19,472 11,666 2,702 5,104
2006 280,246 191,872 51,529 36,846 22,318 10,823 3,425 8,070 250,509 173,300 44,350 32,859 22,344 12,376 3,412 6,555
2007 343,465 218,138 73,991 51,336 37,045 19,701 8,247 9,097 317,180 215,814 55,877 45,488 31,550 20,444 3,413 7,693
2008 380,350 198,130 94,051 88,169 25,445 11,112 5,114 9,220 390,038 227,293 90,601 72,144 21,816 12,564 3,546 5,706
2009 312,904 150,971 100,406 61,528 22,650 14,589 3,767 4,294 302,743 154,821 69,691 78,231 22,778 14,382 1,999 6,397
2010 337,926 164,882 140,079 32,964 17,325 6,755 6,742 3,828 339,668 188,495 108,772 42,401 17,578 8,517 4,959 4,102
2011 331,923 144,679 150,992 36,252 16,269 6,816 6,865 2,589 353,061 189,868 126,284 36,910 16,251 9,840 4,616 1,795
2012 310,832 128,108 154,148 28,575 14,248 10,720 2,118 1,410 341,502 181,579 126,100 33,824 15,181 12,616 1,271 1,293
2013 298,319 142,685 124,886 30,748 23,205 14,353 5,993 2,859 350,273 201,508 113,897 34,867 24,960 16,922 6,661 1,377
2014 258,332 132,904 97,227 28,201 9,591 4,669 1,607 3,316 325,034 189,773 104,218 31,043 10,232 6,335 758 3,139
2015 267,750 137,142 98,247 32,361 16,468 6,576 6,257 3,635 333,091 190,541 111,461 31,089 16,099 6,998 5,999 3,102
1 Net new cash flow is the dollar value of new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges.
2 New sales are the dollar value of new purchases of mutual fund shares. This does not include shares purchased through reinvestment of dividends in existing accounts.

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


3 Exchange sales are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched into funds within the same fund group.
4 Regular redemptions are the dollar value of shareholder liquidation of mutual fund shares.
5 Exchange redemptions are the dollar value of mutual fund shares switched out of funds and into other funds within the same fund group.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.
TABLE 60
Total Net Assets of Mutual Funds Held in Individual and Institutional Accounts
Millions of dollars, year-end
Year Total Equity Hybrid Bond Money market
Total
2001 $6,974,913 $3,392,399 $358,027 $939,177 $2,285,310
2002 6,383,157 2,642,420 335,276 1,140,387 2,265,075
2003 7,402,118 3,653,370 447,570 1,261,157 2,040,022
2004 8,095,801 4,342,577 552,250 1,299,274 1,901,700
2005 8,891,375 4,885,444 621,479 1,357,630 2,026,822
2006 10,398,155 5,832,582 731,503 1,495,619 2,338,451
2007 12,000,168 6,413,222 821,522 1,679,664 3,085,760
2008 9,620,637 3,655,162 562,262 1,570,978 3,832,236
2009 11,112,623 4,872,541 717,580 2,206,609 3,315,893
2010 11,833,363 5,596,629 842,198 2,591,022 2,803,514
2011 11,632,348 5,212,989 883,981 2,844,428 2,690,950
2012 13,056,677 5,938,747 1,034,058 3,390,704 2,693,169
2013 15,050,820 7,762,721 1,285,009 3,285,282 2,717,808
2014 15,875,269 8,314,321 1,376,586 3,459,721 2,724,641
2015 15,651,956 8,148,257 1,336,584 3,412,371 2,754,743
Individual accounts
2001 $6,102,362 $3,215,167 $347,782 $855,593 $1,683,820
2002 5,520,759 2,491,013 325,811 1,046,924 1,657,012
2003 6,554,272 3,463,587 435,131 1,168,216 1,487,338
2004 7,204,277 4,093,544 536,248 1,205,962 1,368,522
2005 7,803,136 4,576,624 600,437 1,235,488 1,390,586
2006 9,098,620 5,437,579 704,116 1,358,138 1,598,787
2007 10,393,003 5,986,591 792,386 1,521,986 2,092,040
2008 7,866,675 3,405,824 544,230 1,425,757 2,490,863
2009 9,294,472 4,503,074 693,742 2,009,477 2,088,180
2010 10,062,948 5,131,396 808,656 2,339,321 1,783,575
2011 9,937,877 4,779,201 845,148 2,579,414 1,734,114
2012 11,246,870 5,449,358 991,861 3,067,822 1,737,830
2013 13,070,425 7,158,276 1,227,376 2,956,424 1,728,349
2014 13,774,752 7,663,633 1,316,730 3,107,233 1,687,156
2015 13,544,493 7,499,413 1,279,971 3,057,993 1,707,116
Institutional accounts*

DATA SECTION 6
2001 $872,551 $177,232 $10,245 $83,584 $601,490
2002 862,398 151,407 9,465 93,463 608,064
2003 847,846 189,783 12,439 92,941 552,684
2004 891,524 249,033 16,002 93,312 533,178
2005 1,088,239 308,820 21,042 122,143 636,235
2006 1,299,535 395,003 27,386 137,481 739,664
2007 1,607,166 426,630 29,136 157,678 993,721
2008 1,753,962 249,337 18,031 145,220 1,341,374
2009 1,818,151 369,467 23,839 197,132 1,227,714
2010 1,770,416 465,233 33,542 251,701 1,019,939
2011 1,694,471 433,788 38,832 265,014 956,837
2012 1,809,807 489,389 42,196 322,882 955,339
2013 1,980,396 604,445 57,633 328,858 989,460
2014 2,100,517 650,688 59,856 352,488 1,037,485
2015 2,107,463 648,844 56,614 354,378 1,047,627
* Institutional accounts include accounts purchased by an institution, such as a business, financial, or nonprofit organization.
Institutional accounts do not include primary accounts of individuals issued by a broker-dealer.
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add
to the total because of rounding.

INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS IN MUTUAL FUNDS 231


TABLE 61
Total Net Assets of Institutional Investors in Mutual Funds by Type of Institution
and Type of Fund
Millions of dollars, year-end

Business Financial Nonprofit


Year Total corporations institutions1 organizations Other2
2006 Total $1,299,535 $605,919 $392,457 $125,403 $175,755
Equity 395,003 135,407 117,135 55,242 87,219
Hybrid 27,386 7,856 8,295 4,848 6,388
Bond 137,481 34,654 26,783 25,411 50,633
Money market 739,664 428,003 240,243 39,902 31,515
2007 Total 1,607,166 749,128 474,903 150,177 232,957
Equity 426,630 136,905 119,384 60,760 109,580
Hybrid 29,136 8,306 10,216 4,500 6,114
Bond 157,678 38,276 30,836 24,435 64,131
Money market 993,721 565,641 314,466 60,482 53,132
2008 Total 1,753,962 904,784 497,079 135,541 216,558
Equity 249,337 70,729 64,981 33,136 80,492
Hybrid 18,031 5,702 5,708 2,717 3,904
Bond 145,220 29,355 28,624 22,868 64,373
Money market 1,341,374 798,998 397,766 76,820 67,789
2009 Total 1,818,151 886,559 510,826 147,414 273,352
Equity 369,467 106,237 89,282 44,777 129,171
Hybrid 23,839 7,989 7,126 3,665 5,060
Bond 197,132 47,265 41,527 29,010 79,331
Money market 1,227,714 725,069 372,893 69,963 59,790
2010 Total 1,770,416 741,637 515,472 153,371 359,936
Equity 465,233 121,372 108,385 49,083 186,394
Hybrid 33,542 10,953 10,186 4,262 8,142
Bond 251,701 54,171 54,853 33,453 109,224
Money market 1,019,939 555,140 342,048 66,574 56,177
2011 Total 1,694,471 681,851 488,005 146,375 378,239
Equity 433,788 102,158 95,036 45,315 191,280
Hybrid 38,832 12,042 11,390 4,795 10,606
Bond 265,014 51,822 57,910 36,207 119,075
Money market 956,837 515,830 323,670 60,058 57,278
2012 Total 1,809,807 684,202 514,673 152,281 458,651
Equity 489,389 108,787 97,985 51,715 230,902
Hybrid 42,196 11,218 13,941 5,186 11,851
Bond 322,882 59,285 68,645 40,305 154,647
DATA SECTION 6

Money market 955,339 504,912 334,102 55,074 61,251


2013 Total 1,980,396 747,036 544,128 168,929 520,303
Equity 604,445 136,382 119,939 63,309 284,815
Hybrid 57,633 15,300 17,246 7,420 17,667
Bond 328,858 59,023 70,253 36,578 163,004
Money market 989,460 536,331 336,690 61,622 54,816
2014 Total 2,100,517 792,761 572,587 185,064 550,105
Equity 650,688 150,258 122,681 64,945 312,804
Hybrid 59,856 15,659 18,060 7,682 18,454
Bond 352,488 68,618 78,590 40,105 165,174
Money market 1,037,485 558,226 353,255 72,332 53,672
2015 Total 2,107,463 812,540 569,853 188,405 536,665
Equity 648,844 149,621 124,215 62,350 312,658
Hybrid 56,614 15,716 19,077 8,172 13,649
Bond 354,378 70,382 85,393 39,450 159,153
Money market 1,047,627 576,821 341,168 78,433 51,205
1 Financial institutions include credit unions, accounts of banks not held as fiduciaries, insurance companies, and other
financial organizations.
2 Other institutional investors include state and local governments, funds holding mutual fund shares, and other institutional

accounts not classified.


Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to
the total because of rounding.

232 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 62
Total Net Assets of Institutional Investors in Taxable Money Market Funds by Type
of Institution and Type of Fund1
Millions of dollars, year-end
Business Financial Nonprofit
Year Total corporations institutions 2 organizations Other3
2001 Total $575,181 $300,471 $219,136 $27,975 $27,599
Institutional funds 468,478 234,934 195,663 18,193 19,687
Retail funds 106,704 65,536 23,473 9,783 7,912
2002 Total 578,112 303,148 226,645 27,673 20,646
Institutional funds 484,760 246,880 202,475 20,186 15,219
Retail funds 93,352 56,267 24,170 7,487 5,427
2003 Total 515,153 270,469 194,259 32,223 18,202
Institutional funds 428,443 220,562 173,539 22,473 11,870
Retail funds 86,710 49,907 20,720 9,751 6,333
2004 Total 486,612 277,235 161,810 28,909 18,659
Institutional funds 406,634 228,594 146,520 18,934 12,586
Retail funds 79,979 48,641 15,290 9,975 6,073
2005 Total 578,538 322,944 197,002 32,896 25,696
Institutional funds 485,039 270,892 172,215 23,666 18,266
Retail funds 93,499 52,052 24,788 9,229 7,430
2006 Total 677,610 388,596 221,779 37,856 29,379
Institutional funds 581,580 324,089 208,179 26,698 22,613
Retail funds 96,030 64,507 13,600 11,158 6,766
2007 Total 916,501 514,367 294,432 57,470 50,232
Institutional funds 804,418 444,130 273,626 43,408 43,254
Retail funds 112,082 70,237 20,806 14,062 6,977
2008 Total 1,253,701 736,036 377,963 74,803 64,900
Institutional funds 1,129,759 659,901 350,945 60,632 58,282
Retail funds 123,941 76,134 27,018 14,171 6,618
2009 Total 1,150,656 668,516 356,992 68,124 57,025
Institutional funds 1,052,584 606,631 336,161 57,764 52,029
Retail funds 98,072 61,885 20,831 10,360 4,996
2010 Total 961,045 513,038 328,890 65,252 53,865
Institutional funds 872,587 459,580 307,202 56,440 49,365
Retail funds 88,458 53,458 21,688 8,812 4,500
2011 Total 909,996 481,122 314,508 58,686 55,680
Institutional funds 822,836 428,498 292,478 50,996 50,864

DATA SECTION 6
Retail funds 87,160 52,624 22,031 7,689 4,815
2012 Total 907,723 468,745 324,330 53,961 60,686
Institutional funds 831,747 422,858 305,032 47,365 56,492
Retail funds 75,976 45,887 19,299 6,596 4,194
2013 Total 945,152 501,228 328,943 60,660 54,320
Institutional funds 873,597 453,682 314,440 55,175 50,300
Retail funds 71,555 47,547 14,503 5,485 4,020
2014 Total 994,202 523,649 346,684 70,818 53,051
Institutional funds 924,944 477,550 332,962 65,085 49,348
Retail funds 69,258 46,099 13,722 5,734 3,703
2015 Total 1,005,277 543,165 334,344 77,244 50,524
Institutional funds 938,834 500,001 321,937 70,426 46,470
Retail funds 66,443 43,164 12,407 6,818 4,054
1 Institutional funds are sold primarily to institutional investors or institutional accounts. This includes accounts that are
purchased by an institution, such as a business, financial, or nonprofit organization. Retail funds are sold primarily to
individual investors and include variable annuity mutual funds.
2 Financial institutions include credit unions, accounts of banks not held as fiduciaries, insurance companies, and other

financial organizations.
3 Other institutional investors include state and local governments, funds holding mutual fund shares, and other institutional

accounts not classified.


Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds were excluded from the series. Components may not add to
the total because of rounding.

INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS IN MUTUAL FUNDS 233


DATA SECTION 7

234
TABLE 63
Mutual Fund DC Plan Assets and Estimated Net New Cash Flow by Type of Fund
Billions of dollars
Total net assets Estimated net new cash flow
Year-end Annual
Equity funds Hybrid Bond Money Equity funds Hybrid Bond Money
Year Total Domestic World funds funds market funds Total Domestic World funds funds market funds
1997 $775 $527 $56 $73 $58 $60 $67 $45 $11 $7 $6 -$3
1998 994 688 67 91 72 76 77 44 4 6 11 11
1999 1,294 914 109 102 77 92 70 45 8 2 5 11
2000 1,285 885 115 109 80 96 85 68 22 -1 -3 -1
2001 1,227 789 96 118 104 119 91 39 2 12 19 18
2002 1,102 631 85 115 139 132 77 26 6 7 26 12
2003 1,422 866 124 154 155 122 50 37 7 13 4 -11
2004 1,656 1,016 172 195 164 110 71 40 21 22 2 -14
2005 1,879 1,104 229 255 179 112 96 12 27 46 10 (*)
2006 2,222 1,246 334 326 192 124 91 -5 47 36 6 8
2007 2,492 1,297 422 403 217 152 94 -29 35 52 13 22
2008 1,710 755 223 309 225 198 37 -38 -14 32 17 40
2009 2,196 982 324 429 291 170 40 -11 13 32 35 -29
2010 2,509 1,129 372 520 341 146 31 -12 7 34 28 -26
2011 2,473 1,069 324 554 373 154 17 -40 -2 36 15 8
2012 2,847 1,208 380 664 440 154 35 -38 -3 39 37 (*)
2013 3,474 1,616 481 808 419 150 56 13 27 36 -15 -5
2014 3,702 1,756 496 873 437 140 18 -17 25 17 2 -10
2015 3,630 1,688 503 887 411 141 -44 -66 22 23 -23 (*)
(*) = between -$500 million and $500 million
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds are included in the series. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACTBOOK


TABLE 64
Mutual Fund IRA Assets and Estimated Net New Cash Flow by Type of Fund
Billions of dollars
Total net assets Estimated net new cash flow
Year-end Annual
Equity funds Hybrid Bond Money Equity funds Hybrid Bond Money
Year Total Domestic World funds funds market funds Total Domestic World funds funds market funds
1997 $787 $442 $79 $84 $92 $90 $67 $54 $7 $5 $7 -$6
1998 999 586 93 98 107 114 90 50 6 3 12 19
1999 1,277 797 137 102 110 132 67 54 2 -1 1 11
2000 1,265 781 136 104 109 136 62 68 14 -9 -7 -4
2001 1,205 699 111 110 133 153 69 34 -2 8 19 10
2002 1,090 548 93 110 175 164 55 3 (*) 10 34 9

RETIREMENT ACCOUNT INVESTING IN MUTUAL FUNDS


2003 1,389 748 131 162 196 152 50 30 4 24 7 -14
2004 1,598 860 176 218 205 138 59 19 20 37 -1 -15
2005 1,782 932 231 264 211 144 64 3 24 34 2 1
2006 2,144 1,067 324 340 234 179 110 5 36 31 11 27
2007 2,438 1,125 410 409 270 224 124 -14 33 45 24 36
2008 1,697 654 221 288 261 273 (*) -43 -15 1 16 41
2009 2,121 834 309 372 376 229 24 -18 3 13 69 -45
2010 2,427 949 371 444 459 204 41 -18 11 26 47 -26
2011 2,418 895 316 495 499 213 26 -38 -11 45 21 9
2012 2,763 1,011 358 583 594 218 38 -33 -14 28 53 5
2013 3,334 1,359 449 716 579 230 90 23 25 44 -14 12
2014 3,533 1,481 461 788 585 219 17 -11 16 35 -13 -10
2015 3,499 1,460 465 783 576 216 3 -18 16 8 (*) -3
(*) = between -$500 million and $500 million
Note: Data for funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds are included in the series. Components may not add to the total because of rounding.

235
DATA SECTION 7
TABLE 65
Worldwide Total Net Assets of Regulated Open-End Funds
Millions of U.S. dollars, year-end

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

World $20,631,003 $25,088,939 $27,374,359 $26,578,593 $30,213,561 $34,462,543 $37,072,351 $37,190,528

Americas 11,130,264 13,355,373 14,591,545 14,583,246 16,488,566 18,864,164 20,009,504 19,557,328


Argentina 3,867 4,470 5,179 6,808 9,185 11,179 15,630 16,435
Brazil 479,321 783,970 980,448 1,008,928 1,070,998 1,018,641 989,542 743,530
Canada 416,031 565,156 636,947 753,606 856,504 940,580 981,804 889,610
Chile 17,587 34,227 38,243 33,425 37,900 39,291 44,166 39,898
Costa Rica 1,098 1,309 1,470 1,266 1,484 1,933 2,092 2,533
Mexico 60,435 70,659 98,094 92,743 112,201 120,518 119,504 105,940
Trinidad and Tobago N/A 5,832 5,812 5,989 6,505 6,586 7,121 6,983
United States 10,151,925 11,889,750 12,825,352 12,680,481 14,393,789 16,725,436 17,849,645 17,752,399

Europe 7,393,787 8,912,070 9,573,876 8,949,093 10,257,646 11,715,462 12,858,573 12,772,328


Austria 155,555 176,008 173,908 157,510 172,950 181,694 165,084 151,199
Belgium 105,057 106,721 96,288 81,505 81,651 91,528 100,790 92,115
Bulgaria 226 256 302 291 324 504 496 440
Croatia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,058 1,975
Czech Republic 5,260 5,436 5,508 4,445 5,001 5,131 5,746 7,812
Denmark 65,182 83,024 89,800 84,891 103,506 118,702 120,844 116,696
Finland 48,750 66,131 71,210 62,193 73,985 88,462 86,397 88,351
France 1,591,082 1,805,641 1,617,176 1,382,068 1,473,085 1,531,500 1,940,490 1,832,073
Germany 1,130,972 1,342,275 1,389,306 1,356,446 1,587,390 1,824,429 1,847,268 1,799,754
Greece 12,189 12,434 8,627 5,213 6,011 6,742 5,256 4,292
Hungary 10,234 13,127 14,672 8,417 9,494 12,870 15,980 14,825
Ireland 720,486 860,515 1,242,321 1,324,482 1,581,361 1,811,933 2,020,134 2,067,251
Italy 288,354 297,839 248,838 191,479 189,937 223,403 217,363 207,867
Liechtenstein 20,489 30,329 38,981 36,412 36,585 40,940 45,792 44,938
Luxembourg 2,042,317 2,538,921 2,799,021 2,587,137 3,007,396 3,453,394 3,518,566 3,565,757
Malta N/A N/A N/A 2,132 3,033 3,160 4,423 3,808
Netherlands 77,379 95,512 85,924 69,156 76,145 85,304 74,922 N/A
Norway 41,157 71,170 84,505 79,999 98,723 109,325 112,223 102,526
Continued on the next page
DATA SECTION 8

236 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 65
CONTINUED
Worldwide Total Net Assets of Regulated Open-End Funds
Millions of U.S. dollars, year-end

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Poland 17,782 23,025 25,595 18,463 25,883 27,858 34,177 32,286


Portugal 13,572 15,808 11,004 7,321 7,509 9,625 15,786 21,628
Romania 326 1,134 1,713 2,388 2,613 4,000 4,932 5,038
Russia 2,026 3,182 3,917 3,072 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Slovakia 3,873 4,257 4,381 3,222 2,997 3,347 6,514 6,202
Slovenia 2,067 2,610 2,663 2,279 2,370 2,506 2,550 2,448
Spain 270,983 269,611 216,915 195,220 191,284 248,234 274,072 274,715
Sweden 113,331 170,277 205,449 179,707 205,733 252,878 283,683 279,977
Switzerland 135,052 168,260 261,893 273,061 310,686 397,080 436,431 457,162
Turkey 15,404 19,426 19,545 14,048 16,478 14,078 15,288 12,833
United Kingdom 504,681 729,141 854,413 816,537 985,517 1,166,834 1,501,308 1,578,360

Asia and Pacific 2,037,535 2,715,235 3,067,323 2,921,278 3,322,199 3,740,049 4,057,800 4,738,804
Australia 841,133 1,198,838 1,455,850 1,440,128 1,667,128 1,624,081 1,601,078 1,521,313
China 276,303 381,207 364,985 339,038 437,449 460,332 708,884 1,263,130
India 62,805 130,284 111,421 87,519 114,489 107,895 136,834 168,186
Japan 575,327 660,666 785,504 745,383 738,488 1,157,972 1,171,974 1,328,634
Korea, Rep. of 221,991 264,574 266,495 226,717 267,583 285,172 330,168 343,293
New Zealand 10,612 17,657 19,562 23,709 31,145 34,185 41,559 41,908
Pakistan 1,985 2,224 2,290 2,984 3,159 3,464 4,156 4,164
Philippines 1,263 1,488 2,184 2,363 3,566 4,662 5,098 5,029
Taiwan 46,116 58,297 59,032 53,437 59,192 62,286 58,049 63,147

Africa 69,417 106,261 141,615 124,976 145,150 142,868 146,474 122,068


South Africa 69,417 106,261 141,615 124,976 145,150 142,868 146,474 122,068
N/A = not available
Note: Components may not add to the total because of rounding. Regulated open-end funds include mutual funds, exchange-traded funds
(ETFs), and institutional funds. New Zealand and Trinidad and Tobago include home-and-foreign domiciled funds. Croatia, France, Ireland,
Netherlands, Norway, and Slovakia include funds of funds. Prior to 2014, Finland, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland
include funds of funds. After 2013, Japan includes funds of funds. Prior to 2014, ETFs and other non-UCITS are not included in European data.
Prior to 2013, institutional funds are not included in data for Japan.
Source: International Investment Funds Association

DATA SECTION 8

WORLDWIDE REGULATED OPEN-END FUNDS 237


TABLE 66
Worldwide Number of Regulated Open-End Funds
Year-end

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

World 76,519 75,293 77,836 81,429 82,410 88,747 98,832 100,494

Americas 17,205 17,732 18,916 20,884 22,291 23,322 24,378 25,230


Argentina 253 252 254 281 291 297 302 346
Brazil 4,169 4,744 5,618 6,513 7,468 8,072 8,560 8,783
Canada 2,015 2,075 2,117 2,655 2,866 2,963 3,164 3,283
Chile 1,484 1,691 1,912 2,150 2,286 2,385 2,418 2,500
Costa Rica 85 64 68 63 66 66 66 65
Mexico 431 407 434 464 488 487 486 499
Trinidad and Tobago N/A 36 35 36 42 43 43 44
United States 8,768 8,463 8,478 8,722 8,784 9,009 9,339 9,710

Europe 43,521 41,862 42,712 43,400 42,449 43,092 49,335 47,427


Austria 1,765 1,717 1,762 1,760 1,776 1,805 1,629 1,596
Belgium 1,828 1,845 1,797 1,723 1,529 1,432 1,231 1,164
Bulgaria 81 85 90 92 95 98 104 104
Croatia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 82 85
Czech Republic 76 78 80 80 80 85 108 128
Denmark 489 483 490 500 495 510 526 556
Finland 389 377 366 368 375 369 383 371
France 8,301 7,982 7,791 7,744 7,392 7,154 11,273 11,122
Germany 5,633 5,967 5,923 5,813 5,868 5,905 5,509 5,604
Greece 239 210 213 196 177 166 143 139
Hungary 302 301 325 200 214 216 307 316
Ireland 3,097 2,721 2,899 3,085 3,167 3,345 5,833 3,864
Italy 977 880 823 822 733 777 687 713
Liechtenstein 335 348 536 596 717 875 946 1,184
Luxembourg 11,166 11,136 11,860 12,258 12,458 12,760 11,838 12,074
Malta N/A N/A N/A 59 54 69 110 130
Netherlands 458 a N/A N/A 495 497 501 561 N/A
Norway 530 487 507 507 406 573 619 700
Poland 210 208 214 226 259 264 398 391
Continued on the next page
DATA SECTION 8

238 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 66 CONTINUED
Worldwide Number of Regulated Open-End Funds
Year-end

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Portugal 184 171 171 173 157 153 184 396


Romania 52 51 56 105 62 64 72 74
Russia 528 480 462 472 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Slovakia 57 55 59 65 62 58 87 88
Slovenia 125 125 130 137 131 114 110 109
Spain 2,944 2,588 2,486 2,474 2,349 2,267 2,235 2,238
Sweden 508 506 504 508 456 484 522 471
Switzerland 572 509 653 664 667 765 843 860
Turkey 304 286 311 337 351 373 398 377
United Kingdom 2,371 2,266 2,204 1,941 1,922 1,910 2,597 2,573

Asia and Pacific 14,909 14,795 15,265 16,198 16,703 21,271 23,948 26,510
Australia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
China 429 547 660 831 1,065 1,415 1,763 2,558
India 551 590 658 680 692 699 768 804
Japan 3,333 3,656 3,905 4,196 4,384 7,818 8,761 9,804
Korea, Rep. of 9,384 8,703 8,687 9,064 9,121 9,876 11,235 11,918
New Zealand 643 702 700 709 700 694 632 609
Pakistan 83 96 125 137 139 152 159 160
Philippines 43 41 43 47 48 47 53 55
Taiwan 443 460 487 534 554 570 577 602

Africa 884 904 943 947 967 1,062 1,171 1,327


South Africa 884 904 943 947 967 1,062 1,171 1,327
aYear-end data are not available. Data are as of September.
N/A = not available
Note: Regulated open-end funds include mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and institutional funds. New Zealand and Trinidad and
Tobago include home-and-foreign domiciled funds. Croatia, France, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, and Slovakia include funds of funds. Prior to
2014, Finland, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland include funds of funds. After 2013, Japan includes funds of funds.
Prior to 2014, ETFs and other non-UCITS are not included in European data. Prior to 2013, institutional funds are not included in data for Japan.
Source: International Investment Funds Association

DATA SECTION 8

WORLDWIDE REGULATED OPEN-END FUNDS 239


TABLE 67
Worldwide Net Sales of Regulated Open-End Funds
Millions of U.S. dollars, annual
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

World $540,820 $483,428 $505,846 $345,087 $1,223,059 $1,292,283 $1,794,520 $1,950,142

Americas 797,670 199,478 94,270 288,701 690,170 658,620 676,043 453,487


Argentina N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 4,511 b 4,421
Brazil -32,653 47,317 58,316 49,995 56,099 34,713 1,886 13,531
Canada 17,495 12,074 23,797 37,032 50,697 64,965 90,035 82,238
Chile -1,167 9,921 415 -423 813 5,394 8,550 983
Costa Rica N/A N/A N/A 432 -221 -305 341 427
Mexico -3,418 8,572 18,382 4,005 6,869 7,705 10,442 -1,226
Trinidad and Tobago N/A -150 -45 107 292 -13 292 -23
United States 817,413 121,744 -6,766 197,553 575,621 546,161 559,986 353,136

Europe -369,399 258,538 399,705 282 382,316 486,502 800,826 712,170


Austria -19,238 1,348 2,967 -5,081 -138 -910 4,688 3,198
Belgium N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Bulgaria -151 8 51 8 16 129 36 (*)
Croatia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A -52 249
Czech Republic -1,561 -263 55 -536 161 256 712 1,426
Denmark -4,000 2,419 5,204 2,537 8,038 7,439 8,137 6,951
Finland -11,387 5,475 936 -1,709 3,223 5,617 10,933 7,888
France -68,351 6,164 -110,856 -125,565 -30,528 -99,007 -26,455 24,178
Germany -1,601 58,262 99,321 55,803 94,210 110,189 120,364 149,783
Greece -11,382 -1,124 -1,424 -1,489 -330 -741 -303 -444
Hungary -688 1,256 1,882 -2,534 -491 3,548 1,297 226
Ireland N/A N/A 161,063 106,830 116,203 103,063 155,231 127,605
Italy -108,494 -11,437 -30,507 -41,845 -14,247 16,796 38,415 11,339
Liechtenstein 3,206 5,698 400 762 2,981 -215 8,364 993
Luxembourg -59,829 133,944 215,576 8,144 159,652 256,895 329,398 300,428
Malta N/A N/A N/A -53 599 -295 122 -267
Netherlands -6,117a N/A 225 -9,532 -1,017 875 -5,261 -440 c
Norway 40 6,689 4,807 4,380 7,048 4,727 17,184 1,733
Poland -1,423 859 1,278 -1,764 3,931 2,610 3,167 465
Continued on the next page
DATA SECTION 8

240 2016 INVESTMENT COMPANY FACT BOOK


TABLE 67
CONTINUED
Worldwide Net Sales of Regulated Open-End Funds
Millions of U.S. dollars, annual
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Portugal -11,169 1,120 -3,684 -2,858 -538 1,354 -221 -94


Romania 125 760 561 351 432 1,075 1,288 378
Russia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Slovakia -897 80 308 -1,040 -442 157 855 419
Slovenia -433 27 21 -103 -140 -54 52 86
Spain -84,149 -15,858 -30,938 -11,803 -13,580 30,744 47,704 26,866
Sweden 3,754 10,203 7,371 5,843 652 8,708 15,714 8,136
Switzerland 17,851 7,343 4,063 9,067 15,887 5,780 30,075 31,736
Turkey N/A 2,324 2,608 -1,228 166 969 -641 -202
United Kingdom -3,506 43,241 68,417 13,696 30,567 26,794 40,023 9,534

Asia and Pacific 105,562 13,908 -3,091 49,475 136,777 127,092 307,629 776,596
Australia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
China 35,721 b -35,612 -15,115 27,179 90,505 -3,842 167,834 470,457
India 2,754 43,029 -35,950 532 15,832 2,724 7,895 33,195
Japan 5,430 32,571 68,847 33,028 21,526 129,992 97,243 233,405
Korea, Rep. of 58,819 -27,836 -19,603 -15,605 6,822 -4,876 34,917 29,190
New Zealand 226 1,363 1,281 1,784 2,468 231 3,551 2,966
Pakistan -612 -3 -208 769 10 -89 28 -68
Philippines -453 11 318 536 629 1,480 -4 327
Taiwan 3,677 385 -2,661 1,252 -1,015 1,472 -3,835 7,124

Africa 6,987 11,504 14,962 6,629 13,796 20,069 10,022 7,889


South Africa 6,987 11,504 14,962 6,629 13,796 20,069 10,022 7,889
(*) = between -$0.5 million and $0.5 million
a Year-end data are not available. Data are for January through September.
b Data are only for October through December.
c Data are only for January through June.

N/A = not available


Note: Net sales is a calculation of total sales minus total redemptions plus net exchanges. Components may not add to the total because of
rounding. Regulated open-end funds include mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and institutional funds. New Zealand and Trinidad
and Tobago include home-and-foreign domiciled funds. Croatia, France, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, and Slovakia include funds of funds.
Prior to 2014, Finland, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland include funds of funds. After 2013, Japan includes funds
of funds. Prior to 2014, ETFs and other non-UCITS are not included in European data. Prior to 2013, institutional funds are not included in data
for Japan.
Source: International Investment Funds Association

DATA SECTION 8

WORLDWIDE REGULATED OPEN-END FUNDS 241


APPENDIX A

How U.S.-Registered Investment Companies Operate


and the Core Principles Underlying Their Regulation
This appendix provides an overview of how investment company operations and features serve investors,
examines the tax treatment of funds, and describes the core principles underlying investment company
regulation.

The Origins of Pooled Investing.. ................................................................................................................... 242


The Types of U.S. Investment Companies. . ................................................................................................... 244
The Organization of a Mutual Fund............................................................................................................... 245
Tax Features of Mutual Funds.. ....................................................................................................................... 250
Core Principles Underlying the Regulation of U.S. Investment Companies. . ........................................... 256

The Origins of Pooled Investing


The investment company concept dates to the late 1700s in Europe, according to K. Geert
Rouwenhorst in The Origins of Mutual Funds, when a Dutch merchant and brokerinvited
subscriptions from investors to form a trustto provide an opportunity to diversify for small
investors with limited means.

The emergence of investment pooling in England in the 1800s brought the concept closer to
U.S. shores. In 1868, the Foreign and Colonial Government Trust formed in London. This trust
resembled the U.S. fund model in basic structure, providing the investor of moderate means
the same advantages as the large capitalists...by spreading the investment over a number of
different stocks.

Perhaps more importantly, the British fund model established a direct link with U.S. securities
markets, helping to finance the development of the postCivil War U.S. economy. The Scottish
American Investment Trust, formed on February 1, 1873, by fund pioneer Robert Fleming,
invested in the economic potential of the United States, chiefly through American railroad
bonds. Many other trusts followed that not only targeted investment in America, but also led
to the introduction of the fund investing concept on U.S. shores in the late 1800s and early
1900s.

242 APPENDIX A
The first mutual, or open-end, fund was introduced in Boston in March 1924. The
Massachusetts Investors Trust introduced important innovations to the investment company
concept by establishing a simplified capital structure, continuous offering of shares, the
ability to redeem shares rather than hold them until dissolution of the fund, and a set of clear
investment restrictions and policies.

The stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression that followed hampered the
growth of pooled investments until a succession of landmark securities laws, beginning
with the Securities Act of 1933 and concluding with the Investment Company Act of 1940,
reinvigorated investor confidence. Renewed investor confidence and many innovations led to
relatively steady growth in industry assets and number of accounts.

Four Principal Securities Laws Govern Investment Companies

The Investment Company Act of 1940 Regulates the structure and operations of investment
companies through a combination of registration and disclosure
requirements and restrictions on day-to-day operations.
The Investment Company Act requires the registration of all
investment companies with more than 100 investors. Among
other things, the act addresses investment company capital
structures, custody of assets, investment activities (particularly
with respect to transactions with affiliates and other
transactions involving potential conflicts of interest), and the
duties of fund boards.

The Investment Advisers Act of 1940 Regulates investment advisers. Requires all advisers to
registered investment companies and other large advisers to
register with the SEC. The Advisers Act contains provisions
requiring fund advisers to meet recordkeeping, custodial,
reporting, and other regulatory responsibilities.

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulates the trading, purchase, and sale of securities,
including investment company shares. The 1934 Act also
regulates broker-dealers, including investment company
principal underwriters and others that sell investment
company shares, and requires them to register with the SEC.
In 1938, the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 was revised to
add Section 15A, which authorized the SEC to create self-
regulatory organizations. Pursuant to this authority, in 1939 a
self-regulatory organization for broker-dealerswhich is now
known as the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA)
was created. Through its rules, inspections, and enforcement
activities, FINRA, with oversight by the SEC, continues to
regulate the conduct of broker-dealers, thereby adding another
layer of protection for investors.

The Securities Act of 1933 Requires the registration of public offerings of securities,
including investment company shares, and regulates such
offerings. The 1933 Act also requires that all investors receive a
current prospectus describing the fund.

HOW U.S.-REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES OPERATE AND THE CORE PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THEIR REGULATION 243
The Types of U.S. Investment Companies
Fund sponsors in the United States offer four types of registered investment companies:
open-end investment companies (commonly called mutual funds), closed-end investment
companies, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and unit investment trusts (UITs).

The majority of investment companies are mutual funds, both in terms of number of funds
and assets under management. Mutual funds can have actively managed portfolios, in which
a professional investment adviser creates a unique mix of investments to meet a particular
investment objective, or passively managed portfolios, in which the adviser seeks to track
the performance of a selected benchmark or index. One hallmark of mutual funds is that
they issue redeemable securities, meaning that the fund stands ready to buy back its shares
at their next computed net asset value (NAV). The NAV is calculated by dividing the total
market value of the funds assets, minus its liabilities, by the number of mutual fund shares
outstanding.

Money market funds are one type of mutual fund that offer investors a variety of features,
including liquidity, a market-based rate of return, and the goal of returning principal,
all at a reasonable cost. These funds, which are typically publicly offered to all types of
investors, are registered investment companies that are regulated by the Securities and
Exchange Commission (SEC) under U.S. federal securities laws, including Rule 2a-7 under the
Investment Company Act. That rule contains numerous risk-limiting conditions concerning
portfolio maturity, quality, diversification, and liquidity intended to help a fund achieve its
objectives. In 2014, the SEC adopted amendments to Rule 2a-7 that will require institutional
prime (funds that primarily invest in corporate debt securities) and institutional municipal
money market funds to maintain a floating NAV for transactions based on the current market
value of the securities in their portfolios; funds must comply with this requirement by October
2016. Government money market funds and retail money market funds (funds designed to
limit all beneficial owners of the funds to natural persons) will be allowed to continue using
the amortized cost or penny rounding method of pricing or both to seek to maintain a stable
share price. The 2014 amendments also give money market fund boards of directors the
ability to impose liquidity fees or to suspend redemptions temporarily if a funds level of
weekly liquid assets falls below a certain threshold.

244 APPENDIX A
Unlike mutual funds, closed-end funds do not issue redeemable shares. Instead, they issue a
fixed number of shares that trade intraday on stock exchanges at market-determined prices.
Investors in a closed-end fund buy or sell shares through a broker, just as they would trade
the shares of any publicly traded company. For more information on closed-end funds, see
chapter 4 on page 76.

ETFs are described as a hybrid of other types of investment companies. They are structured
and legally classified as mutual funds or UITs (discussed below), but trade intraday on stock
exchanges like closed-end funds. ETFs only buy and sell fund shares directly to authorized
participants in large blocks, often 50,000 shares or more. For more information on ETFs, see
chapter 3 on page 56.

UITs are also a hybrid, with some characteristics of mutual funds and some of closed-end
funds. Like closed-end funds, UITs typically issue only a specific, fixed number of shares,
called units. Like mutual funds, the units are redeemable, but unlike mutual funds, generally
the UIT sponsor will maintain a secondary market in the units so that redemptions do not
deplete the UITs assets. A UIT does not actively trade its investment portfolioinstead it
buys and holds a set of particular investments until a set termination date, at which time the
trust is dissolved and proceeds are paid to shareholders. For more information on UITs, see
page 20.

The Organization of a Mutual Fund


A mutual fund typically is organized under state law either as a corporation or a business
trust (sometimes called a statutory trust). The three most popular forms of organization are
Massachusetts business trusts, Maryland corporations, and Delaware statutory trusts
(Figure A.1).1

Historically, Massachusetts business trusts were the most popularin part because the very
first mutual fund was formed as a Massachusetts business trust. This was a common form of
organization at the time for pools that invested in real estate or public utilities and it provided
a model for others to follow. Over the last few decades, the percentage of funds organized as
Massachusetts business trusts has declined as more and more funds have formed as Maryland
corporations, as well as Delaware statutory trusts, the most favored form of mutual fund
organization.

1 Fewer than 1,000 funds, or about 9 percent, have chosen other forms of organization, such as limited liability partnerships,
or other domiciles, such as Ohio or Minnesota.

HOW U.S.-REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES OPERATE AND THE CORE PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THEIR REGULATION 245
Developments in the late 1980s gave asset management companies these other attractive
choices. For example, in 1987, Maryland revised its law to align it with interpretations
of the Investment Company Act of 1940 concerning when funds are required to hold
annual meetings. As a result, Maryland corporations became more competitive with the
Massachusetts business trust as a form of organization for mutual funds. In 1988, Delaware
already a popular domicile for U.S. corporationsadopted new statutory provisions devoted
specifically to business trusts (since renamed statutory trusts). Benefits, such as management
of the trust and limited liability afforded to the trusts beneficial owners, have led to its
current dominance over other forms of mutual fund organization.

Mutual funds have officers and directors (if the fund is a corporation) or trustees (if the fund
is a business trust).2 The funds board plays an important role in overseeing fund operations,
described in more detail on page 260.

FIGURE A.1
The Most Popular Forms of Mutual Fund Organization
Percentage of funds, year-end 2015

9%
Other
16%
Maryland corporations 35%
Massachusetts business trusts

40%
Delaware statutory trusts

Number of funds: 10,530

Note: Data include mutual funds that do not report statistical information to the Investment Company Institute and mutual
funds that invest primarily in other mutual funds.

2 For ease of reference, this appendix refers to all directors and trustees as directors and all boards as boards of directors.

246 APPENDIX A
Unlike other companies, a mutual fund is typically externally managed; it is not an operating
company and it has no employees in the traditional sense. Instead, a fund relies upon third
parties or service providerseither affiliated organizations or independent contractorsto
invest fund assets and carry out other business activities. Figure A.2 shows the primary types
of service providers usually relied upon by a fund.

Although it typically has no employees, a fund is required by law to have written compliance
policies and procedures that govern the operations of the fund and the funds administrator,
investment adviser, transfer agent, and principal underwriter and that are reasonably
designed to ensure the funds compliance with the federal securities laws. All funds must also
have a chief compliance officer (CCO), whose appointment must be approved by the funds
board and who must annually produce a report for the board regarding the adequacy of the
funds compliance policies and procedures, the effectiveness of their implementation, and any
material compliance matters that have arisen.

FIGUREA.2
Organization of a Mutual Fund

Shareholders

Sponsor/
Investment Administrator
adviser

Independent Board of directors Principal


public underwriter
accountant Fund

Custodian Transfer agent

HOW U.S.-REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES OPERATE AND THE CORE PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THEIR REGULATION 247
Shareholders
Like shareholders of other companies, mutual fund shareholders have specific voting rights.
These include the right to elect directors at meetings called for that purpose and the right
to approve material changes in the terms of a funds contract with its investment adviser,
the entity that manages the funds assets. For example, a funds management fee cannot
be increased and a funds investment objectives or fundamental policies cannot be changed
unless a majority of shareholders vote to approve the increase or change.

Sponsors
Setting up a mutual fund is a complicated process performed by the funds sponsor, which is
typically the funds investment adviser. The fund sponsor has a variety of responsibilities. For
example, it must assemble the group of third parties needed to launch the fund, including
the persons or entities charged with managing and operating the fund. The sponsor provides
officers and affiliated directors to oversee the fund and recruits unaffiliated persons to serve
as independent directors.

Some of the major steps in the process of starting a mutual fund include organizing the fund
under state law, registering the fund with the SEC as an investment company pursuant to
the Investment Company Act of 1940, and registering the fund shares for sale to the public
pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933.3 Unless otherwise exempt from doing so, the fund also
must make filings and pay fees to each state (except Florida) in which the funds shares will
be offered to the public. The Investment Company Act also requires that each new fund have
at least $100,000 of seed capital before distributing its shares to the public; this capital is
usually contributed by the sponsor or adviser in the form of an initial investment.

Advisers
Investment advisers have overall responsibility for directing the funds investments and
handling its business affairs. The investment advisers have their own employees, including
investment professionals who work on behalf of the funds shareholders and determine
which securities to buy and sell in the funds portfolio, consistent with the funds investment
objectives and policies. In addition to managing the funds portfolio, the adviser often serves
as administrator to the fund, providing various back-office services. As noted earlier, a
funds investment adviser is often the funds initial sponsor and its initial shareholder through
the seed money invested to create the fund.

3 For more information on the requirements for the initial registration of a mutual fund, see the SECs Investment Company
Registration and Regulation Package, available at www.sec.gov/divisions/investment/invcoreg121504.htm.

248 APPENDIX A
To protect investors, a funds investment adviser and the advisers employees are subject
to numerous standards and