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Topic 4: Bonding 1

Iconic bonding

The evidence that ions exist A


Physical properties of ionic compounds: high melting

temperatures, showing strong forces of attraction between
ions, soluble in polar solvents, conduct electricity when
molten or in aqueous solution.
Electron density maps of compounds produced from X-ray
diffraction patterns show zero electron density between ions
meaning complete electron transfer. B
Migration of ions in electrolysis. For example, electrolysis of A
green aqueous copper(II) chromate(VI) attracts a yellow colour
(chromate(VI) ions) to the anode and a blue colour (copper(II)
ions) to the cathode.

0.1 nm

Electron density map for sodium chloride clearly

showing separate ions

Formation of ions
An ion is formed when an atom gains or loses one or more electrons. For example, a
copper atom loses two electrons:
Cu(g) Cu21(g) 1 2e2
to form a copper cation. A chlorine atom gains one electron:
Cl(g) 1 e2 Cl2(g) Watch out!
to form a chloride anion.
The formation of an ion is not the same
A positive ion is called a cation, it is attracted towards the cathode in electrolysis.
as the formation of an ionic bond. Ions
A negative ion is called an anion, it is attracted towards the anode in electrolysis.
are formed as ionic bonds are made,
When ions are formed they tend to have a full outer shell, i.e. eight electrons. but they can also be formed by other
This is called the octet rule. Ions with full outer shells have the same electronic means, e.g. electron bombardment in a
configurations as noble gases (Group 0) for example, a Ca21 ion has the same mass spectrometer.
electronic configuration as argon; they are isoelectronic.

Ionic dot-and-cross diagrams

Only electrons in the outer shell of the atom or ion are shown in these. Electrons are
at the four points of the compass north, south, east and west
paired up until there remains just an odd one. (a) Na + Cl Na Cl
The reactions of elements to form ionic compounds can be represented by dot-and-
cross diagrams. The electrons from one reactant are usually shown with crosses and
the electrons from the other reactant with dots.

+ 2+
(a) Na + Cl Na Cl (b) Ca + Ca

The formation of sodium chloride and calcium fluoride by electron transfer

Electrons are transferred from one atom to another

to form ions, each with an outer shell
of eight electrons.
F You must show the chargeFon each ion in the compound. The new
outer shell of the Na1 and Ca21 cations
(b) Ca + Ca was an inner
shell in the atoms it is not usually
shown in dot-and-cross diagrams (although you may be asked to show all electrons).
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1 Unit 1: Core principles of chemistry

Ionic bonding and lattices

Examiner tip An ionic bond is an omnidirectional electrostatic force of attraction between
oppositely charged ions.
Draw what you are asked to! If you are The forces of attraction are equal in all directions.
asked to draw a dot-and-cross diagram In ionic compounds each ion is surrounded by ions of the opposite charge.
for an ionic compound then draw only Ionic compounds form giant ionic lattices in the solid state (also called an ionic
the ions in that compound, not the crystal).
atoms from which they were formed.
Only show the outer electrons, the
inner ones do not take part in bonding. Trends in ionic radii
Make sure that there is a gap between
The ionic radius is the radius of an ion in its crystal form.
the brackets for the two ions, and that
Cations are smaller than the original atom since the atom loses electrons.
if you show circles for the outer shells
Usually a whole electron shell has been lost, and the remaining electrons are
they do not touch.
also pulled in towards the nucleus more strongly.
Anions are larger than the original atom since the atom gains electrons and
there is more repulsion in the electron cloud.
Going down a group in the Periodic Table, the ions become larger the number of
shells is increasing.
Isoelectronic ions have different ionic radii:
the additional electrons in anions make the ions larger because there is greater
Cl ion repulsion and all the electrons are less tightly bound than in the atom
the loss of electrons to form cations means the nucleus attracts those electrons that
remain more strongly. For example, for the electronic configuration 1s22s22p6, the
Na ion order of size is
N32 O22 F2 Ne Na1 Mg21 Al31.
A small part of the giant ionic lattice of
sodium chloride
Li Li F F

Examiner tip 0.157 nm 0.074 nm 0.071 nm 0.133 nm

It really is best not to draw ionic

lattices with lines joining the ions. Na Na Cl Cl
These lines imply there are individual
bonds between pairs of ions this 0.191 nm 0.102 nm 0.099 nm 0.180 nm
is not the case. An ionic bond is
formed between an ion and all those
of opposite charge that surround it K K Br Br
hence it is omnidirectional.

0.235 nm 0.196 nm 0.144 nm 0.195 nm

Ionic radius increases down a group Ionic radius increases down a group
cations are smaller than their atoms anions are larger than their atoms

Quick Questions

1 In how many directions does an ionic bond act?

2 How is an ion formed?
3 Draw a dot-and-cross diagram to represent magnesium chloride.
4 a Using your data book, draw scale diagrams, in decreasing order of size, of
the following ions: N32, O22, F2, Na1, Mg21 and Al31.
b What are their electronic configurations?
c Why do the ions have different sizes?

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Topic 4: Bonding 1
Lattice energies and BornHaber cycles
The formation of an ionic crystal from its elements is exothermic (energy is released).
The lattice energy is the energy released when 1 mole of an ionic crystal is formed
from its ions in the gaseous state, under standard conditions. This process can be
broken down into a number of stages, each associated with a particular energy change:
atomization of the metal
ionization of the gaseous metal
atomization of the non-metal
ionization of gaseous non-metal atoms (called the electron affinity)
forming the crystal from the gaseous ions.
Having measured each of these, and the standard enthalpy of formation of CaCl2,
DHf [CaCl2], the lattice energy can be calculated using an enthalpy level diagram
known as a BornHaber cycle. This is just an application of Hesss law.

Worked Example

Calculate the lattice energy for calcium chloride: Ca21(g) 1 2Cl2(g) CaCl2(s).

The enthalpy changes involved in the formation of calcium chloride from

calcium and chlorine are:
Watch out!
1 Ca(s) Ca(g) DHat [Ca(s)] standard enthalpy change of atomization of calcium
2 Ca(g) Ca1(g) 1 e2 DHi1 [Ca(g)] 1st ionization energy of calcium
Make sure you include all the
3 Ca1(g) Ca21(g) 1 e2 DHi2 [Ca(g)] 2nd ionization energy of calcium ionization energies for the metal. This
4 Cl2(g) 2Cl(g) 2 DHat [_2 Cl2(g) ] standard enthalpy change of
means only the 1st I.E. for Group 1
atomization of chlorine metals, but the sum of the 1st and 2nd
5 2Cl(g) 1 2e2 2Cl2(g) 2 DHe [Cl(g)] 1st electron affinity of chlorine I.E. for Group 2 metals (not just the
6 Ca(s) 1 Cl2(g) CaCl2(s) DHf enthalpy change of formation of CaCl2 2nd I.E.). Also, the standard enthalpy
of atomization is associated with the
Ca2(g) 2e 2Cl(g)
production of 1 mole of gaseous atoms
when you have to produce 2 moles of
2 Hat-[ 12 Cl2(g) ] 2 122
2 He-[ Cl(g)] 2 349 atoms, you must multiply by 2.
244 kJ moI1
698 kJ moI1
Ca2(g) 2e Cl2(g)

Hi-[ Ca(g) ] 1145 kJ moI1 Examiner tip


You will not have to draw a full

Ca2(g) 2Cl(g)
Ca (g) e Cl2(g)
BornHaber cycle but you can expect to
have to fill in some missing values and
then calculate the remaining unknown
Hi-[ Ca(g) ] 590 kJ moI1 energy (dont forget the correct sign

and units). Simply move around the

Ca(g) Cl2(g) cycle in one direction, adding up the
energies. Its exactly the same as using
Hlat- [ CaCl2(s) ] ?
a Hess cycle remember, when going
Hat-[ Ca(s) ] 178 kJ moI1
in the direction of an arrow use the
same sign as the energy; going against
Ca(s) Cl2(g)
the arrow, use the opposite sign.

Hf-[ CaCl2(s)] 796 kJ moI1


The BornHaber cycle for the formation of calcium chloride

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1 Unit 1: Core principles of chemistry

Using the BornHaber cycle, the lattice energy for CaCl2 is given by:
DH lat [CaCl2(s)] 5 [2(2698) 2 244 21145 2 590 2 178 2 796]kJ mol21
5 22255 kJ mol21
This is very large and indicates the strength of ionic forces of attraction
between ions.

Stability of ionic compounds

BornHaber cycles can be used to predict the relative stabilities of ionic compounds,
and even if a particular formula will exist as a compound.

Worked Example

Why is calcium chloride CaCl2, and not CaCl or CaCl3?

Enthalpy change in the process, DH /kJ mol21 Ca1Cl2 Ca21(Cl2)2 Ca31(Cl2)3

Ca(s) Ca(g) 1178 1178 1178
Ca(g) Ca1(g) 1 e2 1590 1590 1590
Ca1(g) Ca21(g) 1 e2 11145 11145
Ca21(g) Ca31(g) 1 e2 14912
Cl (g) Cl(g) 1122
2 2
Cl2(g) 2Cl(g) 1244
Cl (g) 3Cl(g) 1366
2 2

Cl(g) 1 e2 Cl2(g) 2349

2Cl(g) 1 2e2 2Cl2(g) 2698
3Cl(g) 1 3e2 3Cl2(g) 21047
Ca1(g) 1 Cl2(g) Ca1Cl2(s) 2711
Ca21(g) 1 2Cl2(g) Ca21(Cl2)2(s) 22255
Ca31(g) 1 Cl2(g) Ca31(Cl2)3(s) 24803
Summary of BornHaber data for CaCl, CaCl2 and CaCl3
The theoretical enthalpy change of formation for each compound is found
by adding the energies in each of the columns. Using the data, the enthalpy
changes of formation for the three compounds are:
Ca(s) 1 _12 Cl2(g) CaCl(s) DHf 5 2170 kJ mol21
Ca(s) 1 Cl2(g) CaCl2(s) DHf 5 2796 kJ mol21
Ca(s) 1 2 Cl2(g) CaCl3(s) DHf 5 11341 kJ mol21
The most stable compound is that with the most exothermic enthalpy of
formation, CaCl2(s). The formation of CaCl3 is highly endothermic, because
the very high 3rd ionization enthalpy cannot be provided by the extra lattice

Quick Questions

1 How do you find the enthalpy change for the formation of the Al31(g) ion
from the element?
2 What does the general size of lattice energies tell us about ionic bonding?

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Topic 4: Bonding 1
Testing the ionic model
The BornHaber cycle uses measured enthalpies to calculate lattice energies. Lattice
energy can also be calculated from a model using Coulombs law (electrostatic
attraction), assuming complete electron transfer in ionic compounds, and the size
of the ionic radii. Coulombs law calculates the force of attraction between ions as a
function of their charges and the distance between them.
This ionic model can be tested for different compounds by comparing experimental
(BornHaber) results with theoretical results from the model.

Compound Lattice energy/kJmol21

BornHaber Theoretical
NaF 918 912
NaCl 780 770
NaBr 742 735
NaI 705 687
AgF 958 920
AgCl 905 883
AgBr 891 816
AgI 889 778

The different methods of obtaining the lattice energies for the sodium halides produce
very similar results. But this is not the case for the silver halides their lattice energies
are more exothermic (more negative and more stable) than theory would predict.
Coulombs law assumes that the ions are completely separate and spherical (not
Experiment therefore suggests there is a degree of electron sharing, i.e. covalency, in
the silver halides, while the sodium halides show (almost) pure ionic bonding.
This is supported by lower melting temperatures for silver halides than sodium halides.

Polarization of ions
Polarization of an ion is the distortion of its electron cloud away from completely
a cation will distort an anion Watch out!
a cation has polarizing power
an anion is polarizable. Cations polarize. Anions are polarized.




Ionic bonds can be distorted

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1 Unit 1: Core principles of chemistry

The polarizing power of a cation depends on its charge density:

a small cation is more polarizing than a larger one the positive nucleus has more
effect across the small ionic radius
a cation with a large charge is more polarizing than one with a small charge a
large charge has more attraction than a small one.
The polarizability of an anion depends on its size alone:
a large anion is easily polarized its electron cloud is further from the nucleus and is
held less tightly than on a smaller anion.
As shown above, for some ionic compounds the ionic model is good BornHaber
lattice energies agree well with theoretical values. For some ion pairs the bonds have
considerable covalent character the agreement between experimental and theoretical
lattice energies is poor.
The figure shows: a completely spherical and separate ions; b an anion distorted by a
cation; and c distortion so great that the electron density resembles a covalent bond.
This idea is developed further in Unit 2, see page 66.

Thinking Task Quick Questions

When is an ionic bond not an ionic
bond? 1 What affects the polarizing power of a cation?
2 Why is a large anion polarizable?
3 How can an ionic bond have some covalent character?
4 What evidence is there to suggest that the bonding in silver iodide has some
Thinking Task covalent character?
At what point does an ionic bond
become covalent, rather than just
having some covalent character?

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Topic 4: Bonding 1
Covalent bonding

Formation of covalent bonds

A covalent bond is formed when a pair of electrons is shared between
two atoms. This happens when two atoms approach each other and their Attraction
electron clouds overlap and electron density is greatest between the nuclei.

This region of high electron density (the covalent bond) attracts each

nucleus and therefore keeps the atoms together.
Covalent bonding is a strong electrostatic attraction between the nuclei Nucleus
of the bonded atoms and the shared pair of electrons between them.
The distance between the two nuclei is the bond length. It is the
separation at which the energy of the system is at its lowest. Shared
A covalent bond is a strong
Work has to be done to push the nuclei attraction between the nuclei
together, so energy of H2 molecule rises and the shared pair of electrons
Energy of between them
two isolated
H atoms
Cl Cl Cl
Separation Al Al
Cl Cl Cl

436 kJ mol
Energy released as the
atoms move together
Cl Cl Cl
Al Al
Attractive and repulsive forces
Cl Cl Cl
balance at this separation Dative covalent bonding in Al2Cl6.
The arrows show the electron
0.074 nm
pairs that have come from
The bond length in a hydrogen molecule is 0.074nm chlorine atoms.

Dative covalent bonds are formed when both the shared electrons come from just
one of the atoms.
For example, aluminium chloride, AlCl3, will form dimers (a combination of two Watch out!
identical molecules) of Al2Cl6. The aluminium atom in aluminium chloride is electron-
deficient (only six electrons in its outer shell) but by forming dative covalent bonds the Covalent bonds and dative covalent
octet rule is fulfilled. bonds are exactly the same once they
have been formed.
Atoms can share more than one pair of electrons and form double or triple covalent
a double bond results from two shared electron pairs e.g. in oxygen, O2, O5O
a triple bond results from three shared electron pairs e.g. in nitrogen, N2, N;N.

The evidence for covalent bonds

The physical properties of giant atomic structures such 0.200 0.200
as diamond provide evidence for the strong electrostatic
attraction in covalent bonding. Giant atomic structures are
also known as giant molecular structures. They are very
hard and have high melting temperatures. The covalent 0.150
bonds are very strong, holding the atoms in place and
require a lot of energy to break them before the atoms can 0.100
move in a liquid.
Electron density maps show high electron density
between atoms that are covalently bonded. Electron densities in electrons
per cubic atomic length
Electron density in the covalent bond between two hydrogen atoms,
showing region of high electron density between the two atoms

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1 Unit 1: Core principles of chemistry

Covalent dot-and-cross diagrams

Only electrons in the outer shell are shown in these diagrams:
electron pairs are drawn at four points
electrons are paired between atoms to form outer shells of eight electrons (two for
the electrons from one type of atom are usually shown with crosses and those from
the other atom with dots.
Examiner tip
Cl Cl H O H
Draw covalent structures carefully:
The lines between the atoms
represent the shared electron pairs, Cl Cl H O H
i.e. the directional covalent bonds.
Care is needed to draw bonds H
actually between atoms, and
not somewhere vaguely in their H C H O O N N
In covalent dot-and-cross diagrams, H
it is important that the bonding
pairs of electrons are shown clearly H
between pairs of atoms.
You do not have to draw circles to H C H O O N N
represent the outer shells. You can if it
helps, but make sure that the diagram
is clear and that we can all see where Dot-and-cross diagrams for some covalent molecules
all the pairs of electrons are.
Lone pairs
In some molecules, not all the electrons in the outer shell may be involved in bonding.
A non-bonding pair of electrons is called a lone pair.
Lone pairs are shown on dot-and-cross diagrams on one atom only (not shared).
Lone pairs affect the shape of molecules (see Unit 2, page 73).

Worked Example

Draw a diagram to show the bonding in silane, SiH4.

This is simply asking you to draw the dot-and-cross diagram.

Follow the stages shown H H H
in the diagram. H Si H H Si H H Si H
When you have finished, H H H
check that each atom has Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
the right number of its Put in the The four
own outer shell electrons hydrogen Si electrons
(4 for Si and 1 for each H) electrons complete the
and a total of 8 electrons diagram
surrounding the Si, with 2 Drawing the dot-and-cross diagram for SiH4
for each H.

Quick Questions

1 Why does a covalent bond hold a pair of atoms together?

2 Draw diagrams to show the outer electrons in Cl2O, CO and Al2Cl6.
Thinking Task 3 How do the physical properties of diamond give evidence to support the
Are all covalent bonds the same? theory of covalent bonding?

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Topic 4: Bonding 1
Metallic bonding
Metals consist of giant lattices of metal ions in a sea of delocalized electrons. The
metal ions vibrate about fixed points in the solid lattice, being held in place by the
electrons (also vibrating) around them. It is the outer electrons of the metal that have
become delocalized they are no longer associated with one particular atom.
Metallic bonding is the strong attraction between metal ions and the sea of
delocalized electrons.

Watch out!

Sea of electrons,
Be careful! Use the correct names for
only some forces
of attraction are particles atoms in covalent bonds,
shown but ions in ionic bonds.

The attraction between metal ions and electrons keeps the ions in place

The typical characteristics of metals can be explained using this simple model of
metallic bonding.
Electrical conductivity the delocalized electrons are free to move in the same
direction when an electric field is applied to the metal; the movement of charged
particles is an electric current.
Thermal conductivity the delocalized electrons transmit kinetic energy (heat)
through the metal, from a hot region to a cooler one, by colliding with each other.
High melting temperatures the positive ions are strongly held together by the
attraction of the delocalized electrons; it takes a lot of energy to break the metallic
bonds and allow the particles to move around in the liquid state.
Malleability and ductility metals can be hammered into shape (malleable) or
stretched into wire (ductile) because the layers of positive ions can be forced to slide
across each other while staying surrounded by the sea of delocalized electrons.

Quick Questions Thinking Task

Why do Group 1 metals have
1 Why do metals generally have high melting temperatures? lower melting temperatures than
2 Explain why metals are good conductors of heat. the transition metals?
3 What keeps the ions in a metal in place?

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1 Unit 1: Core principles of chemistry

Topic 4: Bonding checklist

By the end of this topic you should be able to:

Revision spread Checkpoints Specification Revised Practice

section exam
Ionic bonding Recall and interpret evidence for the existence of ions 1.6.1a

Describe the formation of ions in terms of electron loss 1.6.1b

or gain
Draw dot-and-cross diagrams to represent electronic 1.6.1c
configuration of cations and anions
Describe ionic crystals as giant lattices of ions 1.6.1d

Describe ionic bonding as the result of strong net 1.6.1e

electrostatic attraction between ions
Recall the trends in ionic radii down a group and for a 1.6.1f
set of isoelectronic ions
Lattice energies Recall the stages involved in the formation of a solid 1.6.1g
and BornHaber ionic crystal from its elements
cycles Test the ionic model for ionic bonding by comparison 1.6.1h
of lattice energies from BornHaber cycles with values
calculated from electrostatic theory
Use values calculated for standard enthalpies of 1.6.1l
formation based on BornHaber cycles to explain why
particular ionic compounds exist
Testing the ionic Explain the term polarization as applied to ions 1.6.1i
Understand that the polarizing power of a cation 1.6.1j
depends on its radius and charge, and the polarizability
of an anion depends on its size
Understand that polarization of anions leads to some 1.6.1k
covalency in an ionic bond
Use values calculated for standard enthalpies of 1.6.1l
formation based on BornHaber cycles to explain why
particular ionic compounds exist
Covalent bonding Understand that covalent bonding is strong and arises 1.6.2a
from the electrostatic attraction between the nucleus
and the electrons which are between the nuclei, based
on the evidence from:
(i) the physical properties of giant atomic structures
(ii) electron density maps for simple molecules
Draw dot-and-cross diagrams to represent electronic 1.6.2b
configurations of simple covalent molecules, including
multiple bonds and dative covalent bonds
Metallic bonding Understand that metals consist of giant lattices of 1.6.3a
metal ions in a sea of delocalized electrons
Describe metallic bonding as the strong attraction 1.6.3b
between metal ions and the sea of delocalized
Use the models of metallic bonding to interpret simple
properties of metals

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Topic 4: Bonding 1

Build Better Answers

1 Draw a dot-and-cross diagram to show the arrangement of electrons in phosphorus trichloride, PCl3. You need only show the outer
electrons. (2)

Examiner tip

First find phosphorus in the Periodic Table. It is in Group 5, therefore has 5 outer electrons. Now draw the 3 chlorine atoms around the central
phosphorus, placing each Cl at three of the four points of the compass, and between each Cl and the P draw a cross representing a chlorine
electron. Complete the chlorine atoms by drawing three pairs of crosses around each one, preferably at three compass points.
Now draw a dot next to each of the crosses between the P and Cl atoms. These represent 3 of the 5 phosphorus
outer electrons. Cl P Cl
Finally place a pair of dots at the fourth compass point, these are the two remaining phosphorus electrons a lone pair.
Basic answer: Many students can draw the correct number of electrons round each Cl atom. (1) However, they may forget to
show the symbols for each atom.
Excellent answer: To get the second mark, you need to show that there are three shared pairs and one lone pair of electrons round the
P atom. (1)
Answers missing out the pair of non-bonding electrons for P, or showing 8 electrons but not as three shared pairs plus one lone pair, would not
gain credit.

2 Explain why beryllium chloride is covalent but magnesium chloride is ionic. (3)

Examiner tip

This is all about the polarizing power of the Group 2 cations in relation to the chloride anion.
The charges on the beryllium and magnesium ions are the same because they are in the same group. However, the Be21 ion has one fewer
electron shells than the Mg21 ion and is very small.
The answer is:
The chloride ion is moderately polarizable. (1)
The Be 21
ion would therefore be very polarizing and polarize the Cl2 ion to form a covalent bond. (1)
The Mg21 ion is larger and not sufficiently polarizing to form a covalent bond with Cl2. (1)
There is frequent confusion between polarizing power and polarizability. Take care not to get the explanation the wrong way round
e.g. the chloride ion polarizes the Be21 ion is incorrect.
Excellent answer: Keep your answers concise (short) and to the point (accurate) but ensure you answer fully. In the question about
BeCl2 and MgCl2 you have to say something about all three types of ion and the clue is that there are three marks available.

3 Magnesium iodide is a compound of magnesium. The radius of the magnesium ion is 0.072 nm, whereas the radius of the iodide ion is
much larger and is 0.215 nm.
a Describe the effect that the magnesium ion has on an iodide ion next to it in the magnesium iodide lattice. (1)

Examiner tip

The electrons around the iodide ion are drawn towards the magnesium ion/Mg21 polarizes I2 ions. (1)
Take care not to get confused between polarizing power and polarizability. Marks will also be lost if you refer to atoms instead of cations.
you must say the Mg21 ion polarizes, not Mg21 polarizes, or that iodine/I2 is polarized.

b What two quantities must be known about the ions in a compound in order to calculate a theoretical lattice energy? (2)

Examiner tip

Radius/size (of ions), (1) charge/charge density. (1)

Again, dont refer to atoms atomic radius is incorrect here. There are no marks for recalling that Coulombs law is used, unless you also give
the terms in the Coulombs law formula.

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1 Unit 1: Core principles of chemistry

c Suggest how the value of the theoretical lattice energy would compare with the experimental value from a BornHaber cycle for
magnesium iodide. Give a reason for your answer. (2)

Examiner tip

The theoretical lattice energy would be less. (1)

Students have difficulty explaining why the theoretical value will be less. The theoretical value assumes a fully ionic model. However, the
small, highly charged magnesium ion polarizes the iodide ion giving some covalent bonding character. However, the bonding is not fully
covalent you will lose the mark for saying this. An acceptable answer would be simply covalent character, or the theoretical value assumes
a fully ionic model.

(Adapted from Edexcel Unit test 4 Q1, June 07)

Practice exam questions

1 Theoretical lattice energies can be calculated from electrostatic theory. Which of
the following affects the magnitude of the theoretical lattice energy of an alkali
metal hydride, M1X2? (1)
A The first electron affinity of X
B The first ionization energy of M
C The enthalpy of atomization of M
D The radius of the X2 ion
(From Edexcel Unit test 1 Q2, Jan 09)

2 a Name the type of bonding present in magnesium chloride. (1)

b Draw a diagram (using dots and crosses) to show the bonding in magnesium
Examiner tip
chloride. Include all the electrons in each species and the charges present. (3)
Read the question! This time you are to c State the type of bonding that exists in solid magnesium. (1)
show all the electrons, not just those d Explain fully why the melting temperature of magnesium is higher than that
in the outer shell. It also reminds you of sodium. (3)
to show the charges a big hint about (Adapted from Edexcel Unit test 1 Q19, Jan 09)
the type of bonding check that your
answers match the information given in 3 a Use the following data to complete the BornHaber cycle for potassium
the questions! chloride and use it to calculate the electron affinity of chlorine. (5)
1st ionization energy of potassium 1419
K+(g) + e + Cl(g) Enthalpy of atomization of potassium 189.2
Enthalpy of atomization of chlorine 1121.7
Enthalpy of formation of KCl(s) 436.7
Hat- [Cl2(g)] Lattice enthalpy of potassium chloride 711
+ b Calcium is in the same period in the Periodic Table as
K (g) + e + Cl2(g)
potassium. The lattice enthalpy of calcium chloride is
2258kJmol21. Explain why this is so different from
K (g) + Cl (g) the value for potassium chloride given in (a). (2)
Hi- [K(g)]
c Lattice enthalpies may be calculated based on an
K(g) + Cl2(g) assumption about the structure of the solid, or found
experimentally using data in this BornHaber cycle.
The experimentally found lattice enthalpy of
Hat - [K(s)]
potassium chloride is 9kJmol21 more exothermic
- [K+Cl(s)]
than that calculated; for calcium chloride the
K(s) + Cl2(g)
experimental value is 35kJmol21 more exothermic
than that calculated.
Hf-[K Cl (s)] Suggest why the calculated and experimental values
are different in both compounds. (3)
K Cl (s)

46 AS Chemistry Revision Guide

M04_ECHE_REV_AS_5971_U04.indd 46 3/8/09 10:04:35