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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

In 2001, per a report on the use of LPG as a cooking fuel option in India carried out by
International Energy Initiative in Bangalore, 48% uses LPG fuel as their domestic cooking fuel option in
urban areas, 5.7% in rural areas.

Figure 1.1 Indian Urban Household dependence on various cooking fuels in 2001(The figures indicate the
proportion of all urban households using a particular fuel)

Figure 1:2 Indian Rural Household dependence on various cooking fuels in 2001
(The figures indicates the proportion of all rural households using a particular fuel)
(DSa & Murthy, 2004)

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In Malaysia, the use of LPG is growing. According to the report from Malaysia statistic handbook
2014, 12% of Liquefied petroleum gas was consumed out of the whole 100% petroleum energy
throughout the year in the country consumption, compared to the 6% consumption rate in 1992 thereby
shows to be the second most consumed petroleum energy in 2012.In 2014, Malaysia National Energy
Balance in their report gather from the input from oil companies shows 8.9% consumption of LPG
reported.

Figure 1:3 Malaysias Liquefied Petroleum Gas consumption in 2014

(SURUHANJAYA TENAGA , 2014).

A report released by The World Bank in 2008 on The Role of LPG in reducing energy poverty shows
that less than 15% LPG is consumed in most household of countries within a month where the survey
was carried out.

Figure 1:4 Monthly household LPG consumption by user households by quantile.

(Kojima, Bacon, Zhou, Matthews, & Zeissig, 2011)

According to the chart above, it is understandable that the LP Gas industry is growing and it can be
assumed that the demand for the use of LP Gas in homes will increase momentarily. The Liquefied
petroleum gas container is designed to accommodate or store the mixture of butane and propane gases
as a pressure vessel which in fact is the LPG. The container is designed to endure the high internal
pressure and chemical reactions for a localized period of time and conditions without failure.

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Liquefied petroleum gas container is a container designed to accommodate or store the mixture
of butane and propane gases as a pressure vessel. The container is designed to endure the high internal
pressure and chemical reactions for a localized period and conditions without failure. Pressure vessels
are subject to various loading and conditions which bring about the stresses in the vessel which may later
lead to a structural failure. Other stresses that usually occur in the vessel based on the loading conditions
are residual, local and thermal stresses.
Residual stress are stresses that remains in a solid material or solid structures after the main source of
stress has been removed. Residual stresses can occur in the pressure vessel also due to welding in
contact areas during joining. In a design state, if temperature deformation is not permitted, a solid body
will not be able to move freely and deform based on the temperature stress thereby generates internal
stress which is known as thermal stress. Local stress are the localized stresses caused by the internal
pressure itself.
The physical properties of the butane and propane gases are presented below:

Table 1.1 Physical properties of propane, butane and isobutane.

(Hahn, Elgas Ltd, 2016)

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LPG was first identified in 1910 by Dr Walter O. Snelling. In 1910 when it was introduced as a
component of importance of petroleum, Dr. Walter O. Snelling was a chemist and explosives expert
working with the U.S. Bureau of Mines who was asked to into the issue of the faster rate of gasoline
evaporation experienced by a Ford Model T owner. For his discovery, jug was the first container in which
the gasoline was stored by the explosive experts who on his way experienced that the cork kept popping
out due to the vapour composition in the jug. By utilizing an old water heater and other laboratory
equipment, Dr. Snelling built a device which could separate the gasoline into its liquid and gaseous
components and discovered larger part of the fuel was composed of Liquefied petroleum gas which
includes, propane, butane and other hydrocarbons. (Hahn, LPG Gas blog, 2016)
In May 17, 1912, Dr Snellings father in-law installed a propane cylinder in his farmhouse near Waterford,
Pennsylvania as a cooking fule and for heating, who then can be categorized as the first propane
customer and the first to install an LPG Cylinder. In 1912 Dr Snelling patented producing propane on an
industrial base, in 1918 it is considered in homes for brazing lamps, and in 1932 it was used during the
Olympic games in Los Angeles for cooking and water heating. The industry starts to grow momentarily
and in the year 1934 56 million gallons had been sold. Shortly after 1934, the demands increase as an
airship fuel and by 1950 there are over 70,000 customers. Its uses started spreading across the globe
when it was first imported to Europe and utilized in France. (Zoty, 2013)

There are several regulations and rules in different countries around the globe in which standards local
manufacturers must take into consideration when designing and testing LPG cylinder. Standard
procedures vary in different countries across the globe. Tearing may occur in the tank in different kind of
location and direction depending on the pressure and the manufacturing process.
Most researchers run both physical experiment and simulations when testing to obtain the tanks burst
pressure and deformations. The result may be treated as stress-strain because in this case the burst
pressure is as a result of the stress induced in the shell wall such as plane stress and the deformation is
the strain that occurs which is the change in thickness. A schematic diagram of LPG tank is show below:

Figure 1:5 schematic diagram of LPG


(A. Kaptan, 2007)

In recent years, the global community is changing its perspectives about the option of cooking oil and
switching to other choices like LP gas. Although the market is growing, but so is the problems that arises
with the use of the LP Gas cylinder.

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1.1 Problem Statement

In a survey a carried out by Al amin and four other authors from Univerisit Teknikal Malaysia
Malaka, 92% of the worker in LP gas industries questioned complained transporting the cylinder manually
affects their back bones, thereby having regular backache. 80 percent complained of upper back and 81
percent of both left and right shoulders. (Al amin, Nuradila, Isa, & al, 2014).

The tare weight of an LPG container varied but the widely used domestic 14 kg gas tank weighs a total
weight of 32-34 kg when it filled with 80 percent LP gas, which is the load distributed on arms and back
bones and muscles when the cylinder is lifted hence one of the reason of the challenges faced by the
workers.
On an article page of The Hindu, the biasedness of LP gas sellers that occur when customers purchase
gas from some big companies in the LP gas industry in India is discussed. The biasedness are due to the
customers inability to read the exact amount of gas remaining in the cylinder, and as a result of this, some
sellers took laws into their hands and purposely sell less gas to customers deliberately at the loss of the
buyer. (Srinivas, 2016)

As a result of this, it is imperative to accept the fact that a lot of homes, families and businesses
depends on LPG for their cooking, heating and so on. Furthermore, the LPG cylinder is used to store the
LPG at above atmospheric pressure and because of the demand irregularities in the supply of LPG
cylinders are discussed based on the biasness of LPG, the handling and comfort associated to the
transportation of the cylinder is not negligible. According to the questionnaire which was distributed for
this project requirement input, most users lay out concerns about the stress of transport and non-
availability to measure the content in the container before purchase is done.

Transporting and gas level indicator problem has been the issue associated with the use of LP
gas. Even though there are level indicating devices in the market and trolleys to transport the cylinder, it
is an overwhelming issue that most of the level indicating device are programmed to display the output of
the gas in terms of weight or alarm sound indicates when the gas is about to be or totally empty. The
main issue associated with the usability, handling and transporting of LP gas cylinder is not singularly to
have a pusher to push it around or a level indicating ability or a selective base plate material where the
steel cylinder is placed which reduces its dissipation of rust, but to have a device that can do all of these
at the same time.

Even though there have being several methods introduced to combat this problem such has the
ultrasonic measuring device that uses ultrasonic sound to detect the level of gas. This method only works
when the customer manually move the device by hand on the LP gas cylinder before the level of gas can
be determined. Another method is the method of using a weight scale which lacks the ability of
transporting the cylinder. There are also trolleys specifically design for LPG cylinder transportation which
does not have the ability of a level indicator. As a result of this, there is need to develop a concept design
of a device which can be used to transport LP gas cylinder, notifies the level of gas remainder, warn
before the gas tank is empty and provides a rust free base plate.

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Figure 1.6 shows a customer transporting LPG Gas on head
1.2 Project Objectives

1. To provide the questionnaire sample which is distributed to 3 restaurants and 25 individuals


in other to gather customers perspectives on the challenges associated with their use of LP
gas cylinder.
2. To develop a conceptual design that meets with the requirements.
3. To perform static analysis on the design concept in order to prove its safety and efficiency.

1.3 Scope of study

This project is focused on the design and performing analysis on the critical component of the LP
Gas cylinder level indicating and transport device, the 14-kg domestic cylinder is considered and the
overall weight including the gas weight is considered as input. Spring suspension capabilities is convert
into distance which inline corresponds with weight of the cylinder. The design and analysis in this
dissertation only focuses on the domestic LP gas 14 kg cylinder.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Researchers have done a lot of exploit in developing various devices which assist in transporting
LPG cylinder, and other works in developing level indicating design that can show the level of gas left in
the cylinder, even though there have not been a lot of development which is known to consumers in
recent years.
There is a need to innovatively develop a concept design in such a way that it will be more
commercialized to the public and more safe for the environment. In respect of this, the design needs to be
more ergonomically and aesthetically appealing to buyers.
2.1 Gas level Ultrasonic level measurement

Gas level Classic LPG level measuring device is designed by GASLOCK GMBH, a manufacturer of
complex, high-end technology products established in 1998. Gas level classic uses ultrasonic level
measurement technology to indicate the level of LPG in a steel gas cylinder.

Figure 2:1:1 Gas Level Classic Gas level indicator

Ultrasonic level measurement is one of the available non-contact level measurement technology amongst
others such as radar, nuclear, laser and weight. The distinguish in application depends on the problem at
hand, content level to be read, housing materials and so on.
The Gas Level Classic (GLC) as shown in Figure 2:1:1 Gas Level Classic Gas level indicator, uses
ultrasonic sensor which uses time of flight technology. The time of flight is calculated when the sensor
signal travels from the antenna to the surface of the LPG and then return to the antenna. For the Gas
Level, Classic ultrasonic level measurement device, the device indicates through a green LED display
unit when the pulse impact the surface of LPG and red light LED when the pulse travel without contact
with the LPG. The GLC is 65 mm high, 30 mm wide and 16 mm thick. It measures within seconds the
level of gas in 5 kg, 11 kg, and 33 kg LPG Cylinder and it is designed with a magnetic back to allow it
stick to the body of the steel cylinder while it is moved axially to read where the pulse meets in contact
with the LPG surface.
(Gaslock, 2013)

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Figure 2:1:2 Shows the red LED indication showing there is no LPG at that level in the cylinder

Figure 2:1:3 Shows the green light LED indicating the pulse meet in contact with LPG in the cylinder at
that level

The ultrasonic sensor translates electrical energy into ultrasound waves and converted by piezoelectric
crystals which oscillates at high frequency when electric energy or mechanical stress is applied to it, into
electrical signal. The sensor send ultrasound to the surface of the object and receive the echo which is
developed by the object. The echo is then converted into electrical energy and processed by the control
circuit which is the feedback circuit, (Solid Applied Technologies Ltd, n.d).

Figure 2:1:4 The functional block diagram representing Ultrasonic level transmitter operational process.

The diagram ultrasonic sensor transmitter and receiver shown in the blow diagram above in Figure 2:1:4
The functional block diagram representing Ultrasonic level transmitter operational process. have a sample
product shown in Figure 2:1:5 Ultrasonic distance measuring transducer sensor

(Solid Applied Technologies Ltd, n.d)

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Figure 2:1:5 Ultrasonic distance measuring transducer sensor

Source: (Ebay, 2016)

Counter circuit- It count the pulses


Control circuit- It determines the electric energy by controlling the current flow.
Timing generator circuit- It produces the timing signal to synchronize the circuit operation.
Ultrasonic sensor transmitter- Senses ultrasound to the object
Ultrasonic sensor receiver- Receive the echo generated by the object

The way ultrasonic waves detect an object is similar to that of the radar, the difference is that, ultrasonic
uses sound wave and radar uses radio wave. In other ultrasonic device in the market such as
MonoScan, (Solid Applied Technologies Ltd, n.d), When the pulse travels from the antenna down to the
surface of the LPG, and travels back from the surface of the LPG to the receiver, the distance traveled is
converted to the level at which the pulse travels before meeting in contact with the surface of LPG inside
the cylinder and displayed in meters. Monoscan can measure the level of liquid or solid up to the range of
15 meters and have 0.25 % accuracy of the measuring range.

2.2 LPG Cylinder Concept design (Fuel peep Window)

Moyahabo B.M and Mukul. S. in 2012 optimized the design of LPG cylinder with the inclusion of
fuel level window, less weight, easy carriage handles and also tackles the corrosion barrier in the
University of Johannesburg. E-glass fiber composite material is used for the outliner and plastic material
(HDPE) is used for most of the components to reduce the weight of the container and increase the
stiffness. Also, brass and copper are used for valve coupling purposes because of the strength needed
for the couplers.
The plastic (HDPE) is manufactured through blow molding process which supports hollow plastics
manufacturing with low costs of production and less time consumption. The fiber glass is made through
filament wound process and oven cured to reduce the time consumption for the resin and fiber glass to
get cured together. The casing will be manufactured using injection molding process and mechanically
joined together. The ratio of the fiber glass to resin used in the dissertation is 3:2. The LPG cylinder is
design having three layers. The inner polymer liner is designed as gas wall which act as the boundary for
the gas mixture, also the fiber glass to behave as a reinforcement for the plastic wall, .i.e. to resist failure
such as busting and finally the third layer which is the outer layer to withstand the environmental

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conditions that may arise during the usage of the container and its content and in-line with the ergonomic
factors considered.
Finite element method which is a popular and powerful technique designed to solve complex problems in
engineering structural mechanics is implored by the research group and finite element analysis software
Abacus is used to design and run simulations on the critical components. The modeled components is
presented in the picture below:

Figure 2:2:1 The components of the LPG Container

As seen in Figure 2:2:1 The components of the LPG Container, the outer layer is made of E-glass fiber
while the inner layer is made of plastic (moldable grade- Type HDPE). The coverings are made of plastics
and the couplers are made of plastic, brass and copper for the case, insert and ring respectively. The
peep window is design to allow users monitor the level of the gas at the lower stage. Some certain
standard are employed in other to meet up the regulated specifications on LPG cylinder design in South
Africa. The standards are SANS 10019:2008, SANS 1825, EN 12245, ISO 11119 and all containers in
this country must comply with the Pressure Equipment Regulations of the occupational health and safety
act of 1993 (Act No. 85 of 1993).
The group worked out the estimated properties of the E-glass fiber and vinyl-ester resin based of the
mixture ratio as shown in Table 2:1 Properties of E-glass continuous fiber and cured vinyl ester mixed.

Table 2:1 Properties of E-glass continuous fiber and cured vinyl ester mixed

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The orientation of the E-glass fiber is concluded to be [450/-450].
Using Abacus (FEA Software) the cylinder were designed. The E-glass composite laminates were
modeled in 10 plies at the orientation of [450/-450] with the thickness of 2mm. During the analysis stage,
a bursting pressure of 3MPa (30 bars) as stated in the standard is applied as a distributive load on the
inner wall of the cylinder. This is to study the stress induced in the plate as a result of the applied load
and possible failure mode which may occur due to this pressure. 3D element Hexahedral (brick) is
selected for the discretization and the element equation formulation of the vessel with the total number of
780 elements.
In conclusion, Moyahabo B.M and Mukul tested the cylinder under the pressure of 30 bars which is 3
MPa unlike the present operating vessel of the same use according to the standard usually tested under
13 bars (1.3 MPa) and according to the output result it was established that the composite material with 2
mm thickness which acted as a reinforcement for the inner plastic to resist bursting and also to reduce if
not eliminate the corrosion problem and the HDPE plastic which act as the inner wall could sustain up to
28 MPa. The von misses stress from the simulation is presented in Figure 2:2:2 Von-misses stress
contour plot.

Figure 2:2:2 Von-misses stress contour plot

(SHUKLA, 2012)

2.3 Adjustable LPG Gauge

Adjustable LPG Gauge is disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos, 5,072,618 by Carl A. Taylor et al. As shown
in drawing in Fig 2.3.1, the concept design includes a movable pivot arm supporting a float arm assembly,
submerged into the liquid in LPG Tank. The gears coupling arms 28 are attached to the magnetic arm to
provide rotation caused by LPG float 42. It also includes a support arm to support magnet shaft during
rotation. The float rod indicated as 20 in portion 44 and portion 46 is at right angle to each other and
portion 46 has length L1 and diameter of D1 and the density is determined by material properties which is
selected for the rod. Therefore portion 46 will defined the weight vector which is indicated as W1 which
exerts a moment of force about the first axis. Also, portion 44 with length L2 synchronizes the same
pattern and weight vector W2 will generate a moment of force of about the first axis 34. The float has a
weight vector WFL that creates a moment of force itself about axis 34.

Summarily, in reference to Fig 3.1 and Table 2:2, the device is design in such a way that the float 42 is
attach to the float rod 20 which is connected to the gears 30 and 32 and more so the gears are connected
by the pivot rod 38 to the gauge 10 so that, when the float is submerged into the LP gas, its buoyancy

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allow it to float on the liquid gas and as the level of the liquid gas changes the float rod will cause rotation
along the second gear 32 which in turn cause rotation along the first gear 30 and the pivot rod 38
translates the rotation which then displays the level of gas on the gauge 10.

The device is designed to be used for only horizontally oriented cylindrical tank. No warning signals
mentioned. No transporting capability is mentioned in the claims. The arms are coupled by Gears 30 and
32 into a magnetic shaft and the magnet is mounted in a rigid support arm through a sideways securing
channel. The invention is designed to be used for only horizontally oriented cylindrical tank. No warning
signals mentioned No transporting capabilities mentioned.

Figure 2.3.1 Adjustable LPG gauge drawing

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Table 2:2 The Adjustable LPG gauge drawing labels and name attribute

Label Component/meaning
10 Gauge
20 Float rod
22 Gauge head
24 Dial assembly
26 Tube
28 Gear assembly
30 First gear
32 Second gear
34 First axis
36 Second axis
38 Pivot rod
40 Float assembly
42 Float
44 First Portion
46 Second portion
58 Second end
L1 Length of portion 46
L2 Length of portion 44
W1 Weight vector of portion 46
W2 Weight vector of portion 44

(United States of America Patent No. 5,072,618, 1991)

2.4 Liquid Level Gauge

In U.S. Pat Nos, 6,089,086, liquid level gauge as shown in Figure 2.4.1 is disclosed therein. A
gear assembly, assembled in a gauge head (Figure 2.4.3) having a first gear pivotal about a first axis and
a second gear pivotal about a second axis perpendicular to the first axis. The tooth of the first and second
gears are constrained such that rotations in first gear about first axis is symmetry to the second gear
about the second axis. A Level indicator mechanism is connected to the second gear and a float road
connected at first end to the first gear and the second is designed to be submerged in the LP gas. The
Float rod second end position, float rod and the first gear determines the level of LP gas remainder in the
cylinder and will be displayed on the indicator as shown in Figure 2.4.2.

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Figure 2.4.1 Perspective view of Liquid Level Gauge

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2.4.2 Perspective top view of the Indicator dial

2.4.3 Perspective view of gauge head

Figure 2.4.4 Gauge sub-assembly

In summary, as shown in Figure 2.4.4 above the float 220 is place on the LP gas similar to the invention
of Carl A. Taylor et al discussed in the previous paragraph where the arm attached to the float is
adjustable but in this invention, the arm is not adjustable is it is also connected to the gear assembly 214
in other to drive the indicator at the gauge head 202. As shown in Figure 2.4.1, the gauge head 22 and
support arm are attached together and it attached in such a that it projects freely away from the gauge
head. The magnet shaft 26 shown in Fig supports the arm 24 in order for it to allow rotation. Magnet 28 is
connected to the upper end of the drive shaft 26 and a float arm 30 is connected to the support arm 24

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with a pivot rod and a float 32 is attached to the float am 30. On the gauge head is a magnetic coupled
indicator assembly. And there is a pointer 35 in the indicator to measure the level of gas remainder.

This inventors scope is to have the ability to display the level of gas in a cylinder diameter at the range of
609.6 mm to 1066.8 mm. This is a method that can be used for a much smaller cylinder such as the
domestic cylinder as shown in Figure 2.4.5 and appendix A below, if the arm length is modified to
according to the cylinder diameter. The larger the cylinder diameter, the longer the length of the arm
required so as to freely pivot the magnetic shaft to display the amount of gas remaining in the cylinder in
terms of percentage from 10 % the least and 80 % which is considered full.

(United States of America Patent No. 6,089,086, 1998)

Figure 2.4.5 Dimensions of domestic gas cylinder

(CMS Computer, 2014)

2.5 Hydraulic jack operating system LPG weighing machine

Vinodkumar, Tajamul Pasha and Prasanta. K. Samal from the department of Mechanical
Engineering, National institute of Engineering, Mysuru India, developed a hydraulic jack operating system
LPG weighing machine. In their innovative design, the LPG cylinder is placed on a movable top plate
which is supported by a hydraulic jack ram. A load cell is mounted on the middle plate. When the
pressure valve of the hydraulic jack ram is released, the cylinder placed on the top plate is moved
downward to the middle plate where the load cell is mounted which then deforms to show the weight of
the cylinder. After usage, the cylinder can be lifted by to its original position by the use of hydraulic pedal
system. The schematic presentation and model design is show below:

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Figure 2.5.1 Shows the schematic presentation of the Hydraulic system LPG Weighing machine

Figure 2.5.2 Shows the 3-Dimensional model of the Hydraulic LPG Weighing machine

The component of the machine is all modeled and analysis carried out on the top plate where the
LPG Cylinder will be placed and the load cell using CATIA V5 R20 and from the analysis it is shown that
the maximum von misses stress found in the top plate is lesser than the yield strength of the stainless-
steel material selected for the model.
As shown in Figure 2.5.4, an axial distributed load of 400 N is applied to the surface of the plate while all
degrees of freedom are fixed and rotation at the other circular end (i.e., U1=U2=U3=0 and
RU1=RU2=RU3=0). The maximum von misses stress found in the plate is 84 N/mm 2 when the steel
material yield stress is 270 N/mm 2.
As seen in Figure 2:5:3, an axial load of 400 N is applied to the surface of the load cell, while all degrees
of freedom are fixed and rotation in all three degrees are fixed as at the left end of the load cell (i.e.,
U1=U2=U3=0 and RU1=RU2=RU3=0). The maximum von misses stress found is 187 N/mm 2 compared
to the yield strength of the selected material which is 215 N/mm2 with a maximum deformation of 1.04
mm and based on the analysis the design is considered safe.

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For the base plate static analysis (Figure 2.5.4), all three degrees of freedom are fixed at the three
cylindrical fixture holes (U1=U2=U3=RU1=RU2=RU3=0) and the load is 500 N (The total weight of the top
plate and the cylinder) and the maximum von misses stress found is 76 N/mm2 with the selected material
yield stress 270 N/mm2 and the deformation found is 1.218 mm.

Figure 2.5.3 Displacement diagram and von misses stress acting on Load cell

Figure 2.5.4 Boundary condition and Meshed body of the base plate

Figure 2.5.5 Displacement and Von misses stress plot of the base plate

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Figure 2.5.6 Displacement diagram and stress acting on top plate

Figure 2.5.7 Assembly of LPG weighing machine

The weighing machine is design in such a way that it can be easily maneuvered with the aid of casters,
and measures the amount of LPG left in the cylinder as the cylinder goes down with the aid of a 200-kg
capacity bottle jack attached to the base plate.
(Vinod kumar, 2016)

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2.6 Effect of handle design for cylinder trolley

O.O. Okunribido and C.M. Haslegrave (Okunribido & Haslegrave, 1998) of The Institution for
Occupational Ergonomics, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, United Kingdom carried
out an experiment to investigate the effect of handle design on the biomechanical stresses imposed
during the usage of a cylinder trolley such as the Liquefied petroleum trolley by considering nine different
angular orientations for the starting off phase of pushing the trolley and the steady moving phase.
According to the study, their scope is to limit the experiment within the initial phase in which the trolley is
tilted and force is developed in order to push the trolley and the next phase is the face at which the trolley
is moving steadily. There are other faces at which the two stages mentioned will experience obstacles
and the stopping stage. As shown is Figure 2.6.1, Three lengths of handle (1.0 m, 1.2 m, 1.3 m) and three
0 0 0
angles of handle (35 , 50 , 70 ) experimental configuration were considered at the start trials and the
weight of the cylinder considered was 37 kg which is also a domestic cylinder. Also, in the steady pushing
trials twelve configurations were tested with the length of handles chosen as above (1.0 m, 1.2 m, 1.3 m)
0 0
and the angle selected was (35 , 70 ) and two load weights were considered which are 19 kg and 37 kg
cylinder weight.

Figure 2:6:1 Trolley configuration and experimental conditions used in the study

As shown in Table 2.6.1, eight male subject were introduced to perform the testing and give feedbacks at
the start trials while seven males and three females where introduced to the second phase which is the
steady moving phase. At the time, the subjects were in good health and had no prior back pain.
In order to minimize the difference in weight and position of center of gravity of the loaded trolley in the
different experimental configurations discussed the handles were constructed of similar weight, similar
length at the hand grip sections (120 mm) and similar moment arms from the end of the grip to the back
of the trolley (300 mm). Figure 2:6:2 Shows the extreme of the range of experimental conditions.

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Table 2:6:1 Details of the subject

Figure 2:6:2 Extremes of the range of experimental conditions.

Based on their experiment, the study shows that the horizontal component of force at the start trial phase
when the subject begins to push the trolley forward is relatively small compared to the vertical force
needed to sustain the load of the cylinder when the trolley is tilted for the wheels to move freely. The force
exerted varies according to the handle angle and height configurations as shown in Table 2:6:2.

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Table 2:6:2 Trolley start trials (Maximum foot forces (N))

At an angle of 35 degrees and 1.1 m handle length the vertical force was recorded as 198 N and 289 N
and handle angle of 70 degrees and handle length of 1.0 m. The maximum starting force exerted was
recorded as 290 N with the 70 degrees handle although a record shows 550 N which is due to a period
when a subject applied a force to initial the movement of the trolley wheels.
The resulting biomechanical load on the spine was 1750 N which is relatively low compared to the limit
which is 3400 N recommended in NIOSH 1993. (R.Waters, Putz-Anderson, Garg, & Fine, 1993). The
result of the experiment are shown below in Table 2:6:3.

Table 2:6:3 Trolley start trials (Biomedical loads including spinal compression)

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The high wrist angles when the trolley handle is grasped initially is also shown in Table 2:6:4 below.

Table 2:6:4 Trolley start trials Peak wrist angles (degrees) when handle is first grasped.

The mean of the ratings given by the subjects during the start trials and steady moving phases according
to their comfort which is rated as 1 very light and 5- very heavy is shown below in Tables 2:6:5 and
2:6:6 respectively.

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Table 2:6:5 Trolley start trials subjective ratings of effort and body discomfort

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Table 2:6:6 Trolley steady pushing trials tilt angle, elbow angle and ratings of effort and stability

There is also discussion about the behavior of subjects (A person who pushes the trolley during the
experiment) in steady pushing trials and discussed that the abnormality of using two-wheeled trolleys is
that the weight of the load can be balance over the center of rotation of the trolley wheels (Okunribido &
Haslegrave, 1998); (Datta, Chattarjee, & Roy, 1978); (Megaw & Gurung, 1996).
It is furthermore discussed that it is difficult in the case of gas cylinders because in this case the load is
long and the center of gravity is high above the center of rotation of the wheels. According to their study
configuration, the low back load is illustrated in Figure 2:6:3 below.

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Figure 2:6:3 Start trials illustration of static effort required to support the weight of the load when not
balanced.

It is also stated that, the most conducive angle of the tilted trolley for minimal static load can be defined
theoretically excluding the consideration of the load weight. When a user tilt the trolley lesser or higher
than the defined optimum, user must apply more static effort which will eventually influence the behavior
of the subject.
In conclusion, the study shows that the handle design has major effect on the starting force required to
push a cylinder trolley and during its steady movement phase. Also, the efficiency of the starting effort will
change with the handle length and angle configurations, and more vertical forces is required as the angle
of handle and length of the handle increases.
0
For their study, the best handle design concept is that which have a handle angle of 35 from the axis
through the back of the trolley and the length of 1. 0 meter. However, it is also discussed further that there
are conflicting requirements for effort reduction for moving the cylinder trolley and for more stability which
requires more innovative design for the handle which includes an adjustable handle in which users can
adjust the handle for their own comfort (Okunribido & Haslegrave, 1998).

2.7 Helical compression spring

It can be agreed on that every part made from an elastic material possess some characteristic of spring in
it in the context of spring behaviors but spring in its novel application is a part made in some
configurations to provide a range of force over a significant deflection and to store energy (Robert, 2006).
Helical compression spring is one of the available load types. Others are helical tension, helical torsion
and custom forms. This are all wire springs. Flat springs are cantilever beams and simply supported
beams.
The most common helical compression spring is that which is design with constant coil diameter, pitch,
and round wire spring.

In order to design an effective helical compression, spring the following are to be taken into
considerations:

26
-Spring Length

Free length Is the overall spring length when the spring is not loaded.
It is sown below in figure 2:7:2.

Figure 2:7:1 Show the free length ( ) of an helical spring


Source: (Schmid, Hamrock, & Jacobson, 2013)

Assembled length La is the length of the spring after installation where its initial
deflection occurs. (i.e. Preload) - Initial deflection = yinitial.
This is shown below in Figure 2:7:2

Figure 2:7:2 Show assembled length La (identified as li) of an helical spring


Source: (Schmid, Hamrock, & Jacobson, 2013)

Working load is the load that is applied to further compress the spring through
its working deflection. Working deflection = yworking

The minimum working length Lm Is the shortest length at which the spring is
compressed during operation or service.

27
Short height or solid height Ls is the length of the spring after compression
when all the coils are in contacts. It is shown below in Figure 2:7:1.

Figure 2:7:3 Show the solid height (ls) of an helical spring


Source: (Schmid, Hamrock, & Jacobson, 2013)

Clash allowance yclash is the difference between the minimum working length
and the shut height which is expressed in percentage of the working deflection.

- Active coils: The coils that are compressible among the number of coils. Squared and
ground helical coils effectively removes two coils because they are not active and the
number coils Na will be calculated with the absent of two dead coils.

- Spring index

C=d/D
C= Spring index
D= coil diameter
D= wire diameter

The preferred range of C is from 4 to 12. When the index is less than C the spring will be
difficult to manufacture and when its greater its prone to buckling. Below in Figure 2:7:4 is
the preload versus spring index curve which shows the range of stress for various spring
indexes.

28
Figure 2:7:4 Preferred range of stress for various spring indexes.
(Schmid, Hamrock, & Jacobson, 2013)

- Spring deflection
3 4
Y=8FD Na/d G (a)
F = Applied force. (b)
D= coil diameter
N= Number of coil
d= wire diameter
G=Shear modulus

- Spring rate
4 3
K=F/y=d G/8D Na. (3)

- Stresses in Helical compression springs


Max stress (4)

- Residual stresses

Residual stresses occur when wire is coiled into a spring inside the surface as tensile
residual stress and outside as compressive residual stresses. Both stresses are not
beneficial and can be relieved by performing stress relieving process during installation.
Beneficial stresses can be introduced into a spring design by set removal process, this
will increase the spring load capacity (static) and energy absorption. Beneficial stress can

29
also be introduced through shot peening. This is more effective against cyclic loading in
fatigue.

- Bucking

A slender compression spring can buckle due to the slenderness of the spring. The
geometry of the design can be modified to avoid bucking. A slenderness ratio can be
introduced if the free length of the spring is known and the mean coil diameter. If the
factor at Lf/D < 4 then the spring tend to buckle. This can be seen on a ratio of deflection
ratio free length ( /Lf) versus ratio of free length ratio mean diameter (Lf/D) critical
buckling condition curves. It is shown below in Figure

Figure 2:7:5 Critical buckling conditions for parallel and non-parallel ends of compression springs.

Source: (Barnes Group, 1987); (Norton, Buckling of Compression spring, 2006)

- Compression spring surge

Devices that possess mass and elasticity will have natural frequencies relative to shaft
vibrations. When dynamically excited, springs can vibrate in both lateral and longitudinal
directions and exited near their frequency and when it goes into resonance, surging (the
waves of longitudinal vibration will cause the coils to impact one and another and thereby
it will fail. The large forces exerted by the excessive deflection in the springs will cause
this failure. Therefore, spring should not be cycled at a frequency closed to its natural
frequency.
It is better if the springs natural frequency is 13 times greater than the applied forcing
frequency.

Natural frequency for fixed-fixed case (both ends are fixed)

30

. (5)


. (6)

K=spring rate
W a= Weight of spring active coil
g = gravitational constant

.. (7)

For total spring weight substitute Nt for Na.


By substituting the equations spring rate k discussed above into the discussed equations,
we have;
2
Fn=(2/(3.142*Na)) * (d/D ) * (SQURT(Gg/32 ) * (Hz)

- Allowable strength for compression springs


The allowable strength of a compression springs is its failure strength at which is the
relationship of the ultimate tensile strength and the wire diameter.
- Torsional yield strength
The torsional yield strength is affected by the material of the spring and if the spring has
been set before. The torsional yield strength can identify an estimated strength for a
helical compression spring in static loading.
- Torsional fatigue strength
Over 10 service circles range varies with the material properties and also
if it is shot peened or not.
- Torsional endurance limit
It is the amount of life span the material can endure in terms of service cycles.

In order to understand the cylinder behavior which should be considered during the
conceptualization stages of creating a device which is to be used to indicate its gas level and as well to
house and transport it, it is importance to review some studies that discusses the design and analysis of
the LP gas cylinder.

2.8 Comparison of bursting pressure

M. Egemen Aksoley, Babur Ozcelik, and Ismail Bican in 2008, carried out the comparison of
bursting pressure results of LPG tank of 2.8 mm and 3 mm thickness carbon steel material. The
resistance of the vessels was investigated in order to study the stress and deformation behavior of the
tanks when the thickness varies as stated above and also in-line with the design standard. The increment
of the internal pressure was introduced to achieve their main objective. Both bursting pressure
experiments and non-linear analysis are carried out to validate the result.
It is further more explained that LPG gas are colorless and odorless but aromatized by a third party liquid
gas to give obvious odor to alarm users for a possible leak. It is also stated that the boiling point of LPG

31
are very low in which propane can become gaseous at 42 degrees Celsius while butane at -0.5 degrees
Celsius and this property made it easy for the LPG uses or application in very cold area. It is also
explained that propane and butane is 50-50 lighter than water and thereby approximately 12 kg of the
mixture can fill into the approximately 26.2 L water capacity container and also at gaseous state, LPG can
be times two heavier than air.
The half structure of the cylinder is shown below with their geometrical properties:

Figure 2:8:1 schematic diagram of the 2.8 mm cylinder

The tank was produced using the MIG method by attaching two symmetrical parts of the tank using deep
drawing treatment method. Afterward, the burst experiment is then carried out as the set up shown below:

Figure 2:8:2 schematic experiment mechanism

Taking in consideration that during the experiment, the burst experiment must not cause any fracture, and
the edges of the main tear must not be radial but for angle perpendicular to the planne forming the tube
diameter. Also, any fracture (tear) should not show any visible defect. The experiment was carried out on
the two cylinder with thickness 2.8 mm and 3 mm respectively.
The volumetric expansion is given and the changes that occurs during each experiment. Also the burst
pressure is the maximum pressure the cylinder could endure before failure occurs the body or the welding
region. The first burst experiment graph is presented below as pressure versus volumetric expansion:

32
Figure 2:8:3 shows the graph of the first experiment

The graph is similar to that of a stress-strain curve where the pressure indicates the stress induced in the
cylinder wall and the volumetric expansion is the strain. The tear that occur on the cylinder vertically
intersects the circumference axis of the cylinder. It is shown below:

Figure 2:8:4 shows the tear that occurs

Finite element analysis is also introduced to test and compare the burst experiment mere simulation to
study the burst pressure and the corresponding expansion. ANSYS/LSDYNA finite element analysis
software is used to model and simulate the cylinder. The model is shown below:

Figure 2.7.5 The Ansys model of the tank

33
For material model, Isotope Bi-Linear plastic material model is chosen. As refraction-breaking criteria the
failure strain has been taken as the basis. Bi-linear cinematic material model parameters are used for the
analysis.

Table 2:8:1 The material model parameters

The element has a total of 2292 shell elements and 2343 modal points. The simulation was run by
applying the pressure and the output result is presented below:

Figure 2:8:6 The simulation results

The simulation is and the physical result is similar. For the simulation, the pressure of the liquid inside the
tank at the point of is the burst pressure even though it is not possible to obtain this magnitude of
pressure directly, pressure loading graphic is used to obtain the value. The average value of the
experiment result and the simulation result is compare as shown below with their percentage of fault:

34
Table 2:8:2 the comparison of the two results (Experiment and Simulation)

(Asoley et al, 2008)

2.9 Burst pressure and failure location

A. Kaptan, and Y. Kisioglu in 2007 also investigate the burst pressures and failure locations of
vehicle LPG cylinders, this process is also similar to that of home cooking gas cylinder but in their own
research, three different liters capacity were considered which is 35, 60 and 80 liters. Ansys software
also used to carry out the modeling and analysis to study the burst pressure and also the permanent
deformation and fracture that occurs.
The cylinder was model according to the load carrying capacity under internal pressure. The LPG
cylinders for their project are designed and manufactured in related to the restrictions of the ECE-R67
and TS 12095 codes considering the SP and also TP of the LPG cylinders. According to the regulations,
the minimum BP is 9/4 times the TP which is set at between 1.2 and 2 times the SP. Similar common fuel
tank specifications is given below:

Table 2:9:1 shows the LPG specifications

The cylinder consists of one cylindrical shell and two tori-spherical end closures. The cylindrical shell is
bent and welded along its longitudinal direction and then the two tori spherical end closures are attached
by welding to the up and lower ends of the shell. After the modeling, the experiment is then carried out,
the setup of the experiment is show below:

35
Figure 2:9:1 The burst experiment set up

After the experiment is carried out. The BP (burst pressure) is gathered measured by the manometer. The
out result and the mean result of the BP is presented below:

Figure 2:9:2 The burst pressure and its mean value

Similar to other researchers, computer aided finite element analysis is also used to analyze the problem
and the engineering and true stress-strain were obtained. Tensile test was carried out to test for the
mechanical properties in longitudinal (specimen A) and circumferential directions (B and E). The
properties are shown below:

Table 2:9:2 The mechanical properties of the LPG tank

In the modeling stage wedge function procedure is adopted to model the non-uniform homogenous model
because of its variation in thickness. In determining the burst pressure internal pressure was applied

36
increasingly by 0.1 MPa per each step. The load is increased momentarily until it reaches its maximum
state when bifurcation takes place and the load dropped indicating bursting. This is shown in the graph
below: Point a indicates the state when bifurcation occurs and b indicates the final state of load.

Figure 2:9:3 The loading condition and the corresponding displacements

The structural behaviour of the cylinder is plotted to determine the burst pressure. Nodes from critical
places of the model are selected and plotted as a function of loading increment in x and y direction. It is
shown that the nodal displacement changes from 3.02 mm at point a to 34.82 at point b as the
pressure approaches BP. Also, the stress value reduced at the burst point suddenly. The nodal
displacements of the selected nodes are shown below:

Figure 2:9:4 Nodal displacement of selected nodes

37
The results are then compared similar to the other ones above and it is shown as follows for the
experiment carried out and the simulation:

Table 2:9:3 Comparison of the results

(A. Kaptan, 2007)

38
CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

LPG cylinder is widely used in homes across the globe and the less comfort associated to its
transportation by users when buying and refilling and the inability to view the level of gas left in the
cylinder is of a major concern. In order to receive end users perceptions about the LPG cylinder, a survey
was carried out by the means of a questionnaire, distributed to 3 restaurants and 25 individuals who uses
LPG constantly for their cooker.

3.1 Questionnaire

The following are the steps taken in the questionnaire developing stages.

1. Gather Information

- Literature review

2. Design the questionnaire

- Brainstorming
- Listing Method

3. Questions rearranged for easy comprehension

4. Validate and improve questions if needed


5. Test the final draft.

6. Reliability test.

The end users demographic information is shown in the table below:

Table 3:1:1 Shows the demographic information of the surveyed end users

Age Body Body


(Years) Mass Height
(Kg) (mm)
Min Mean Max Min Mean Max Min Mean Max
26 33.5 41 64 70 76 1550 1689 1828

Below are the customer requirements and weightage data obtained from the questionnaire distributed:

39
Table 3:1:2 Shows the customer requirements

Requirements Weightage
Safe 55
Light weight 54
Comfortable 55
Easy to operate 47
Easy to Maintain 33
Uses remote to control pressure regulator 12
Easy to push by hand 42
Can drive on its own 11
Have wheels for mobility 26
Can display the level of gas 54
Can alarm before gas tank is empty 53
Portable 29
Lock safety features 19
Brake 21

In the above table, the requirements are listed and the weightage of needs are listed on the right side of
the table. Selected customers were asked to identify the challenges and possible requirements needed in
handling and transporting their LPG Cylinder. The requirements above were restructured considering the
meaning of customers inputs and similar inputs are gather together and weightage are assigned in terms
of importance (5 Highly important, 3 Average, 1- Least important) to each customer input and the all
similar input are collated which results in the weightage listed above in Table 3:1:2.
To better structure the requirements before inputting the data into QFD (Quality Function Deployment),
affinity diagram is used to rearrange the requirements into groups as shown below:

Table 3:1:3 Shows the customer requirements

LPG CYLINDER ASSISTIVE DEVICE

Performance Usability
Uses
remote to Can Alarm Lock
Light Easy to Have
Easy to Easy to switch display before gas safety
Safe Portable push by wheels for
weight operate maintain on/off the levele tank is features &
hand mobility
pressure of gas empty Break
regulator

Comfortable

The grouped requirements listed in the tree diagram above are then input into the QFD stage.

40
3.2 Quality function deployment

Quality Function Deployment can be described as a well-structured approach which involves


defining customer requirements, engineering specifications, working out the weightage of importance of
customers needs and translating that into plans to meet those needs. Quality function deployment
approach involves four stages as described below:

- Product planning: This stage enumerates, define and prioritizes the needs of customers, analyzes
competitive opportunity (i.e., the proposed product opportunity in the market), working towards
producing a product that responds to customers needs and take advantages of the opportunities
and establishing critical characteristic target values.

- Assembly/Part Deployment: This stage involves the identification of critical parts and assemblies,
flow down critical product characteristics and translating that into critical part and assemblys
characteristics and target values.

- Process planning: Determining the processes that are critical and process flow, developing
product equipment requirements and establish critical process parameters.

- Process/Quality control: This stage involves determining the critical parts and processes,
establishing process control and parameters and finally establishing inspection and test methods
and parameters.

(Hunt, 2010)

This stage will focus on concept generation and evaluable of concepts to select the best concept that best
satisfy the customer requirements.

The effectiveness of QFD is the opportunity to better understand the problem at hand in terms of the
customer requirements, the relationships between the customer needs and technical requirements to
solve the problem and the commercialization opportunity of the proposed product. For the proposed,
Pigeon Intelligent Gas trolley is selected as the incumbent product. It is selected as a design concept at
this design phase to understand the room for improvements in designing a new device which is novel and
have a place in the market.
Below is the picture of the incumbent product:

Figure 3:2:1 Pigeon Intelligent Gas trolley


(Amazon, 2017)

41
Pigeon intelligent gas trolley is a light weight steel LPG weighing machine which uses intelligent display
technology by utilizing four load sensors to determine the weight of LPG gas left in its cylinder by the
press of one specific button and an LCD interface to display its output. Its wheels are castor which is
design with a break system. It is specifically designed for the domestic 14.2 kg LPG cylinder. The load
sensor is power by CR 2032 battery cell and have a life span up to 1 year.
The QFD analysis is attached in Appendix C. From the QFD analysis, the weight or importance to meet
the customer requirement are listed below:

Table 3:2:1 Shows the weightage/importance in reference to functional requirements

Functional Requirements Weightage/importance


Less Weight 220.6
Maneuverability 422.9
Ergonomic (Push handling technique) 263.5
Display interface 291.9
Reduced Cost of Maintenance 215.5
Automatic pressure switch Provision 178.7
Gas level indicator 333.0
Brake system 334.1
Lock feature 89.9

According to the QFD, it is shown that gas level indicator, display unit, swivel wheel and brake system
leads the important requirements to design a device which will satisfy the gathered customer
requirements. The measure of importance weighing is shown below where evaluation is done between
the customer requirements and the capability of the incumbent product Pigeon intelligent gas trolley and
two other competitors, Gas lock ultrasonic gas level measurement device and GC pressure gauge.
Table 3:2:2 Showing the Planning matrix
Gas lock

level

Improvem
Ultrasoni

pressure
measure

Propane

Planned
cylinder
product

factor=
Rating
gauge
ment
Our

gas
GC

ent
c

3 0 0 5 3
4 5 5 3 -1
3 5 5 2 -1
4 5 4 5 1
3 3 3 5 3
2 2 2 5 4
0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 5 4
5 0 0 5 0
5 5 5 5 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 4
3 4 5 3 0
0 0 0 5 7

As shown in Table 3:2:2, Planned Rating is the desired weightage of futuristic improvement to the
incumbent product selected initially. The improvement factor is calculated by subtracting the existing

42
product (Incumbent) from the planned ratings and multiplying by an improvement increment (in this case
it 0.3 increment is selected) and adding the total value to 1.

Since the customer requirements have being extensively studied and improvement features to the
existing design have been made to meet customer requirements, the next phase is the conceptualization
stage which is developed based on the weightage of importance. This stage will focus on concept
generation and evaluable of concepts to select the best concept that best satisfy the customer
requirements.

3.3 Concept Development

Concept development stage involves the identification of viable solutions to the problem at hand
and at which the best concept will be selected. (Ertas & Jones, 1996). Conceptualization stage involves
creative thinking, wild and unidirectional brainstorming to develop various concepts which will enhance
the design process of the proposed product. In Edward, de Bonos book titled De Bonos thinking course:
Revision Edition in 1994, discusses lateral thinking in the context of creativity. He further speculated that
a creative person can narrowly focus on only one perception and not be able to see other alternative
solutions to a problem. Several personality characteristics which if emulated can enhance creativity in
oneself are listed below:

- Risk taking
- Challenging authority and procedures
- Desiring honest and frankness
- Thinking outside the box
- High self esteem
- Not limiting oneself in one field of invention
- Read outside ones specialized field
- Being sensitive emotionally
- Vivid imagination
- Being curious

Most of the existing product in the market for LPG cylinder mobility assistance and gas level indicator do
not possess the two values and the pigeon intelligent gas trolley presented above does not serve as a
proper storage or transporting device for a little longer distance. Such as a nearby store (walking
distance) where gas is to be purchase. The height of the device combined with the LPG tank height is
lower ergonomically for human to push comfortably. Therefore, based on the customer requirements and
functional requirements and considering the planning matrix the following two concepts are developed:

3.3.1 Concept 1: Three Castor wheels / Helical compression spring / LED Indicator

This concept provides the availability to see the level of gas left in the cylinder when the gas is full, within
average and when the gas is close to finish (less than 10 %). The concept is described below:

1. The helical compression spring compresses downward vertically and carries a steel sheet plate
which is connected to a 3V battery attached at the other end.

43
2. A series of three 3V LED bulbs are connected as an indicator, connected to another steel sheet
metal plate so that when it is contacted there is electric conduction which powers the 3V LED
bulb.

3. The helical spring is design to displace vertically at the maximum deflection of 40 mm so that,
when at maximum deflection (40 mm), there is contact between the green bulb foot contact and
the battery contact which lights up the green bulb to indicate the LPG gas is full (as per 80 %
liquid gas). At 20 mm, the yellow indicates the gas level is average and at from (0-4) mm it
indicates the level of gas left is less than 10 percent.

4. Three swivel casters are attached to the frame base to equally distributive support the overall
loads. The concept 1 3D model is presented in Figure 3:3:1:1 below.

Figure 3:3:1:1 Concept 1 Assembly Isometric view

3:3:2 Concept 2: Two wheels / Helical compression spring Mechanism / LED Indicator

Figure 3:3:1:2 shows Concept 2 which is the combination of a typical 2-wheels trolley design concept with
the helical compression spring mechanism which compresses to indicate the level of gas if it is low or full
only. This concept only uses 2 LED bulbs and is also power by battery as concept 1. The description is
listed below.

44
Figure 3:3:1:2 Concept 2 Assembly Isometric view

1. The second concept is similar to the first one but in this case, one helical compression spring,
carries the overall load thereby increasing the displacement and stress on the spring.
2. In replacement of the conductive steel sheet used in contacting the battery with the wire
connection to power the bulb, a small helical compression is spring is design to carry the contact
steel plate so that, when the compressible larger helical spring supporting the load deflects at its
maximum, it contacts the conductive plate sheet welded on the small helical spring at the base
plate thereby powering the red bulb that the gas is full and also when the gas is empty, it contacts
the small helical spring at the top plate.
3. The top plate provides both support and holder for the top helical spring that indicates the gas is
empty
4. This design is a combination of a typical LPG trolley design combined by the LPG Level indicating
technology.

3.4 Concept evaluation and selection

To select the best concept in this dissertation, TOSIS (Technique of order preference by similarity
to ideal solution) will be adopted. TOPSIS is a unique tool in concept selection because:

- It provides the best alternatives: It provides the best alternatives as close as possible to
the ideal solution and as far as possible to the negative ideal solution.
Ideal solution is the composite of the best performance values which exhibits in the
decision matrix by any alternative for each and all attributes while negative ideal solution
is the composites of the values of performance that are worse between the proposed
concepts.

45
- Assists in the decision-making process: Proximity to each of these performance poles is
measured in the Euclidean distance, i.e. this technique does not focus on making as
much profit as possible but also to avoid as much risk as possible.

Some of the advantages of TOPSIS are:

- Simplicity
- Indisputable ranking obtained
The disadvantages are:
- Dependent on weightage
- Solutions are dependent on values
- Criterial must have a sequence increasing or decreasing utility to the decision maker.

3.4.1. Concept selection using TOPSIS

AC = Alternate Concept
A/C 1 = Concept 1
A/C 2 = Concept 2

Step 1: Creating decision matrix

Table 3.4.1.1 Shows the decision matric

Functi less Maneuverab Ergon Displ Reduced Automati Gas Brak Lock
onal Weight ility omics ay cost of c leve e featu
requir interf Maintenan pressure l re
ement ace ce switch indi
(No of (Push
s cato
wheel) handli
r
ng
Tech)
A/C 1 Average High High High Average Low Hig High Low
h
A/C 2 High Average Avera Aver Average Low Hig Low Low
ge age h

Step 2: Quantify qualitative criteria


Low 1
Average 5
High 9

Table 3.4.1.2 Shows the quality qualitative criteria

46
Functional less Maneuverability Ergono Display Reduced cost Automatic Gas Brake Lock
requirement Weight mics interfac of pressure level feature
e Maintenance switch indic
(No of wheel)
ator
(Push
handlin
g Tech)
A/C 1 5 9 9 9 5 1 9 9 1

A/C 2 9 5 5 5 5 1 9 1 1

Step 3: Non-dimensionalized the attribute value


At Coolum 2 row 2, the calculation will be:
2 2
5 / (square root (5 ) + (9 ))

Table 3.4.3 Shows the attributed value being non-dimensionalized

Functional less Maneuverab Ergonomi Displa Reduced Automa Gas Brak Lock
requireme Weig ility cs y cost of tic level e featur
nts ht interfa Maintenan pressur indicat es
ce ce e switch or
(No of (Push
wheel) handling
Tech)
A/C 1 0.05 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.17 0.50 0.10 0.9 0.50
8 0
A/C 2 0.10 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.17 0.50 0.10 0.1 0.50
0

Step 4: Assign weightage value for the attributes (The relative importance obtained from the QFD matrix).

Table 3.4.1.4 Shows the weightage value

less Maneuvera Ergonomi Displa Reduced Automa Gas Brak Lock


Weight bility cs y cost of tic level e featur
interfa Maintenan pressur indicat es
ce ce e or
(No of (Push switch
wheel) handling
Tech)
Relative 220.6 422.9 23.65 291.9 215.5 178.7 333.0 334. 89.9
Importan 1
ce Value
A/C 1 12.95 42.29 23.65 29.19 36.63 89.35 33.3 300. 44.9
69 5
A/C 2 22.06 24.52 13.71 16.93 36.63 89.35 33.3 33.4 44.9
1 5

Step 5: Establish Ideal and Negative-Idea solution

47
The attributes that are of benefits or cost are evaluate below and the ideal solution and negative ideal
solution is established below:
Maximize: Maneuverability, Ergonomics, Display interface, reduced cost of maintenance, less weight
concept, Automatic pressure switch inclusion, gas level indicator availability, Brake system availability,
Lock features availability, Low cost concept.

Table 3.4.1.5 Shows the weightage value of concept 1 and 2.

A/C 1 12.95 42.29 23.65 29.19 36.63 89.35 33.3 300.69 44.95
A/C 2 22.06 24.52 13.71 16.93 36.63 89.35 33.3 33.41 44.95

Therefore, the ideal solution is:


Table 3.4.1.6 Shows the Ideal solution

Functional less Maneuverab Ergonom Displa Reduced Automa Gas Brak Lock
requireme Weig ility ics y cost of tic level e Featur
nts ht interfa Maintena pressur indicat es
(No of (Push ce nce e or
wheel) handling switch
Tech)
22.06 42.29 23.65 29.19 36.63 89.35 33.3 300. 44.95
69

The negative idea value is also listed below:

Table 3.4.1.7 Shows the negative ideal solution

Functional less Maneuverab Ergonomi Displa Reduced Automa Gas Brak Lock
requireme Weig ility cs y cost of tic level e Featur
nts ht interfa Maintena pressur indicat es
(No of (Push ce nce e switch or
wheel) handling
Tech)
12.95 24.52 13.71 16.93 36.63 89.35 33.3 33.4 44.95
1

Step 6: Calculating the separation distance

Separation distance */- ( ) =

A/C 1: Separation distance S i * = 22.60-12.95+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0= 9.11

48
A/C 1: Separation distance S i - = 268.3
A/C 2: Separation distance S i * = 268.3
A/C 2: Separation distance S i - = 9.04

Step 7: Calculating closeness rating

To measure the relative closeness to the ideal solution, the closeness rating is calculated as follows:
Ci = Si-/(Si*+Si-)
For alternative concept 1 = A/C 1= 9.11/(268.3+9.11) =0.0328
For alternate concept 2 = A/C 2 = 0.016
Therefore, Alternate concept 1 is selected as the best concept because it has the highest closeness
rating to the ideal solution.

3.5 Detailed design

Based on the selection concept which is concept 1, the critical components are the helical compression
spring, wheels, base plate, load stopper plate, frame and the display circuit.

One of the critical components in the LPG cylinder weighing and assistive device design concept is the
helical compression spring which carries the load and compresses to produce and output (displacement)
which is then translated into the level of gas. The helical spring is the core (primary component) of this
design in which if it fails, the design fails.
The helical compression spring designed in this dissertation is expected to be loaded with low
variability, i.e. low cyclical changes of loading without mutual contact of coils. The required service life is
lower than 105 working circles, therefore static stress analysis only will be considered.

- Spring design

For the concept at hand, the following consideration is taken in designing the helical
compression spring:

Weight of gas tank with full tank (at 80 % LP gas) = 34 kg

Weight of base plate= wb=mb*g

Where;

wb= base plate weight


mb= mass of base plate
g= force of gravity

Volume of hollow cylinder can be calculated as:

Where;
V = Velocity
r1= Outside radius

49
r2= Inside radius
2 2
Therefore: V= 3.146*150*(159.2 -158.2 )
3
V= 149571.57 mm

The material for the base plate is 304 stainless steel sheet and the density is 0.0000079
3
kg.cm .

Therefore, from the density formulae the mass is calculated:


Density = mass/volume

Weight of bolt = W bolt = 0.33kg*12= 3.6 kg =35.316 N

Therefore, the total load on the compression spring is=

35.316N + 11.59N + 333.54 = 380.446 N

There are three springs which will distributive share the load. Therefore, each helical
spring

will be acted upon by 380.446/3 N axial load which equals: 133 N.

The assumptions for the designs are:

D = 55 mm, d= 5 mm

Therefore C= spring index = 11 (It must not be higher than 12, so that the spring can be

manufactured, if higher it is difficult to manufacture)

Material selected is A227 cold drawn steel wire spring

G= 77.5 GPa

Calculations

1. Direct shear factor = Ks = 1+0.5/C=1.045 (a)

2. Shear stress =

Where;
Ks = Direct shear factor
F = Applied force
D = Spring outer diameter
d = Wire diameter

(b)

50
b
3. Ultimate tensile strength = Sut = Ad equation (i)

Where A= Coefficient of the empirical function of the specified material


b= Exponent
d= wire diameter

Table 3:5:1 Coefficient and Exponents for equation (i)

ASTM Material Range Exponent Coefficient A Correlation


# (mm) b (MPa) Factor

A227 Cold 0.5-16 -0.1822 1753.3 0.998


drawn

Figure 3:5:1 Shows the minimum Tensile strength of spring-steel wire generated from equation (i) and
Table 3:5:1 above.
(Robert, 2006)
(c)
-0.1822
Ultimate tensile strength = 1753.3e6 (0.005) = 4.60 GPa

4. Yield strength Sys= 0.60 Sut

0.60(4.60) GPa = 2.7GPa

Factor of safety = Yield strength/Maximum strength =17.7

Which is certainly very high and can be reduced by modifying the outer and inner
diameter and changing the material.

(d)
5. Spring rate = K= F/y= (133/0.0365) = 3694 N/m

6. Na (Number of active coils) = (d4*G)/(8*D3*k)


(e)
4 3
(0.005) *77.5) / (8*(0.055) *3694) =9.789

51
To round the number of coil to the nearest number;

10 (number of coils) = 48.125/1.33e3*k

Therefore, when the number of coils is 10, k = 48.125/0.01331

K=3615.7 N/m

7. The helical compression spring is squared and ground, therefore the total number of
coil is: Nt= Na + 2 = 10+2=12
(f)

8. Shut height = Ls= dNt = 0.192(10) = 0.06 m = 60 mm


(g)
9. Initial defelction = yinitial = 133/3615.7 = 0.0367 m = 36 mm
(h)
10. Clash allowance

Assuming clash allowance of 0.15


Therefore, y= 0.15 (35) = 5.25 mm
(i)
11. Free length= Lf = Ls + Y clash+Y working + Y initial = 136.95 mm

12. Deflection to shut height = Yshut= Lf Ls= 0.076 m= 76 mm


(j)
13. Force at shut height deflection = Fshut = (K)Yshut= 274.79 N
(k)
14. Shut height stress = =307.8 MPa
(l)
15. Shut height safety factor = (Sys) / ( ) = 2.7 GPa / 307.8 MPa = 8.7

8.7 factor of safety is considered safe.


(m)
16. Buckling
For buckling: Lf/D and Y max/ Lf ratio should be obtained, therefore
Lf/D = 2.49
Ymax/Lf= Y initial + Y working/ 0.13695 = 0.5235
From critical buckling condition curves, if L f/D > 4 then the spring will buckle and if <
4. Therefore, since the value is in between the safe range, it proves that will not
buckle.
(n)

17. Inside and outside diameter

Do= D + d = 55 + 5 = 60 mm
Di = D - d= 50 mm
(o)
18. Smallest hole and largest pin used in hole =

Hole minimum = holemin = Do + 0.05 (D) = 62.75 mm

Largest Pin = Pinmax = Di - 0.05 (D) = 53


(p)

52
19. Total weight of spring

W t = (Pi* d2 *D*Nt* density)/4 = 0.3197 kg

(q)

Therefore, the specifications of the spring have been defined.


A277 wire spring is selected and can be changed to reduce the factor of safety
Wire diameter d = 5 mm Outer diameter OD = 60 mm
Nt = 12 squared and ground Lf = 136.95 mm.

3.6 Modification
From the concept one selected (Figure 3:3:1:1), it is shown that the factor of safety in the spring
design is higher than necessary which can be due to excess thickness of the model or the higher quality
of material, which is quite higher beyond necessary for the spring safety in service.
Also, considering the portability of the selected design, there is room for improvement at which, the
overall size of the device can be reduced in terms of height and width in such a way that the device can
be easily placed under a kitchen basin sink or in a kitchen cabinet with an approximate height of 750 mm
and width space of 600 mm.
Also, according to the literature discussed on Page 39 by Okunribido and Haslegrave about the Effect of
handle design for cylinder trolley (Okunribido & Haslegrave, 1998), which discusses the ergonomic effect
in terms of reducing stresses on hands, legs and back when a subject is maneuvering a gas cylinder
trolley to improve the comfort associated with the usage of cylinder trolley. The selected overall height of
handle from the base of the trolley to the handle position is 1 meter (1000 mm) and the angle of the
handle from the back of trolley as 35 degrees perpendicular to the vertical axis of the trolley. Therefore,
for the new concept, the handle angle design will be considered as 35 degrees and the length 1000 mm
and also adjustable as suggested in the study.
Firstly, Pugh method is used to evaluate the previously selected concept design and the new concept
design. The assembly of the new concept design in shown in Figure

Figure 3:6:1 Shows the isometric view of Concept 3 design.

53
Concept three is a more portable device, in which the kitchen sink or kitchen cabinet is considered for
customers who will like to store their LP gas under the sink. The handle is design in such a way that it can
be push down into the lower frame base handle. and can be adjusted for more comfort.

Figure 3:6:2 Shows the model when the handle is pressed inside

This model also works uses helical compression spring but in different configuration. The helical
spring sustains the load from the mounting plate in this design and two end threaded bolt of 20 mm
diameter attached both sides together in three locations having an angle distance of 120 degrees
between each other. The spring is designed to travel in only 21 mm with the total force acting on the three
springs calculated as 388 N. A small spring is attached to the mounting plate under the top plate to carry
the LED connector in order to power the LED bulb when in contact with the battery connector.
The assembly is done in such a way that the mounting plate rest of the spring beam and can travel
vertically but are restricted to extend out of its free length by a nut attached to the head of the bolt.

54
Figure 3.6.3 Shows the spring installation

The smaller spring is placed on a small rubber plate to avoid it contacting with the body for more battery
life and also the steel plate is sitting on a rubber plate in such a way that it connects with the conducting
plate that is connected to a 3V battery at the base when the mounting plate displace vertically down 18.9
mm which is about 10 % alert notice that the gas is level with 10 percent gas and a refill can be planned
for.
The spring and mounting plate analysis are below.

3.7 Pugh Evaluation Method

Pugh method was developed by Stuart Pugh who was a Professor and Head of Design Division
at University of Strathclyde in Glasgow. Pugh method is a procedure to carry out concept formulation and
evaluation in a progressive and disciplined manner used to choose between a list of alternatives based
on a chosen list of assessment criteria.

+ implies better than, less than, less prone, etc.


- implies worse than, more expensive than, etc.
= implies same as data

55
Table 3.7.1 Pugh Method

Relative Datum New concept


weightage
(Previous best concept) (Concept 3)

Customer
requirements
Safe 55 = =
Light weight 54 - +
Comfortable 55 - +
Easy to 47 = =
operate
Easy to 33 - +
Maintain
Uses remote to 12 = =
control
pressure
regulator
Easy to push 42 - +
by hand
Can drive on its 11 = =
own
Have wheels 26 = =
for mobility
Can display the 54 + -
level of gas
Can alarm 53 - +
before gas tank
is empty
Portable 29 - _
Lock safety 19 = =
features
Brake 21 = =
Sum of + 1 5

Sum of - 6 2

Sum of = 7 7

From the Pugh method above, it is shown that the new concept has more number of positive than the
previous concept therefore it is chosen as the best concept.

56
3.8 Detailed design of critical parts of the selected concept

The detail design phase of this dissertation focuses on developing a system of drawings and
specifications that completely describes a proven and tested of the selected model so as to guarantee the
feasibility of its manufacturing. This is to facilitate proper interpretation of the specifications during the
fabrication phase.
(Ertas & Jones, 1996)

3.8.1 Helical spring design

The weight load of the cylinder and the top plate are the load which provides the force acting on
the springs. For this model, three helical compression springs are arrange attached by a double end
screw bolt and nut to the base plate which is fix at all degrees of freedom and the top plate which is free
to travel or compress along vertical axis but a barrier (Nut) is screwed to the upper end of the double end
screw bolt to restrict the spring extending its free length for the purpose of stability.

3.8.1.1 Calculation of the helical spring design parameters

1. Total mass load acting on the spring = mass of gas cylinder (when full at 80% LP gas) Mg + mass
of mounting plate Mmp

Therefore, the applied total weight load acting on the spring =


W applied = (Mg + Mmp) * g
Where; g = acceleration due to gravity
2
W applied = (34 kg + 9.152 kg) * 9.81 m/s = 423.3 kg m/s or N = Force applied
Force acting on each spring = 423.3 N/3 = 141.1 N
(1)

2. Required deflection = 0.01 mm, Spring index C = 7.1, FOS = 2, External diameter = Diameter of
coil Do = 0.07 mm
Youngs modulus E = 210 GPa, poisons ratio = 0.29, yield strength = 620E6 Pa.
(2)

The material properties of the steel vanadium V cold drawn is shown below in Figure 3.8.1.1.1

Figure 3.8.1.1.1 Material properties


Source: (Makeitfrom, 2016)

57
3. G = modulus of rigidity =
Therefore, = 8.14e10 Pa
(3)
4. Shear stress /FOS = 310 MPa
(4)
5. Diameter of wire

Since Shear stress =

Wahls stress factor = ( )

Substituting the value of C from equation (2) we have,


By substituting C = 7.1

(5)
Since spring index C = D/d
Therefore, d = 70/7.1 = 9.859 = diameter of wire.
The closest standard diameter of wire is 10 mm = 0.01 m.
(6)
Outer diameter of coil = Do =D + d = 70 + 10 = 80 mm = 0.08 m.
Inner diameter of coil Di = D d = 70 10 = 60 mm = 0.06 m
(7)
6. Number of coils

Force on each spring = 141.1 N


Since Deflection therefore, =5.314
Na = 13.7,
Therefore, Na is approximately 14 coils.
(8)
7. Free length

Lf = (Na + n) d +y + a

a = clash allowance = 25 % of y = 0.25 * 10 = 2.5 mm = 0.0025 m.


(9)
n = 2 for square and ground spring

Total number of coil = i = Na + 2 = 16


(10)
Therefore, Lf (14 + 2) 10 + 10 + 2.5 183 mm = 0.1725 m

(11)
8. Pitch

Therefore,
(12)
9. Stiffness or rate of spring

58
(13)

To calculate spring rate with the rounded number of coils Na:

(14)
10. To check for buckling.

Two ratios need to be calculated, Lf / D and ymax / Lf

Lf / D = 0.1725 /0.07 = 2.464


(15)
ymax / Lf = (yinitial + yworking) / Lf

yinitial = (Finitial / k) = 141.1 N / = 6.035E-3 m


(16)
ymax / Lf = (6.035E-3 m + 0.01 m) / 0.1725 m = 0.0929
(17)

From Figure 3.8.1.1.2 below, the coordinates of Lf / D and ymax / Lf (2.614, 0.0929) are find and if
it is within the zone that is stable against buckling for either end condition then the spring design
is safe against buckling. Also, if Lf / D is greater than 4 then the spring may buckle.

Figure 3.8.1.1.2 Preferred range of stress for various spring indexes.


(Norton, Buckling of Compression spring, 2006)

59
As shown in Figure 3.8.1.1.3 below, The yellow spot indicates the region at which the coordinates are
which shows that the coordinates lie on the stable left side to curve a. This shows that the spring is stable
against buckling.

Figure 3.8.1.1.3 Shows the coordinates in yellow spot on the Critical Buckling Loading curves.
(Norton, Buckling of Compression spring, 2006)

Therefore, the specification of spring is listed below:

Material Normalized 6150 chromium Vanadium steel

Wire diameter = 0.01 m

Mean diameter = 0.07 m

Free length = 0.1725 m

Total number of coils = 16

Style of end squared and ground

Pitch = m

Rate of spring =

Impact force on helical spring

Assuming the fall height of 0.05 m, for a full gas cylinder with mass 34 kg plus 9.152 kg mounting plate
2
mass, creating a dent of 0.0005 m after impact. G is the gravitational force; 9.81 m/s

60

3.8.1.2 Part Model, Material properties, boundary and loading conditions

1. Part Model

The 3D model of the spring is shown below in Figure 3.9.1

Figure 3.8.1.2.1 Shows the Isometric view of the helical compression spring

The dimension is outside diameter of 50 mm and free length of 172.5 mm. More specification is
discussed above in paragraph 3.8.1 on Page 71-74. The dimensions are shown in the 2D drawing
attached in appendix D for 2D drawing of parts.

61
2. Material properties

Chrome vanadium steel combines have high strength and is flexible. This type of alloy with high
carbon steel are usually used for wear-resistant ball bearing and medium-carbon alloys are
usually selected for spring design. It has an advantage of being able to shape up spring without
the danger of breaking. This material is selected because of its toughness, wear resistance and
strength because of the type of service required, which is to sustain the load of the LPG gas
cylinder for a longer period of time until its empty and the cycle is repeated.

The material is an isotopic material because it is ductile in nature. The youngs modulus and the
other properties shown in the material property window will be used to compute the von mises
stress and the displacement. The material properties as specified in the material analysis window
is shown below in Figure 3.9.2

Figure 3.8.1.2.2The material properties of spring as specified on CATIA

3. Loading, boundary conditions and Mesh of helical spring

Since, the distributed force applied will be shared by the three springs, the load acting on each spring is
141.1 N. One end of the spring is restricted while a plate of 10 mm thickness is further attached to the
other end to simulate the top plate compression. The boundary and loading conditions are shown below
in Figure 3:9:2:1 and Figure 3:9:2:2.

62
Figure 3.8.1.2.3 Shows the boundary condition

Figure 3.8.1.2.4 Shows the loading condition and the applied distributed force.

63
4. Mesh Model

The geometry is meshed by using Octree tetrahedron mesh. The total number of elements
1369545 and nodes 304892 is generated are generated after meshing. Also, the element size selected is
1 mm for fine mesh and the absolute sag is set at default at 1.776 mm. Figure 3.9.2.3 shows the element
size and Figure 3.9.2.4 shows the mesh model.

Figure 3.8.1.2.5 Element size of the mesh model

Figure 3.8.1.2.6 Shows the mesh model

64
The mesh warning sign under the mesh tree indicates that the mesh needs to be updated because of Is
has been reopened. In this case, the analysis has been done and there is no need to update the mesh
because it will calculate the same output. The weight of spring is calculated as 1.788 kg. It is shown
below.

Figure 3.8.1.2.7 Shows the weight of the spring

3.8.2 Mounting Plate

The mounting plate is model with a 304-stainless steel plate with 2 mm thickness. The shape is
customized in such a way that it can be used to store the LPG cylinder. The overall diameter of the model
is 500 mm, design compactly for easy placement under the kitchen sink or most kitchen cabinets where
LPG cylinder are stored.

1. Part Model

Figure 3:8:2:1 Show the 3D isometric view of Mounting or top plate

65
The dimensions are shown in the 2D drawing attached in appendix D for 2D drawing of parts.

2. Material properties.

The material properties of the selected stainless steel 304 steel plate below shows the assigned
properties. The source file is attached to Appendix.

Figure 3.8.2.2 Shows the material properties of mounting plate material

3. Loading, boundary conditions and Mesh of helical spring

The boundary condition is considered in such a way to satisfy the loading condition configuration.
The spring is to rest inside the three-circular hole attached to the plate as seen in the figure below, which
will have reaction force due to the cylinder weight places in the bowl shape design to house to LPG
cylinder. LPG. The geometry is meshed by using Octree tetrahedron mesh.

Figure 3.8.2.3 Shows the boundary condition

66
4. Loading condition

The forced applied is the load weight of the gas cylinder, in order to calculate the von mises stress and
displacement when the gas is full.

Figure 3.8.2.4 shows the loading condition of the mounting plate

The load is 34 kg of full gas cylinder * 9.81 (acceleration due to gravity) = 333.54 N

5. Mesh model

The total nodes and element calculated at the end of meshing are 1193 and 3357 respectively.

Figure 3.8.2.5 Shows the deformed mesh body

67
Octree tetrahedron mesh linear element type is selected for meshing.

The weight of the mounting plate is 8.726 kg as shown below.

Figure 3.8.2.6 Shows the weight of the mounting plate

3.8.3 Double end thread bolt

The bolt is attached to both mounting and base plate but it is free along vertical axis along (-z) downward
so that the spring can compress to contact the connecting plate to signify warning for gas remainder. The
hexagon nut is attached to the end to limit the displacement, but the the position of the hexagon nut is at
the top of the spring free length, therefore no reaction force is acting on both the hexagon nut and the
bolt.

3.8.4 Caster

Three casters wheels are selected to sustain the load of the overall assembly and provide
maneuverability for the device. The total load acting on the caster is the weight of all the components
when the device is at rest (static). There will be dynamic loadings when the device is in movement due
different impact forces. The force calculated for this analysis is only the load acting on the device when it
is at rest.

The total load estimation = weight of all the components. The mass of the components is listed below:

LPG cylinder = 34 kg

Mounting plate = 8.726 kg

Base plate = 8.157kg

Helical spring (70 mm * 172.5 mm) = 1.788 kg

68
Handle frame = 17.162kg

Lower frame = 20.411 kg

Bolt = 0.502kg * 3 = 1.506 kg

Hexagon nut = 0.027kg * 3 =0.081 kg

Therefore, the total weight estimation is 91.829 kg * 9.81 = 900.8 N


Since there are three casters in the concept the design, the load will be distributed to the three
casters therefore, the force applied on each caster equals 300.26 N.
1. Part Model

The 3D Model is shown below

Figure 3.8.4.1 shows the caster horn base frame

2. Material properties

The material properties of the horn base are shown below in Figure 2.8.4.2.

69
Figure 3.8.4.2 Shows the material properties of caster horn base

3. Boundary, loading conditions and mesh model of horn base


The caster is attached to the base of the frame with a mounting plate to provide rotation. The kingpin as
shown in Figure 2.8.2.3 below have 360 degrees rotational freedom.

Figure 3.8.4.3 Mounting plate and kingpin.

Depending on the design of the mounting plate, bolt and nut can be used to connect the mounting plate to
the frame or simply weld to the frame.

Figure 3.8.4.4 below shows the boundary condition and loading condition according load distribution.

70
Figure 3.8.4.4 Boundary and loading condition of caster base horn

As shown in Figure 3.8.4.4 the load acting in the axle hole is a reaction force from the load acting on the
wheel.
The weight of the caster frame is 0.094kg.

The number of node and elements discretized in the model are shown below:

Table 3.8.4.1 shows the number of nodes and elements discretized in the horn base model

Nodes 11688

Elements 53166

The geometry is meshed by using Octree tetrahedron mesh

The mesh model is shown below:

71
Figure 3.8.4.5 Shows the horn base mesh model

Figure 3.8.4.7 Shows the caster assembly bottom view

3.8.5 Caster horn base axle pin

1. Part model

Assuming all the load acting on the wheel is acting on the axle pin, since it is the component in
the sub assembly that sustain much of the load distributed to the wheel. Force = 300.26 N

The 3D model of the axle pin is shown below.

72
Figure 3.8.5.1 Shows the axle pin

2. Material properties

3.8.5.2 Figure Shows the material properties of the axle pin.

3. Boundary, loading conditions and mesh model

According to the figure below about the boundary condition, the end fixed at all degrees of freedom at
fixed into the wheels and the load applied is distributed at that area also but for this analysis the round bar
which is concentric with the axle hole on the horn base is perform static stress analysis on to calculate the
von misses stress and displacement due to the tensile load acting on the beam. The boundary and
loading conditions are shown below:

73
Figure 3.8.5.3 Shows the boundary and loading conditions

The geometry is meshed by using Octree tetrahedron mesh

The mesh model is shown below.

Figure 3.8.5.4 Shows the mesh model

The number of nodes and elements are shown in Table 3:8:3:1 below.

Table 3:8:3:1 Number of nodes and elements

Entity Size

Nodes 1270

Elements 4700

74
CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Using CATIA computer aided design platform, the 3D model was modeled on part design window
and the material properties are created using a user define interface which allows the input of specific
material properties and then saved to the material library. From the material properties library, the
material is applied to the model and then the model is open on the analysis and simulation window for
static analysis to be carried out. Static analysis will be carried out because of its variability in service as
discussed earlier in this chapter, see page 63.

On the analysis and simulation window, the boundary conditions are then applied. Clamp command is
selected to fix all degrees of freedom at one end of the spring and

4.1 Static stress analysis

The analysis part and 3D model design are done using CATIA (Computer aided three-
dimensional interactive application) V5 R20which is a multi-platform software that is suitable for design
and analysis in different platforms such as, CAD (Computer aided design), CAE (Computer aided
Engineering) and CAM (Computer aided manufacturing). CATIA delivers the ability to model any product
in the context of its real-life behavior (Dassault Systemes, 2017).
In this chapter, the stress distribution under the loading condition specified in chapter 3 will be discussed
and the result obtained will be presented as follows.

4.1.1 Helical compression spring

The spring is the major component which is design with constraints such as the maximum
deformation limit in order for the length of displacement to be able to carry the connecting plate and
connect the other connecting plate which is connected to the battery to power the LED when the gas is
less than 10 %. The maximum displacement must be approximately 10 mm in order for the connectors to
contact and power the LED.

In this chapter, the stress distribution under the loading condition specified in chapter 3 will be discussed
and the result obtained will be presented as follows.

The applied load is distributed from top of the spring which has a ring area due to cut on the coil in order
to ground the spring. The force applied is then distributed by during the computer computation is x,y and
z direction. It is shown below that the stress applied along z direct never changes but the resultant force
includes the forces and moments which occurs by applying the load. The resultant force is listed below.

75
Figure 4:1:1 Resultant force acting on spring

The force is applied along z axis which is identified as Fz in figure 4:1:1 above.
2
As shown in Figure 4.1.2 and Figure 4:1:4 below, the maximum von misses stress is 9.56e7 N/m and
the maximum translational displacement is 10.2 mm. The displacement is approximately 10 mm which is
needed for the spring to deflect. The yield strength of the material is 6.2e8 N/m2, therefore the factor of
safety is:

FOS = Yield stress / Von misses stress (Von misses failure criterion)
Since the factor of safety is greater than 1, it signifies that the spring is safe.
The buckling and other parameter has been calculated on chapter 3.

Figure 4:1:2 Von misses stress on spring

76
Table 4.1.1 Shows the material properties of the spring

Figuer 4:1:3 Displacement vector (Translational)

The maximum stress is located at the ground end of the spring as shown in figure 4.1.2. This is because
the thickness of the coil at that location is about half of the rest of the coils. At that location, the ring in half
is cut using the pocket command on CATIA to ground the end of the spring. The maximum stress occurs
at the location because of less coil thickness and its notch end.

77
Figure 4:1:4 Shows the maximum von misses stress.

4.1.2 Mounting plate

The resultant load which is the load of the gas cylinder at filled up level (80 % of LP Gas) is
shown in the figure below. The load was applied along y axis to the plate which is perpendicular to the
plate as show in the previous chapter.

Figure 4:1:5 Resultant force

As shown in the von misses stress plot and translational displacement in Figure 4:1:6 and 4:1:7, the
maximum von misses stress in the mounting plate is 7.38E5 and since the yield strength of the material is
2.05e+008 N/m2 then we can calculate the factor of safety which is:

FOS = Yield stress / Von misses stress (Von-misses failure criterion) =


= 25.5
Therefore, the base plate is safe. Although the FOS is too high and the mounting plate thickness
and dimension and be modified to reduce the amount of material used but if we consider impact force
when customers a placing the cylinder on the device, the high factor of safety can be of advantage in that
analysis. For this dissertation, the focus remains on the analysis presented.

78
Figure 4:1:6 Shows the von misses stress of mounting plate

The maximum displacement is approximately 0 mm which means the mounting plate will not
displace more to add up to the LED connector attached to it at the base to power the LED when gas is
low at 10 percent.

Figure 4:1:7 Shows the translational displacement.

The maximum von misses stress occurs at the hole where the spring will be fixed. This is due to
the reaction force caused by the applied gas cylinder load weight. The spring serves as a beam that
sustain the load thereby there is equal reaction at the nodes where the spring is the contact with the
plate. The maximum von misses stress is shown in Figure 4:1:8 below.

79
Figure 4:1:8 Maximum von misses stress on mounting plate

4.1.3 Caster horn base

The loading condition of the caster horn base is explained in detail on chapter 3. The overall load
of the device assembly will act on the three wheels; therefore, each wheel will get a load
distribution of the total load force divided by 3. The resultant load force is shown below.

Figure 4:1:9 Shows the resultant load

The von misses stress plot and translational displacement is shown below in Figure 4:1:10 and 4:1:11.
The maximum von misses stress is 3.38e07 and the displacement is 0.22. The yield strength of the
material is 4.3e+007N_m2 therefore, by using von misses failure criterion the FOS is calculated as:

FOS = Yield stress / Von misses stress (Von-misses failure criterion) = =1.27
FOS of 1.27 means that the design is safe.
At FOS <1 the model will fail under the loading condition and geometrical parameters.

80
Figure 4:1:10 Shows von misses stress of caster base horn frame

The maximum displacement also is 0.22 mm which is relatively small and can be ignored. It the size of
element is increased and computation is repeated, the displacement may be lower than the recent
solution.

Figure 4:1:11 Shows the displacement vector

The maximum stress is located at the at the break section because of the the edges. There is high
concentration of stress at the area due to its reaction force caused by the load the components and gas
cylinder acting on the wheel. The location of the mounting plate is right side to the center of the caster,
which is an intention to distributed the load on the horn base, axle and wheels. The force applied is a
reaction force which is equal to the force applied. The maximum stress is shown below:

81
Figure 4:1:12 Maximum von misses stress on caster base horn

4.1.4 Caster axle pin

The caster axle pin von misses stress plot and displacement vector are shown below in Figure 4:1:12 and
4:1:13.

Figure 4:1:12 Von misses plot of axle pin

As seen on the von misses stress plot above, maximum von misses is 1.08E8 N/m2 and since the yield
strength of the material is 1.66e+009N_m2, therefore, the FOS is 15.37 which indicate that the model is

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safe under the load condition and geometrical parameters. From the displacement vector shown below,
the maximum displacement is 0.0124 mm which is relatively small.

Figure 4:1:13 Shows the Translational displacement vector plot

The maximum stress in the axle pin is located close to the edge of the pin where the wheel are fixed. The
maximum stress there is perhaps because of the thickness of that region where the force is applied and
also because of the edges which will have more stress concentration because of the area of the location
where the stress could not be distributed to relief the concentration. The maximum stress is shown below.

Figure 4:1:14 Shows the maximum von misses stress on axle pin

The static analysis shows that the critical components which are selected for this analysis are all safe.
The mounting plate possess a high value of Factor of Safety which can be because a higher thickness
which is unnecessary have being assigned to the plate or the shape needs modification to reduce its size.
The main constrain the size of the part is the hole at which the springs are connected and the width of the

83
overall plate which is to not exceed 500 mm so that the device can be portable enough to be stored inside
kitchen cabinet or under the kitchen basin.

The load deflection on the spring is 10.2 mm which is approximately to the required length of deflection
and this means that the spring specification parameters calculated in chapter 3 is correct since the result
on the CATIA software computation is the same in terms of the deflect of the spring. The factor of safety
of the spring is also calculated as 6.2 on CATIA but it is selected as 2 in the manual calculation which can
be correct. If the element size is reduced, the computer will generate nodes and element and the result
will be more accurate.

4.2 Part Model and material selection

Table 4:2:1 Shows the parts 3D isometric view

Model Name Material Reason for choosing


material
Stainless Steel - Low cost
Grade 440 (UNS Good
S44000) formability
Corrosion
2mm resistance
High toughness
Stress -
corrosion
cracking
resistance

Base plate
Stainless Steel - Low cost
Grade 440 (UNS Good
S44000) formability
Corrosion
2 mm resistance
High toughness

Stress -corrosion
cracking resistance

Top mounting plate

84
Chrome Vanadium V Wear
Cold drawn wire resistance
Strength
Flexible
Toughness
Good for shock
and impact
loads.

Square and ground Helical


compression spring
stainless steel 4571 Strength
Hollow Bar 2 mm Flexible
Corrosion
resistance
High toughness

Base frame
304 Stainless steel Low cost
Good
formability
Corrosion
resistance
High toughness

Two end threaded bolt 20 mm


diameter long

85
304 Stainless steel Low cost
Good
formability
Corrosion
resistance

High toughness

Hexagon nut

20 mm
HDPE

High density
polyethylene plastic

Connecting plate Spring Chrome Vanadium Wear


resistance
Strength
Flexible
Toughness
Good for shock
and impact
loads.

stainless steel 4571 Strength


Hollow Bar 2 mm Flexible
Corrosion
resistance
High toughness

Handle

86
HDPE (High Density Corrosion
Polyethylene Pipe) resistance
Fatigue
resistance
Extended
service life
Adaptability
It is rugged
Flexible
Durability

Wheel
HDPE (High Density Corrosion
Polyethylene Pipe) resistance
Fatigue
resistance
Extended
service life
Adaptability
It is rugged
Flexible
Durability

Caster base horn

The assembly of the design concept is presented in Figure 4:1:14 below.

Figure 4:1:14 The assembly of the design concept


4.3 LED Circuit

87
The LED (Light emitting diode) is constructed to power a LED so as to indicate the level of gas
when the spring deflect at 10 mm which indicates the gas is full. Listed below are the components
needed to build the circuit.
Table 4.2.1 Shows the LED Circuit components

Quantity Part Designator Note Type


1 680 ohms Resistor R1 Resistors
(black, brown, red wire)
1 5 mm LED 2.4VDC D1 Semiconductors
forward voltage drop
1 9-volt battery B1 Li-on battery
1 Breadboard
1 Breadboard wire links
1 Battery chip

The circuit graphic representation is shown below in figure 4.2.1

Figure 4.3.1 LED circuit graphic representation

The 9V battery is to be connected to the resistor and LED to power the circuit. The resistor can
be connected on either side of the LED. Since Kirchhoffs voltage law states that: the algebraic sum of the
voltages around a closed-circuit path must be zero (Wikiversity, 2016). This means that if you go around
a close loop in a circuit, the voltage differences across each component must add up to zero. Which
means that the 9V battery will be countered by 9 V of voltage drop over the resistor and LED. The circuit
diagram is shown below:

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Figure 4:3:2 Shows the circuit diagram showing the voltage across the resistor and LED.
(Malek, 2010)

The 9V supply by the battery will be dissipated by the LED and resistor, therefore Ohms law can be
introduced to calculate the resistance needed.

Ohms law is defined as: V=IR

Since the LED voltage is 2.4 V and resistor add up to the voltage to become 9V which is from the battery,
therefore by Kirchhoffs law there is remainder of 6.6 volts across it. The resistor is 10 mA, so the voltage
across it is 6.6 V. Therefore, we can calculate for resistance needed as follows:

The complete circuit diagram is then shown below in Figure 4.3.3

Figure 4:3:3 The circuit diagram

89
Figure 4:3:4 Graphic presentation of LED base green 3 mm selected for the circuit

(SparkFun, 2017)

The LED maximum current is 20 mA and the luminous intensity is 40-100 mcd.

Figure 4:3:5 Shows the details of the 660 ohms resistor.

The setup of the circuit can will be on the breadboard which will then be housed in the base plate
of the LPG gas measuring cylinder and the LED will be mounting on the top plate for easy visibility. The
setup is described below as shown in Figure 4:2:6.

90
Figure 4:3:6 Shows the LED circuit setup

(Disqus, 2012)

First the LED is inserted into the breadboard and the resistor and then wire link is installed to link the
wires in the breadboard panel. Battery clip is then inserted into the breadboard and the battery is plugged
by inserting the battery clip. Then the 9V battery is inserted into the battery clip. The purple lines in Figure
4:2:5 shows the battery connection to the LED and the resistor.

In the LPG cylinder device, the spring carries a plate from one of the battery chip which connects on to
the battery when the spring deflect by 10 mm and therefore the base plate deflect downward with the
spring which then go in contact with battery connecting plate.

91
CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

SUMMARY

The LPG Cylinder level indicator and transporting device concept modeled for usage in housing,
gas level indicating and transporting a typical 14.2 kg domestic gas cylinder. The spring and the other
components geometry are configured to safely and effectively create a concept model of the device that
only work with a 14 kg LPG cylinder and if other a different cylinder is used with the device, the gas level
indicator mechanism will not be accurate. The design as in this dissertation is safe and obviously the
mounting plate have excess thickness which can be reduced or a change of material to a lesser one can
reduce cost.
The spring Is design to travel with a connecting plate which is a battery chip and as the spring deflect by
10 mm it comes in contact with the battery which powers the LED to indicate that the Gas is full and when
the light is off it signifies that there is less than 10 percent gas left in the cylinder.
By using TOPSIS technique in the concept selection stage, the combination of the good attributes in the
two concepts are collected to form one better concept which is superior in customer satisfaction to the
previous concept.
The von misses stress failure criterion used in the static stress analysis in the finite element analysis
stage shows by calculating the factor of safety of the components that the components are safe under the
loading conditions and the displacement vector shows that the required deflection needed in spring is
achieved and also there is relatively very little displacement in most of the components but no yielding
since none of the components fails under the load and stresses induced.
For the analysis part and part modeling CATIA CAD was was used to model from 2D to 3D and
the static stress analysis where the stresses acting upon the models are computed and solved by the
computer.

CONCLUSION

It is shown in this dissertation that the best concept selected satisfies the customer requirements and the
parts models which static stress analysis are performed on do not failure under the loading condition
therefore there is no permanent deformation. The LED circuit is a simple connecting circuit which is
cheap and easy to install based on the circuit design applied. The device is specifically designed to work
with a 14 kg LPG Cylinder only and if any other cylinder is used on the device, the level indicating LED
sign will not be accurate because of the change in weight. Also, the caster is selected to sustain the
required load and if the weight increases, may have significant negative effects on the caster.
The handle angle to the back of the device is also set to be 35 degrees as show in and experiment by
Okunribido (Okunribido & Haslegrave, 1998), as discussed in chapter 3 for easy push of the device and
to reduce the stresses caused by the reaction force on the hand, legs and back as complain in the
questionnaire discussed in chapter 2.

92
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

There are numerous technologies that have being introduced to solve this related problem about
lpg cylinder level indicator but critical thinking can be adopted actually generate some simple idea
concept that will be cost effective and operationally efficient. The model in this dissertation can be
remodeled and the mounting plate with a different light weight material. Stainless steel is a very tough
material and if it should be selected, the thickness should be reduced so as to reduce the cost of material,
since the FOS in the analysis stage is quite high. A new material may be introduced as well. There is
room to reduce the overall size of the device.

93
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APPENDIX A

Technical drawing of Cylinder from Hindustan petroleum corporation

(CMS Computer, 2014)

97
APPENDIX B

Questionnaire

98
APPENDIX C
Quality Function Deployment Analysis (QFD)

99
APPENDIX D

2D Drawing of critical components and Assembly

100
APPENDICES

416 Stainless Steel Bar

101
102
103
(htt)
Grade 304 Stainless steel sheet (5mm Thickness)

104
105