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REVIEWS 167

Authors in Manufactured Light deal with the Peru. Tantalen has provided the first such analytical
composite, assembled surfaces of mosaic mirrors review.
as singular, shiny surfaces and ignore other salient The book is divided into 10 chapters. Chapter 1
properties, namely, geometry and number. In his study briefly traces the gradual emergence of archaeology
of the large mirror from Las Bocas, Puebla (thought from early postconquest times up until the very
to date to about 1000 B.C.), Alexander Marshack end of the nineteenth century. Chapter 2 introduces
(in Aveni, ed., Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian Uhle who, in 1896, conducted the first stratigraphic
America, 1975) analyzed the number, shapes, and excavations in Peru. He continued his work with
arrangement of pyrite pieces of the mirror. He argued American sponsorship, was appointed by an enlight-
persuasively that the 354 tesserae that once comprised ened government to head the archaeological section
this rectangular-shaped mirror represented a calendar at a new National Museum in 1906, and developed a
count of 12 lunar months. It would be well to analyze chronological scheme based on horizon styles. Also
Classic-period mirrors in as much detail. The possi- introduced is Tello, who explored the ruins of Chavn
bility that mosaic mirrors had calendrical, geometric, de Huantar and established a museum of archaeology
or numerological significance is not considered in this at the University of San Marcos in 1919. In chapter 3
book. Rather, mirrors provided luminous surfaces for the reader learns that during the 1920s Peru forged
looking into other realms. Some mirrors even spoke, a strong relationship with the United States while
and the senses of touch and smell were involved with dealing with the rise of an indigenous movement
others. in the southern highlands centered at Cuzco. Tello
In his summation, Taube discusses Postclassic began teaching anthropology at San Marcos in 1923
mosaic mirrors that were clearly laid out as cosmo- and was named director of the National Museum of
grams. Olivia Kindl documents that Huichol mirrors Archaeology in 1924. Based on his work at Chavn
continue to be framed as cosmograms. Her study he theorized an Andean mother culture with highland
calls attention to framing devices, most of which and tropical forest origins that diffused to the coast.
do not preserve archaeologically. Some Maya flint At the start of the 1930s the effects of the Great
eccentrics appear to be copies of wooden mirror Depression resulted in a military coup. Tello was
frames, so I would not be surprised if some mirrors removed as director of the National Museum and was
had been attached to wooden handles rather than worn replaced by the historian Luis E. Valcrcel. The latter
as pectorals. I suspect that the earliest mirrors were created a new National Museum, was proactive in
viewed in cosmological terms. As depicted in Olmec forging a national identity, and focused his attention
art, mirrors were centering devices that surely marked on the cleaning and reconstruction of Inca sites in and
their wearers as central persons. These observations around Cuzco. Because of Valcrcels emphasis on
only scratch the surface of Manufactured Light. The tourism his work was fully funded by the government,
book merits careful perusal by those interested in to the detriment of Tellos scientific endeavors; this
Mesoamerican cultures, and some chapters deserve to caused Tello to travel to the United States in 1936,
be read twice. resulting in the creation of the Institute of Andean
Research. Chapter 4 focuses on Valcrcel and the
indigenous movement that had intellectual roots in
Peruvian Archaeology: A Critical History. HENRY Cuzco. Valcrcel drew inspiration from the discovery
TANTALEN. Translated by Charles Stanish. 2014. of the ruins of Machu Picchu and subsequently became
Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, California. x + 205 enamored with Marxist ideas. In 1927 he was briefly
pp. 35 figures, notes, bibliography, and index. $70.00 imprisoned for publishing a work in which he called
(cloth), ISBN 978-1-61132-991-9. for a revolution to create an idealized Inca state.
Chapter 5 focuses on the amateur archaeologist
Reviewed by Richard E. Daggett, University of Mas- Rafael Larco Hoyle, who proposed the idea that rather
sachusetts, Amherst than an early highland Chavn culture diffusing west-
ward, an early coastal Cupisnique culture had spread
There remains much to be written about the history eastward. The focus of chapter 6 is the 1950s, when the
of Peruvian archaeology, despite the existence of military government approved research by American
accounts focused on prominent individuals such as Fulbright students. John Rowe and his students at
Max Uhle and Julio C. Tello. Notably lacking to date Berkeley also conducted research at this time. He
has been an overview placing research in the context established a temporal scheme of alternating periods
of the social, political, and economic changes that and horizons based on stylistic changes identified
were occurring concurrently both inside and outside for the Ica Valley. The focus of chapter 7 is the

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168 LATIN AMERICAN ANTIQUITY [Vol. 28, No. 1, 2017]

ethnohistorian John Murra, who used documents to Pointe de Caille: Desarrollo Cultural Postsaladoide
identify the locales of specific sites. In particular, en la Isla de Saint Lucia. MARA ANTONIA
attention is given both to his work at the Inca ruins NEGRETE MARTNEZ. 2015. Mitteilungen der
of Hunuco Pampa and to his archipelago model. It Prhistorischen Kommission, vol. 83. sterreichis-
was during the 1960s that the National Geographic che Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-
Society sponsored multidisciplinary explorations and historische Klasse, Vienna. 538 pp. 160.00 (paper),
excavations in the Moche Valley; another major multi- ISBN 978-3-7001-7708-1.
disciplinary American project focused on the Mantaro
Valley. The political climate inside and outside Peru Reviewed by Corinne Hofman, Caribbean Research
had changed due to the Cold War. Research in the fol- Group, Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University,
lowing decade was decidedly focused on social science The Netherlands
as practiced by the Peruvian Luis Lumbreras, who is
the focus of chapter 8. Chapter 9 discusses the highly
disruptive 1980s and the rise of the Shining Path. This book by Mara Antonia Negrete Martnez is an
During this period yet another major multidisciplinary excellent report on several years of excavation (1983
project, international in character, was conducted in 1987) by an Austrian team under the direction of
the Moquegua region. Opportunities were provided to Prof. Dr. Herwig Friesinger at the precolumbian site
faculty and students, especially those affiliated with of Pointe de Caille (Saltibus Point) located on the
San Marcos. But, as discussed in chapter 10, during southeastern coast of the island of Saint Lucia in the
the 1990s the government temporarily shut down this Lesser Antilles. The site is dated between the sixth and
public university and severely reduced its funding. In fourteenth centuries, and represents the late Saladoid,
concert with increased foreign funding for the private Troumassoid, and Suazoid series. It is one of the most
Catholic University, this served to reduce the prestige extensively excavated sites on the island and, with a
and outreach of San Marcos. Finally, at the start of timespan of several centuries, very interesting for the
the new century the newly elected president linked study of long-term processes of human occupation at
his administration to the glorious past of the Inca as the same locality.
expressed in the ruins of Machu Picchu, thus signaling St. Lucia played a central role in the earliest
a revival of nationalism. systematic study of Caribbean archaeology, primarily
Each of Tantalens chapters could be expanded through the efforts of the St. Lucia Archaeological and
into a book, resulting in a series that would cover a Historical Society. The classification schemes devised
plethora of topics and viewpoints. Tello, for example, for St. Lucia in the 1960s have had a significant impact
is given insufficient credit for his social activism, as on the archaeology of the entire region. This book
demonstrated by articles written by and about him synthesizes the first major archaeological operation
published in the Lima press. Tantalens chapters are on the island since that time and presents the data
in part character-driven, in part theoretically driven, from the excavations at Pointe de Caille in the context
and in part institutionally driven, all within the con- of regional and macro-regional interaction. The data
text of the complexities of national and international presented reflect the cultural heterogeneity of the post-
interconnections over time. While his presentation at Saladoid archaeological record in the Lesser Antilles.
first glance appears to be primarily chronological, This diversity can be explained from the perspective of
this is not necessarily so, nor is there consistency of the extensive networks of human mobility present in
focus from chapter to chapter. The final chapters, for the Lesser Antilles, the exchange of goods and ideas,
example, become increasingly personal and autobio- shifting sociopolitical organization, fission and fusion
graphical. of communities, and changing contact lines over
Despite these criticisms, Tantalen merits praise time.
for publishing the first analytical general history of The meticulous field methods and techniques
Peruvian archaeology and a debt is owed to Charles adopted by the Austrian team are clearly reflected
Stanish for his fine translation. Tantalens book in this accessible and well-illustrated volume. The
provides an important starting point from which to rigorous laboratory analyses of material culture and
begin serious discussions inside and outside the class- funerary remains, as well as the comparisons made
room. Its target audience is primarily professional, but with assemblages across the region, make this volume
because of the larger-than-life characters discussed a very comprehensive contribution to the current field
within, it will appeal to anyone interested in the history of Caribbean archaeology.
of archaeology in general, and specifically that of The book is divided into eight chapters written
Peru. in Spanish, with summaries in English and German,

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