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Two-End Fault Location on Long Transmission Lines

With In-Line Shunt Reactors

Maciej Kawa Jan Izykowski
Power System Control Division Institute of Electrical Power Engineering
Schneider Electric Energy Poland Wroclaw University of Technology
Swiebodzice, Poland Wroclaw, Poland

AbstractThis paper deals with fault location on long The considered fault locator (Fig. 1) is supplied with three-
transmission lines with in-line shunt reactors. It is considered phase voltages {vA}={vAa, vAb, vAc}, {vB}={vBa, vBb, vBc}, and
that three-phase voltages and currents from both line ends three-phase currents {iA}={iAa, iAb, iAc}, {iB}={iBa, iBb, iBc},
sampled synchronously or asynchronously are processed. A new where A and B in the subscripts denote the line ends, while a,
algorithm (Algorithm II) is presented. It is formulated for b, c phases. The fault locator input signals are taken from
phasors and its distinctive feature relies in no requiring the Phasor Measurement Units (PMUA, PMUB) installed at both
shunt reactor status and parameters. This algorithm has been line ends. Digital measurements of the PMUs have a common
tested and compared with the algorithm already known from a time reference due to synchronization by use of the Global
literature (Algorithm I) for which the reactor parameters are to
Positioning System (GPS). However, for keeping the
be known. The evaluation has been carried out using signals
considerations as more general, the unsynchronized
taken from ATP-EMTP versatile simulations of faults on the test
transmission line. The sample results of the evaluation are
measurements, i.e. with no use of the GPS or a loss of
presented and discussed. communication with the GPS, are taken into account.
A fault can happen at the either side of the shunt reactor:
Index Terms--Algorithm design and analysis, fault location, FA or FB, at the locations: dA [p.u.], dB [p.u.] and involving
power system faults, power system simulation, transmission fault resistances: RFA, RFB, respectively. Therefore, two
subroutines for these hypothetical faults have been considered
and only one of them will be consistent with the actual fault.
Algorithms for accurate location of faults on power lines
for an inspection-repair purposes have been a subject of great GPS
interest of researchers since the power system reliability
became an important factor for network operators and
customers [1][3]. Fault location is also performed for
verifying operation of protective relays [4].
Among the known methods, the approach based on an
impedance principle is the most popular. In particular, the
algorithms utilizing one-end current and voltage A dA =? dB =? B
measurements have been presented [5][7]. Then, two-end FA FB
synchronized [8], [9] and also unsynchronized [10][12]
algorithms have been introduced. Redundancy of information LR
{iA} {vA} {vB} {iB}
provided when applying two-end measurement can be utilized
for example for fault location without using line parameters PMUA PMUB
[12], [13] or under saturation of current transformers [14].
This paper presents an accurate algorithm for locating FAULT
faults on long transmission lines equipped with in-line shunt LOCATOR
reactors which are used to reduce over-voltage due to Ferranti {dA, RFA} or {dB, RFB}
effect under light load conditions and to enhance power
system stability [15], [16]. A principle for the considered fault
location is depicted in Fig. 1. The three-phase shunt reactor Figure 1. Principle of fault location on transmission line AB with installed
in-line shunt reactor (LR).
(LR) is installed at the tap point T on the line AB.
The subroutines SUB_A and SUB_B (Fig. 2) for locating
i = ( 1 Z ci ) V Bi sinh( l B ) + I Bi cosh( l B ) .
I TB (3)
faults FA and FB, respectively, are analogous. Therefore, only i i
one of them, namely: SUB_A (Fig. 2a) will be further
formulated. For this purpose one needs to transfer analytically In case of transferring the voltage (1) only the line
the signals across a healthy line section TB and then to locate parameters are involved. In turn, for transferring the current
a fault within a faulted line section AT. (2)(3), additionally the reactor status and its parameters have
to be known, and thus in case of providing inaccurate data one
In [15] analytical transfers of both voltage and current can expect certain deterioration of fault location accuracy.
signals measured at the line ends to the tap point T (Fig. 2)
have been applied. This can be easily accomplished applying II. FAULT LOCATION ALGORITHM I
the distributed-parameter line model. In [15] fault location on the line sections has been carried
a) A dA =? B out with use of complete two-end measurements. Thus, for
locating faults on the line section AT (Fig. 2a) there was
FA transf. transf. I Bi
I Ti I TBi transf. transf.
used: V Ai , I Ai , V Ti , I Ti .
j T
I Ai e This algorithm (Algorithm I) presented in details in [15]
I Ri will serve as a comparison base for a new algorithm

(Algorithm II) introduced in Section III.

V Ti

V Ai e j LR V Bi
As distinct from the approach presented in [15], further
considerations are focused on limiting transferring the signals
b) A dB =? B only to voltage, i.e. for achieving the fault location algorithm
FB free of settings for the reactor status and its parameters [16]. In
transf. transf. I Bi
I TAi I Ti this algorithm incomplete two-end measurements: V Ai , I Ai ,
j T transf.
I Ai e V Ti are utilized for locating the fault FA (Fig. 3). Natural
I transf.
Ri fault loops, i.e. phasetoground (for singlephase faults) or

phase1tophase2 (for the other fault types), will be considered

V Ai e j V Bi
V Ti

LR with use of the generalized fault loop model [3], [14].

A. Generalized Fault loop Model
The considerations are related to the distributed-parameter
Figure 2. Analytic transfer of signals from the line ends B or A towards the model of the line section AT (Fig. 3).
tap poin T for subroutine: a) SUB_A, b) SUB_B.
I Fi
j Z ci sinh( d A l A ) Z ci sinh( (1 d A )l A )
In case of the subroutine SUB_A (Fig. 2a) the transfer A I Ai e i i
across the line section BT towards the tap point T yields: F
Admittances: Admittances:

V Ai e j

V Ti
tanh(0.5 d A l A )
V Ttransf.
i = V Bi cosh( l B ) Z ci I Bi sinh( l B ) , (1) i
tanh(0.5 (1 d A )l A )
i i
Z ci Z ci
V Bi , I Bi i-th symmetrical components of side B voltage I Fi

and current (i=1 positive-, i=2 negative-, i=0 zero- Figure 3. Distributed-parameter model of faulted line section AT for i-th
sequence), symmetrical component.
l B length of the line section BT (km),
The generalized fault loop model is in a form of a single
, propagation constants of the line for the positive- formula for all faults, however involving coefficients
1 0
(negative-) and zero-sequence, dependent on fault type. This model for the fault loop seen
from the line end A can be stated as follows [3]:
Z c1 , Z c0 characteristic impedances of the line for the
positive- (negative-) and zero-sequence.
FA (d A ) RFA I FA = 0 , (4)
Transfer of the current requires deducing the current
flowing through the reactor [15] and the reactor reactance
(j1LR) is required for that: V FL
FA ( d A ) fault loop voltage composed accordingly to the
fault type [4], obtained after its analytic transfer from the bus
transf. V Ti A to the fault point F,
I Ttransf.
i = I TBi , (2) dA unknown relative distance to fault [p.u.],
where: RFA unknown fault path resistance,
IFA total fault current (fault path current) to be determined I FA = a F1 I FA1 + a F2 I FA2 + a F0 I FA0 , (9)
with use of the available measurements.
Transfer of the original fault loop voltage which is present a F1 , a F2 , a F0 share coefficients, dependent on fault type
at the bus A to the fault point F can be represented with use of and the assumed preference with respect to using particular
the following weighted sum of the symmetrical components of sequences. The recommended set with avoiding use of zero-
voltage: sequence (aF0=0), derived in [3], is presented in Table II.

FA (d A ) = a1V FA1 + a 2 V FA2 + a 0 V FA0 , (5)
where: Share Coefficients
subscripts denoting the component type are as follows: Fault Type
a F1 a F2 a F0
1 positive-, 2 negative-, 0 zero-sequence,
ag 0 3 0
a1, a2, a0 weighting coefficients dependent on fault type [3],
bg 0 3a 0
[4] as gathered in Table I (where fault types are denoted using:
a, b, c for faulted phases, g for ground). cg 0 3a 0
ab 0 1 a 0
a a
Weighting Coefficients
Fault Type ca 0 a2 1 0
a1 a2 a0
ag 1 1 1
abg 1 a2 1 a 0

bg a2 a 1 bcg a2 a a a2 0

cg a a2 1 cag a 1 a2 1 0

1 a2
ab, abg abc, abcg 1 a 0
1 a2 1 a 0
abc, abcg
there is no negative sequence component under these faults and
bc, bcg a2 a a a2 0 the coefficient can be assumed as equal to zero
ca, cag a 1 a2 1 0
After taking into account (9),together with Table II, and
a = exp( j2 / 3) ; j = 1
the model of Fig. 3, the following formula for the total fault
current has been obtained (analogously as in [14] where in
Applying the distributed parameter line model [3], the contrast two-end voltages and one-end current were utilized):
symmetrical components of voltages from (5), when
considering unsynchronized measurements, are determined as: transf. transf.
a F1 (V T1 + N A1e j ) + a F2 (V T2 + N A2 e j )
I FA = , (10)
V FA1 = [V A1 cosh( l A d A ) Z c1 I A1 sinh( l A d A )]e j , (6) Z c1 sinh( l A (1 d A ))
1 1
V FA2 = [V A2 cosh( l A d A ) Z c1 I A2 sinh( l A d A )]e j , (7) N A1 = V A1 cosh( l A ) + Z c1 I A1 sinh( l A ) ,
1 1
1 1
V FA0 = [V A0 cosh( l A d A ) Z c0 I A0 sinh( l A d A )]e j , (8) N A2 = V A2 cosh( l A ) + Z c1 I A2 sinh( l A ) ,
0 0 1 1
where: a F1 , a F2 share coefficients (Table II).
e j synchronization operator ( unknown
synchronisation angle), After substituting the total fault current (10) into the
V A1 , V A2 , V A0 symmetrical components of side A general fault loop model (4) one gets the following fault
location formula:
I A1 , I A2 , I A0 symmetrical components of side A transf. transf.
a F1(V T1 + N A1e j ) + a F2 (V T2 + N A2 )
currents. V FL j
FA (d A )e RF = 0,
Z c1 sinh( l A (1 d A ))
l A length of the line section AT (km), 1

Note: line parameters are identical for both line sections. (11)
B. Total Fault Current Determination V FL
FA ( d A ) defined in (5)(8) and formed with use of the
Taking into account the share of individual symmetrical weighting coefficients specified for different faults in Table I,
components: I FA1 , I FA2 , I FA0 in the total fault current ( I FA ) a F1 , a F2 share coefficients dependent on fault type, as
one obtains [3]:
specified in Table II.
C. Fault Location Solution After resolving (11) into the real and imaginary parts and
The derived fault location formula (11) is in three taking the respective relation: (15) or (16), one of the known
unknowns: distance to fault (dA), fault resistance (RFA), numeric procedures for solving nonlinear equations can be
synchronization angle (). In order to get a solution, an applied. It has been checked that the Newton-Raphson
additional equation has to be formulated. For this purpose, iterative method is a good choice for that.
after excluding the zero sequence components (aF0=0 as in The derived fault location algorithm ((11) together with
Table II), the total fault current for phase-to-ground and (15) or (16)) can be applied for locating faults in lines with
phase-to-phase faults is expressed as follows: shunt connected FACTs devices [17], as well.

I F = a F1 I F1 + a F2 I F2 (12) IV. ATP-EMTP EVALUATION

The presented fault location method has been thoroughly
Two recommended characteristic sets of the share evaluated with using the fault data obtained from ATP-EMTP
coefficients for the considered here faults are provided in [18] versatile simulations of faults in the power network
Table III [3]. The other sets can be determined as well, containing the 1000 kV, transmission line. The parameters of
however, use of the sets from Table III will result in getting the network were:
simple analytic solution for the sought synchronization angle rated voltage: 1000 kV, system frequency: 50 Hz
(), i.e. not involving distance to fault (dA). line length: AT: l A = 320 km and BT: l B = 325 km
TABLE III. TWO SETS OF SHARE COEFFICIENTS FOR PHASE-TO- phase angle of EMFs of equivalent systems behind line
ISET IISET sequence impedances of equivalent systems:
Type a FI 1SET a FI 2SET a II
a II
SET Z1SA=(1.312+j15) , Z1SB=2Z1SA
ag 0 3 3 0 Z0SA=(2.334+j22.5) , Z0SB=2Z0SA
bg 0 3a 3a2 0 line impedances:
cg 0 3a2 3a 0
ab 0 1a 1a2 0 Z1L=(0.008+j0.259) /km, Z0L=(0.205+j0.746) /km
bc 0 aa2 a2a 0 line shunt capacitances:
ca 0 a21 a1 0 C1L=0.014 F/km, C0L=0.009 F/km
Applying the sets from Table III, the total fault current can shunt reactor: compensating line capacitances at 35 %.
be expressed as follows: Different scenarios with changing of a fault were
considered in the performed evaluation study. Fault type, fault
I F = a IF1
I F1 + a F2 I F2 , (13) resistance and equivalent system impedances were changed.
or alternatively: In order to examine the errors of the considered fault
location algorithms themselves, the errorless transformation of
IF = a II
I F1 + a II
I F2 . (14) instrument transformers (both for current and voltage) was
assumed at the first stage of the evaluation. Then, real
Comparing (13) with (14) and then taking into account instrument transformers were included into the model.
(10), one gets the following formula for the synchronization Analog low-pass filters with 350 Hz cut-off frequency
operator for faults listed in Table III: were also included. The sampling frequency of 1000 Hz was
applied and the respective phasors were determined with use
of the DFT algorithm and pre-filtering in the form of a half
Z c1 (a IF2SET I B2 a II SET
I B1 )
[e j ] ph g = F1 , (15) cycle sine filter. The calculated distance to fault was averaged
or ph ph a II
N A1 a F2 N A2 within the fault time interval from 55 to 60 ms (dA_av., dB_av.).
where: NA1, NA2 quantities defined in (10). The representative sample results of fault location
accuracy using the Algorithm I (from Section II) and
In case of the remaining fault types, i.e. for phase-to- Algorithm II (from Section III) for ag fault at different
locations on the line section AT, with involving fault
phase-to-ground faults and three-phase balanced faults one
resistance RFA=10 , are shown in Table IV and V.
can consider the pre-fault (thus using the superscript: pre)
positive-sequence obtaining: In Figs. 4 and 5 the example fault location is presented
using two algorithms (Algorithm I Section II, Algorithm II
Section III). The specifications of the fault are as follows
[e j ]ph - ph - g =
(V ) transf. pre
T1 .
fault: abg, location: dA=0.8 p.u., fault resistance:
) (V ) Z sinh( l ) (I )
pre pre RFAa=RFAb=1 , RFAg=10 . Due to limited space the
or 3ph cosh( l A estimated fault resistance according to the Algorithm II is not
1 A1 c1 1 A A1
(16) here shown.
TABLE IV. RESULTS OF ag FAULT LOCATION USING ALGORITHM I not considered in Table V. Accuracy of this algorithm is very
No mismatch
high, especially for faults occurring not too close to the tap
Mismatch1 Mismatch2
dA_exact point T.
dA errorA dA errorA dA errorA
[p.u.] [%] [p.u.] [%] [p.u.] [%]
0.1 0.1001 0.01 0.0974 0.26 0.1026 0.26
0.2 0.2006 0.06 0.1973 0.27 0.2036 0.36 dA_exact [p.u.] dA [p.u.] errorA [%]
0.3 0.2984 0.16 0.2948 0.52 0.3015 0.15
0.1 0.1001 0.01
0.4 0.4002 0.02 0.3969 0.31 0.4033 0.33
0.2 0.2002 0.02
0.5 0.4999 0.01 0.4970 0.30 0.5026 0.26
0.3 0.2998 0.02
0.6 0.5996 0.04 0.5972 0.28 0.6017 0.17
0.4 0.4003 0.03
0.7 0.7014 0.14 0.6998 0.02 0.7029 0.29
0.5 0.5005 0.05
0.8 0.8009 0.09 0.7999 0.01 0.8018 0.18
0.6 0.6003 0.03
0.9 0.8982 0.18 0.8978 0.22 0.8986 0.14
0.7 0.6977 0.23
Mismatch1 provided reactor reactance decreased by 5 % 0.8 0.8012 0.12
Mismatch2 provided reactor reactance increased by 5 % 0.9 0.9030 0.30

The Algorithm I from [15] assures high accuracy of fault From the performed evaluation follows that the developed
location under providing accurate reactance of the reactor fault location technique not requiring knowledge of the status
(Table IV, the column: No mismatch) the error does not and the parameters of the shunt-connected device (the
exceed 0.2 %. However, if there is a mismatch between the Algorithm II) appears as attractive for application when the
provided and the exact value of the reactor reactance possible mismatch between the provided reactance
(Mismatch1 and Mismatch2) then the error increases the (impedance) of the device and its exact value could be high.
maximum error in Table IV exceeds 0.5 %. Therefore, it seems that the developed algorithm could be very
attractive for application to locating faults on power
In turn, the Algorithm II (introduced in Section III) is free transmission lines equipped with shunt FACTs devices [17].
of settings for the reactor status and its parameters and thus the
mismatch with respect to the reactor reactance as irrelevant is
a) b)
SIDE A Three-phase current: iA (104 A)
SIDE A Three-phase voltage: vA (106 V)

a b c

a b c

0 0

0.4 0.5


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

c) Time (ms) d) Time (ms)
SIDE B Three-phase voltage: vB (106 V)

SIDE B Three-phase current: iB (104 A)

a b c
0.8 0.8

0.4 0.4
a b c

0 0

0.4 0.4

0.8 0.8

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Time (ms) Time (ms)
Figure 4. Example fault location input signals of fault locator: a) side A voltage, b) side A current, c) side B voltage, d) side B current.
a) b)

ALGORITHM II Distance to Fault (p.u.)

ALGORITHM I Distance to Fault (p.u.)

dA_av.=0.7975 p.u.
SUB_A 0.6


dA_av.=0.8031 p.u.
dB_av.=1.1909 p.u.
0 0
0 20 40 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Fault Time (ms) Fault Time (ms)
Figure 5. Example fault location results of fault location applying: a) algorithm I, b) algorithm II.

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