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Maciej Kawa Jan Izykowski

Power System Control Division Institute of Electrical Power Engineering

Schneider Electric Energy Poland Wroclaw University of Technology

Swiebodzice, Poland Wroclaw, Poland

maciej.kawa@schneider-electric.com jan.izykowski@pwr.wroc.pl

AbstractThis paper deals with fault location on long The considered fault locator (Fig. 1) is supplied with three-

transmission lines with in-line shunt reactors. It is considered phase voltages {vA}={vAa, vAb, vAc}, {vB}={vBa, vBb, vBc}, and

that three-phase voltages and currents from both line ends three-phase currents {iA}={iAa, iAb, iAc}, {iB}={iBa, iBb, iBc},

sampled synchronously or asynchronously are processed. A new where A and B in the subscripts denote the line ends, while a,

algorithm (Algorithm II) is presented. It is formulated for b, c phases. The fault locator input signals are taken from

phasors and its distinctive feature relies in no requiring the Phasor Measurement Units (PMUA, PMUB) installed at both

shunt reactor status and parameters. This algorithm has been line ends. Digital measurements of the PMUs have a common

tested and compared with the algorithm already known from a time reference due to synchronization by use of the Global

literature (Algorithm I) for which the reactor parameters are to

Positioning System (GPS). However, for keeping the

be known. The evaluation has been carried out using signals

considerations as more general, the unsynchronized

taken from ATP-EMTP versatile simulations of faults on the test

transmission line. The sample results of the evaluation are

measurements, i.e. with no use of the GPS or a loss of

presented and discussed. communication with the GPS, are taken into account.

A fault can happen at the either side of the shunt reactor:

Index Terms--Algorithm design and analysis, fault location, FA or FB, at the locations: dA [p.u.], dB [p.u.] and involving

power system faults, power system simulation, transmission fault resistances: RFA, RFB, respectively. Therefore, two

lines.

subroutines for these hypothetical faults have been considered

and only one of them will be consistent with the actual fault.

I. INTRODUCTION

Algorithms for accurate location of faults on power lines

for an inspection-repair purposes have been a subject of great GPS

interest of researchers since the power system reliability

became an important factor for network operators and

customers [1][3]. Fault location is also performed for

verifying operation of protective relays [4].

Among the known methods, the approach based on an

impedance principle is the most popular. In particular, the

algorithms utilizing one-end current and voltage A dA =? dB =? B

measurements have been presented [5][7]. Then, two-end FA FB

T

synchronized [8], [9] and also unsynchronized [10][12]

algorithms have been introduced. Redundancy of information LR

{iA} {vA} {vB} {iB}

provided when applying two-end measurement can be utilized

for example for fault location without using line parameters PMUA PMUB

[12], [13] or under saturation of current transformers [14].

This paper presents an accurate algorithm for locating FAULT

faults on long transmission lines equipped with in-line shunt LOCATOR

reactors which are used to reduce over-voltage due to Ferranti {dA, RFA} or {dB, RFB}

effect under light load conditions and to enhance power

system stability [15], [16]. A principle for the considered fault

location is depicted in Fig. 1. The three-phase shunt reactor Figure 1. Principle of fault location on transmission line AB with installed

in-line shunt reactor (LR).

(LR) is installed at the tap point T on the line AB.

The subroutines SUB_A and SUB_B (Fig. 2) for locating

i = ( 1 Z ci ) V Bi sinh( l B ) + I Bi cosh( l B ) .

transf.

I TB (3)

faults FA and FB, respectively, are analogous. Therefore, only i i

one of them, namely: SUB_A (Fig. 2a) will be further

formulated. For this purpose one needs to transfer analytically In case of transferring the voltage (1) only the line

the signals across a healthy line section TB and then to locate parameters are involved. In turn, for transferring the current

a fault within a faulted line section AT. (2)(3), additionally the reactor status and its parameters have

to be known, and thus in case of providing inaccurate data one

In [15] analytical transfers of both voltage and current can expect certain deterioration of fault location accuracy.

signals measured at the line ends to the tap point T (Fig. 2)

have been applied. This can be easily accomplished applying II. FAULT LOCATION ALGORITHM I

the distributed-parameter line model. In [15] fault location on the line sections has been carried

a) A dA =? B out with use of complete two-end measurements. Thus, for

locating faults on the line section AT (Fig. 2a) there was

FA transf. transf. I Bi

I Ti I TBi transf. transf.

used: V Ai , I Ai , V Ti , I Ti .

j T

I Ai e This algorithm (Algorithm I) presented in details in [15]

transf.

I Ri will serve as a comparison base for a new algorithm

transf.

V Ti

V Ai e j LR V Bi

III. FAULT LOCATION ALGORITHM II

As distinct from the approach presented in [15], further

considerations are focused on limiting transferring the signals

b) A dB =? B only to voltage, i.e. for achieving the fault location algorithm

FB free of settings for the reactor status and its parameters [16]. In

transf. transf. I Bi

I TAi I Ti this algorithm incomplete two-end measurements: V Ai , I Ai ,

j T transf.

I Ai e V Ti are utilized for locating the fault FA (Fig. 3). Natural

I transf.

Ri fault loops, i.e. phasetoground (for singlephase faults) or

transf.

V Ai e j V Bi

V Ti

A. Generalized Fault loop Model

The considerations are related to the distributed-parameter

Figure 2. Analytic transfer of signals from the line ends B or A towards the model of the line section AT (Fig. 3).

tap poin T for subroutine: a) SUB_A, b) SUB_B.

I Fi

j Z ci sinh( d A l A ) Z ci sinh( (1 d A )l A )

In case of the subroutine SUB_A (Fig. 2a) the transfer A I Ai e i i

T

across the line section BT towards the tap point T yields: F

Admittances: Admittances:

transf.

V Ai e j

V Ti

tanh(0.5 d A l A )

V Ttransf.

i = V Bi cosh( l B ) Z ci I Bi sinh( l B ) , (1) i

tanh(0.5 (1 d A )l A )

i

i i

Z ci Z ci

where:

V Bi , I Bi i-th symmetrical components of side B voltage I Fi

and current (i=1 positive-, i=2 negative-, i=0 zero- Figure 3. Distributed-parameter model of faulted line section AT for i-th

sequence), symmetrical component.

l B length of the line section BT (km),

The generalized fault loop model is in a form of a single

, propagation constants of the line for the positive- formula for all faults, however involving coefficients

1 0

(negative-) and zero-sequence, dependent on fault type. This model for the fault loop seen

from the line end A can be stated as follows [3]:

Z c1 , Z c0 characteristic impedances of the line for the

positive- (negative-) and zero-sequence.

V FL

FA (d A ) RFA I FA = 0 , (4)

Transfer of the current requires deducing the current

where:

flowing through the reactor [15] and the reactor reactance

(j1LR) is required for that: V FL

FA ( d A ) fault loop voltage composed accordingly to the

fault type [4], obtained after its analytic transfer from the bus

transf.

transf. V Ti A to the fault point F,

I Ttransf.

i = I TBi , (2) dA unknown relative distance to fault [p.u.],

j1LR

where: RFA unknown fault path resistance,

IFA total fault current (fault path current) to be determined I FA = a F1 I FA1 + a F2 I FA2 + a F0 I FA0 , (9)

with use of the available measurements.

where:

Transfer of the original fault loop voltage which is present a F1 , a F2 , a F0 share coefficients, dependent on fault type

at the bus A to the fault point F can be represented with use of and the assumed preference with respect to using particular

the following weighted sum of the symmetrical components of sequences. The recommended set with avoiding use of zero-

voltage: sequence (aF0=0), derived in [3], is presented in Table II.

V FL

FA (d A ) = a1V FA1 + a 2 V FA2 + a 0 V FA0 , (5)

TABLE II. SHARE COEFFICIENTS FOR COMPOSING FAULT CURRENT (9)

where: Share Coefficients

subscripts denoting the component type are as follows: Fault Type

a F1 a F2 a F0

1 positive-, 2 negative-, 0 zero-sequence,

ag 0 3 0

a1, a2, a0 weighting coefficients dependent on fault type [3],

bg 0 3a 0

[4] as gathered in Table I (where fault types are denoted using:

2

a, b, c for faulted phases, g for ground). cg 0 3a 0

ab 0 1 a 0

TABLE I. WEIGHTING COEFFICIENTS IN FAULT LOOP VOLTAGE (5) bc 0 2

0

a a

Weighting Coefficients

Fault Type ca 0 a2 1 0

a1 a2 a0

ag 1 1 1

abg 1 a2 1 a 0

bg a2 a 1 bcg a2 a a a2 0

cg a a2 1 cag a 1 a2 1 0

1 a2

*)

ab, abg abc, abcg 1 a 0

1 a2 1 a 0

abc, abcg

*)

there is no negative sequence component under these faults and

bc, bcg a2 a a a2 0 the coefficient can be assumed as equal to zero

ca, cag a 1 a2 1 0

After taking into account (9),together with Table II, and

a = exp( j2 / 3) ; j = 1

the model of Fig. 3, the following formula for the total fault

current has been obtained (analogously as in [14] where in

Applying the distributed parameter line model [3], the contrast two-end voltages and one-end current were utilized):

symmetrical components of voltages from (5), when

considering unsynchronized measurements, are determined as: transf. transf.

a F1 (V T1 + N A1e j ) + a F2 (V T2 + N A2 e j )

I FA = , (10)

V FA1 = [V A1 cosh( l A d A ) Z c1 I A1 sinh( l A d A )]e j , (6) Z c1 sinh( l A (1 d A ))

1

1 1

where:

V FA2 = [V A2 cosh( l A d A ) Z c1 I A2 sinh( l A d A )]e j , (7) N A1 = V A1 cosh( l A ) + Z c1 I A1 sinh( l A ) ,

1 1

1 1

V FA0 = [V A0 cosh( l A d A ) Z c0 I A0 sinh( l A d A )]e j , (8) N A2 = V A2 cosh( l A ) + Z c1 I A2 sinh( l A ) ,

0 0 1 1

where: a F1 , a F2 share coefficients (Table II).

e j synchronization operator ( unknown

synchronisation angle), After substituting the total fault current (10) into the

V A1 , V A2 , V A0 symmetrical components of side A general fault loop model (4) one gets the following fault

location formula:

voltages,

I A1 , I A2 , I A0 symmetrical components of side A transf. transf.

a F1(V T1 + N A1e j ) + a F2 (V T2 + N A2 )

currents. V FL j

FA (d A )e RF = 0,

Z c1 sinh( l A (1 d A ))

l A length of the line section AT (km), 1

Note: line parameters are identical for both line sections. (11)

where:

B. Total Fault Current Determination V FL

FA ( d A ) defined in (5)(8) and formed with use of the

Taking into account the share of individual symmetrical weighting coefficients specified for different faults in Table I,

components: I FA1 , I FA2 , I FA0 in the total fault current ( I FA ) a F1 , a F2 share coefficients dependent on fault type, as

one obtains [3]:

specified in Table II.

C. Fault Location Solution After resolving (11) into the real and imaginary parts and

The derived fault location formula (11) is in three taking the respective relation: (15) or (16), one of the known

unknowns: distance to fault (dA), fault resistance (RFA), numeric procedures for solving nonlinear equations can be

synchronization angle (). In order to get a solution, an applied. It has been checked that the Newton-Raphson

additional equation has to be formulated. For this purpose, iterative method is a good choice for that.

after excluding the zero sequence components (aF0=0 as in The derived fault location algorithm ((11) together with

Table II), the total fault current for phase-to-ground and (15) or (16)) can be applied for locating faults in lines with

phase-to-phase faults is expressed as follows: shunt connected FACTs devices [17], as well.

The presented fault location method has been thoroughly

Two recommended characteristic sets of the share evaluated with using the fault data obtained from ATP-EMTP

coefficients for the considered here faults are provided in [18] versatile simulations of faults in the power network

Table III [3]. The other sets can be determined as well, containing the 1000 kV, transmission line. The parameters of

however, use of the sets from Table III will result in getting the network were:

simple analytic solution for the sought synchronization angle rated voltage: 1000 kV, system frequency: 50 Hz

(), i.e. not involving distance to fault (dA). line length: AT: l A = 320 km and BT: l B = 325 km

TABLE III. TWO SETS OF SHARE COEFFICIENTS FOR PHASE-TO- phase angle of EMFs of equivalent systems behind line

GROUND FAULTS AND PHASE-TO-PHASE FAULTS terminals: A: 0o, B: (30o)

Fault

ISET IISET sequence impedances of equivalent systems:

Type a FI 1SET a FI 2SET a II

F1

SET

a II

F2

SET Z1SA=(1.312+j15) , Z1SB=2Z1SA

ag 0 3 3 0 Z0SA=(2.334+j22.5) , Z0SB=2Z0SA

bg 0 3a 3a2 0 line impedances:

cg 0 3a2 3a 0

ab 0 1a 1a2 0 Z1L=(0.008+j0.259) /km, Z0L=(0.205+j0.746) /km

bc 0 aa2 a2a 0 line shunt capacitances:

ca 0 a21 a1 0 C1L=0.014 F/km, C0L=0.009 F/km

Applying the sets from Table III, the total fault current can shunt reactor: compensating line capacitances at 35 %.

be expressed as follows: Different scenarios with changing of a fault were

considered in the performed evaluation study. Fault type, fault

I F = a IF1

SET I SET

I F1 + a F2 I F2 , (13) resistance and equivalent system impedances were changed.

or alternatively: In order to examine the errors of the considered fault

location algorithms themselves, the errorless transformation of

IF = a II

F1

SET

I F1 + a II

F2

SET

I F2 . (14) instrument transformers (both for current and voltage) was

assumed at the first stage of the evaluation. Then, real

Comparing (13) with (14) and then taking into account instrument transformers were included into the model.

(10), one gets the following formula for the synchronization Analog low-pass filters with 350 Hz cut-off frequency

operator for faults listed in Table III: were also included. The sampling frequency of 1000 Hz was

applied and the respective phasors were determined with use

of the DFT algorithm and pre-filtering in the form of a half

Z c1 (a IF2SET I B2 a II SET

I B1 )

[e j ] ph g = F1 , (15) cycle sine filter. The calculated distance to fault was averaged

or ph ph a II

F1

SET I SET

N A1 a F2 N A2 within the fault time interval from 55 to 60 ms (dA_av., dB_av.).

where: NA1, NA2 quantities defined in (10). The representative sample results of fault location

accuracy using the Algorithm I (from Section II) and

In case of the remaining fault types, i.e. for phase-to- Algorithm II (from Section III) for ag fault at different

locations on the line section AT, with involving fault

phase-to-ground faults and three-phase balanced faults one

resistance RFA=10 , are shown in Table IV and V.

can consider the pre-fault (thus using the superscript: pre)

positive-sequence obtaining: In Figs. 4 and 5 the example fault location is presented

using two algorithms (Algorithm I Section II, Algorithm II

Section III). The specifications of the fault are as follows

[e j ]ph - ph - g =

(V ) transf. pre

T1 .

fault: abg, location: dA=0.8 p.u., fault resistance:

) (V ) Z sinh( l ) (I )

pre pre RFAa=RFAb=1 , RFAg=10 . Due to limited space the

or 3ph cosh( l A estimated fault resistance according to the Algorithm II is not

1 A1 c1 1 A A1

(16) here shown.

TABLE IV. RESULTS OF ag FAULT LOCATION USING ALGORITHM I not considered in Table V. Accuracy of this algorithm is very

No mismatch

high, especially for faults occurring not too close to the tap

Mismatch1 Mismatch2

dA_exact point T.

dA errorA dA errorA dA errorA

[p.u.]

[p.u.] [%] [p.u.] [%] [p.u.] [%]

TABLE V. RESULTS OF AG FAULT LOCATION USING ALGORITHM II

0.1 0.1001 0.01 0.0974 0.26 0.1026 0.26

0.2 0.2006 0.06 0.1973 0.27 0.2036 0.36 dA_exact [p.u.] dA [p.u.] errorA [%]

0.3 0.2984 0.16 0.2948 0.52 0.3015 0.15

0.1 0.1001 0.01

0.4 0.4002 0.02 0.3969 0.31 0.4033 0.33

0.2 0.2002 0.02

0.5 0.4999 0.01 0.4970 0.30 0.5026 0.26

0.3 0.2998 0.02

0.6 0.5996 0.04 0.5972 0.28 0.6017 0.17

0.4 0.4003 0.03

0.7 0.7014 0.14 0.6998 0.02 0.7029 0.29

0.5 0.5005 0.05

0.8 0.8009 0.09 0.7999 0.01 0.8018 0.18

0.6 0.6003 0.03

0.9 0.8982 0.18 0.8978 0.22 0.8986 0.14

0.7 0.6977 0.23

Mismatch1 provided reactor reactance decreased by 5 % 0.8 0.8012 0.12

Mismatch2 provided reactor reactance increased by 5 % 0.9 0.9030 0.30

The Algorithm I from [15] assures high accuracy of fault From the performed evaluation follows that the developed

location under providing accurate reactance of the reactor fault location technique not requiring knowledge of the status

(Table IV, the column: No mismatch) the error does not and the parameters of the shunt-connected device (the

exceed 0.2 %. However, if there is a mismatch between the Algorithm II) appears as attractive for application when the

provided and the exact value of the reactor reactance possible mismatch between the provided reactance

(Mismatch1 and Mismatch2) then the error increases the (impedance) of the device and its exact value could be high.

maximum error in Table IV exceeds 0.5 %. Therefore, it seems that the developed algorithm could be very

attractive for application to locating faults on power

In turn, the Algorithm II (introduced in Section III) is free transmission lines equipped with shunt FACTs devices [17].

of settings for the reactor status and its parameters and thus the

mismatch with respect to the reactor reactance as irrelevant is

a) b)

SIDE A Three-phase current: iA (104 A)

SIDE A Three-phase voltage: vA (106 V)

a b c

0.8

1

0.4

0.5

a b c

0 0

0.4 0.5

1

0.8

c) Time (ms) d) Time (ms)

SIDE B Three-phase voltage: vB (106 V)

a b c

0.8 0.8

0.4 0.4

a b c

0 0

0.4 0.4

0.8 0.8

Time (ms) Time (ms)

Figure 4. Example fault location input signals of fault locator: a) side A voltage, b) side A current, c) side B voltage, d) side B current.

a) b)

1

SUB_B

ALGORITHM I Distance to Fault (p.u.)

SUB_B

1.2

0.8

SUB_A:

dA_av.=0.7975 p.u.

SUB_A 0.6

0.8

0.4

0.4

0.2

dA_av.=0.8031 p.u.

dB_av.=1.1909 p.u.

0 0

0 20 40 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Fault Time (ms) Fault Time (ms)

Figure 5. Example fault location results of fault location applying: a) algorithm I, b) algorithm II.

The fault location example from Figs 4 and 5 shows [4] J. Izykowski, E. Rosolowski and M. M. Saha, Postfault analysis of

correct operation of both considered fault location algorithms. operation of distance protective relays of power transmission lines,

IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 22, pp. 7481, Jan. 2007.

The Algorithm I (Fig. 5a) yields two results (from the [5] L. Eriksson, M. M. Saha and G. D. Rockefeller, An accurate fault

subroutines SUB_A, SUB_B) however, only one indicates locator with compensation for apparent reactance in the fault resistance

correctly a fault within the line section (dA_av.=0.8031 p.u.), resulting from remote-end infeed, IEEE Trans. on PAS, Vol. 104,

while the remaining result (dB_av.=1.1909 p.u.) is simply No.2, pp. 424436, Febr. 1985.

rejected. Similarly is for the Algorithm II (Fig. 5b). The valid [6] A. Wiszniewski, Accurate fault impedance locating algorithm, IEE

Proceeding. Part C, Vol. 130, No. 6, pp. 311315, 1983.

subroutine SUB_A yields accurate result (dA_av.=0.7975 p.u.) [7] M. M. Saha, K. Wikstrom, J. Izykowski and E. Rosolowski, New

while the false subroutine (SUB_B) settles permanently at the accurate fault location algorithm for parallel lines, in Proc. 2001

value 1 p.u. Conference on Developments in Power System Protection, IEE Conf.

Publ., Issue 479, pp. 407410.

V. CONCLUSIONS [8] M. Kezunovic, J. Mrkic and B. Perunicic, An accurate fault location

The novel fault location algorithm for long transmission algorithm using synchronized sampling, Electr Power Syst Res 29(3),

pp. 161169, 1994.

lines with in-line shunt reactors has been presented. It can also [9] J. Izykowski and E. Rosolowski, Application of synchronised

be applied to lines with shunt-connected FACTS devices. distributed measurements to location of faults on overhead lines,

Przeglad Elektrotechniczny, Vol. 85, Issue 11, pp. 2125, 2009.

The algorithm consists of two subroutines designed for [10] D. Novosel, D. G. Hart, E. Udren and J. Garitty, Unsynchronized two-

locating faults at either side of the reactor. Both subroutines terminal fault location estimation, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery,

have been formulated with use of the generalized fault loop Vol. 11, Issue 1, pp. 130138, Jan. 1996.

model and only one o them is consistent with the actual fault. [11] J. Izykowski, E. Rosolowski, P. Balcerek, M. Fulczyk and M. M. Saha,

Accurate noniterative fault location algorithm utilizing two-end

Analytic transfer of only voltage across a healthy line unsynchronized measurements, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol.

section has been applied. As a result incomplete two-end 25, Issue 1, pp. 7280, Jan. 2010.

signals: voltages from both sides while current only from one [12] Y. Liao and S. Elangovan, Unsynchronized two-terminal

transmission-line fault-location without using line parameters, IEE

end, were used for fault location. There is no need to know the Proc.-Generation Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 153, Issue 6, pp.

reactor status and its parameters. Information brought by the 639643, 2006.

boundary conditions of faults has been explored extensively. [13] G. Preston, Z. Radojevic, C. H. Kim and V. Terzija, New setting-free

fault location algorithm based on synchronized sampling, IET

The presented evaluation has proved validity and high Generation, Transmission & Distribution, Vol. 5, Nr 3, pp. 376383,

accuracy of the developed fault location algorithm. The fault 2011.

location errors definitely do not exceed 0.5 % if the errorless [14] Izykowski J., Rosolowski E., Saha M.M., Balcerek P., Accurate

transformation of instrument transformers is considered. algorithm for locating faults in power transmission lines under

saturation of current transformers, in 2005 Proc. Power Systems

Under considering instrument transformers with typical Computation Conference (PSCC), Liege, 2226.08.2005.

parameters, the errors increase slightly exceeding 1 %. [15] Z. Y. Xu, S. H. Jiao, L. Ran and Z. Q. Du, An online fault-locating

scheme for EHV/UHV transmission lines, IET Generation,

Transmission & Distribution, Vol. 2, Issue 6, pp. 789799, 2008.

REFERENCES

[16] M. Kawa, Two-end fault location for long transmission lines with in-

[1] IEEE guide for determining fault location on AC transmission and line shunt reactors, M.Sc. thesis, Faculty of Electrical Engineering,

distribution lines, IEEE. Std. C37.114, IEEE Power Engineering Wroclaw Univ. of Technology, Wroclaw, Poland, 2012.

Society Publ., 8 June 2005. [17] M. Ghazizadeh-Ahsaee and J. Sadeh, "Accurate fault location

[2] M. Kezunovic, Fault location, Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and algorithm for transmission lines in the presence of shunt-connected

Electronics Terminology, Vol. 7, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, flexible AC transmission system devices," Vol. 6, Issue 3, pp. 247255,

pp 276285, 1999. 2012.

[3] M. M. Saha, J. Izykowski and E. Rosolowski, Fault location on Power [18] H. W. Dommel, Electro-Magnetic Transients Program, BPA, Portland,

Networks, London: Springer, 2010. Oregon, 1986.

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