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Power System Relaying Keywords: Inrush currents, short circuit currents, electromagnetic

forces, controlled switching, finite element method, power trans-

Bibliography of Relay Literature, Preprint Order Number: PE-033PRD (07-2001)
Discussion Deadline: December 2001
2000 IEEE Committee Report
Bibliography and Publicity Working Group of the IEEE Power Transmission and Distribution
System Relaying Committee, Sidhu, T.S., Chairman
Abstract: The latest of a series of classified lists of power system Time-Varying Harmonics: Part II-
relaying references, begun in 1927, is presented. This bibliography is in Harmonic Summation and Propagation
continuation to the bibliographies of relay literature, which were pub- Baghzouz, Y., Chair; Burch, R.F.; Capasso, A.; Cavallini, A.;
lished previously. Emanuel, A.E.; Halpin, M.; Langella, R.; Montanari, G.;
Preprint Order Number: PE-15OPRD (07-2001) Olejniczak, Kj.; Ribeiro, P.; Rios-Marcuello, S.; Ruggiero, F.;
Discussion Deadline: December 2001 Thallam, R.; Testa, A.; Verde, P.
An Adaptive Scheme for Author Affiliation: Probabilistic Aspects Task Force of the Har-
Parallel Line Distance Protection monics Working Group Subcommittee
Abstract: This paper represents the second part of a two-part article
Hu, Y.; Novosel, D.; Saha, M.; Leitloff, V. reviewing the state-of-the-art of probabilistic aspects of harmonics in
electric power systems. It includes tools for calculating probabilities of
Author Affiliation: ABB-USETI; ABB Automation Products AB; rectangular and phasor components of individual as well as multiple
EDF R&D Division harmonic sources. A procedure for determining the statistical distribu-
Abstract: This paper describes an adaptive protective relaying tion of voltages resulting from dispersed and random current sources is
scheme for parallel-line distance protection. The scheme adjusts its reviewed. Some applications of statistical representation of harmonics
operation, based on the availability of input signals, to achieve an op- are also discussed.
timal distance protection performance on parallel lines influenced by Keywords: Time-varying harmonics, sum of random phasors, volt-
mutual coupling effect. When available, zero sequence current from age distortion, statistical analysis.
the parallel line is used to fully compensate the mutual coupling ef- Preprint Order Number: PE-099PRD (07-2001)
fect. The zero sequence current ratio is used to avoid possible false Discussion Deadline: December 2001
operations on a healthy line, which may result from such compensa-
tion. When the parallel lines' zero sequence current is not available,
the line operating status is used instead to select proper zero sequence
current compensation factors in impedance calculation. Default zero
sequence current compensation factor is used when both parallel
lines' zero sequence current and line operating status signals are not
available. The performance of the scheme has been verified on a sim- 2001 Symposium on Nuclear Power Systems
ulated network and the results are presented.
Keywords: Protective relaying, adaptive systems, distance mea- 6-9 November 2001
surement, coupled transmission lines, mutual coupling. San Diego, California
Preprint Order Number: PE-043PRD (07-2001)
Discussion Deadline: December 2001 The 2001 Symposium on Nuclear Power Systems (SNPS)
will be held 6-9 November 2001 in San Diego, California. The
sessions will again be held in conjunction with the Nuclear
Transformers Science Symposium. The technical sessions on nuclear power
systems cover subjects currently of major interest to the oper-
ation of nuclear power stations and supporting services and
The Impact of Inrush Currents on the Mechanical suppliers, including:
Stress of High-Voltage Power Transformer Coils * Upgrading digital technology for reactor protection, I&C,
and other systems
Steurer, M.; Frohlich, K. * Reliability-based maintenance and plant modernization
Author Affiliation: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology * New aspects on equipment qualifications
Abstract: From failure experience on power transformers very of- * Plant life extension with cost-effectiveness
ten it was suspected that inrush currents, occurring when energizing * A special annual overview report of major importance to
unloaded transformers, were the reason for damage. In this paper it nuclear power utilities
was investigated how mechanical forces within the transformer coils * Plenary sessions with reports applicable to operating
build up under inrush compared to those occurring at short circuit. 2D NPGS
and 3D computer modeling for a real 268 MVA, 525/17.75 kV
three-legged step up transformer were employed. The results show * And more.
that inrush current peaks of 70% of the rated short circuit current For more information, contact Jay Forster, GE Nuclear
cause local forces in the same order of magnitude as those at short cir- Energy, M/C 801, 175 Curtner Avenue, San Jose, CA 95125
cuit. The resulting force summed up over the high voltage coil is even USA; +1 408 925 5090, fax +1 408 925 5376, e-mail
three times higher. Although inrush currents are normally smaller, the
forces can have similar amplitudes as those at short circuit, with lon-
ger exposure time, however. Therefore, care has to be taken to avoid
such high inrush currents. Today controlled switching offers an ele-
gant and practical solution.

64 IEEE Power Engineering Review, October 2001