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Health, Education, Social Protection News & Notes 15/2010 A bi-weekly newsletter supported by GTZ (Deutsche

Health, Education, Social Protection News & Notes 15/2010

A bi-weekly newsletter supported by GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit)

18 July 2010

You can download back issues (2005 - 2010) of this newsletter at:

Table of Contents:

BOOKS

4

Hanyane - A Village Struggles for Eye Health

4

Gaining Health: Analysis of policy development in European countries for tackling noncommunicable diseases

4

Mental, Neurological, and Substance Use Disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa: Reducing the Treatment Gap, Improving Quality of Care

4

Crime Prevention and Community Safety: Trends and Perspectives

5

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS

5

HIV - AIDS - STI

5

Young people are leading the HIV prevention revolution

5

Scientists Find Antibodies that Prevent Most HIV Strains from Infecting Human Cells

5

AVAC Report 2010: Turning the Page

6

UNAIDS Annual Report 2009

6

UNAIDS OUTLOOK Report 2010

6

What is new in HIV/AIDS research in developing countries?

6

The Ten Consequences of AIDS Treatment Delayed, Deferred, or Denied

7

Prognosis of patients with HIV-1 infection starting antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: a collaborative analysis of scale-up programmes

7

Early versus Standard Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-Infected Adults in Haiti

7

A Model of HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment in a Rural Setting

8

Sexual & Reproductive Health

8

Addressing Conflict-Related Sexual Violence - An Analytical Inventory of Peacekeeping Practice

8

Men are changing: Case study evidence on work with men and boys to promote gender equality and positive masculinities

8

Maternal & Child Health

9

Access to maternal and perinatal health services: lessons from successful and less successful examples of improving access to safe delivery and care of the newborn Evidence-Based Priority Setting for Health Care and Research: Tools to Support Policy in

9

Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health in Africa Financing Maternal and Child Health - What Are the Limitations in Estimating Donor Flows and Resource Needs? Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions to Combat Childhood Diarrhoea in Developing

9

9

Countries

10

An Evaluation of a Safe Motherhood Hospital Program

10

Trainers Manual for Community Owned Resource People

10

Malaria

11

Estimating the Number of Paediatric Fevers Associated with Malaria Infection Presenting to

Africa’s Public Health Sector in 2007

Cost Savings with Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Malaria in Low-Transmission Areas: Evidence

from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

11

11

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 1

Community acceptability of use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria by community health workers in Uganda Prices, Diagnostic Tests and the Demand for Malaria Treatment: Evidence from a Randomized Trial Accuracy of a rapid diagnostic test on the diagnosis of malaria infection and of malaria- attributable fever during low and high transmission season in Burkina Faso

of malaria infection and of malaria- attributable fever during low and high tr ansmission season in
of malaria infection and of malaria- attributable fever during low and high tr ansmission season in

11

12

12

Tuberculosis

12

Tuberculosis: New Faces of an Old Disease

12

Towards more compassionate care for people with drug-resistant TB

13

Tuberculosis and Stigmatization: Pathways and Interventions

13

Prolonged Infectiousness of Tuberculosis Patients in a Directly Observed Therapy Short- Course Program with Standardized Therapy

13

Other Infectious Diseases

13

Healthcare Workers Handbook on Influenza

13

Social determinants of infectious diseases: a public health priority

14

Essential Medicines

14

Untangling the Web of Antiretroviral Price Reductions

14

A

Practical Approach to Pharmaceutical Policy

14

Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs,

revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

15

Social Protection

15

Learning to insure the poor

15

Beyond Cash: Assessing Externality and Behaviour Effects of Non-Experimental Cash Transfers

15

Technology: A key asset to turn microinsurance into a sustainable sector?

16

56 Million Steps Towards Universal Coverage: RSBY Health Insurance for the Poor in India

16

16

Increasing access to health workers in remote and rural areas through improved retention16

Human Resources

Who Wants to Work in a Rural Health Post?

17

Are “Village Doctors” in Bangladesh a curse or a blessing?

17

Análise dos recursos humanos da saúde (RHS) nos países africanos de língua oficial portuguesa (PALOP)

17

Health Systems & Research

18

Research for health and health system strengthening in Africa

18

Scaling-up health services in low- and middle-income settings

18

Improving Implementation: Building Research Capacity in Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health in Africa

18

The changing face of EU-African Cooperation in science and technology

19

Strengthening Health Systems at Facility-Level: Feasibility of Integrating Antiretroviral Therapy into Primary Health Care Services in Lusaka, Zambia

19

Information & Communication Technology

Global Information Society Watch 2009

Education

19

19

20

Do HIV-AIDS Teacher Training Programs Work in Africa? Evidence from the Cameroon

20

Improving Learning Achievement in Early Primary in Low-Income Countries

20

Making education inclusive for all

20

Harm Reduction and Drug Use

21

A strategy to halt and reverse the HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs in Asia and

the Pacific 2010-2015

21

Global Health

21

Do we need an international collaboration for synthesizing health-system evidence?

Re-thinking global health sector efforts for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control: promoting

21

integration of programme activities within a strengthened health system

21

Redressing the Unconscionable Health Gap: A Global Plan for Justice

22

The Global Health System: Institutions in a Time of Transition

22

Millennium Development Goals

The MDGs and Beyond: Pro-poor Policy in a Changing World

Development Assistance

22

22

23

South-South Cooperation: A Challenge to the Aid System?

23

Practical approaches to the aid effectiveness agenda

23

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 2

The Costs & Benefits of Aid Transparency

23

The Food System: a prism of present and future challenges for health promotion and sustainable development

24

Corruption, Anti-corruption Efforts and Aid: Do Donors Have the Right Approach?

24

Others

24

Human Development: Definitions, Critiques, and Related Concepts

24

Pain Control in the African Context: the Ugandan introduction of affordable morphine to relieve suffering at the end of life

25

How poor is ‘poor’? - Towards a rights-based poverty line

25

A Self-Assessment Guide for Health Care Organizations

25

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES

25

The Aid Effectiveness Portal

25

Development Assistance Database

26

Water & Risk

26

Fahamu Refugee Legal Aid Newsletter - Issue 5, June 2010

26

INTERESTING WEB SITES

26

Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

26

Web Portal: Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) for Health

27

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES

27

Evaluation of Health Facilities, Programmes and Projects

27

Universalizing Socioeconomic Security for the Poor

27

CARTOON

28

TIPS & TRICKS

28

Spell Check in Firefox

28

Fair Use:

This Newsletter is produced under the principles of 'fair use'. We source relevant news articles, resources and research documents and strive to attribute sources by providing reference and/or direct links to authors and websites.

Disclaimer:

The views expressed in this newsletter, do not necessarily represent those of GTZ or the editor of HESP-News & Notes. While we make every effort to ensure that all facts and figures quoted by authors are accurate, GTZ and the editor of the Newsletter cannot be held responsible for any inaccuracies contained in any articles. Please contact dneuvians@gmx.de if you believe that errors are contained in any article and we will investigate and provide feedback.

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HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 3

BOOKS

Hanyane - A Village Struggles for Eye Health

by Erika Sutter, Allen Foster and Victoria Francis International Centre for Eye Health, 2002

Victoria Francis International Centre for Eye Health, 2002 240 pp . 3.7 MB:

240 pp. 3.7 MB:

This book deals with primary eye care in the context of

This book deals with primary eye care in the context of community health and develop- ment and provides a practical guide to the diagnosis and management of common eye problems. It is written for health workers involved in providing primary and secondary eye care and will also be of relevance to all those striving to improve the health of peo- ple in rural communities.

* * *

Gaining Health: Analysis of policy development in European countries for tackling noncommunicable diseases

in European countries for tackling noncommunicable diseases by Anna Ritsatakis and Péter Makara WHO Regional Office

by Anna Ritsatakis and Péter Makara WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2009

and Péter Makara WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2009 274 pp . 2.1 MB: http://www.euro.who.int/

274 pp. 2.1 MB:

There is no greater threat to the health of people in the WHO European Region than that of noncommunicable diseases, yet this is an area where the greatest health gains are available at relatively modest cost. This book gives a detailed insight into the policy development in eight European countries over several decades to address the chal- lenge of noncommunicable diseases, and draws out the main themes to assist policy- makers in formulating their own response.

* * *

Mental, Neurological, and Substance Use Disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa:

Reducing the Treatment Gap, Improving Quality of Care

Reducing the Treatment Gap, Improving Quality of Care Workshop Summary by Bruce Altevogt, Sarah Hanson, Zaam

Workshop Summary

by Bruce Altevogt, Sarah Hanson, Zaam Ssali, and Patricia Cuff National Academies Press, 2010

Ssali, and Patricia Cuff National Academies Press, 2010 140 pp . 853 kB:

140 pp. 853 kB:

Millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders, and most do not have the resources to obtain treatment. The Uganda National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine hosted a workshop to discuss the state of care for MNS disorders in sub-Saharan Africa.

* * *

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 4

Crime Prevention and Community Safety: Trends and Perspectives

Prevention and Community Safety: Trends and Perspectives by Manar Idriss, Manon Jendly, Jacqui Karn et al.

by Manar Idriss, Manon Jendly, Jacqui Karn et al. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 2010

al. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 2010 246 pp . 1.8 MB: http://www.crime-prevention-

246 pp. 1.8 MB:

The International Center for the Prevention of Crime publishes every two years an inter- national overview of crime prevention. This year three important themes are covered in the Report; organized crime, trends in migration and drug and alcohol abuse. In docu- menting these themes, the Report shifts our thinking towards action in the mitigation of problems that extend beyond the daily experience of crime and violence and into issues of quality of life; the way in which individuals and communities are targeted by power hungry and greedy others.

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS

HIV - AIDS - STI

Young people are leading the HIV prevention revolution

HIV Prevalence Drops Among Young Africans

OUTLOOK BREAKING NEWS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), July 2010

United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), July 2010 8 pp . 1.4 MB:
United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), July 2010 8 pp . 1.4 MB:

8 pp. 1.4 MB:

The report shows that for the first time reductions in HIV prevalence among young peo- ple have coincided with a change in sexual behaviour patterns among people. The re- port also says that declines in HIV prevalence can be attributed to falling new HIV infec- tions among young people - a breakthrough essential for breaking the trajectory of the AIDS epidemic.

* * *

Scientists Find Antibodies that Prevent Most HIV Strains from Infecting Human Cells

Discovery to Advance HIV Vaccine Design, Antibody Therapy for Other Diseases

HIV Vaccine Design, Antibody Therapy for Other Diseases National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), July 2010 Read online at:

Scientists have discovered two potent human antibodies that can stop more than 90 percent of known global HIV strains from infecting human cells in the laboratory, and have demonstrated how one of these disease-fighting proteins accomplishes this feat. According to the scientists, these antibodies could be used to design improved HIV vac- cines, or could be further developed to prevent or treat HIV infection. Moreover, the method used to find these antibodies could be applied to isolate therapeutic antibodies for other infectious diseases as well.

* * *

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 5

AVAC Report 2010: Turning the Page

by Emily Bass, Elizabeth McGrory, Robert Reinhard et al. Global Advocacy for HIV Prevention (AVAC), July 2010

et al. Global Advocacy for HIV Prevention (AVAC), July 2010 60 pp . 3.5 MB:

60 pp. 3.5 MB:

. 3.5 MB: http://www.avac.org/ht/a/GetDocumentAction/i/28305 This new report surveys the state of biomedical HIV

This new report surveys the state of biomedical HIV prevention research, including the first evidence of vaccine-induced protection in humans and the emergence of ARV- based prevention - and provides strategic recommendations for moving forward in a time of constrained resources and faltering commitment to ending AIDS. It offers unique context and a timely critique for issues that will be center stage at the upcoming XVIII In- ternational AIDS Conference (IAC) in Vienna, Austria.

* * *

UNAIDS Annual Report 2009

(IAC) in Vienna, Austria. * * * UNAIDS Annual Report 2009 Joint United Nations Programme on

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), June 2010

United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), June 2010 86 pp . 2.2 MB:

86 pp. 2.2 MB:

This Annual Report provides snapshots of how the UNAIDS Secretariat and its Cosponsors worked together to strengthen the HIV response in 2009. It focuses on concrete results in the 10 priority areas that form UNAIDS’ new vision and strategy. Key achievements, statistics and country results are highlighted for each priority area. Feature stories have also been included to provide the reader with a broad overview of UNAIDS’ work and its impact in countries.

* * *

UNAIDS OUTLOOK Report 2010

its impact in countries. * * * UNAIDS OUTLOOK Report 2010 152 pp . 6.1 MB:
its impact in countries. * * * UNAIDS OUTLOOK Report 2010 152 pp . 6.1 MB:

152 pp. 6.1 MB:

The new UNAIDS Outlook report outlines a radically simplified HIV treat- ment platform called “Treatment 2.0” that could decrease the number of AIDS-related deaths drastically and could also greatly reduce the number

of new HIV infections. This includes the development of better combination treatment regimens, cheaper and simplified diagnostic tools, and a low-cost community-led ap- proach to delivery.

* * *

What is new in HIV/AIDS research in developing countries?

by Anatoli Kamali Tropical Medicine & International Health, Vol. 15, Issue 8, pp. 975-980 (August 2010)

Health, Vol. 15, Issue 8, pp. 975-980 (August 2010) 6 pp . 68 kB: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/

6 pp. 68 kB:

The most recent HIV prevention research has demonstrated the effect of male circumci- sion on HIV acquisition, and lack of impact of HSV-2 treatment on HIV transmission and acquisition. Use of HIV antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for HIV prevention is a new area that has attracted interest and a number of trials are examining the effect of oral Pre-

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 6

Exposure Prophylaxis on HIV acquisition and also looking at the potential of ARVs in reducing infectiousness. Progress has been made in HIV treatment, monitoring treat- ment efficacy and toxicity as well as evaluation of different models of ART delivery.

* * *

The Ten Consequences of AIDS Treatment Delayed, Deferred, or Denied

Consequences of AIDS Treatment Delayed, Deferred, or Denied by Sheila Shettle Campaign for Access to Essential

by Sheila Shettle Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines, Médecins Sans Frontières, July 2010

Essential Medicines, Médecins Sans Frontières, July 2010 16 pp . 1.1 MB: http://aids2010.msf.org/wp-

16 pp. 1.1 MB:

This document illustrates ten consequences of the funding retreat for people living with HIV/AIDS in developing countries, drawing upon data from MSF field research released

at the XVIII International AIDS Conference (IAC) 2010 in Vienna, and experience pro-

viding ART over the last ten years.

* * *

Prognosis of patients with HIV-1 infection starting antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: a collaborative analysis of scale-up programmes

by Margaret May, Andrew Boulle, Sam Phiri et al. The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 16 July 2010

et al. The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 16 July 2010 9 pp . 490 kB:

9 pp. 490 kB:

Prognostic models have been developed for patients infected with HIV-1 who start com- bination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in high-income countries, but not for patients in sub- Saharan Africa. The authors developed two prognostic models to estimate the probabil- ity of death in patients starting ART in sub-Saharan Africa.

* * *

Early versus Standard Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-Infected Adults in Haiti

by Patrice Severe, Marc Antoine Jean Juste,, Alex Ambroise et al.

N Engl J Med 363;3 July 15, 2010

Alex Ambroise et al. N Engl J Med 363;3 July 15, 2010 9 pp . 455

9 pp. 455 kB:

For adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have CD4+ T-cell counts that are greater than 200 and less than 350 per cubic millimeter and who live in areas with limited resources, the optimal time to initiate antiretroviral therapy remains uncertain. The authors found that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy decreased the rates of death and incident tuberculosis. Access to antiretroviral therapy should be ex- panded to include all HIV-infected adults who have CD4+ T-cell counts of less than 350 per cubic millimeter, including those who live in areas with limited resources.

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 7

A Model of HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment in a Rural Setting

The experiences of MSF in the Greater Busia District, Western Kenya

2000-2010

MSF in the Greater Busia District, Western Kenya 2000-2010 Médecins sans Frontières, April 2010 32 pp

Médecins sans Frontières, April 2010

Kenya 2000-2010 Médecins sans Frontières, April 2010 32 pp . 1.1 MB:

32 pp. 1.1 MB:

Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) intervened in the HIV/AIDS Kenyan epidemic at a time when there were no other actors and the MoH was unable to cope with the situation. MSF with its HIV/AIDS interventions around the world has demonstrated the feasibility of offering HIV care and treatment services in both rural and urban, poor resource set- tings.

Sexual & Reproductive Health

Addressing Conflict-Related Sexual Violence - An Analytical Inventory of Peacekeeping Practice

Violence - An Analytical Inventory of Peacekeeping Practice by Letitia Anderson, Patrick Cammaert and Anne-Marie Goetz

by Letitia Anderson, Patrick Cammaert and Anne-Marie Goetz United Nations Fund for Women (UNIFEM), 2010

Goetz United Nations Fund for Women (UNIFEM), 2010 48 pp . 1.5 MB:

48 pp. 1.5 MB:

The publication captures best practices and emerging elements for a more effective re- sponse by peacekeepers to women’s security concerns. The document catalogues di- rect and indirect efforts to combat sexual violence during and in the wake of war. While the focus of this publication is on the practical methods by which military, police and ci- vilian peacekeepers can prevent sexual violence, it is also part of a broader agenda to improve the capacities of peacekeepers to protect civilians effectively.

* * *

Men are changing: Case study evidence on work with men and boys to

promote gender equality and positive masculinities

boys to promote gender equality and positive masculinities by Lisa Howse, Tim Shand, Doortje Braeken et

by Lisa Howse, Tim Shand, Doortje Braeken et al. International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), March 2010

Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), March 2010 B887323D6ED7/0/MenAreChanging.pdf 80 pp . 659 kB:

80 pp. 659 kB:

“Men are Changing” seeks to strengthen and broaden the evidence base on working with men and boys. It describes and analyzes 12 programmes from around the world that sought to alter the attitudes and behaviours of men in relation to sexuality, sexual and reproductive health, violence and relationships. The report discusses challenges in this field, provides an overview of emerging good practice, and makes recommenda- tions for improving existing policy work, programmes and services.

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 8

Maternal & Child Health

Access to maternal and perinatal health services: lessons from successful and less successful examples of improving access to safe delivery and

care of the newborn

of improving access to safe delivery and care of the newborn by Vincent De Brouwere, Fabienne

by Vincent De Brouwere, Fabienne Richard and Sophie Witter Tropical Medicine & International Health, Volume 15, Issue 8, pp. 901-909 (August 2010)

Health, Volume 15, Issue 8, pp. 901-909 (August 2010) 9 pp . 183 kB: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/

9 pp. 183 kB:

The huge majority of the annual 6.3 million perinatal deaths and half a million maternal deaths take place in developing countries and are avoidable. However, most of the in- terventions aiming at reducing perinatal and maternal deaths need a health care system offering appropriate antenatal care and quality delivery care, including basic and com- prehensive emergency obstetric care facilities. To promote the uptake of quality care, there are two possible approaches: influencing the demand and/or the supply of care.

* * *

Evidence-Based Priority Setting for Health Care and Research: Tools to Support Policy in Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health in Africa

by Igor Rudan, Lydia Kapiriri, Mark Tomlinson et al. PLoS Med 7(7): e1000308 (13 July 2010)

Tomlinson et al. PLoS Med 7(7): e1000308 (13 July 2010) 5 pp . 89 kB:

5 pp. 89 kB:

The primary objective in this essay is to present the available tools for priority setting that could be used by policy makers in low-resource settings. The authors also provide an assessment of the applicability and strengths of different tools in the context of ma- ternal and child health in sub-Saharan Africa.

* * *

Financing Maternal and Child Health - What Are the Limitations in Estimating Donor Flows and Resource Needs?

by Marco Schäferhoff, Christina Schrade and Gavin Yamey PLoS Med 7(7): e1000305 (6 July 2010)

and Gavin Yamey PLoS Med 7(7): e1000305 (6 July 2010) 6 pp . 104 kB: http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetc

6 pp. 104 kB:

How much donor assistance is currently available for maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and how much additional financing will be needed? In this article, the au- thors examine the best estimates of current donor assistance to MNCH and of future funding that will be needed to reach MDGs 4 and 5. They lay out several limitations in these estimates and end with their recommendations for improving the tracking of MNCH financing flows and estimating the costs of scaling up MNCH interventions.

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 9

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions to Combat Childhood Diar- rhoea in Developing Countries

to Combat Childhood Diar- rhoea in Developing Countries by Hugh Waddington, Birte Snilstveit, Howard White et

by Hugh Waddington, Birte Snilstveit, Howard White et al. The International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie), 2009

International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie), 2009 119 pp . 989 kB:

119 pp. 989 kB:

This report is a synthetic review of impact evaluations examining effec- tiveness of water, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) interventions in reducing childhood di- arrhoea. Hygiene interventions, particularly provision of soap for hand-washing, are ef- fective in reducing diarrhoea morbidity, and there does not appear to be evidence that compliance falls over time. The analysis suggests that sanitation ‘hardware’ interven- tions are also highly effective. However, relatively few studies have been conducted in this area to-date and studies are particularly needed that quantify the possible environ- mental spillovers from sanitation provision.

* * *

An Evaluation of a Safe Motherhood Hospital Program

by Worawan Chandoevwit and KriengsakVacharanukulkieti Global Development Network (GDN), Working Paper No. 23, October 2009

Network (GDN), Working Paper No. 23, October 2009 74 pp . 3.0 MB:

74 pp. 3.0 MB:

The “Safe Motherhood Hospital Program” in Thailand aims to improve maternal and child health and reduce mortality among mother and child. The program has been in place for 10 years, but there has been no impact evaluation of the program. In this re- search, the authors evaluate whether the program has an impact on maternal mortality and the cost of child delivery.

* * *

Trainers Manual for Community Owned Resource People

(CORPs Manual)

by Kay Wotton and Jenn Brenner Healthy Child Uganda, University of Mbarara, Uganda, 2006

Healthy Child Uganda, University of Mbarara, Uganda, 2006 55 pp . 3.4 MB:

55 pp. 3.4 MB:

Manual-English-June-2006.pdf This manual is for Community Owned Resource Persons

This manual is for Community Owned Resource Persons (CORPs). It contains the in- formation CORPs can use to help rural communities to improve the health of children under the age of five years. The manual is organized into topics called modules. Each module contains the key messages, the role of the CORPs and questions for community discussion. Modules about diseases include the danger signs, home care and preven- tion activities. The information in each module focuses on disease prevention, health promotion and health education for rural Africa.

* * *

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 10

Malaria

Estimating the Number of Paediatric Fevers Associated with Malaria Infec- tion Presenting to Africa’s Public Health Sector in 2007

by Peter W. Gething, Viola C. Kirui, Victor A. Alegana et al. PLoS Med 7(7): e1000301 (6 July 20100

A. Alegana et al. PLoS Med 7(7): e1000301 (6 July 20100 12 pp . 1.3 MB:

12 pp. 1.3 MB:

The availability of rapid-diagnostic tests to support practical and reliable parasitological diagnosis provides an opportunity to improve the rational treatment of febrile children across Africa. However, the cost effectiveness of diagnosis-based treatment polices will depend on the presumed numbers of fevers harbouring infection. Here the authors compute the number of fevers likely to present to public health facilities in Africa and the estimated number of these fevers likely to be infected with Plasmodium falciparum ma- laria parasites.

* * *

Cost Savings with Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Malaria in Low-Transmission Areas: Evidence from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Areas: Evidence from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania by Joshua Yukich, Valerie D’Acremont, Judith Kahama et al.

by Joshua Yukich, Valerie D’Acremont, Judith Kahama et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 83(1), 2010, pp. 61-68

et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 83(1), 2010, pp. 61-68 8 pp . 501 kB:

8 pp. 501 kB:

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria may help rationalize antimalarial drug use. However, the economic effects of these tests may vary. In this setting the RDTs reduced drug costs but did not offset the cost of the tests, although they also resulted in non- monetary benefits, including improved management of patients and increased compli- ance with test results.

* * *

Community acceptability of use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria by community health workers in Uganda

by David Mukanga, James K Tibenderana, Juliet Kiguli et al. Malaria Journal 2010, 9:203 (13 July 2010)

Kiguli et al. Malaria Journal 2010, 9:203 (13 July 2010) 32 pp . 171 kB:

32 pp. 171 kB:

Use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) by community medicine distributors (CMDs) is likely to be acceptable by community members given that CMDs are properly trained, and receive regular technical supervision and logistical support. A well-designed behav- iour change communication strategy is needed to address the anticipated programmatic challenges as well as community fears and stigma about drawing blood. Level of formal education may have to be a criterion for CMD selection into programmes deploying RDTs.

* * *

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 11

Prices, Diagnostic Tests and the Demand for Malaria Treatment: Evidence from a Randomized Trial

by Jessica Cohen Harvard School of Public Health & Brookings Institution, May 2010

of Public Health & Brookings Institution, May 2010 34 pp . 634 kB:

34 pp. 634 kB:

This paper reports on a field experiment from Western Kenya in which subsidized ACTs were made available in drug shops, along with subsidized Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) for malaria. The authors estimate that the availability of subsidized RDTs in drug shops can increase the fraction of ACT users who are malaria-positive by 11%. They find that subsidizing RDTs can reduce wastage and be particularly cost-effective among older children and adults if adherence to test results can be improved.

* * *

Accuracy of a rapid diagnostic test on the diagnosis of malaria infection and of malaria-attributable fever during low and high transmission season in Burkina Faso

by Zeno Bisoffi, Sodiomon B Sirima, Joris Menten et al. Malaria Journal 2010, 9:192 (7 July 2010)

Menten et al. Malaria Journal 2010, 9:192 (7 July 2010) 46 pp . 283 kB:

46 pp. 283 kB:

Malaria management policies currently recommend that the treatment should only be administered after laboratory confirmation. Where microscopy is not available, rapid di- agnostic tests (RDTs) are the usual alternative. The authors conclude that in the dry season the RDT has a low positive predictive value, but a very high negative predictive value for malaria-attributable fever. In the rainy season the negative test safely excludes malaria in adults but not in children.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis: New Faces of an Old Disease

Tuberculosis Tuberculosis: New Faces of an Old Disease Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines, Médecins Sans

Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines, Médecins Sans Frontières,

2009

to Essential Medicines, Médecins Sans Frontières, 2009 28 pp . 2.1 MB:

28 pp. 2.1 MB:

The spread of TB through populations already infected with HIV and the emergence of drug-resistant strains of the disease are throwing up yet greater medical challenges. Read this report as it outlines the major topical areas surrounding the treatment and di- agnosis of tuberculosis.

* * *

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 12

Towards more compassionate care for people with drug-resistant TB

by Theo Smart HIV & AIDS Treatment in Practice, Issue 162, 14 July 2010

& AIDS Treatment in Practice, Issue 162, 14 July 2010 10 pp . 205 kB:

10 pp. 205 kB:

This edition of HATIP reviews what is known about multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in people with HIV, and the health system issues which can lead to the failure of TB treat- ment in this group of people.

* * *

Tuberculosis and Stigmatization: Pathways and Interventions

by Andrew Courtwright and Abigail Norris Turner Public Health Reports - 2010, Supplement 4 - Volume 125

Public Health Reports - 2010, Supplement 4 - Volume 125 9 pp . 313 kB:

9 pp. 313 kB:

The institutional and community norms that lead to the stigmatization of tuberculosis (TB) are thought to hinder TB control. The authors performed a systematic review of the literature on TB stigma to identify the causes and evaluate the impact of stigma on TB diagnosis and treatment. Several themes emerged: fear of infection is the most common cause of TB stigma; TB stigma has serious socioeconomic consequences, particularly for women; TB stigma is perceived to increase TB diagnostic delay and treatment non- compliance.

* * *

Prolonged Infectiousness of Tuberculosis Patients in a Directly Observed Therapy Short-Course Program with Standardized Therapy

by Sean P. Fitzwater, Luz Caviedes, Robert H. Gilman et al. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2010;51:371-378 (15 August 2010)

Infectious Diseases 2010;51:371-378 (15 August 2010) 8 pp . 407 kB:

8 pp. 407 kB:

Patients treated for drug-susceptible tuberculosis remain sputum culture positive for longer than conventionally believed. Drug resistance prolongs time to culture conver- sion, although susceptibility testing methods vary in ability to predict this. Delayed smear conversion is a poor predictor of multidrug-resistant disease.

Other Infectious Diseases

Healthcare Workers Handbook on Influenza

The National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in collaboration with the South African National Department of Health and World Health Organization (WHO), 1 July 2010

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 13

16 pp . 255 kB: http://www.nicd.ac.za/outbreaks/h1n1/docs/Healthcare_Workers_Handbook_on_I nfluenza_in_SA_2010_07_01.pdf

16 pp. 255 kB:

The updated 2010 healthcare workers handbook on influenza provides detailed guide- lines on the diagnosis and management of influenza, both seasonal and pandemic in- fluenza, for healthcare workers in South Africa.

* * *

Social determinants of infectious diseases: a public health priority

by J C Semenza, J E Suk and S Tsolova Eurosurveillance, Volume 15, Issue 27, 08 July 2010

Read online at:

Addressing social determinants of infectious diseases in

Addressing social determinants of infectious diseases in Europe becomes a public health priority. It is not purely an issue of solidarity and social justice. Elevated infectious disease incidence/prevalence rates in vulnerable populations pose a health threat not only to them, but also to society at large. “Eurosurveillance” has dedicated this special issue to social determinants of infectious diseases. Today, in the wake of the financial crisis, rising unemployment and public debt in many EU countries lend further weight to the notion emphasised in all papers in this issue: socio-economic determinants of infec- tious diseases are a public health priority, perhaps even more urgently now than in re- cent times.

Essential Medicines

Untangling the Web of Antiretroviral Price Reductions

Médecins Sans Frontières’ guide to the prices of AIDS medicines 13th Edition, July 2010

to the prices of AIDS medicines 13th Edition, July 2010 104 pp . 2.8 MB: http://aids2010.msf.o

104 pp. 2.8 MB:

rg/wp-content/uploa ds/UntanglingTheW eb_13th_edition.pdf With 95% of people with HIV/AIDS living in developing

With 95% of people with HIV/AIDS living in developing countries, it is urgent that re- search and development take into account the particular needs of these populations. Lifelong AIDS treatment requires constant access to newer and more potent drug regi- mens when patients develop side effects or resistance to their medicines over time. Demand for newer AIDS drugs is growing fast. However, the price of newer regimens remains a major barrier to access. ‘Untangling the Web of Price Reductions’ is a pricing guide and cannot be regarded as a company price list.

* * *

A Practical Approach to Pharmaceutical Policy

list. * * * A Practical Approach to Pharmaceutical Policy by Andreas Seiter World Bank Publications,

by Andreas Seiter World Bank Publications, June 2010

Read the book (220 pp.) online at:

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 14

Pharmaceuticals are an essential component of health care. But for many people in low- and middle-income countries, access to the medicines they need to prevent or treat se- vere illnesses is limited. Typical problems are lack of availability, costs that exceed the individual’s purchasing power or lack of competent “agents” – health workers that are well trained to give the correct advice on which medicines to take.

* * *

Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of phar- macy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

by Brenda Waning, Jason Maddix and Lyne Soucy BMC Health Services Research 2010, 10:205 (13 July 2010)

BMC Health Services Research 2010, 10:205 (13 July 2010) 33 pp . 196 kB:

33 pp. 196 kB:

Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative financial experiences of phar- macy initiatives to inform future projects and advance access to medicines goals.

Social Protection

Learning to insure the poor

goals. Social Protection Learning to insure the poor by Christina Gradl, Martin Herrndorf, Claudia Knobloch et

by Christina Gradl, Martin Herrndorf, Claudia Knobloch et al. Allianz SE, 2010

Martin Herrndorf, Claudia Knobloch et al. Allianz SE, 2010 40 pp . 4.1 MB: https://www.allianz.com/static-

40 pp. 4.1 MB:

This report is based on research, conducted in collaboration with the Emergia Institute, to consolidate the wealth of insights Allianz has gained in the first years of developing its microinsurance business. Key facts on the state of microinsurance today, case studies on existing Allianz microinsurance projects and perspectives from experts on the future of microinsurance round out the report.

* * *

Beyond Cash: Assessing Externality and Behaviour Effects of Non- Experimental Cash Transfers

and Behaviour Effects of Non- Experimental Cash Transfers Rafael Perez Ribas, Fábio Veras Soares, Clarissa Teixeira

Rafael Perez Ribas, Fábio Veras Soares, Clarissa Teixeira et al. International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth Working Paper Number 65; June 2010

for Inclusive Growth Working Paper Number 65; June 2010 34 pp . 347 kB:

34 pp. 347 kB:

In this paper the authors propose a method to estimate externality effects in cash trans- fer programmes, even in cases when the benefit is not randomly assigned. Externality is

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 15

assessed through the decomposition of the average treatment effect on the treated into participation (direct) effect and externality (indirect) effect. They apply all these decom- positions on the effect of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) programme on household consumption and savings in Paraguay. The results indicate that the programme has a small impact on consumption and a considerable impact on savings.

* * *

Technology: A key asset to turn microinsurance into a sustainable sector?

by Abby Gray ILO’s Microinsurance Innovation Facility, 2010

Abby Gray ILO’s Microinsurance Innovation Facility, 2010 3 pp . 448 kB:

3 pp. 448 kB:

Microinsurance represents a promising new way to protect the poor, but reaching low- income markets sustainably requires creative new strategies. Ten years ago, it would have been difficult to imagine that a poor woman would file a claim and receive a medi- cal diagnosis electronically from her home in rural India. The next ten years will un- doubtedly bring new and equally unexpected technological developments - develop- ments with the power to bring the security of microinsurance coverage to the two billion people who need it most.

* * *

56 Million Steps Towards Universal Coverage: RSBY Health Insurance for

the Poor in India

Coverage: RSBY Health Insurance for the Poor in India by Nishant Jain Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische

by Nishant Jain

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH,

2010

Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, 2010 12 pp . 820 kB:

12 pp. 820 kB:

The national health insurance scheme “Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojna” (RSBY) in In- dia specifically targets families working in the informal sector and living below the pov- erty line (BPL): it was designed to meet the special requirements of this particular target population. The scheme has managed to reach out to more than 60 million people in less than 2 years since its existence. It is currently being extended to other informal sec- tor workers living above the poverty line, and many worker groups would like to use RSBY as an insurance platform while bearing the costs of premiums themselves.

Human Resources

Increasing access to health workers in remote and rural areas through im-

proved retention

Global Policy Recommendations

through im- proved retention Global Policy Recommendations by Carmen Dolea, Laura Stormont, Joanne McManus et al.

by Carmen Dolea, Laura Stormont, Joanne McManus et al. World Health Organization, 2010

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 16

79 pp . 828 kB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241564014_eng.pdf After a year-long consultative effort,

79 pp. 828 kB:

After a year-long consultative effort, this document proposes sixteen evidence-based recommendations on how to improve the recruitment and retention of health workers in underserved areas. It also offers a guide for policy makers to choose the most appropri- ate interventions, and to implement, monitor and evaluate their impact over time.

* * *

Who Wants to Work in a Rural Health Post?

The Role of Intrinsic Motivation, Rural Background and Faith-Based Institutions in

Rwanda and Ethiopia

and Faith-Based Institutions in Rwanda and Ethiopia Pieter Serneels, Jose G. Montalvo, Gunilla Pettersson et al.

Pieter Serneels, Jose G. Montalvo, Gunilla Pettersson et al. Institute for the Study of Labor, March 2010

et al. Institute for the Study of Labor, March 2010 22 pp . 121 kB: http://ftp.iza.org/dp4831.pdf

22 pp. 121 kB:

Most developing countries face shortages of health workers in rural areas. This has pro- found consequences for health service delivery, and ultimately for health outcomes. To design policies that rectify these geographic imbalances it is vital to understand what factors determine health workers’ choice to work in rural areas. The results of this study suggest that in addition to economic incentives, intrinsic motivation and rural origin play an important role in health workers’ decisions to work in a rural area, and that faith- based institutions matter.

* * *

Are “Village Doctors” in Bangladesh a curse or a blessing?

by Shehrin S Mahmood, Mohammad Iqbal, S. M.A. Hanifi et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010, 10:18 (6 July 2010)

Health and Human Rights 2010, 10:18 (6 July 2010) 19 pp . 236 kB:

19 pp. 236 kB:

Bangladesh is one of the health workforce crisis countries in the world. In the face of an acute shortage of trained professionals, ensuring healthcare for a population of 150 mil- lion remains a major challenge for the nation. With the current shortage of physicians and level of production in the country it was asserted that it is very unlikely for Bangla- desh to have adequate number of physicians in the near future. Thus, making use of ex- isting healthcare providers, such as Village Doctors, could be considered a realistic op- tion in dealing with the prevailing crisis.

* * *

Análise dos recursos humanos da saúde (RHS) nos países africanos de língua oficial portuguesa (PALOP)

nos países africanos de língua oficial portuguesa (PALOP) Edited by G. Dussault et al]. Human Resources

Edited by G. Dussault et al]. Human Resources for Health Observer - Issue No. 2, May 2010 Languages: Portuguese (Summary in English)

No. 2, May 2010 Languages: Portuguese (Summary in English) 132 pp . 861 kB:

132 pp. 861 kB:

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 17

Human Resources are the backbone of every health system. However, information on policies, plans, information systems and workforce education, availability, composition, distribution, density, funding sources, labour market forces and many other aspects is often scarce and scattered across many different sources. In the Portuguese speaking countries of Africa, this has also been a long-standing issue, which prevented the analy- sis of health workforce problems and the development of appropriate policy responses.

Health Systems & Research

Research for health and health system strengthening in Africa

for health and health system strengthening in Africa by Barbara Matthys, Julie Murugi, Sylvia de Haan

by Barbara Matthys, Julie Murugi, Sylvia de Haan et al. Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED), April 2009

on Health Research for Development (COHRED), April 2009 20 pp . 133 kB:

20 pp. 133 kB:

Strong political and financial support and strong leadership are needed for evidence- informed policy making to become a reality in many countries. This is the overall finding of this study and a follow-up consultative meeting during the Global Ministerial Forum on Research for Health (Mali, 2008). The study and the findings in this Record Paper reflect the perspectives of African scientists and policy makers, senior northern scientists, and representatives of funding organisations.

* * *

Scaling-up health services in low- and middle-income settings

Edited by Kara Hanson, Susan Cleary, Helen Schneider et al. BMC Health Services Research 2010, 10(Suppl 1):I1 (2 July 2010)

Health Services Research 2010, 10(Suppl 1):I1 (2 July 2010) 4 pp . 179 kB:

4 pp. 179 kB:

This article is part of the BMC Health Services Research supplement: “Scaling-up health services in low- and middle-income settings”:

These papers are published at a critical time for health systems: while some countries are on track to achieve the 2015 MDG targets, others are faltering and action is needed now to accelerate progress. Important gaps in knowledge remain. In particular, our un- derstanding of both policy development and service delivery strategies in fragile states is limited, and there is scope for research on how to most effectively scale up services in these environments.

* * *

Improving Implementation: Building Research Capacity in Maternal, Neo- natal, and Child Health in Africa

by James Whitworth, Nelson K. Sewankambo and Valerie A. Snewin PLoS Med 7(7): e1000299 (6 July 2010)

and Valerie A. Snewin PLoS Med 7(7): e1000299 (6 July 2010) 3 pp . 76 kB:

3 pp. 76 kB:

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 18

The high levels of maternal, newborn, and childhood mortality and morbidity in Africa are cause for an urgent response to implementing interventions. Strong health research systems and research programmes that address bottlenecks to upscaling effective in- terventions should be developed without delay. This effort requires substantial and rapid investment in the support of African scientists, institutions, and systems that will focus on solutions to African problems.

* * *

The changing face of EU-African Cooperation in science and technology

Past achievements and looking ahead to the future

technology Past achievements and looking ahead to the future European Commission, Directorate-General for Research, 2010

European Commission, Directorate-General for Research, 2010

European Commission, Directorate-General for Research, 2010 68 pp . 4.1 MB:

68 pp. 4.1 MB:

The EU report calls for more collaboration and coordination with research- ers in Africa. Health research is one of the areas considered. Europe’s objective is to support Africans in the development of their own scientific and technical skills and ca- pacity, mastering the knowledge and technology needed for their development and the implementation of their own research agenda. It aims to achieve this by opening up the European Research Area (ERA) and developing equitable and effective research part- nerships between the European Union (EU) and African institutions and their research- ers.

* * *

Strengthening Health Systems at Facility-Level: Feasibility of Integrating Antiretroviral Therapy into Primary Health Care Services in Lusaka, Zambia

by Stephanie M. Topp, Julien M. Chipukuma, Mark Giganti et al. PLoS ONE 5(7): e11522 (13 July 2010)

Mark Giganti et al. PLoS ONE 5(7): e11522 (13 July 2010) 11 pp . 569 kB:

11 pp. 569 kB:

HIV care and treatment services are primarily delivered in vertical antiretroviral (ART) clinics in sub-Saharan Africa but there have been concerns over the impact on existing primary health care services. This paper presents results from a feasibility study of a fully integrated model of HIV and non-HIV outpatient services in two urban Lusaka clin- ics.

Information & Communication Technology

Global Information Society Watch 2009

Focus on access to online information and knowledge – advancing human rights and

democracy

and knowledge – advancing human rights and democracy Editors Alan Finlay and Lori Nordstrom Published by

Editors Alan Finlay and Lori Nordstrom Published by APC and Hivos, 2009

Finlay and Lori Nordstrom Published by APC and Hivos, 2009 232 pp . 6.3 MB:

232 pp. 6.3 MB:

The report shows that accessing information and knowledge online is not as simple as switching on a computer, and that the wealth of information available on the internet to-

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 19

day is by no means guaranteed for tomorrow. In addition, 48 country reports analyse the status of access to online information and knowledge in countries as diverse as the De- mocratic Republic of Congo, Mexico, Switzerland and Kazakhstan, while six regional overviews offer a bird’s eye perspective on regional trends.

Education

Do HIV-AIDS Teacher Training Programs Work in Africa? Evidence from the Cameroon

Assessing the impact on student knowledge, attitudes and behavior of a typical HIV- AIDS teacher training program

by J.L. Arcand and E.D. Wouabe The Graduate Institute, Geneva, March 2010

and E.D. Wouabe The Graduate Institute, Geneva, March 2010 34 pp . 397 kB:

34 pp. 397 kB:

The authors assess the impact on student knowledge, attitudes and behavior of a typi- cal HIV-AIDS teacher training program, funded by the African Development Bank and implemented with technical assistance from UNESCO in the Cameroon. Applying an identification strategy they find that exposure to a trained teacher increases the appre- hension of 12 to 13 year olds concerning HIV-AIDS, by rendering them less likely to be willing to buy from an HIV-positive shopkeeper, and more likely to wish to remain sexu- ally abstinent during adolescence.

* * *

Improving Learning Achievement in Early Primary in Low-Income Coun- tries

A Review of the Research

Primary in Low-Income Coun- tries A Review of the Research by Sheridan Bartlett The Aga Khan

by Sheridan Bartlett The Aga Khan Foundation (AKF), January 2010

Bartlett The Aga Khan Foundation (AKF), January 2010 44 pp . 1.4 MB:

44 pp. 1.4 MB:

This report on early education reviews research evidence on interventions in the early grades in low-income countries to assess their value. It finds that there seems to be more impact derived from how development funding is spent on schoolchildren than how much is spent.

* * *

Making education inclusive for all

Editor: Leah Murphy Education Insights, Issue 81, June 2010

Editor: Leah Murphy Education Insights, Issue 81, June 2010 8 pp . 343 kB: http://www.eldis.org/download.cfm?

8 pp. 343 kB:

13B75472E96D369D&typename=dmFile&fieldname=filename Educational inclusion relates to all children accessing and

Educational inclusion relates to all children accessing and meaningfully participating in

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 20

quality education, in ways that are responsive to their individual needs. The terms ‘inclu- sion’ and ‘inclusive education’ are often used in relation to children with disabilities and/or special needs and emerged partly out of debates to reduce their segregation from mainstream schooling.

Harm Reduction and Drug Use

A strategy to halt and reverse the HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs in Asia and the Pacific 2010-2015

people who inject drugs in Asia and the Pacific 2010-2015 by Edna Oppenheimer, Gary Lewis, Fritz

by Edna Oppenheimer, Gary Lewis, Fritz Lherisson et al. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), July 2010

United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), July 2010 77 pp . 902 kB:

77 pp. 902 kB:

The strategy is a “call for action” designed to provide a practical tool for use by national governments and developing agencies to guide their strategic planning process for the next five years. It provides a framework for harmonizing existing strategies and work- plans for harm reduction and universal access.

Global Health

Do we need an international collaboration for synthesizing health-system evidence?

Working Group on Health Systems Research Synthesis, Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, 20 May 2010

for Health Policy and Systems Research, 20 May 2010 12 pp . 343 kB: http://www.who.int/alliance-

12 pp. 343 kB:

Health system policy-makers and managers routinely face difficult decisions around im- proving health and promoting equity. They must consider complex questions about ef- fective strategies for organizing the overall health system and about designing and im- plementing or changing and improving specific policy and programme options. For in- stance, does contracting out services to the private sector improve access to health care? How could the health system best retain trained health care providers in under- served areas? Do conditional cash transfers improve the uptake of health interventions?

* * *

Re-thinking global health sector efforts for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control: promoting integration of programme activities within a strength- ened health system

by Dermot Maher BMC Public Health 2010, 10:394 (5 July 2010)

Dermot Maher BMC Public Health 2010, 10:394 (5 July 2010) 20 pp . 149 kB:

20 pp. 149 kB:

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 21

The global financial crisis threatens global health, particularly exacerbating diseases of inequality, e.g. HIV/AIDS, and diseases of poverty, e.g. tuberculosis. The aim of this pa- per is to reconsider established practices and policies for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, aiming at delivering better results and value for money. This may be achieved by promoting greater integration of HIV and tuberculosis control programme activities within a strengthened health system.

* * *

Redressing the Unconscionable Health Gap: A Global Plan for Justice

the Unconscionable Health Gap: A Global Plan for Justice by Lawrence O. Gostin The Harvard Law

by Lawrence O. Gostin The Harvard Law & Policy Review, Vol. 4, Nr. 2, 2010, pp. 271-294

Law & Policy Review, Vol. 4, Nr. 2, 2010, pp. 271-294 24 pp . 130 kB:

24 pp. 130 kB:

The world’s distribution of the “good” of human health remains fundamentally unfair, causing enormous physical and mental suffering by those who experience the com- pounding disadvantages of poverty and ill health. If the health gap is unfair and unac- ceptable, then how can the international community be galvanized to make a genuine difference? In this article, the author proposes an international call to action through the adoption of a Global Plan for Justice (GPJ).

* * *

The Global Health System: Institutions in a Time of Transition

by William C. Clark, Nicole A. Szlezak, Suerie Moon et al. Center for International Development (CID) at Harvard University, January 2010

Development (CID) at Harvard University, January 2010 24 pp . 651 kB:

24 pp. 651 kB:

The global health system is in a period of rapid transition, with an upsurge of funds and greater political recognition, a broader range of health challenges, many new actors, and the rules, norms and expectations that govern them in flux. The authors present a series of four papers on one dimension of the global health transition: its changing insti- tutional arrangements.

Millennium Development Goals

The MDGs and Beyond: Pro-poor Policy in a Changing World

The MDGs and Beyond: Pro-poor Policy in a Changing World by Andy Sumner and Claire Melamed

by Andy Sumner and Claire Melamed IDS Bulletin, Volume 41, Number 1, January 2010

Melamed IDS Bulletin, Volume 41, Number 1, January 2010 6 pp . 92 kB: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-

6 pp. 92 kB:

This issue of the IDS Bulletin is dedicated to discussing and reviewing the MDGs and the global effort that grew from the UN Millennium Declaration. This article provides an overview of this IDS Bulletin and introduces the key themes.

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 22

IDS Bulletin Special Issue: THE MDGs AND BEYOND (free access):

Development Assistance

South-South Cooperation: A Challenge to the Aid System?

South-South Cooperation: A Ch allenge to the Aid System? by Paul Quintos, Rosario Bella Guzman, Jose

by Paul Quintos, Rosario Bella Guzman, Jose Enrique Africa et al. The Reality of Aid (RoA) Network, 2010

Africa et al. The Reality of Aid (RoA) Network, 2010 142 pp . 1.2 MB:

142 pp. 1.2 MB:

The report is a specialized selection of researches ranging from the emergence of new global donors such as India, China and South Africa as well as the establishment of a new international financial architecture in South America to the impact of these trends on the diverse economies of Asia, Africa and the Americas. This report provides devel- opment actors important lessons, not just for improving South-South cooperation but also for enhancing the development effectiveness of international development coopera- tion as a whole.

* * *

Practical approaches to the aid effectiveness agenda

Evidence in aligning aid information with recipient country budgets

by Samuel Moon and Zachary Mills Overseas Development Institute and the International Budget Partnership, July 2010

and the International Budget Partnership, July 2010 50 pp . 640 kB:

50 pp. 640 kB:

. 640 kB: http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/4801.pdf This paper explores the link between donor aid and recipient

This paper explores the link between donor aid and recipient budgets, and the role that greater transparency and clearer information about aid can play in improving budget transparency, the quality of budgetary decisions and accountability systems in develop- ing countries.

* * *

The Costs & Benefits of Aid Transparency

by Matthew Collin, Asma Zubairi, Daniel Nielson and Owen Barder aidinfo, October 2009

Daniel Nielson and Owen Barder aidinfo, October 2009 19 pp . 458 kB: http://aidinfo.org/files/aidinfo-Co

19 pp. 458 kB:

sts-and-Benefits- October-2009.pdf This paper aims to assemble available information about the

This paper aims to assemble available information about the costs and benefits of greater aid transparency, recognizing that further research is required on many of these topics. The authors are explicit about the extent of uncertainty. They welcome com- ments on their approach, and suggestions for better and less uncertain estimates of both the costs and the benefits of aid transparency.

* * *

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 23

The Food System: a prism of present and future challenges for health promotion and sustainable development

by Ilona Kickbusch Health Promotion Switzerland, 2010

by Ilona Kickbusch Health Promotion Switzerland, 2010 49 pp . 1.9 MB:

49 pp. 1.9 MB:

Paper---The-Food-System.pdf This paper deals with the food system as a prism of present

This paper deals with the food system as a prism of present and future challenges for health promotion and sustainable development, and sets the attainment of a sustainable food system – “a system that can supply safe, healthy food with positive social benefits and low environmental impacts” – as the joint policy goal. It is aimed both at the health promotion and the sustainable development community.

* * *

Corruption, Anti-corruption Efforts and Aid: Do Donors Have the Right Ap- proach?

by Ivar Kolstad, Verena Fritz and Tam O’Neil Overseas Development Institute, January 2008

Tam O’Neil Overseas Development Institute, January 2008 98 pp . 1.2 MB:

98 pp. 1.2 MB:

Corruption is the abuse of public office or entrusted power for private gain. This paper looks at the linkages between good governance, new aid modalities and poverty reduc- tion. It provides a review of the literature relating to corruption, anti-corruption efforts and aid.

Others

Human Development: Definitions, Critiques, and Related Concepts

Human Development Research Paper 2010/01

by Sabina Alkire United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), June 2010

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), June 2010 100 pp . 1.1 MB: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/glo

100 pp. 1.1 MB:

bal/hdr2010/papers/HDRP_2010_01.pdf The purpose of this background paper is to synthesize the

The purpose of this background paper is to synthesize the discussions regarding the concept of human development and - drawing on the extensive policy and academic lit- eratures - to propose relationships between the concept of human development and four related concepts: the Millennium Development Goals, Human Rights, Human Secu- rity, and Happiness. Inequality, the duration of outcomes across time, and environ- mental sustainability are also prominent due to their fundamental importance.

* * *

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 24

Pain Control in the African Context: the Ugandan introduction of affordable morphine to relieve suffering at the end of life

by Anne Merriman and Richard Harding Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2010, 5:10 (8 July 2010)

Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2010, 5:10 (8 July 2010) 14 pp . 125 kB:

14 pp. 125 kB:

This paper described the authors’ experience in pioneering palliative care provision. In particular it examines the steps to achieving wider availability of opioids for pain man- agement for those with far advanced disease. Hospice Africa Uganda has been a model facility in achieving high quality clinical care embedded in a strategy of advocacy and education, using a multifaceted approach that has addressed logistical, policy and legis- lative barriers.

* * *

How poor is ‘poor’? - Towards a rights-based poverty line

poor is ‘poor’? - Towards a rights-based poverty line by David Woodward, Martina Tonizzo, Jim Sumberg

by David Woodward, Martina Tonizzo, Jim Sumberg et al. The New Economics Foundation(NEF), 2010

Jim Sumberg et al. The New Economics Foundation(NEF), 2010 48 pp . 598 kB:

48 pp. 598 kB:

Poverty is usually defined by the ‘US$-1-a-day’ line developed by the World Bank. But does definition this tell the whole story? This report argues that we need a broader ap- proach, based on human rights, which takes into account actual living standards.

* * *

A Self-Assessment Guide for Health Care Organizations

Quality, Safety, Ethics

International Finance Corporation (IFC), 2010

Safety, Ethics International Finance Corporation (IFC), 2010 102 pp . 2.2 MB:

102 pp. 2.2 MB:

GuidelinesWhole/$FILE/IFCSelfAssessGuide.pdf The publication

The publication provides practical advice to organizations and companies that aim for in- ternational standards, including those who may wish to achieve some form of interna- tional accreditation. It provides a structured approach to assessing standards and pro- cedures and highlights areas where improvements are required. It will help reduce pre- ventable medical mistakes and improve the quality and, ultimately, the affordability of health care for consumers.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES

The Aid Effectiveness Portal

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 25

This portal’s creators seek to provide a full range of knowledge man- agement and professional

This portal’s creators seek to provide a full range of knowledge man- agement and professional collaboration tools designed to streamline and enhance the work of organizations and individuals in the field of aid ef- fectiveness.

* * *

Development Assistance Database

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Development_Assistance_Database The Development Assistance Database (DAD) is a Web-based

The Development Assistance Database (DAD) is a Web-based information collection, tracking, analysis and planning tool for use by national governments and the broader assistance community, including bilateral donors, international organizations, and NGOs.

* * *

Water & Risk

WHOCC Newsletter No. 16, July 2010 WHO Collaborating Centre for Health Promoting Water Management and Risk Communication

Health Promoting Water Management and Risk Communication 11 pp . 1.5 MB:
Health Promoting Water Management and Risk Communication 11 pp . 1.5 MB:

11 pp. 1.5 MB:

In this issue:

Water Safety Plans for small-scale water supply systems in Romania

The Atlas of Water and Health

"Elephants and Butterflies on Moon" - My Internship in a NGO in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and more…

* * *

Fahamu Refugee Legal Aid Newsletter - Issue 5, June 2010

Published by Fahamu Trust and Fahamu Ltd.

Issue 5, June 2010 Published by Fahamu Trust and Fahamu Ltd. 5 pp . 374 kB:

5 pp. 374 kB:

This monthly publication aims to provide a forum for providers of refugee legal aid. With a focus on the global South, it aims to serve the needs of legal aid providers as well as raise awareness of refugee concerns among the wider readership.

INTERESTING WEB SITES

Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

INTERESTING WEB SITES Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding http://tensteps.org The web site and video series aims

The web site and video series aims to raise awareness, encourage early adoption, promote training of health care staff, and build capacity for, and to stimulate dialogue about, breastfeeding and its impact on the public, in

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 26

a range of community and public contexts in low- and middle-income countries. The

goal is to have these ten steps in every facility providing maternal services and care for

newborn infa nt.

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Web Portal: Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) for Health

Web Portal: Free and Open Sour ce Software (FOSS) for Health http://www.foss-for-health.org/portal/ Free and Open Source

Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) for Health aims to build a FOSS for eHealth Online Community - a venue for networking and exchanging ideas and ex- perience on FOSS use. The web portal hopes to be a dynamic/evolving repository and venue for interaction, sharing and supporting those who are interested in using free and open source software in health concerns.

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES

Evaluation of Health Facilities, Programmes and Projects

Consultancy Skills in International Cooperation in Health

6 - 17 September, 2010 Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Germany

Course Content: The objective of this course is to enable health professionals and man- agers to understand and apply the concepts and principles of evaluation when evaluat- ing facilities, projects and programmes in the health sector and to improve their personal and technical skills. Topics include: Planning and conducting an evaluation; principles, methods, techniques and tools; effective writing techniques; the consultant: expecta- tions and experiences; important skills and activities for consultancy.

Target Audience: Public health practitioners, medical doctors, nurses, policy makers, programme/project planners, managers, paramedical staff, social scientists, educators.

Language: English; Fees: EUR 1,500 Entry Requirements: English proficiency, experience in public health

For more information contact:

Natascha Petersen Tel.: +49-6221-56-5048 Fax: +49-6221-56-4918 mailto:petersen@uni-hd.de

For more courses and conferences see also:

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Universalizing Socioeconomic Security for the Poor

10½ weeks Postgraduate Diploma Programme or: 5½ weeks Certificate Course

12 January - 25 March 2011

Diploma Programme or: 5½ weeks Certificate Course 12 January - 25 March 2011 HESP-News & Notes

HESP-News & Notes - 15/2010 - page 27

International Institute of Social Studies (ISS), The Hague, Netherlands

Social provisioning and social security have rapidly risen in importance on national and global development agenda, with one of the key policy questions being the balance be- tween targeting those most in need or providing universal support for all. It is in this con- text that this course has been designed with the objective of imparting knowledge and skill-enhancing training on issues related to the universalization of socioeconomic secu- rity for the poor and the socially excluded.

For more information see:

CARTOON

zing-Socioeconomic-Security-for-the-Poor-USS CARTOON TIPS & TRICKS Spell Check in Firefox Most word

TIPS & TRICKS

Spell Check in Firefox

Most word processing programmes have a spell-checker built right in, so what does one do for the web? If you spend most of your time writing out form fields, contributing to fo- rums and writing in blogs, shouldn’t there be a way to spell check in your browser?

There is, actually, but mysteriously enough, it is only for Mozilla Firefox. Internet Ex- plorer 8 has yet to receive a built-in spell checker.

In the meantime, let us learn how to enable the spellchecker in Firefox! It is usually en- abled by default, but if, for any reason, you find it is not working go to: Tools > Options > Advanced. Make sure the ‘General’ tab is selected. Then make sure the ‘Check my Spelling as I Type’ option has a check-mark next to it.

That should do it! Now when you have misspelled something a squiggly red line will ap- pear underneath it to warn you.

Best regards,

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