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Welding

Prof. Bharat M. Dogra


Department of Automobile Engineering
Indus Institute of Technology and Engineering
Indus University
Introduction
B
M Welding is a process in which two or more
parts are joined permanently at their touching
surfaces by a suitable application of heat
D and/or pressure. Often a filler material is
O added to facilitate coalescence. The
G assembled parts that are joined by welding
R are called a weldment. Welding is primarily
used in metal parts and their alloys.
A
Classification
B
M Welding processes are classified into two
major groups:
D
Fusion
O
G Solid State Welding
R
A
Fusion Welding
B
M In this process, base metal is melted by means of
heat.
Often, in fusion welding operations, a filler metal
D is added to the molten pool to facilitate the
O process and provide bulk and strength to the
G joint.
R Commonly used fusion welding processes are: arc
welding, resistance welding, oxyfuel welding,
A electron beam welding and laser beam welding.
Solid State welding
B
M In this process, joining of parts takes place by
application of pressure alone or a combination
of heat and pressure.
D
No filler metal is used.
O
Commonly used solid-state welding processes
G are: diffusion welding, friction welding,
R ultrasonic welding.
A
B
M

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O
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M BRAZING SOLDERING & ADHESIVE
BONDING
D
O 1. Brazing
G 2. Soldering
R 3. Adhesive Bonding
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B
M Oxy-fuel welding (commonly
called oxyacetylene welding, oxy
D welding, or gas welding in the U.S.)
O and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that
G use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and
R cut metals, respectively.
A
USES
B
MOxy-gas torches are or have been used for:
Welding metal.
D Cutting metal.
O Depositing metal to build up a surface, as
in hard facing.
G
R
A
Oxyfuel Gas Welding (OFW)
B Group of fusion welding operations by a high
Mtemperature flame that burns various fuels mixed
with oxygen
Oxyfuel gas is also used in flame cutting torches to
D cut and separate metal plates and other parts
O Most important OFW process is oxyacetylene
welding (has high temperatures up to 3480 C)
G Filler metal is sometimes added
R Composition must be similar to base metal
A Filler rod often coated with flux to clean surfaces and
prevent oxidation
Oxyacetylene Welding
B
M

D
O
G
R
A
Oxyacetylene Torch
B 1. Maximum temperature reached at tip of inner cone, while outer
envelope spreads out and shields work surface from atmosphere
M 2. Shown below is neutral flame of oxyacetylene torch indicating
temperatures achieved

D
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B
M

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A
Types of flames
B
M Carburizing: uses a mix of more acetylene compared to
oxygen. Used for soldering, welding, braze welding and silver
brazing.
D
Neutral: most common type. It is created with a balanced mix
O of oxygen and acetylene. Causes a slow melt. It creates fewer
sparks and does not boil. It protects steel from oxidation and
G the joint does not burn. It results in strong welds.
R
Oxidizing: as the name implies, uses a richer mix of oxygen
A than acetelyne. This type of flame isn't considered to be
practical for welding. It can causes issues such as hardening at
the weld, weld weakness and brittleness.
Apparatus
B
M Regulator
Gas hoses
D Non-return valve
O Torch
G Fuels
R Oxygen
A
Fuels
B
M Acetylene
Gasoline
D Hydrogen
O Propylene and Fuel Gas
G Butane, propane and butane/propane mixes
R
A
Role of oxygen
B
M Oxygen is not the fuel.
It is what chemically combines with the fuel to
D produce the heat for welding.
O This is called 'oxidation', but the more specific
and more commonly used term in this context
G is 'combustion'.
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Arc Welding (AW)
B
M A fusion welding where the coalescence of the
metals (base metals and filler) is achieved by t
Technical issues
D Electrodes consumable and non consumable
O electrodes
G surrounding
Arc Shielding To shield the arc from the
gas. Helium and argon are typically
R used. Flux does a similar function.
Power source
A typically steels. dc for all metals or ac for

Heat loss due to convection, conduction and


radiation
AW with Consumable Electrodes
B
M Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
D Flux-cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
O Electrogas Welding (EGW)
G Submerged Arc welding (SAW)
R
A
AW with non-consumable Electrodes
B
M Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)
Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
D Carbon Arc Welding
O Stud Welding
G
R
A
Arc Welding Power Source
B
One of the main requirements of a welding
M power source is to deliver controllable current
at a voltage desired according to the demands
D of the welding process.
Each welding process has distinct features
O from other processes in the form of process
G controls required.
R Therefore, arc welding power sources play
very important role in successful welding.
A
Arc Welding Power Source
B
MPower Source Supply

D (i) Welding Transformer AC


O (ii) Welding Rectifier DC
G (iii) Welding Generators AC/DC
R (IV) Inverter type welding power source DC
A
Arc Welding Power Source
B
M AC machines
Transformer
motor or engine driven alternator
D
DC machines
O
Transformer with DC rectifier
G motor or engine driven generator
R
A
Arc Welding Power Source
B
M Welding machines can also be divided as:
Constant current welding machine
Constant Voltage welding machine
D
O
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A
Constant Current Welding M/C
B
M The machines which vary the welding voltage
to the account for the change in the arc gap,
thus maintaining the arc current.
D
This is very essential aspect in manual arc
O welding, since the maintenance of constant
G arc is nearly impossible by a human welder.
R
A
Constant Current Welding M/C
B
M

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Constant Voltage Welding M/C
B
M

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DC versus AC
B
M

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Arc welding set-up
B
M

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Specification of Arc welding
B
M Maximum rated Open Circuit Voltage

D Rated Current in Amperes


O
G Duty Cycle
R
A
Maximum rated OCV
B
M Voltage between output terminals when no
welding is being done
D Normally fixed at about 80V
O Maximum & normally, a voltage of the order
of 40 to 50 V should be enough to start an arc.
G
20 to 30 V sufficient for continuous welding.
R Minimum welding load voltage Vm
A Vm = 20 + 0.04 I, I is load current in amperes
Rated current
B
M Specifies the maximum current in amperes
that a welding machine is capable of supplying
at a given voltage.
D
O
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A
Duty Cycle
B
M The percentage of time in a 10 minute period
that a welding machine can be used at its
rated output without overloading.
D
Most of the time welding machine need not
O have to operate full time, since a good length
G of time is spent in setting up, metal chipping,
R cleaning and inspection.
A Normally, a 60% duty cycle is suggested.
Duty Cycle
B
M Required duty cycle (Ta)

D Ta = (I/Ia)2 * T
O
G T = Rated Duty Cycle
R I = rated current at Rated Duty Cycle
A Ia = Maximum current at Rated Duty Cycle
Arc Shielding
B
M At high temperatures in AW, metals are
chemically reactive to oxygen, nitrogen, and
hydrogen in air
D Mechanical properties of joint can be degraded by
these reactions
O To protect operation, arc must be shielded from
G surrounding air in AW processes
Arc shielding is accomplished by:
R Shielding gases, e.g., argon, helium, CO2
A Flux
Flux
B
M A substance that prevents formation of oxides
and other contaminants in welding, or
dissolves them and facilitates removal
D
Provides protective atmosphere for welding
O
Stabilizes arc
G
Reduces spattering
R
A
Various Flux Application Methods
B
M Pouring granular flux onto welding operation
Stick electrode coated with flux material that
D melts during welding to cover operation
O Tubular electrodes in which flux is contained
in the core and released as electrode is
G consumed
R
A
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
B
MUses a consumable electrode consisting of a
filler metal rod coated with chemicals that
provide flux and shielding
D
Sometimes called "stick welding"
O
Power supply, connecting cables, and
G electrode holder available for a few thousand
R dollars
A
Shielded Metal Arc Welding
B (SMAW)
M

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Welding Stick in SMAW
B
M
Composition of filler metal usually close to base
metal
D Coating: powdered cellulose mixed with oxides and
O carbonates, and held together by a silicate binder
Welding stick is clamped in electrode holder
G connected to power source
R Disadvantages of stick welding:
Sticks must be periodically changed
A High current levels may melt coating prematurely
Shielded Metal Arc Welding
B
M
Shielded metal arc
welding (stick
D welding)
O performed by a
G human welder
(photo courtesy of
R Hobart Brothers
A Co.)
SMAW Applications
B
M
Used for steels, stainless steels, cast irons,
D and certain nonferrous alloys
O Not used or rarely used for aluminum and
its alloys, copper alloys, and titanium
G
R
A
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
B
MUses a consumable bare metal wire as electrode
with shielding by flooding arc with a gas
Wire is fed continuously and automatically
D from a spool through the welding gun
O Shielding gases include argon and helium for
G aluminum welding, and CO2 for steel welding
Bare electrode wire
R eliminate slag on weld beadplus shielding gases
A No need for manual grinding and cleaning of slag
B Gas Metal Arc Welding
M

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O
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R
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GMAW Advantages over SMAW
B
M Better arc time because of continuous wire
electrode
Sticks must be periodically changed in SMAW
D Better use of electrode filler metal than
O SMAW
End of stick cannot be used in SMAW
G
Higher deposition rates
R Eliminates problem of slag removal
A Can be readily automated
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
B
M
Uses a continuous, consumable bare wire
electrode, with arc shielding by a cover of
D granular flux
O Electrode wire is fed automatically from a
G coil
Flux introduced into joint slightly ahead of
R arc by gravity from a hopper
A Completely submerges operation, preventing sparks,
spatter, and radiation
B Submerged Arc Welding
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SAW Applications and Products
B
M Steel fabrication of structural shapes (e.g.,
I-beams)
D Seams for large diameter pipes, tanks, and
pressure vessels
O
Welded components for heavy machinery
G
Most steels (except hi C steel)
R Not good for nonferrous metals
A
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)
B
M
Uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and an
inert gas for arc shielding
D Melting point of tungsten = 3410 C (6170 F)
O A.k.a. Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding
In Europe, called "WIG welding"
G Used with or without a filler metal
When filler metal used, it is added to weld pool from separate
R rod or wire
A Applications: aluminum and stainless steel mostly
B Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
M

D
O
G
R
A
Advantages and Disadvantages of
B GTAW
MAdvantages:
High quality welds for suitable applications
No spatter because no filler metal through arc
D Little or no post-weld cleaning because no flux
O Disadvantages:
G Generally slower and more costly than consumable
electrode AW processes
R
A
Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
B
MSpecial form of GTAW in which a constricted plasma
arc is directed at weld area
Tungsten electrode is contained in a nozzle that
D focuses a high velocity stream of inert gas (argon)
O into arc region to form a high velocity, intensely
G hot plasma arc stream
R Temperatures in PAW reach 28,000 C (50,000 F),
due to constriction of arc, producing a plasma jet
A of small diameter and very high energy density
B Plasma Arc Welding
M

D
O
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R
A
Advantages and Disadvantages of PAW
B
MAdvantages:
Good arc stability and excellent weld quality
Better penetration control than other AW
D processes
High travel speeds
O Can be used to weld almost any metals
G Disadvantages:
R High equipment cost
Larger torch size than other AW processes
A Tends to restrict access in some joints
Resistance Welding (RW)
B
MA group of fusion welding processes that use a
combination of heat and pressure to
accomplish coalescence
D
Heat generated by electrical resistance to
O current flow at junction to be welded
G Principal RW process is resistance spot
R welding (RSW)
A
B
M

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R
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Resistance Welding
B
M
Resistance
D welding, showing
components in
O spot welding, the
G main process in
R the RW group
A
Components in Resistance Spot
B Welding
M Parts to be welded (usually sheet metal)
Two opposing electrodes
D Means of applying pressure to squeeze parts
O between electrodes
Power supply from which a controlled current
G
can be applied for a specified time duration
R
A
Advantages and Drawbacks of
B Resistance Welding
MAdvantages:
No filler metal required
High production rates possible
D Lends itself to mechanization and automation
O Lower operator skill level than for arc welding
G Good repeatability and reliability
Disadvantages:
R
High initial equipment cost
A Limited to lap joints for most RW processes
Resistance Spot Welding (RSW)
B
M
Resistance welding process in which fusion of faying
surfaces of a lap joint is achieved at one location by
D opposing electrodes
O Used to join sheet metal parts
Widely used in mass production of automobiles, metal
G furniture, appliances, and other sheet metal products
Typical car body has ~ 10,000 spot welds
R Annual production of automobiles in the world is measured in
A tens of millions of units
Spot Welding Cycle
B
M
(a) Spot welding cycle
(b) Plot of force and
D current
Cycle: (1) parts inserted
O between electrodes, (2)
G electrodes close, (3)
current on, (4) current
R off, (5) electrodes
opened
A
Resistance Seam Welding (RSEW)
B
M
Uses rotating wheel electrodes to
produce a series of overlapping spot
D welds along lap joint
O Can produce air-tight joints
G Applications:
R Gasoline tanks
Automobile mufflers
A Various sheet metal containers
B Resistance Seam Welding
M

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O
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R
A
Resistance Projection Welding (RPW)
B
MA resistance welding process in which
coalescence occurs at one or more small
contact points on the parts
D
Contact points determined by design of parts
O to be joined
G May consist of projections, embossments, or localized
R intersections of parts

A
Resistance Projection Welding
B
(1) Start of operation, contact between parts
M is at projections; (2) when current is applied,
weld nuggets similar to spot welding are
D formed at the projections
O
G
R
A
Other Resistance Projection Welding
B Operations
M (a) Welding of fastener on sheetmetal and (b)
cross-wire welding
D
O
G
R
A
Electron Beam Welding (EBW)
B
MFusion welding process in which heat for
welding is provided by a highly-focused,
high-intensity stream of electrons striking
D work surface
O Electron beam gun operates at:
G High voltage (e.g., 10 to 150 kV typical) to accelerate
R electrons
Beam currents are low (measured in milliamps)
A
EBW Vacuum Chamber
B
M When first developed, EBW had to be carried
out in a vacuum chamber to minimize
disruption of electron beam by air molecules
D
Serious inconvenience in production
O Pumpdown time can take as long as an hour
G
R
A
Three Vacuum Levels in EBW
B 1. High-vacuum welding welding in same
M vacuum chamber as beam generation to
produce highest quality weld
2. Medium-vacuum welding welding in separate
D chamber but partial vacuum reduces pump-
O down time
3. Non-vacuum welding welding done at or near
G atmospheric pressure, with work positioned
R close to electron beam generator - requires
vacuum divider to separate work from beam
A generator
EBW Advantages and Disadvantages
B of EBW
M
Advantages:
High-quality welds, deep and narrow profiles
D Limited heat affected zone, low thermal distortion
O No flux or shielding gases needed
Disadvantages:
G High equipment cost
R Precise joint preparation & alignment required
Vacuum chamber required
A Safety concern: EBW generates x-rays
Laser Beam Welding (LBW)
B
MFusion welding process in which coalescence is
achieved by energy of a highly concentrated,
coherent light beam focused on joint
D
LBW normally performed with shielding gases
O to prevent oxidation
G Filler metal not usually added
R High power density in small area
A So LBW often used for small parts
Comparison: LBW vs. EBW
B
M No vacuum chamber required for LBW
No x-rays emitted in LBW
D Laser beams can be focused and directed by
O optical lenses and mirrors
LBW not capable of the deep welds and high
G
depth-to-width ratios of EBW
R Maximum LBW depth = ~ 19 mm (3/4 in), whereas
A EBW depths = 50 mm (2 in)
Explosion Welding (EXW)
B
MSSW process in which rapid coalescence of two
metallic surfaces is caused by the energy of a
detonated explosive
D No filler metal used
O No external heat applied
G No diffusion occurs - time is too short
R Bonding is metallurgical, combined with
mechanical interlocking that results from a
A rippled or wavy interface between the metals
Explosive Welding
B
Commonly used to bond two dissimilar metals,
M in particular to clad one metal on top of a base
metal over large areas

D
O
G
R
A
Explosive Welding
B
M Commonly used to bond two dissimilar metals, e.g., to clad one
metal on top of a base metal over large areas
(1) Setup in parallel configuration, and (2) during detonation of the
explosive charge
D
O
G
R
A
Friction Welding (FRW)
B
MSSW process in which coalescence is achieved
frictional heat combined with pressure
by

When properly carried out, no melting occurs at


D faying surfaces
No filler metal, flux, or shielding gases normally
O used
G Process yields a narrow HAZ
Can be used to join dissimilar metals
R Widely used commercial process, amenable to
A automation and mass production
B Friction Welding
M
(1) Rotating part, no contact; (2) parts brought into contact to
generate friction heat; (3) rotation stopped and axial pressure
D applied; and (4) weld created

O
G
R
A
Applications and Limitations of Friction
B Welding
MApplications:
Shafts and tubular parts
Industries: automotive, aircraft, farm equipment,
D petroleum and natural gas
O Limitations:
G At least one of the parts must be rotational
Flash must usually be removed (extra operation)
R
Upsetting reduces the part lengths (which must
A be taken into consideration in product design)
Friction Stir Welding (FSW)
B
MSSW process in which a rotating tool is fed along a
joint line between two workpieces, generating
friction heat and mechanically stirring the metal
D to form the weld seam
O Distinguished from FRW because heat is
G generated by a separate wear-resistant tool
rather than the parts
R
Applications: butt joints in large aluminum parts
A in aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding
Friction Stir Welding
B
M (1) Rotating tool just before entering work,
and (2) partially completed weld seam
D
O
G
R
A
Advantages and Disadvantages of
B Friction Stir Welding
M Advantages
Good mechanical properties of weld joint
Avoids toxic fumes, warping, and shielding issues
D
Little distortion or shrinkage
O Good weld appearance
G Disadvantages
R An exit hole is produce when tool is withdrawn
A Heavy duty clamping of parts is required
Ultrasonic Welding (USW)
B
MTwo components are held together, and oscillatory
shear stresses of ultrasonic frequency are applied
to interface to cause coalescence
D Oscillatory motion breaks down any surface films
O to allow intimate contact and strong metallurgical
bonding between surfaces
G Temperatures are well below Tm
R No filler metals, fluxes, or shielding gases
A Generally limited to lap joints on soft materials
B Ultrasonic Welding
M
(a) General setup for a lap joint; and (b)
D close-up of weld area
O
G
R
A
USW Applications
B
M
Wire terminations and splicing in electrical
and electronics industry
D Eliminates need for soldering
O Assembly of aluminum sheet metal panels
G Welding of tubes to sheets in solar panels
R Assembly of small parts in automotive
A industry
Welding Defects
B
M Cracks
Cavities
D Solid inclusions
O Imperfect shape or unacceptable contour
G Incomplete fusion
R Miscellaneous defects
A
Welding Cracks
B
MFracture-type interruptions either in weld or in
base metal adjacent to weld
D Serious defect because it is a discontinuity in
the metal that significantly reduces strength
O
Caused by embrittlement or low ductility of
G weld and/or base metal combined with high
R restraint during contraction
A In general, this defect must be repaired
B Welding Cracks
M
Various forms of welding cracks
D
O
G
R
A
Cavities
B
MTwo defect types, similar to defects found in
castings:
1. Porosity - small voids in weld metal formed by gases
D entrapped during solidification
O Caused by inclusion of atmospheric gases, sulfur in
weld metal, or surface contaminants
G 2. Shrinkage voids - cavities formed by shrinkage during
R solidification

A
Solid Inclusions
B
MNonmetallic material entrapped in weld metal
Most common form is slag inclusions
D generated during AW processes that use flux
Instead of floating to top of weld pool, globules of slag
O become encased during solidification
G Other forms: metallic oxides that form during
R welding of certain metals such as aluminum,
A which normally has a surface coating of Al2O3
Incomplete Fusion
B A weld bead in which fusion has not occurred
M throughout entire cross section of joint
Several forms of incomplete fusion are
D shown below
O
G
R
A
Weld Profile in AW
B
M (a) Desired profile for single V-groove weld
joint, (b) undercut - portion of base metal
D melted away, (c) underfill - depression in
weld below adjacent base metal surface, and
O (d) overlap - weld metal spills beyond joint
G onto part surface but no fusion occurs
R
A