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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal

Universiti Teknologi MARA

KJP626 / MEM665
Robotics & Automation
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Introduction into Robotics

Credit: Dr Hanafiah Yussof

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
The notion Robot Universiti Teknologi MARA

What the layperson understands by robots:


Automata, which recreates the behaviour of
animals and humans.
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

What robots mean in practise:


NC (Numerical control) handling machine.

Source: SONY, UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL, JUSTAPI, FREI TECHNIK + SYSTEME


VL_CIM_2_Kapitel_6.ppt/Der Begriff Roboter/DN/04.12.2007 2
CIM2_2_3_Der Begriff Roboter_Grafik1.psd
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
The Law of Robot Universiti Teknologi MARA

In 1942, Isaac Asimov introduced three laws of robotics

1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction,


allow a human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey any orders given to it by human beings,
except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such


protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

Isaac Asimov (1919-1992)


Professor in Biochemistry
and Science Fiction writer

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Types of Robot Universiti Teknologi MARA

A robot is a mechanical device that acts as a virtual machine. The word robot can include both
physical machine and virtual software. Various types of robots are in use today like: industrial
robots, entertainment robots, robots use in space, toy robots, agricultural robots, and domestic
robots etc.

The Various types of robots can be categorized on the basis of:


Degree of autonomy: Stationary, ground, underwater, aerial, microgravity
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Industry or field where used: Industrial robots, agricultural robots, telerobots, service
robots, mobile robots
Goal they are designed to fulfill: Contest, personal use, manufacturing, entertainment,
research, rescue

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Reasons for using industrial robots Universiti Teknologi MARA

Humanization of work
(Heat, Noise, Dirt, Toxic, Load, Monotony)

Lowering of costs
(Lowering of piece costs despite increasing of fixed costs)

Improvement of quality
(Continuation of quality, Reproducibility, Process capability)
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Increase in quantitative performance


(higher demand, higher market share, lower fixed costs)

Extension of machine running time


(Breaks, 2./3. coating, less supervision in operating zone)

Source: WITT, 2004


VL_CIM_2_Kapitel_6.ppt/Grnde fr Einsatz von Industrierobotern/DN/04.12.2007 5
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Market overview: Robotics and Automation Universiti Teknologi MARA

Worldwide installed robots 2006

150.725 132.967
North America Others
14 % 32.110
16 %
France
10 %
60.049
26.008
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Italy
Spain
19 %
8%
315.624
Europe 64.863
33 % Others
21 %
132.594
351.658 Germany
Japan 42 %
37 %
Industrial robots in Germany
2005 2006 2007 * 2010 *
Total number 126.294 132.594 137.900 147.400
New installations 10.075 11.425 12.700 13.000

* Forecast (Status 2007)


Source: IFR WORLD ROBOTICS, KUKA, 2007
VL_CIM_2_Kapitel_6.ppt/Marktbersicht: Robotik und Automation/DN/04.12.2007 6
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
What are robots good at? Universiti Teknologi MARA

What is hard for humans is easy for robots.


Repetitive tasks.
Continuous operation.
Do complicated calculations.
Refer to huge data bases.
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

What is easy for a human is hard for robots.


Reasoning.
Adapting to new situations.
Flexible to changing requirements.
Integrating multiple sensors.
Resolving conflicting data.
Synthesizing unrelated information.
Creativity.

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
What tasks would you give robots? Universiti Teknologi MARA
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Dangerous Boring / repetitive High precision / high speed


Space exploration welding car frames electronics testing
chemical spill cleanup part pick and place surgery
disarming bombs manufacturing parts precision machining
disaster cleanup

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Terms and Definitions Universiti Teknologi MARA

Degree of Freedom (DOF) = the number of joints

Typically, a manipulator should have at least 6 DOF -


3 for positioning and 3 for orientation, in order to
reach each point in its workspace with an arbitrary
orientation.

More than 6 DOF => kinematically redundant


Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

manipulator (to reach around obstacles).

Joint rotation description: Yaw, Pitch, Roll


Joint Rotation
The workspace of a manipulator is the total volume
swept out by the endeffector as the manipulator executes
all possible motions.

A robotic system consists of the arm, external powers


source, end-of arm tooling, external and internal sensors,
and computer control (hardware and programmed
software).

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Components of Robot Manipulators Universiti Teknologi MARA

Robot manipulators (or robot arms) are composed of links connected by joints into
an open kinematic chain.
Due to mechanical design consideration, manipulators are generally constructed
from joints which exhibit just one degree of freedoms.
Most robot manipulator have revolute joint or prismatic joint (sliding joint).
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Revolute Joint Prismatic Joint

Other types of joint: Cylindrical, planar, screw and spherical

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Symbolic Representation of Robot Joints Universiti Teknologi MARA

Revolute joints
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Prismatic joints

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Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Work Space
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Types of Robot Manipulators Universiti Teknologi MARA
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

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Elbow Manipulator (RRR) Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Example: PUMA Universiti Teknologi MARA
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Structure Workspace

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Revolute Type Configuration (RRR) Universiti Teknologi MARA
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

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Revolute Type Configuration (RRR) Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Universiti Teknologi MARA

Revolute manipulator is also called articulated or anthromorphic


manipulator. These type of robot resembles human arm. Two
common revolute designs are the elbow type manipulator such as
the PUMA and the parallelogram linkage such as the Cincinnati
Milacron T3 735.

Advantages:
- 3 rotating, axes
- Can reach above or below obstacles
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

- Largest work area for least work space


- Two or four ways to reach a point

Disadvantages:
- Difficult to program off-line
- The most complex manipulator

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Spherical Manipulator (RRP) Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Example: Stanford Manipulator Universiti Teknologi MARA
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Structure Workspace

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Spherical Type Configuration (RRP) Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

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Spherical Type Configuration (RRP) Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Universiti Teknologi MARA

The first two joints of this type of manipulators are revolute,


while its third Joint is prismatic.

Advantages:
- 1 linear axis, 2 rotating axes
- Long horizontal reach
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Disadvantages:
- Cannot reach around obstacles
- Generally has short vertical reach

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SCARA (Selective Compliant Articulated Robot Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
for Assembly) (RRP), Example: AdeptOne Universiti Teknologi MARA
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Structure Workspace

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
SCARA Type Configuration (RRP or PRR) Universiti Teknologi MARA
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
SCARA Type Configuration (RRP or PRR) Universiti Teknologi MARA

The word SCARA stands for Selective Compliant Articulated Robot


for Assembly. There are two type of SCARA robot configuration:
either the first two joints are revolute with the third joint as prismatic,
or the first joint is revolute with the second and third Joints as
prismatic.

Advantages:
- 1 linear axis, 2 rotating axes
- Height axis is rigid
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

- Large work area floor space


- Can reach around obstacles
- Two ways to reach a point

Disadvantages:
- Difficult to program off-line
- Highly complex arm

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Cylindrical Manipulator Configuration (RPP) Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Example: GMF M-100 Universiti Teknologi MARA
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Structure Workspace

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Cylindrical Type Configuration (RPP) Universiti Teknologi MARA
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

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Cylindrical Type Configuration (RPP) Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Universiti Teknologi MARA

For cylindrical type manipulator, its first joint is revolute which


produces a rotation about the based, while its second and third
joints are prismatic.

Advantages:
- 2 linear axes, 1 rotating axis
- Can reach all around itself
- Reach and height axes rigid
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

- Rotational axis easy to seal.

Disadvantages:
- Cannot reach above itself
- Base rotation axis is less rigid than a linear axis
- Linear axes hard to seal
- Will not reach around obstacles
- Horizontal motion is circular

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Cartesian Manipulator (PPP) Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Example: Gantry Robot Cincinnati Milatron T3 Universiti Teknologi MARA
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Structure Workspace

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Cartesian Type Configuration (PPP) Universiti Teknologi MARA
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Cartesian Type Configuration (PPP) Universiti Teknologi MARA

Manipulator whose first three joints are prismatic are known as a


Cartesian manipulator.. Cartesian manipulator are useful for table-top
assembly applications and, as gantry robots for transfer of material
and cargo

Advantages:
- 3 linear axes
- Easy to visualize
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

- Rigid structure
- Easy to program off-line
- Linear axes make for easy mechanical stops

Disadvantage:
- Can only reach in front of itself
- Requires large floor space for size of work envelop
- Axes hard to seal

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Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Grippers
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Applications of Robots Universiti Teknologi MARA

Main application area of robot manipulators: Manufacturing


Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Applications of Robots Universiti Teknologi MARA

Main application area of robot manipulators: Manufacturing


Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Other Application Areas Universiti Teknologi MARA

Decommissioning of nuclear waste or other waste

Decommissioning of land mines

Deep sea exploration


Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Space exploration

Support of the disabled (feeding devices, prosthetics)

Inspection of waste and water pipes

Tele-robotics

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Universiti Teknologi MARA

Jazakumullah
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

kairan kathira

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