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Shahab Gerami, PhD

www.petroman.ir

Well Testing

Basic theory and current techniques for well testing

Introduction

Review of basic fluid and rock properties

Basic definitions and concepts

Well Test Objectives

Components of Well Test Models

Characteristics of Inverse Solution

Mathematical Treatment of Reservoir Engineering Problems

Fundamental of Fluid Flow in Porous Media

Flow Tests

Pressure Drawdown Test

Multi Rate Flow Testing

Effect of Wellbore Condition

Build up tests

Derivative Analysis

Fractured Wells

Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

Testing of Layered Reservoirs

Gas Well Testing

Horizontal Well Testing

Rate Time Analysis (RTA)

Test Design and Implementation

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References

John Lee, Well Testing (1982)

Wells (1967)

Practice of the Testing of Gas Wells (1975)

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Well Testing

Basic theory and current techniques for well testing

Introduction

Review of basic fluid and rock properties

Basic definitions and concepts

Well test objectives

Reservoir management

Reservoir description

Decline curve analysis

Types of tests

Drawdown test

Buildup test

Falloff test

Interference tests

Primary reservoir characteristics

Components of well test models

Direct & inverse solutions

Input-system-response

Characteristics of inverse solution

Importance of analytical models

Mathematical treatment of reservoir engineering problems

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Importance of Production Data Analysis

Information (forward solution)

Production

Analysis Models

(backward solution)

(i) Well test models

(ii) Material balance models

(iii) Decline curve analysis

Production Forecast

350

300

Gas rate Wellbore pressure

350

300

Field Data Economic Study and

(i) Well test data

Decision Making for the

250 250

Pressure(psia)

Rate(MSCFD)

200 200

150 150

Field Development

100 100

50

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

50

0

(ii) Production data

Time (day)

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Review of Basic Rock And Fluid

Properties

water, and ft3/scf for gas

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Review of Basic Rock And Fluid

Properties

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Review of Basic Rock And Fluid

Properties

This is the value of the oil viscosity at RESERVOIR

CONDITIONS. It is a very strong function of reservoir temperature,

oil gravity and solution gas-oil ratio.

the oil increases as the pressure is increased. This causes the in-

situ oil viscosity to decrease significantly. Above the bubble point

pressure, oil viscosity increases minimally with increasing

pressure.

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Review of Basic Rock And Fluid

Properties

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Review of Basic Rock And Fluid

Properties

The pressure difference between overburden and internal pore pressure is

referred to as the effective overburden pressure. During pressure depletion

operations, the internal pore pressure decreases and, therefore, the effective

overburden pressure increases. This increase causes the following effects:

The bulk volume of the reservoir rock is reduced.

Sand grains within the pore spaces expand.

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Review of Basic Rock And Fluid

Properties

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Basic Definition & Concepts

Test: Measurement of (i) Rate, (ii) Time, and (iii) Pressure in controlled conditions.

Homogeneous formation: Formation with rock properties that do not change with

location in the reservoir. This ideal never actually occurs, but many formations are

close enough to this situation that they can be considered homogeneous. Most of the

models used for pressure-transient analysis assume the reservoir is homogeneous.

the reservoir. Some naturally fractured reservoirs are heterogeneous formations.

Isotropic formation: A type of formation whose rock properties are the same in all

directions. Although this never actually occurs, fluid flow in rocks approximates this

situation closely enough to consider certain formations isotropic.

most common directionally dependent properties are permeability and stress. Most

formations have vertical to horizontal permeability anisotropy with vertical

permeability being much less (often an order of magnitude less) than horizontal

permeability.

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Basic Definitions & Concepts

Initial reservoir pressure: Reservoir pressure before any production

Average reservoir pressure: The pressure that would be obtained if all fluid

motion ceases in a given volume of reservoir. It also is the pressure to which a well

will ultimately rise if shut in for an infinite period.

Flowing pressure: The pressure determined at the formation face during the

flowing periods of a well test.

Static pressure: The pressure measured in a well after the well has been closed in

for a period of time, often after 24 or 72 hours. When a reservoir is first discovered,

the static pressure equals the initial pressure. After production begins, the static

pressure approaches the average reservoir pressure.

Drainage area: If a well is flowed until boundary-dominated flow has been reached,

a certain area will experience a pressure drop. This area is called the Drainage

Area of a well. The boundaries of a wells drainage area could be physical

boundaries, such as faults, or no-flow boundaries from nearby producing wells.

Partial Penetration: When a well does not fully penetrate the formation, or the

perforations do not open up the whole formation, the reservoir fluid has to flow

vertically and the flow lines converge near the wellbore.

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Basic Definitions & Concepts

Net Pay: This is the thickness of the formation that contributes to the flow of fluids. It is

determined from logs or core, and can be different from the gross pay or the perforated

interval. In the case of inclined wellbores in dipping formations, the net pay is measured

perpendicular to the angle of dip. Several examples of net pay are shown below.

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The Objectives of Well Test

Reservoir evaluation

Deliverability (conductivity; kh)

Design of well spacing

Number of wells

Wellbore stimulation

Properties (initial reservoir pressure )

Potential energy of the reservoir

Size (reservoir limits)

Closed or open (with aquifer support) reservoir boundaries

Near well conditions (skin, storage and turbulence)

Reservoir management

Monitoring performance and well conditions

Reservoir description

Fault, Barriers

Estimation of bulk reservoir properties

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Types of Test

Type of tests is governed by the test objective.

Transient tests which are relatively short term tests are used to define

reservoir characteristics.

Drawdown Test

Buildup Test

Injection Test

Falloff Test

Interference Test

Drill Stem Test

Stabilized tests which are relatively long duration tests are used to define

long term production performance.

Reservoir limit test

AOF (single point and multi point)

IPR (Inflow Performance Relationship)

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Types of Test-Drawdown Test

Conditions

An static, stable and shut-in is opened to flow .

flow rate is supposed to be constant (for using

traditional analysis).

Objective

To obtain average permeability of the

reservoir rock within the drainage area of the

well

To assess the degree of damage or stimulation

To obtain pore volume of the reservoir

To detect reservoir inhomoginiety within the

drainage area of the well.

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Types of Test-Buildup Test

Conditions

A well which is already flowing (ideally constant

rate) is shut-in

Downhole pressure measured as the pressure

builds up

Objective

To obtain average permeability of the reservoir

rock within the drainage area of the well

To assess the degree of damage or stimulation

To obtain initial reservoir pressure during the

transient state

To obtain the average reservoir pressure over

the drainage area of the well during pseudo-

steady state

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Types of Test-Injection Test

Conditions

An injection test is conceptually identical to

a drawdown test, except flow is into the

well rather than out of it.

Objective

Injection well testing has its application in

water flooding, pressure maintenance by

water or gas injection, gas recycling and

EOR operations.

In most cases the objective of the injection

test is the same as those of production test

(k,S,Pavg).

Determination of reservoir heterogeneity

and front tracing.

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Types of Test

Falloff Test:

A pressure falloff test is usually proceeded by an injectivity test of a long

duration. Injection then is stopped while recording the pressure. Thus, the

pressure falloff test is similar to the pressure buildup test.

Interference Test:

In an interference test one well is produced and pressure is observed in a

different wells.

To test reservoir continuity

To detect directional permeability and other major reservoir heterogeneity

Determination of reservoir volume

Drill Stem Test (DST):

It is a test commonly used to test a newly drilled well (since it can only be

carried out while a rig is over the hole.

In a DST, the well is opened to flow by a valve at the base of the test tool, and

rservoir fluid flows up the drill string.

Analysis of the DST requires the special techniques, since the flow rate is not

constant as the fluid rises in the drill string.

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Primary reservoir characteristics

Types of fluids in the reservoir

Incompressible fluids

Slightly compressible fluids

Compressible fluids

Flow regimes

Steady-state flow

Unsteady-state flow

Pseudosteady-state flow

Reservoir geometry

Radial flow

Linear flow

Spherical and hemispherical flow

Number of flowing fluids in the reservoir.

Single-phase flow (oil, water, or gas)

Two-phase flow (oilwater, oilgas, or gaswater)

Three-phase flow (oil, water, and gas)

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Flow Regimes

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Reservoir Flow Geometry

Radial flow

Linear flow

Hemispherical flow

Spherical flow

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Components of Well Test Models

Homogeneous

Heterogeneous

Reservoir Composite

Multilayer

Dual porosity

Boundaries

Geometrical boundaries (Circular, Rectangular)

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Direct versus Inverse Solutions

Direct solution

Input + system Output (?)

Inverse solution

Input + System (?) Output

Actual measurement compared

to the system

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Inverse Solution Compared to Actual

System

Inverse solution can be used for the

identification of system characteristics

erroneous answers

utility of the results derived from this

mathematically process is questionable.

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Characteristic of Inverse Solution

Non-unique solution

A good looking history match is not a

good enough answer

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Input-System-Response

Reservoir

Input Perturbation Output Response

Mechanism

suited to analytical solution.

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Importance of Analytical Models

Focus on the main issues

Create a conceptual analysis

Pattern recognition and better understanding

Judgment( cause and effect)

Consistency checks

Groups that control response

T

T (t )

dT

hAT T0 Vc p hA

dt T T0 T0 T exp t

cV

T T0 @t 0 p

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Mathematical Treatment of Reservoir

Engineering Problems

In the development and application well testing analysis techniques,

the preliminary aim is to come up with some practical methods

which will enable the engineer in gathering accurate information

about some physical reservoir parameters that play an important

role on fluid flow dynamics in porous media.

the methodology that will be used in interpretation.

straightforward, a good understanding of the mathematical basis

together with the physical laws that control the dynamics of fluid flow

is essential.

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Mathematical Treatment of Reservoir

Engineering Problems

Physical model

Simplifying assumptions

Mathematical model

Choosing an appropriate element

Governing equation

Mass balance

Momentum balance (Darcys law)

Equation of state

Initial and Boundary conditions

Infinite acting

Finite acting

Solutions

Application

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1-D Radial Steady State Flow

Physical model q

pw pe

rw re

Simplifying assumptions

Single phase fluid flow

Fluid has a small compressibility

Darcys law applies

Flow is radial towards the wellbore

Rock and fluid properties are constant

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Average permeability in a region

Not

Permeability at a fixed radius

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Mathematical model Steady State, Radial Flow

Choosing an appropriate element

Governing equation

Mass balance Input Output 0

A v A v

r r r

0

Darcys law

k p

v

r

Equation of state

b exp c ( p pb )

k p k p

A A 0

r r

r r r k 1 p

r 0

A

k dp

A

k dp d

A

k dp

r ....

r r r

dr r r dr r dr dr r

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k 1 p p 1 p p p

r r 0 r r 0

r r r r r

r p r r r r

1 1 V

Negligible

c

p

2

1 p p p p V p p

r r 0

cr r 0

r p r r r r r r r

Governing equation

p

r 0

r r

or

2 p 1 p

0

r 2 r r

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Initial condition

p pi , t 0, r rw

Boundary conditions

p rw p wf

p re pe

Solution

dp

r

dr C1 p C1 ln(r ) C 2

C1

p e

pw

C2 pw

p pw

e

ln(rw )

re re

ln( ) ln( )

rw rw

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Solution

r

p(r ) p w

p pw

e r

ln( )

re rw

ln( )

rw

dp

q 2 r hk

dr 2 hk pe p w

rw q

re

dp pe p w 1 ln( )

rw

dr re r

ln( )

rw

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Assignment#1

constant cross section homogeneous porous medium with constant

porosity, permeability and no initial water saturation (Swi

wi=0) (see

the below figure)

1. Derive the governing equation (hydraulic diffusivity equation) for

one dimensional linear flow (X-direction)?

2. Obtain the solution to the above governing equation subjected to

the following conditions

Steady state flow

Constant pressure (pL) at X=L

Constant pressure (p0) at X=0

p0 pL

q

X=0 X=L

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The linear, one dimensional, horizontal, one

phase, partial differential flow equation for a 2 P c P

liquid, assuming constant permeability, viscosity 2

and compressibility for transient or time x k t

dependent flow:

dependent, we denote the flow as steady state. The

2

0

equation then simplifies to: x

development in the slab is given by: x

fluid

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Transient and steady state pressure distributions are illustrated graphically in

the figure below for a system where initial and right hand pressures are equal:

pressure vs. x

Left side

pressure

Steady state

solution

Transient

solution

x

Initial and

right side

x 2 1 n 2 2 k nx

P x, t PL PR PL exp 2 t sin pressure

L n 1 n L c L

x

Px, t PL PR PL

L

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Formation Evaluation

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Constant Rate Production in Constant Pressure Production

Bounded Radial Reservoir in Bounded Radial Reservoir

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WellTesting

Lecture#2:Fundamentalsoffluidflowinporousmedia

Shahab Gerami,PhD

1 S.Gerami

Outline

homogeneous porous media

Development of Hydraulic Diffusivity Equation for Flow of a

Slightly Compressible Oil

PhysicalModel

Simplifying Assumptions

Derivation

Dimensionlessform

Initialandboundaryconditions

Solution

vanEverdingen HurstConstantTerminalRateSolution

Infinitecylindricalreservoirwithlinesourcewell

Boundedcylindricalreservoir,pseudosteadystateflow

Laplace domainsolution

2 Applications S.Gerami

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The linear, one dimensional, horizontal, one

phase, partial differential flow equation for a 2 P c P

liquid, assuming constant permeability, viscosity =

and compressibility for transient or time x 2 k t

dependent flow:

dependent, we denote the flow as steady state. The =0

equation then simplifies to: x 2

development in the slab is given by: x

3 fluid

S.Gerami

the figure below for a system where initial and right hand pressures are equal:

pressure v s. x

Left side

pressure

Steady state

solution

Transient

solution

x

Initial and

right side

x 2 1 n 2 2 k nx

P( x, t ) = PL + (PR PL ) + exp 2 t sin pressure

L n =1 n L c L

x

P(x, t ) = PL + (PR PL )

4 L S.Gerami

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Development of Hydraulic Diffusivity Equation for Flow of a

Slightly Compressible Oil and Its Solution Subjected to

Different Boundary Conditions

Physicalmodel

Simplifyingassumptions

Mathematicalmodel

Choosinganappropriateelement

Governingequation

Massbalance

Momentumbalance(Darcyslaw)

Equationofstate

InitialandBoundaryconditions

Infiniteacting

Constantrateproduction

Constantpressureproduction

Finiteacting

Constantrateproduction

Constantpressureproduction

Solutions

Laplace spacesolutions

Timedomainsolutions

Simplifiedsolutions

Applications(Drawdown(singlerate&multirate),Reservoirlimittest,Buildup,Superposition(time

&space),),

5 S.Gerami

PhysicalModel

6 S.Gerami

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Simplifying Assumptions

7 S.Gerami

MathematicalModelGoverningEquation

Mass balance

( V )t + t ( o V )t

( A v )r +r ( o A v )r = o

t

o

k p

v gr =

r

Equation of state

o = ob exp(co ( p pb ) )

8 S.Gerami

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9 S.Gerami

10 S.Gerami

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11 S.Gerami

MathematicalModelGoverningEquation

cp

psia

1/psia

1 p ct p

r =

r r r 0.000264 k t

hr

ft

12

ct = c f + co S o + c w S w

S.Gerami

md

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HydraulicDiffusivityEquation

1 p 1 p

r =

r r r t

0.000264 k

=

ct

propagate in the reservoir. The more the permeability the faster the pressure

wave will propagate.

13 S.Gerami

DimensionlessHydraulicDiffusivityEquation

2 p D 1 p D p D

+ =

rD2 rD rD t D

14 S.Gerami

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InitialAndBoundaryConditions

RadialFlowInaCircularReservoir

Initial Condition: p = pi , t = 0, r rw

Condition conditions

Constantrate Infiniteacting p qBo ( p) = pi

= r

r r

w

2 rw hk

Constantrate Finiteacting p qBo p

(Bounded) = =0

r

r w

2 rw hk r rre

Constantpressure Infiniteacting

( p) rw = p wf ( p)

r = pi

Constantpressure Finiteacting p

(Bounded) ( p) = p wf =0

r rre

rw

15 S.Gerami

vanEverdingen HurstConstantTerminalRateSolution

BoundedCylindricalReservoir(exactsolution)

2t D

p wD (t D ) = 2 + ln(reD ) 0.75 + 2 2 2

e

J 12 n reD

n2 t D

( )

reD [

n =1 n J 1 ( n reD ) J 1 ( n )

2

]

J 1 ( n reD )Y1 ( n ) J 1 ( n )Y1 ( n reD ) = 0 n

Approximate Solutions

2. Bounded cylindrical reservoir, pseudo steady-state flow

16 S.Gerami

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Line-source & Finite-wellbore Solutions

The solution to differential equations treating the well as a vertical line

through a porous medium .The solution is nearly identical to the finite-

wellbore solution. At very early times, there is a notable difference in the

solutions, but the differences disappear soon after a typical well is opened

to flow or shut in for a buildup test, and in practice the differences are

masked by wellbore storage .

Thesolutiontothediffusivityequationthatresultswhenthewell(inner)

boundaryconditionistreatedasacylinderoffiniteradius insteadoftreatingthe

wellasalinesource.

Line-source: the well has zero radius Finite-wellbore

p qBo p qBo

= =

r r 0 2 rw hk r

r w

2 rw hk

17 S.Gerami

18 S.Gerami

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Infinitecylindricalreservoirwithlinesourcewell

(approximatesolution)

Dimensionless solution Line-source: the well has zero radius

1 ct r 2

p D = Ei 948

2 k t

Dimensional solution

qB ct rw2

p wf = pi + 70.6 Ei 948

kh k t

eu ln(1.781x ) for x < 0.02 (error 0.6%)

Ei ( x ) = du =

x

u 0 for x > 10.9

19 S.Gerami

Infinitecylindricalreservoirwithlinesourcewell

(Rangeofapplicability)

qB ct rw2

p wf = pi + 70.6 Ei 948

kh k t

The reservoir is no longer

infinite acting

ct rw2 ct re2

3.79 105 < t < 948

k k

limits the accuracy of the solution

20 S.Gerami

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Example

Awellisproducingonlyoilatconstantrateof20STB/D.Datadescribingthewelland

formationaresummarizedbelow.Calculatethereservoirpressure atradiiof1,10,and100

ftafter3hrsofproduction.

rw = 0.5 ft

re = 3,000 ft

h = 150 ft

k = 0.1 md

= 0.23

S wi = 0

= 0.72 cp

Bo = 1.475 RB / STB

ct = 1.5 10 5 psi 1

q = 20 STB / Day

21 S.Gerami

FirstwemustdetermineweathertheEi functionsolutionisvalidforthedesiredtimes.

ct rw2 ct re2

3.79 105

k

< t < 948

k

2.35 < t < 211,900 hr

4000 4000

t=3 hr

3800 3900 t=10,000 hr t=211,900 hr

t=100 hr

3800

3600 t=1000 hr

3700

p(psia)

p(psia)

3400

3600

3200

3500

3000

3400

2800 3300

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

r(ft) r(ft)

22 S.Gerami

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FlowingWellbore Pressure

Flowing wellbore pressure Flowing wellbore pressure

3600 3600

3500 qB ct rw2

3500 pwf = pi + 70.6 Ei 948

kh k t

3400 3400

3300 3300

p (psia)

p (psia)

3200 3200

wf

wf

3100 3100

3000 3000

2900 2900

2800 2800 0

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1 2 3

time(hr) 10 10 10 10

time(hr)

eu

Ei ( x ) = du ln(1.781x ) for x < 0.02 (error 0.6%)

x

u

162.6qBo k

p wf (t ) = pi log t 3.23

kh ct rw

2

23 S.Gerami

3600

E function

i

3500 Log approximation

3400

3300

p (psia)

3200

wf

3100

3000

2900

2800 0 1 2 3

10 10 10 10

time(hr)

qB ct rw2

p wf = pi + 70.6 Ei 948

kh k t

162.6qBo k

p wf (t ) = pi log t 3.23

kh ct rw

2

24 S.Gerami

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Dimensionlesstransientpressureresponseofa

radialwellininfinitereservoir

p wD (t D ) =

2t D

+ ln(reD ) 0.75 + 2 2 2

e

n2 t

D

(

J 12 n reD )

reD2 n =1 n J[1 ( n eD ) J 1 ( n )

r 2

]

p wD (t D ) =

1

[ln(t D ) + 0.80908]

2

25 S.Gerami

Application:Drawdowntest

(estimationofpermeability)

162.6qBo k

pi pwf (t ) = log(t ) + log 3.23

kh c r 2

t w

162.6qBo k

p wf (t ) = pi log t 3.23

kh ct rw

2

pwf (t ) = a m log(t )

162.6qBo

m=

kh

162.6qBo k

a = pi log 3.23

kh ct rw

2

26 S.Gerami

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Skin

The skin effect, first introduced by van Everdingen and Hurst (1949)

defines a steady-state pressure difference around the wellbore.

27 S.Gerami

Skin

Skin zone: The region of altered

permeability(Afewinchestoseveralfeet

fromthewellbore).Theeffectoftheskin

zone is to alter the pressure distribution

aroundthewellbore.

permeability aroundthewellbore dueto

entrance of materials such as mud In case of wellbore damage, the

filtrate, cement slurry, or clay particles skin zone causes an additional

during drilling, completion, or workover pressure loss in the formation.

operations.

In case of wellbore improvement,

Wellbore stimulation:increasing ofthe

the opposite to that of wellbore

permeability nearthewellbore using: damage occurs.

Acidizing

Fracturing

28 S.Gerami

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Unsteadystateradialflow(accountingforthe

skinfactor)forslightlycompressiblefluids

Hawkins (1956) suggested that the permeability in the skin zone, i.e., skin, is uniform and the

pressure drop across the zone can be approximated by Darcys equation. Hawkins proposed

the following approach:

29 S.Gerami

30 S.Gerami

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Application:AccountingforSkin

162.6qBo k

pi pwf (t ) = log(t ) + log 3.23 + 0.87 S

kh c r 2

t w

pwf (t ) = a m log(t )

162.6qBo

m=

kh

162.6qBo k

a = pi log 3.23 + 0.87 S

kh ct rw

2

31 S.Gerami

3800

Without skin

With skin

3600

Skin=-1

3400

p (psia)

3200

Skin=0

wf

3000

2800 Skin=+1

2600 0 1 2 3

10 10 10 10

time(hr)

32 S.Gerami

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Application: Semi-log Pressure

Drawdown Data

33 S.Gerami

Example: Estimate the oil permeability and skin factor from the drawdown data

of Figure 1.34. Assuming that the wellbore storage effect is not significant

calculate:

the permeability;

the skin factor;

the additional pressure drop due to the skin.

34 S.Gerami

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Solution

Step1.FromFigure1.34,calculatep1hr:p1hr=954psi

Step2.Determinetheslopeofthetransientflowline:m=22psi/cycle

Step3.Calculatethepermeability:

Step4.Solvefortheskinfactors

Step5.Calculatetheadditionalpressuredrop:

35

35 S.Gerami

Boundedcylindricalreservoir,pseudosteadystate

flow(approximatesolution)

ct re2

t > 948

k

2t D

pwD (t D ) = + ln(reD ) 0.75

reD2

141.2qB 0.0005274k r

pwf = pi t + ln e 0.75

kh ct re rw

2

36 S.Gerami

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RadiusofInvestigation

kt

ri =

948Ct

37 S.Gerami

38 S.Gerami

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ReservoirLimitsTest

(estimationofreservoirporevolume)

141.2qB 0.0005274 k r

pwf = pi t + ln e 0.75

kh c r

t e

2

r

w

=

t ct re2

V p = re2 h

p wf 0.234qBo

=

t ctV p

39 S.Gerami

2 p D 1 p D p D

+ =

rD2 rD rD t D

pD = 0 t D = 0, rD 1

p D

= 1 t D f 0, rD = 1

rD rD =1

p D

=0 t D f 0, rD = rDe = rw re

rD rD =1

40 S.Gerami

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Bessel Differential Equation Modified Bessel Differential Equation

d

drD

( )

I 0 rD S = S I 1 rD S ( )

d

drD

( )

K 0 rD S = S K1 rD S ( )

41 S.Gerami

Infiniteactingreservoir

pD (S ) =

(

K 0 rD S )

S S K1 S ( )

Constantratesolution

Boundedreservoir

pD (S ) =

[K (r ) ( ) ( ) ( )]

1 De S I 0 rD S + I1 rDe S K 0 rD S

[ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )]

S S K1 S I1 rDe S K1 rDe S I1 S

(

Infiniteactingreservoir

K r S

q D (S ) = 1 D

)

S K0 ( S )

Constantpressuresolution

Boundedreservoir

qw D (S ) =

( )( ) ( ) ( )

K1 rDe S I1 S I1 rDe S K1 S

[ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )]

S K1 rDe S I 0 S + K 0 S I1 rDe S

42 S.Gerami

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Solutions Laplace Domain(Sabet,1991).

Infinite-acting reservoir

p wD (t D ) =

1

[ln(t D ) + 0.80908]

2

Constant rate solution

Boundary dominated flow- approximate late time

2t D

p wD (t D ) = + ln(reD ) 0.75

reD2

43 S.Gerami

NumericalInverseLaplace Transformation

44 S.Gerami

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NumericalInverseLaplace Transformation

(Stehfest Algorithm)

45 S.Gerami

Assignment#2.a

Anoilwellisproducingataconstantflowrateof500STB/dayunderunsteadystateflow

conditions.Thereservoirhasthefollowingrockandfluidproperties:

rw = 0.3 ft

(1)Calculatethepressureatradiiof0.3,5,10,50,

h = 100 ft

100,500,1000,1500,2000,and2500ft,for1hour.Plot

k = 0.2 md theresultsas:

= 0.23 (a)pressureversusthelogarithmofradius;

S wi = 0 (b)pressureversusradius

= 0.75 cp

(2)Repeatpart1fort=12hoursand24hours.Plotthe

Bo = 1.4 RB / STB

resultsaspressureversuslogarithmofradius.

ct = 1.6 10 5 psi 1

pi = 4500 psi (3)Estimatethebottomholeflowingpressureafter10

hoursofproduction.

46 S.Gerami

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Assignment#2.b

Awellhasflownsinglephaseoilfor10daysatrateof800STB/D.Rockand

fluidpropertiesare:

Rock and fluid properties

Bo, RB/STB 1.13 h, ft 50

Pi, Psia 3000 Ct psi-1 2.00E-05

,cp 0.5 0.16

k md(constant) 25 rw, ft 0.33

(1)Assumeinfinitereservoirandcalculatepressureatradiiof 0.33,10,1000,3160ftand

plottheresultsaspressurevs.logarithmofradius.

(2)Estimatetheradiusofinvestigationachievedafter10daysflowtime,calculatethe

pressuredropatradiusofinvestigation,isthepressuredropatradiusofinvestigation

equaltozero?Explainbriefly.

(3)Supposetheproductionratewas400STB/Day.Prepareaplot ofpressurevs.

logarithmofradiusafter10dayonthesamegraphastheplotdevelopedforarateof

800STB//Day.Istheradiusofinvestigationcalculatedfromthe appropriateequation

affectedbychangeinflowrate?Whatistheeffectofincreased rateonpressureinside

thereservoir?

47 S.Gerami

Assignment#2.c

Anoilwellisproducingatconstantoilflowrateof120STB/dayundera

semisteadystateflowregime.Welltestingdataindicatesthatthepressure is

decliningataconstantrateof0.04655psi/hr.Thefollowingadditiondatais

available:

k = 0.2 md

= 0.15

Bo = 1.4 RB / STB

ct = 1.5 10 5

psi 1

Calculatethewelldrainagearea.

48 S.Gerami

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Assignment#2.d

A12inchdiameterholehasadamagedregion24inchec tickmeasured

fromthewellbore wall.Thepermeabilityinthisregionisonetenthof

undamagedregion.

1. findtheskinvalue?

2. Findtheequivalentwellbore radiusthatwouldrepresenttheaboveskin.

3. Repeatpartaandbforthecasewheretheareaaroundthewellbore was

4. Comparetheresultsofdamagedwellwithstimulatedone.

49 S.Gerami

Assignment#2.e 0

0.0109

3000

2976

3.82

4.37

1696

1684

0.0164 2964 4.91 1674

Usespreadsheetcalculationto

0.0218 2953 5.46 1665

performdrawdownanalysisfor

0.0273 2942 6.55 1651

thefollowingproblem: 0.0328 2930 8.74 1630

Aconstantratedrawdowntestwas 0.0382 2919 10.9 1587

runinawellwithfollowing 0.0437 2908 16.4 1568

0.0546 2886 32.8 1543

0.109 2785 38.2 1533

q = 500{STB / Day} 0.164 2693 43.7 1525

rw = 0.3 ft

= 0.2 0.218 2611 49.1 1517

h = 56 ft 0.273 2536 54.6 1511

= 0.8cp

B o = 1.2 RB / STB 0.328 2469 65.5 1500

0.491 2302 109.2 1468

0.546 2256 163.8 1440

Fromthetestdatainfollowingtableestimate 1.09 1952 218.4 1416

formationpermeability,Skinandthearea(in 1.64 1828 273 1393

acres)drainedbythewell. 2.18 1768 327.6 1370

2.73 1734

3.28 1712

50 S.Gerami

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WellTesting

Lecture#3:DrawdownAnalysis

Shahab Gerami,PhD

1 S.Gerami

Outline

QuickreviewandtheremainingpartofLecture#2

Timetostabilization

Derivativeanalysis

Wellbore storage

PartialPenetrationSkin

Superpositionprinciple

Superpositionintime

Superpositioninspace

Methodofimages

Hornersapproximation

Flowequationforgeneralizedreservoirgeometries

2 S.Gerami

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DimensionlessHydraulicDiffusivityEquation

2 p D 1 p D p D

+ =

rD 2

rD rD t D

3 S.Gerami

RadialSystem ConstantRateProduction

p wf = pi + 70.6 Ei 948 3.79 105 < t < 948

k k

kh k t

162.6qBo k

pi pwf (t ) = log(t ) + log 3.23 + 0.87 S

kh c r 2

t w

pwf (t ) = a m log(t )

162.6qBo

m=

kh

162.6qBo k

a = pi log 3.23 + 0.87 S

ct rw

2

kh

0.0005274 k ct re2

141.2qB r t > 948

pwf = pi t + ln e 0.75 k

ct re

2

kh rw

4 S.Gerami

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Application: Semi-log Pressure

Drawdown Data

5 S.Gerami

ReservoirLimitsTest

(estimationofreservoirporevolume)

141.2qB 0.0005274 k r

pwf = pi t + ln e 0.75 + S

ct re

2

kh rw

=

t hct re2

V p = re2 h

p wf 0.234qBo

=

t ctV p

6 S.Gerami

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7 S.Gerami

TimetoStabilization

8 S.Gerami

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Transient approximate solution

9 S.Gerami

DerivativeAnalysis

Derivative:theslopeofthesemilogplotofpressureversustime. dp

d ln t

Givenasetofpressureversustimedataobtainedinadrawdowntestthat

involvesmeasurementoftransientpressurebehaviour,acommonand

quiteoldtechniquefromanengineeringviewpointistheuseof type

curvematchingasadiagnosticofdifferentflowregimespresent during

thetest(wellbore storage,skin,closedouterboundary,vertically

fracturedwellandothers).

Perhapsoneofthemajoradvantagesinusingthepressurederivativein

conjunctionwithpressureistheidentificationoftheflowregime.

10 S.Gerami

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DerivativeAnalysis:TransientRadialFlowRegime

162.6qBo k

pi pwf (t ) = pwf = log(t ) + log 3.23 + 0.87 S

kh ct rw2

dpwf 162.6qBo

=

d log t kh

dpwf 162.6qBo

log = 0 log(t ) + log

d log t kh

11 S.Gerami

DerivativeAnalysis:P.S.SRadialFlowRegime

141.2qB 0.0005274 k r

pi p wf = p wf = t + ln e 0.75 + S

ct re

2

kh rw

1

d log t = dt

t

= 2.3026 t =t

d log t dt hct re2

dpwf 0.1715qBo

log = 1 log(t ) + log

hc r 2

d log t t e

12 S.Gerami

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ProcedureforDerivativeAnalysis

To calculate the pressure derivative curve we need to use the formula of

derivative which is:

p

PDrivative = t.

t

pi 1 pi +1

ti-1 Pi-1 PDrivative(i ) = t i

ti Pi

t i +1 t i 1

ti+1 Pi+1

13 S.Gerami

IllustrationofPressureDerivativeMethod

14 S.Gerami

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Wellbore Storage

Due to the finite wellbore volume, the initial production from a well opened

at surface is dominated by expansion of the fluids in the wellbore.

q

Rate Surface Rate

Sandface rate

Wellbore rate

qsf

Vwb

Time

qsf

15 S.Gerami

Wellbore Storage

Distortionsinthe reservoirresponseduetothevolumeofwellbore.

Acrucialpartofthetransientanalysisistodistinguishtheeffectsof

wellbore storagefromtheinterpretablereservoirresponse .

Drawdowntest

Onopeningthevalveatsurface,theinitialflowrateisdueto

wellbore unloading

Aswellbore unloadinggraduallydecreasestozero,theflowfromthe

formationincreasesfromzerotoqsc

Builduptest

Aftershutinatthesurface,flowfromtheformationdoesnotstop

immediately.

Flowoffluidintothewellpersistsforsometimeaftershutindueto

compressibilityofthefluid.

Therateofflowchangesgraduallyfromqsc atthetimeofshutinto

zeroduringacertaintimeperiod.

16 S.Gerami

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In = q sf B

Out = qB q

d (24 wbVwb )

Accum. =

dt

d

q sf B qB = 24Vwb

dt Vwb

We can write

1 d d wb d wb dp wb dp

c= = = wb c wb wb

dp

dt dp dt dt

qsf

B = C st 24c wbVwb wb dp w

q sf = q +

B R dt

Define C = c wbVwb

24C wb dp w 0.8936C 0.8936c wbVwb

Assume wb R q sf = q + CD = =

B dt ct hrw2 ct hrw2

17 S.Gerami

18 S.Gerami

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VanEverdingen andHurst,1949

The rate of unloading off/ or storage in, the wellbore per unit pressure

difference is constant. This constant is known as the wellbore storage constant.

Cs = Vws cws

Vws(bbl): Volume of wellbore tubing (and annulus if there is no packer)

cws: Compressibility of the wellbore fluid evaluated at the mean

wellbore pressure and temperature and not at reservoir condition, as is

usually the case.

0.894C s

C sD =

h c rw2

19 S.Gerami

Due to wellbore storage at early times a deviation from constant rate solution to the

diffusivity equation is observed. After a certain period of time, tws, this deviation

becomes negligible.

Ramey(1965) has shown that for various values of CsD, the time for which wellbore

storage effects are significant, is given by:

t wsD = 60C sD

0.000264kt

twsD =

ct rw2

60 0.894 Vws cs V c

t ws = = 203182 ws ws

0.000264 k h kh

Two important trends:

Wellbore storage effects increase directly with well depth (Vws) and inversly

with formation flow capacity (kh).

Wellbore storage effects decrease with increasing pressure level (cws).

20 S.Gerami

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Agarwal,AlHussainy andRamey(1970)showedthatforallpracticalpurposes,

thedurationofwellbore storageeffectsisalsogivenby

twsD > 60CsD

For positive skin

t wsD = (60 + 3.5S )C sD

or

t ws =

(200,000 + 12,000S )C s

kh

21 S.Gerami

A rule of thumb, developed from the fundamental solutions of the diffusivity equation

including wellbore storage and skin effect (Agarwal et al., 1970), suggests that the

transition period lasts 1.5 log cycles from the cessation of predominant wellbore storage

effects (unit slope line). Points beyond that time fall on a semi-log straight line.

22 S.Gerami

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PartialPenetrationSkin

Thepartialpenetrationskinisusedwhentheperforations

ofaverticalwellbore donotspantheentirenetpayofthe

reservoir.Inthesesituations,thereservoirflowhastoflow

verticallyandtheflowlinesconvergeattheperforations.

Theconvergenceofflowlinesnearthewellbore resultinan

additionalpressuredrop;aneffectsimilartothatcausedby

wellbore damage.Thereforethispressuredropisdealtwith

asifitwasaskineffectanditislabelledastheskindueto

partial penetration. This effect is always positive. It is a

function of the perforated interval, the distance from the

top of the zone to the top of the perforations and the

horizontal to vertical permeability ratio (Muskat, 1946;

Nisle,1958;Brons andMarting,1959;Kirkham,1959;Odeh,

1968; Seth, 1968; Clegg and Mills, 1969; Kazemi, and Seth,

1969; Gringarten and Ramey, 1975; StreltsovaAdams,

1978).23 S.Gerami

PartiallyPenetratingVerticalWell

(Streltsova,1988)

24 S.Gerami

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Aradialwellinafiniteactingreservoiringeneraldisplays3flowperiods.Theflow

periodsaremosteasilyidentifiedfromthederivativeplot.The initialunitslopeis

indicativeofwellbore storage.Theinitialproductionisdominatedbyexpansionof

thefluidsinthewellbore.Ingeneralfrictionlossesalongthewellbore arenegligible

andthewellbore behaveslikeatank.Foraslightlycompressiblefluidaswellasforan

idealgasthefirstorderderivativeofthepressurewillbeconstant(assuminga

constantproduction),resultinginaunitslopederivative.

Thehumpthatfollowstheunit

slopeiscausedbynearwellbore

impairment,oftencharacterized

byaskinfactor.

25 S.Gerami

162.6qBo k

pi pwf (t ) = pwf = log(t ) + log 3.23 + 0.87 S

2

kh ct rw

or

t ws =

(200,000 + 12,000S )C s

kh

26 S.Gerami

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SuperpositionPrinciple

Linear diffusivity equation

Amathematicaltechniquebasedonthepropertythatsolutionsto linearpartial

equationscanbeaddedtoprovideyetanothersolution.Thispermitsconstructionsof

mathematicalsolutionstosituationswithcomplexboundaryconditions,especially

drawdownandbuilduptests,andinsettingswhereflowrateschangewithtime.

Mathematicallythesuperpositiontheoremstatesthatanysumofindividual

solutionstothediffusivityequationisalsoasolutiontothatequation.This

conceptcanbeappliedtoaccountforthefollowingeffectsonthetransientflow

solution:

Superpositionintime

Effectsofratechange

Superpositioninspace

Effectsofmultiplewells

Effectsoftheboundary

27 S.Gerami

28 S.Gerami

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29 S.Gerami

Superpositioninspace

30 S.Gerami

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31 S.Gerami

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34 S.Gerami

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35 S.Gerami

36 S.Gerami

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(1)EffectsofMultipleWells

Thesuperpositionconceptstatesthatthetotalpressuredropat anypoint

inthereservoiristhesumofthepressurechangesatthatpointcausedby

flowineachofthewellsinthereservoir.Inotherwords,wesimply

superimposeoneeffectupontheother.

37 S.Gerami

38 S.Gerami

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39 S.Gerami

(2)EffectsofVariableFlowRates

Allofthemathematicalexpressionspresented Qo3

previouslyrequirethatthewellsproduceat Qo1

constantrateduringthetransientflowperiods. Qo4

Practicallyallwellsproduceatvaryingratesand,

therefore,itisimportantthatwebeabletopredict Qo2

thepressurebehaviorwhenratechanges.Forthis

purpose,theconceptofsuperpositionstates,

Everyflowratechangeinawellwillresultina

pressureresponsewhichisindependentofthe

pressureresponsescausedbyotherpreviousrate

changes. Accordingly,thetotalpressuredropthat

hasoccurredatanytimeisthesummationof

pressurechangescausesseparatelybyeachnet

flowratechange.

40 S.Gerami

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(2)Productionscheduleforvariableratewell

q2

q1 q3

Eachwellthatcontributetothetotal

q

pressuredrawdownwillbeatthesame

positioninthereservoir.Thewellssimply

willbe turnedon atdifferenttimes. t1 t2 t

Thesewells,ingeneral,willbeinsideazone q1

ofalteredpermeabilityzone.

Well#1

q2 q1

Well#2

t1

t2 Well#3

41 S.Gerami q3 q2

150

100

85

70

42 S.Gerami

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43 S.Gerami

HornerApproximation

Anapproximationthatcanbeusedinmanycasestoavoidusing

superpositiontomodeltheproductionhistoryofavariablerate well.

ThesequenceofEi functionscanbereplacedwithasingleEi functionthat

containsasingleproducingtimeandasingleproducingrate.

Theproducingrate,qlast,isthemostrecentnonzerorateatwhichthe

wellwasproduced.

Thesingleproducingtime(pseudoproducingtime)isfoundbydividing

thecumulativeproductionfromthewellbythemostrecentrate.

Np

t p = 24

qlast

qlast B c r2

pi pwf = 70.6 Ei 948 t w

kh k tp

44 S.Gerami

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Np

Twoquestions?! t p = 24

qlast

1. Whatisthebasisofthisequation? qlast B ct rw2

pi pwf = 70.6 Ei 948

2. Underwhatconditionsisitapplicable? kh k tp

Answers

1. Thebasisfortheapproximationisintuitiveandnotrigorous

Clearchoiceisthemostrecentratewhichismaintainedforany significantperiod.

Theproductofeffectiveproductiontimeandproductionrateresultsincorrect

cumulativeproduction.Thus,ithonorsthematerialbalanceequation.

2. Theapproximationisadequateifthemostrecentflowrateismaintainedlong

enough.

tlast

Guideline:Hornersapproximationisvalidwhen: >2

tnext to last

45 S.Gerami

(3)EffectsoftheReservoirBoundary

(methodofimages)

The superposition theorem can also be extended to predict the pressure of a

well in a bounded reservoir.

Mathematically,thenoflowconditioncanbemet

byplacinganimagewell,identicaltothatofthe

actualwell,ontheothersideofthefaultat

exactlydistancer.Consequently,theeffectof

theboundaryonthepressurebehaviorofawell

wouldbethesameastheeffectfromanimage

welllocatedadistance2r fromtheactualwell.

46 S.Gerami

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BO q

qD = 0.0002637

khpi

47 S.Gerami

48 S.Gerami

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49 S.Gerami

AccountingforNoncircular

DrainageArea

50 S.Gerami

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51 S.Gerami

52 S.Gerami

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53 S.Gerami

54 S.Gerami

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55 S.Gerami

Assignment#3.a:Areservoirhasthefollowingproperties:

Pi = 2500 psia

B = 1.32 RB / STB

= 0.44cp

k = 25md

h = 43 ft

Ct = 18 E 6 psi 1

= 0.16

A = 250 Acres

Awellwithskinfactorof3andawellbore radiusof0.3ftatthecenterof

thiscircularreservoirisopenedtoflowat250STB/Dayforday one.Atthe

beginningoftheseconddaytheflowincreasesto450STB/Dayandatthe

beginningofthefourthdayto300STB/day.Whatisthepressureinthe

wellatthebeginningofthe7th day.(i.e 6fulldaysafterthewellwasfirst

openedtoflow.

56 S.Gerami

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Assignment#3.b:Adrawdowntestisperformedinawellclosetoasealingfault,the

reservoirisotherwiseinfinite.

a WritetheequationdescribesPwf (assumewellisatdistanceLfromFault)

bUsetheaboveequationanddescribewhyattheearlytimetheslopofPwf vs.Timeon

qB

asemilogplotis,andwhyatlatetimetheslopdoubles.

162.6

kh

57 S.Gerami

theratedecreasedcontinuouslythroughout 0 5000 200 3.64 4797 121

thetestwasruninawellwiththefollowing 0.114 4927 145 4.37 4798 119

properties: 1.136 4917 143 5.27 4798 118

0.164 4905 142 6.29 4798 117

= 0.2 0.197 4893 141 7.54 4799 116

0.34 4856 137 13 4801 112

h = 100 ft

0.408 4844 136 15.6 4801 110

Bo = 1.3RB / STB

0.49 4833 135 18.8 4802 109

Awb = 0.0218 ft 2 0.587 4823 133 22.5 4803 108

= 55lb / ft 3 0.705 4815 132 27 4803 107

0.846 4809 131 32.4 4804 105

Fromthefollowingdataestimateformation

1.02 4804 129 38.9 4805 104

permeabilityandskinFactor

1.22 4801 128 46.7 4806 103

1.46 4799 127 56.1 4807 102

1.75 4798 126 67.3 4807 100

2.11 4797 124 80.7 4808 99

2.53 4797 123 96.9 4809 98

3.03 4797 122

58 S.Gerami

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time hr Pwf q(STB/Day) time hr Pwf q(STB/Day)

Assignment#3.d:RepeatAssignment#3.c 0 5000 200 3.64 4797 121

usingHornersapproximation.Comparethe 0.114 4927 145 4.37 4798 119

resultswiththosefoundinAssignment#3.c 1.136 4917 143 5.27 4798 118

solution.Nextignorethevariationinrateand 0.164 4905 142 6.29 4798 117

analyzethedatausingconstantrateanalysis 0.197 4893 141 7.54 4799 116

technique.Usingtheinitialrate. 0.236 4881 140 9.05 4799 114

0.283 4868 138 10.9 4800 113

0.34 4856 137 13 4801 112

0.408 4844 136 15.6 4801 110

0.49 4833 135 18.8 4802 109

0.587 4823 133 22.5 4803 108

0.705 4815 132 27 4803 107

0.846 4809 131 32.4 4804 105

1.02 4804 129 38.9 4805 104

1.22 4801 128 46.7 4806 103

1.46 4799 127 56.1 4807 102

1.75 4798 126 67.3 4807 100

2.11 4797 124 80.7 4808 99

2.53 4797 123 96.9 4809 98

3.03 4797 122

59 S.Gerami

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WellTesting

Lecture#4&5:BuildupAnalysis

Shahab Gerami,PhD

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1 S.Gerami

Outline

BuildupTest

BehaviorofStaticSandface PressureUponShutinofaWell

Buildupassuperpositionofrates

Hornerplotrelationship

DetectingFaultsfromBuildup

Agarwal EquivalentTime

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QualitativeInterpretationofBuildupCurves

Builup duringpseudosteadystateflow

AverageReservoirPressure

MillerDyesHutchinson(MDH)Method

TheMatthewsBronsHazebroek (MBH)Method

RameyCobbmethod

Dietzmethod

2 S.Gerami

BuildupTest

Drawdowndataqualityissubjecttomanyoperationalproblems;slugging,

turbulence,ratevariation,inaccurateratemeasurements,instability,

unsteadyflow,plugging,interruptions,equipmentadjustments,etc

Buildupismeasurementofpressureandtimewhenwellisshutin.

Inhighpermeabilityreservoirsthepressurewillbuilduptoastabilized

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valuequickly,butintightformationsthepressuremaycontinue to

buildupformonthbeforestabilizationattained.

Buildupmustbeprecededbyflowperiod.

SimplifiedAnalysisassumesconstantflowrateforadurationt hours.

Shutintime,t,measuredfromendflow.

BuildupAnalysistreatedassuperpositionofflowandinjection.

AnalysisofbuildupdatamayyieldthevaluesofK,S,andtheaverage

reservoirpressure.

3 S.Gerami

Buildupisalwaysprecededbyadrawdownand

thebuildupdataaredirectlyaffectedbythis

drawdown.

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Methodsofanalysis:

Hornerplot(1951):Infiniteactingreservoir

MatthewsBronsHazebroek (MBH,1954):

ExtensionofHornerplottofinitereservoir.

MillerDyesHutchinson(MDHplot,1950):

AnalysisofP.S.S.flowconditions.

4 S.Gerami

BehaviorofStaticSandface PressureUpon

ShutinofaWell

Reflectstheeffects

Reflectskh ofboundaries.

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Reflectsthewellbore

storage(afterflow)

5 S.Gerami

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6

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7

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Flowingsandface pressureduringdrawdown

162.6qBo k

pi pwf = log(t ) + log 3.23 + 0.87 S

kh c r 2

t w

thecontinuingeffectofthedrawdownrate,qsc,andthesuperposedeffectofthe

changeinrate(0qsc)

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162.6qBo k

pi pws = log (t + t ) + log 3.23 + 0.87 S +

kh c r 2

t w

162.6(0 q )Bo k

log (t ) + log 3.23 + 0.87 S

kh c r 2

t w

Hornerplotrelationship Infiniteactingreservoir

162.6qBo t + t

pi pws (t ) = log

kh t

8 S.Gerami

Hornerplotrelationship

162.6qBo t + t

pi pws (t ) = log

kh t

t + t

Horner time =

t

Slopeofsemilog straightlinesameas

drawdown usedtocalculatepermeability.

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162.6qBo

m=

kh

9 S.Gerami

Buildup test does NOT allow for skin calculation. Skin is obtained from FLOWING

pressure before shut-in.

162.6qBo k 162.6qB t p + t

pws (t p + t ) pwf (t p ) = log(t p ) + log 3.23 + 0.87 S o

log

2

kh ct rw kh t

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162.6qBo t p t

p ws (t p + t ) p wf (t p ) = log + log k 3.23 + 0.87 S

kh t p + t c r 2

t w

t = 1 hr

p1hr p wf k tp

S = 1.151 log 2

+ 3.23

m (t p + 1) ct rw

10 S.Gerami

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p1hr p wf k tp

S = 1.151 log + 3.23

m (t + 1) c r 2

p t w

11 S.Gerami

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12

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13

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DetectingFaultsfromBuildup

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14 S.Gerami

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15

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16

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17

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Agarwal EquivalentTime

dpwf

Log-Log Analysis for drawdown test: log vs log(t )

d log t

pi pi p wf (t )

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p wf (t )

p ws (t ) p wf (t p + t )

p wf (t p )

Measured pressure

p wf (t p + t )

flowing pressure

18 S.Gerami

Agarwal EquivalentTime

[p (t ) p (t )]

ws wf p

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ws wf p

]

+ t )

19 S.Gerami

Agarwal EquivalentTime

A time at which measurable pressure difference is equal to correct pressure difference.

[p (t ) p (t )]= [p (t ) p (t

ws e wf p ws wf p

]

+ t )

te can be determined exactly for infinite acting radial flow, when the log

approximation is valid.

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This strictly true if only for infinite acting radial flow without wellbore storage.

te = tt/(t + t)

petroleum industry by Agarwal et al. (1970) as a valuable tool

when used in conjunction with conventional semilog plots.

A type curve is a graphical representation of the theoretical

solutions to flow equations.

20 S.Gerami

Agarwal EquivalentTime

te = tt/(t + t)

Definitionofequivalenttimeillustratesthatradiusofinvestigationina

buildupdependson:

1.durationofDrawdown

2.durationofBuildup

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21 S.Gerami

S.Gerami

22

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QualitativeInterpretationofBuildupCurves

Wellbore storage derivative transients are recognized as a hump in early time. The flat derivative portion in late time is easily

analyzed as the Horner semilog straight line.

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The level of the second-derivative plateau is twice the value of the level of the first-derivative plateau, and the Horner plot

shows the familiar slope-doubling effect.

23 S.Gerami

Unlike the drawdown pressure transient, this has a unit-slope line in late time that is indicative of pseudosteady-state flow;

the buildup pressure derivative drops to zero. The permeability and skin cannot be determined from the Horner plot

because no portion of the data exhibits a flat derivative for this example. When transient data resembles example d, the

only way to determine the reservoir parameters is with a type curve match.

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24 S.Gerami

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25

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26

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27

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29

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30

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31

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32

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34

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35

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36

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37

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AverageReservoirPressure

materialbalancestudies;

waterinflux;

pressuremaintenanceprojects;

secondaryrecovery;

degreeofreservoirconnectivity.

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38 S.Gerami

S.Gerami

39

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AverageReservoirPressure

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in a finite reservoir

40 S.Gerami

TheMatthewsBronsHazebroek (MBH)

Method

Amethodologyforestimatingaveragepressurefrombuildup

testsinboundeddrainageregions.

Theoreticalcorrelationsbetweentheextrapolatedsemilog

straightlinetothep andcurrentaveragedrainagearea

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pressurep.

Theaveragepressureinthedrainageareaofeachwellcanbe

relatedtop ifthegeometry,shape,andlocationofthewell

relativetothedrainageboundariesareknown.

Asetofcorrectionchartsforvariousdrainagegeometriesare

developed.

41 S.Gerami

m=The Horner semilog straight-line plot slope

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42 S.Gerami

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43

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44

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46

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47

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48

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ModifiedMuskat

2t D

p wD (t D ) = 2 + ln(reD ) 0.75 + 2 2 2

e

n2 t D

J 12 n reD ( )

reD [

n =1 n J 1 ( n reD ) J 1 ( n )

2

]

J 1 ( n reD )Y1 ( n ) J 1 ( n )Y1 ( n reD ) = 0

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ApproximateSolutionsonceboundaryeffectarefelt

qB k t

p p ws = 118.6 exp 0.00388

2

kh ct re

log( p p ws ) = A + Bt

250 ct re2 750 ct re2

< t <

k k

49 S.Gerami

ModifiedMuskat

k

< t

750 ct re2

<

k

2. Plot log (pavg-pws) versus t

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3. Is it a straight line?

4. If the answer is yes, the assumed value is the average reservoir pressure

otherwise GO TO 1.

50 S.Gerami t

ModifiedMuskat

log( p pws ) = A + Bt

Advantages

1. It requires no estimate no estimates of reservoir properties when it is used to

establish pavg.

2. It provide satisfactory estimates of pavg for hydraulically fractured wells and layered reservoirs.

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Disadvantages

1. It fails when the tested well is not

reasonably centered in its drainage

area.

log( p pws ) 250 ct re2

750 ct re2

< t <

2. The required shut-in times are frequently k k

impractically long, particularly in low

permeability reservoirs.

51 S.Gerami t

RameyCobbmethod

RameyandCobb(1971)proposedthattheaveragepressureinthewell

drainageareacanbereaddirectlyfromthe Hornersemilog straightlineif

thefollowingdataisavailable:

shapeofthewelldrainagearea;

locationofthewellwithinthedrainagearea;

sizeofthedrainagearea.

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52 S.Gerami

S.Gerami

53

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Dietzmethod

Dietz(1965)indicatedthatifthetestwellhasbeenproducinglong

enoughtoreachthepseudosteady statebeforeshutin,theaverage

pressurecanbereaddirectlyfromtheMDHsemilog straightlineplot,i.e.,

pws vs.log(t),atthefollowingshutintime:

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54 S.Gerami

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55

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Assignment# 4.a

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56 S.Gerami

Well Testing

Lecture #6: Hydraulically Fractured Well

Shahab Gerami, PhD

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RadialSystemFlow

Regime

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S.Gerami

HydraulicFracturing

Oftennewlydrilledwellsdonotflowsatisfactorilyandstimulationisrequired.Apopularandeffective

stimulationpracticeishydraulicfracturing.Theobjectiveofthistechniqueistoprovideagreatly

increasedsurfaceforthereservoirfluidtoenterthewellbore.Inorderforthistobeeffectivethe

pressuredropalongthefractureneedstobesmall,requiringahighfractureconductivity(definedbythe

productoffracturewidthandfracturepermeability).

Afractureisdefinedasasinglecrackinitiatedfromthewellbore

byhydraulicfracturing.Itshouldbenotedthatfracturesare

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differentfromfissures, whicharetheformationofnatural

fractures.

Massivehydraulicfracturing(MHF)stimulationtreatmentsareextensivelyusedintightreservoirs

toboostthereservoirperformance.

Agoodfracturedwellsurveillanceisessentialforoptimalreservoirexploitationandlongterm

strategicplandevelopment.

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HydraulicallyFracturedWell

Depth >3000 ft: It is believed that the hydraulic fracturing results in the formation of

vertical fractures.

Depth< 3000 ft: The likelihood is that horizontal fractures will be induced.

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S.Gerami

CharacterizationofHydraulicFractures

fracturehalflengthxf ,ft;

dimensionlessradiusreD,wherereD =re/xf ;

fractureheighthf ,whichisoftenassumedequaltotheformationthickness,ft;

fracturepermeabilitykf ,md;

fracturewidthwf ,ft;

fractureconductivityFC,whereFC =kfwf

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Thefracturehasamuchgreaterpermeability

thantheformationitpenetrates;henceit

influencesthepressureresponseofawelltest

significantly.

Theanalysisoffracturedwelltestsdealswiththe

identificationofwellandreservoirvariablesthat

wouldhaveanimpactonfuturewellperformance.

Thefracturedwellhasunknowngeometric

features,i.e.,xf ,wf ,hf ,andunknown

conductivityproperties.

S.Gerami

PressureResponseinaHydraulicFracturedWell

Thefracturehasamuchgreaterpermeabilitythantheformationitpenetrates;

henceitinfluencesthepressureresponseofawelltestsignificantly.

Thefollowingdimensionlessgroupsareusedwhenanalyzingpressuretransient

datainahydraulicallyfracturedwell:

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S.Gerami

HydraulicFracturesModels

considerwhenanalyzingtransientpressuredatafromverticallyfracturedwells.Theseare:

(1) infiniteconductivityverticalfractures;

Averyhighconductivity,whichforallpracticalpurposescanbeconsideredasinfinite(Nosignificant

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pressuredropfromthetipofthefracturetothewellbore)

Theseareverylongfracturescreatedbymassivehydraulicfracture(MHF).

Thesetypesoffracturesneedlargequantitiesofproppingagent tokeepthemopenand,asaresult,the

fracturepermeabilitykf isreducedascomparedtothatoftheinfiniteconductivityfractures.

Thesefiniteconductivityverticalfracturesarecharacterizedbymeasurablepressuredropsinthe

fractureand,therefore,exhibituniquepressureresponseswhentestinghydraulicallyfracturedwells.

(3)uniformfluxfractures.

Auniformfluxfractureisoneinwhichthereservoirfluidflow ratefromtheformationintothefracture

isuniformalongtheentirefracturelength.

Thismodelissimilartotheinfiniteconductivityverticalfractureinseveralaspects.Thedifference

betweenthesetwosystemsoccursattheboundaryofthefracture.Thesystemischaracterizedbya

variablepressurealongthefracture.

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Flow Periods for Vertically Fractured Well

Severalflowregimesareobservedinfracturedwells.Oneofthe responsibilitiesofthe

welltestanalystistousetheappropriatetoolstopredictthe typeofflowregimethat

maydevelopinthefracturearoundthewellbore.

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S.Gerami

HydraulicFractures

FlowPeriods

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(1) infiniteconductivityverticalfractures;

1. fracturelinearflowperiod;

2. formationlinearflowperiod;

3. infiniteactingpseudoradialflowperiod.

(2)finiteconduc vityver calfractures;

1. initiallylinearflowwithinthefracture;

2. followedbybilinearflow;

3. thenlinearflowintheformation;and

4. eventuallyinfiniteactingpseudoradialflow.

(3)uniformfluxfractures.

1. linearflow;

2. infiniteactingpseudoradialflow.

S.Gerami

FractureLinearFlow

Thefirstflowperiodwhichoccursinafracturedsystem.

Dominantproductionmechanismistheofexpansionfluidwithinthefracture,i.e.,thereisnegligiblefluidcoming

fromtheformation.

Flowwithinthefractureandfromthefracturetothewellbore duringthistimeperiodislinear.

Theflowinthisperiodcanbedescribedbythelineardiffusivityequation andisappliedtoboththefracturelinear

flowandformationlinearflowperiods.

Thepressuretransienttestdataduringthelinearflowperiodcanbeanalyzedwithagraphofpvs (time)0.5

Unfortunately,thefracturelinearflowoccursatveryearlytimetobeofpracticaluseinwelltestanalysis.

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ThefracturelinearflowexistsforfractureswithFCD >300.

Thedurationofthefracturelinearflowperiodisshort,asitoftenisinfiniteconductivityfractureswithFCD <300,and

caremustbetakennottomisinterprettheearlypressuredata.

Insomesituationsthelinearflowstraightlineisnotrecognizedfromwelltestanalysisduetotheskineffectsor

wellbore storageeffects.

Endoffracturelinearflowcanbeestimatedfromthefollowingrelation.

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Bilinearflow

Thepressuredropthroughthefractureissignificantforthefiniteconductivitycaseandthe

bilinearflowbehaviorisobserved;however,theinfiniteconductivitycasedoesnotexhibit

bilinearflowbehavior becausethepressuredropinthefractureisnegligible.

Twotypesoflinearflowoccursimultaneously.

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compressible flowintheformation.

Mostofthefluidwhichentersthewellbore duringthisflowperiodcomesfromtheformation.

Fracturetipeffectsdonotaffectwellbehaviorduringbilinear flowand,accordingly,itwillnot

bepossibletodeterminethefracturelengthfromthewellbilinearflowperioddata.

TheactualvalueofthefractureconductivityFC canbedeterminedduringthisflowperiod.

S.Gerami

ImportanceoftheIdentificationoftheBilinear

FlowPeriod

(1) ItwillNOTbepossibletodetermineauniquefracturelengthfromthe

wellbilinearflowperioddata.Ifthisdataisusedtodeterminethe

lengthofthefracture,itwillproduceamuchsmallerfracturelength

thantheactual.

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bilinearflowpressuredata.

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EstimationFractureConductivity

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S.Gerami

The fracture tip begins to

affect wellbore behavior.

Whenthebilinearflowends,theplotwillexhibit

curvaturewhichcouldconcaveupwardsordownwards

dependinguponthevalueofthedimensionless Endofbilinearflow

fractureconductivityFCD,asshowninFigure1.72.

Ifthetestisnotrunsufficientlylongforbilinearflow

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toendwhenFCD >1.6,itisnotpossibletodetermine

thelengthofthefracture.

Whenthedimensionlessfractureconductivity

FCD <1.6,itindicatesthatthefluidflowinthereservoir

haschangedfromapredominantlyonedimensional

linearflowtoatwodimensionalflowregime.Inthis

particularcase,itisnotpossibletouniquelydetermine

fracturelengthevenifbilinearflowdoesendduringthe

test.

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S.Gerami

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Formationlinearflow

Attheendofthebilinearflow,thereisatransitionperiodafterwhichthefracturetipsbegintoaffectthe

pressurebehavioratthewellbore andalinearflowperiodmightdevelop.

Thislinearflowperiodisexhibitedbyverticalfractureswhose dimensionlessconduc vityisgreaterthat300,i.e.,

FCD >300.

Asinthecaseoffracturelinearflow,theformationlinearflowpressuredatacollectedduringthisperiodisa

functionofthefracturelengthxf andfractureconductivityFC.

Thepressurebehaviorduringthislinearflowperiodcanbedescribedbythediffusivityequationasexpressedin

linearform:

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S.Gerami

LinearFlow

Linearflowoccursinsomepetroleumreservoirswith,long,highlyconductivevertical

fractures.

Linear flow

Thegoverningequationforlinearflowinxdirection

Slightlycompressibleoil

2 P ct P

Homogeneousreservoir =

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Isotropic x 2

0.000264k t

Constantporosityandpermeability

Radial flow

1 p ct p

r =

r r r 0.000264 k t

S.Gerami

Solution

2 P ct P

=

x 2

0.000264k t

Initial Condition: p = pi , t =0

( p )x = pi

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BCs

p qBo

=

x x =0 4 x f hk

0.5

qB

p i p wf = 16.26 t

A f k ct

A f = 4hL f

0.5

qB

pi pwf = 4.064 t

hx f k ct

S.Gerami

S.Gerami

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DifficultiesinTestInterpretation

Inpractice,the(1/2)slopeisrarelyseenexceptinfractureswithhighconductivity.

Finiteconductivityfractureresponsesgenerallyenteratransitionperiodafterthe

bilinearflow(the(1/4)slope)andreachtheinfiniteactingpseudoradialflowregime

beforeeverachievinga(1/2) Slope(linearflow).

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Foralongdurationofwellbore storageeffect,thebilinearflowpressurebehaviormay

bemaskedanddataanalysisbecomesdifficultwithcurrentinterpretationmethods.

S.Gerami

Infiniteactingpseudoradialflow

Duringthisperiod,theflowbehaviorissimilartotheradialreservoirflowwithanegativeskin effectcausedby

thefracture.

Thetraditionalsemilog andloglog plotsoftransientpressuredatacanbeusedduringthisperiod;forexample,

thedrawdownpressuredatacanbeanalyzedbyusingthefollowingEquations:

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PressureResponseinaHydraulicFracturedWell

Ingeneral,afracturecouldbeclassifiedasaninfiniteconductivityfracturewhen

thedimensionlessfractureconduc vityisgreaterthan300,i.e.,FCD >300.

Specializedgraphsforanalysisofthestartandendofeachflowperiod:

p vs. (time)0.25 for bilinear flow

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pseudo-radial flow

S.Gerami

t(hrs) Pwf, psia

fractured oil well , rw=0.3 .Use the following data and perform 0.15 3982

0.3 3975

0.4 3969

0.6 3960

0 . 5 cp 0.8 3957

h 12 ft 1 3950

1.5 3932

0 .1

2 3922

q 200 STB / Day 3 3907

6

ct 20 10 1 / psi 4 3896

5 3886

6 3879

8 3866

10 3856

15 3837

20 3823

30 3803

40 3789

50 3778

60 3768

80 3755

100 3744

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Well Testing

Lecture #8: Well Test Analysis of Gas Reservoirs-Module B

Shahab Gerami, PhD

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1 S.Gerami

1

Flow tests conducted on gas wells

1. Tests designed to yield knowledge of reservoir

Drawdown

Buildup

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(downhole deliverability)

Back pressure tests

Isochronal type tests

2 S.Gerami

Deliverability Tests

AOF

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IdeabehinddeterminationofAOFistobecompare

theproductivityofwellsinthesamefields.

3 S.Gerami

Variousdeliverabilitytestsofgaswell

Flowafterflow(ConventionalBackPressureTest)

Flowingthewellatseveraldifferentflowrates

Eachflowratebeingcontinuedtopressurestabilization

Isochronal

Aseriesflowtestsatdifferentratesforequalperiodsoftime

Alternatelyclosinginthewelluntilastabilizedflow(lastflowrateislong

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enoughtoachievestabilization)

Modifiedisochronaldeliverabilitytests

Aseriestestsatdifferentratesforequalperiodsofflowtimeandshutin

times

4 S.Gerami

S.Gerami

5

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6

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7

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Stabilized Flow Equations; ri > re

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8 S.Gerami

Transient Flow Equations; ri < re

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9 S.Gerami

Analysis of Conventional Backpressure Test

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10 S.Gerami

S.Gerami

11

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SummaryConventionalBackpressureTest

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12 S.Gerami

Example:Conventional

BackpressureTest

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13 S.Gerami

AnalysisofIsochronalTest

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14 S.Gerami

Example:Analysis of

Isochronal Test

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15 S.Gerami

AnalysisofModifiedIsochronalTest

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16 S.Gerami

Example:Analysis of

Modified Isochronal Test

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17 S.Gerami

Theideabehindtheisochronalmethods:theradiusofinvestigationisindependentofq.

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18 S.Gerami

Collectandutilizeallinformation

logs,drillstemtests,

previousdeliverabilitytestsconductedonthatwell,

productionhistory,

fluidcompositionandtemperature,

cores,and

geologicalstudies.

Knowledgeofthetimerequiredforstabilization (averyimportantfactorindecidingthetypeof

testtobeusedfordeterminingthedeliverabilityofawell)

fromprevioustests(suchasdrillstem,deliverabilitytests,theproductioncharacteristicsof

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thewell)

Whentheapproximatetimetostabilizationisnotknown,itmaybeestimatedfromEq.193

Durationequaltoaboutfourtimesthisvalueisrecommendedfor theisochronalperiods.

Theminimumflowrate

Inconductingamultipointtest,theminimumflowrateusedshouldbeatleastequalto

thatrequiredliftingtheliquids,ifany,fromthewell.Itshouldalsobesufficientto

19 S.Gerami

maintainawellheadtemperatureabovethehydratepoint.

S.Gerami

20

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Problem# G.1: Obtain stabilized AOF of a well with the following

data. A gas specific gravity of 0.6 was assumed to calculate

pseudo-pressures at 180F.

0 2.8 5.3373e8

1.8 2.68 4.9361e8

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3.6 2.5 4.3539e8

4.5 2.425 4.1187e8

Pi = 4500 Psia rw = 0.2 ft

= 0.08 h = 175 ft

g = 0.726( with 2.5 mole% H 2 S T = 210 F

21 S.Gerami

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