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Module 12 Bibliography Conley WEEK 13


Hffler, T., & Leutner, D. (2007). Instructional animation versus static pictures: A meta-
analysis. Learning and Instruction, 17, 722 -738.

Instructional animation within education has become a recent topic of debate. The potential for
dynamic visualization becomes excited with endless use in technology. However, the more
pragmatic view is with educators believing animation has no advantages over still pictures unless
more information is available within the animation itself. This article addresses the research on
when dynamic displays are more effective in learning than the static still picture versions. To
date, there has been no compilation of results to identify either learning approach. Therefore, the
comparative research completed of the meta-analysis of 26 primary studies, yielding 76 pair-
wise comparisons of dynamic and static visualizations, revealed an overall advantage of
instructional animations over static pictures. It also presents a comprehensive survey of studies
comparing these two forms of visualization, and analyzes which form may be more
affective in learning and under what conditions. The results confirm contemporary theories
of cognitive load and multimedia learning of instructional design use (p.722). However, neither
the cognitive theory of multimedia learning nor in the integrative model of text and picture
comprehension shows a basic distinction between static and animated pictures as they are both
pictorial. Animation is a series of pictures that rapidly change during display to suggest
movement. Its goal is to be an exact imitation of reality. Since animation is a process, it should
be able to compensate for any students inability to imagine a process or procedure. The student
is then using working memory during this process of mental representations and therefore has
very few limitations (p.723). This type of learning results in less cognitive load compared to a
learning situation where the student has to try and visualize the process on their own and
becomes more difficult to understand. The dynamic pictures advantage in animation is a better
understanding of problem solving of learning through animation. The findings of the 26 studies
conclude a fair determination of effects and the article continues to address analysis of variables
(p.724). Five comparative questions summarize these findings and conclude the need for
additional research as not all variables were included in the studies: 1.) Are animations better
than static pictures in general? 2.) Are representational animations better than decorational
animations? 3.) Are animations better for acquiring procedural-motor knowledge rather than
declarative knowledge or problem-solving knowledge? 4.) Are computer-based animations better
than video-based animations? 5.) Can static pictures be improved? (p.733-735).

Lowe, R. K. & Schnotx, W. (2014). Animation Principles in Multimedia Learning. In R. E.

Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. (pp. 513-546).
New York: Cambridge.

Animation use in multimedia design is unique use of portrayals. Words spoken and written can
be portrayed as an element of the character. Written words can be inserted in various formats to
enhance character images. However, the cost traditionally has been high therefore these
opportunities have been limited along with design instruction that was challenging. With the
recent use of advanced graphics in computers, textbooks as well as video have integrated more
animation use. The reliance on text or printed words is becoming less and less the alternative
means (p.513). This has become the most profound change in modern learning is through the

Module 12 Bibliography Conley WEEK 13

use of animation depictions. This has become new to educational use and learners find this
more engaging and obtain the learners interest easier. One main concern is the inability to
produce information that has occurred over a time period to show the change in progress. This
could ultimately lead to errors in student understanding of processes that have occurred over
time. Animations have advantages over videos in that they can choose to depict aspects that may
not have been visible in a video for content learning (p.514). The five animations principles
considered during design of multimedia resources are: the functions of animation; spatial and
temporal information, perception and cognition, verbal and pictorial guidance, and interactive
learning (p.516-519). As a result of research, one design modification that has developed is the
application of visible cues to animation. This helps the learners attention to be focused on areas
that might otherwise have been overlooked (p.528). Relational event unit cueing was developed
to help the learners attention during the introduction of complex material. Two other versions of
these cues were then developed that differed in scope called progressive path cues and local
coordinated cues. The goal was not only to gain their attention but to help in the understanding
of relationships in the materials components graphics used. These two versions became superior
in facilitating learning from complex animation. These cues were developed based on the
Animation Processing Model (APM) (p. 529). This model allows for the introduction of new
processes both internal and external in nature. Research continues to pursue designing animation
in ways that are relevant to how learners process these representations. The APM offers the
principle basis for devising these innovative designs (p.542).

Plass, J. L. & Schwartz, R. N. (2014). Multimedia Learning with Simulations and

Microworlds. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia
Learning. (pp. 729-761). New York: Cambridge.

This chapter discusses multimedia learning with simulations and microworlds by illustrating
working examples. This simulation can be a challenging process where digital environments
enable users to interact with models of situations and phenomena. The examples allow users to
manipulate objects or parameters within these models. The digital environment then generates a
response based on the model. These simulations have proven to provide opportunities for
learning through exploring as we continue additional research instead of just providing
explanations (p.729). The learning is derived specifically from the research studies on the
educational efficiency of simulations. Examples are focused on the design and aims to identify
effective patterns. The studies compare the different features on the most useful approaches for
learners, contents, and settings. The research is then discussed in terms of information design,
interaction design, and design of instructional guidance. There has been strong support found for
effective learning in various content areas and for a range of objectives (p. 733). The learning
with microworlds is through situated experiences via those simulations. Current concepts define
mircoworlds through direct objects, icons, and the use of games. Less evidence has been found
to support the effectiveness and design patterns of microworlds and continues to be lacking in
these environments (p.742). However, the research finds that exploratory environments are
effective as traditional methods and often result in higher attitudes and motivations of learning.
This has important implications for cognitive theory that are related to learning through model-
based inquiry (p.745). This is relevant to the importance of the social aspects of learning and the
research highlights the limitations by using Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) for describing
learning within environments (p.747). Therefore, CLT may be unable to address the outcomes

Module 12 Bibliography Conley WEEK 13

that result from this model-based inquiry. Further research is needed that considers social and
emotional processes to develop a solid theory of interactive, dynamic, and visual environments
where learners can acquire new skills in situated interactions (p.752).

Schraw, Gregory & Matthew McCrudden. Information Processing Theory. Jul 12, 2013.

We process information with amazing efficiency and often perform better than computers in
problem solving and critical thinking skills. Researchers have developed systematic models of
memory, cognition, and thinking, such as the information processing model (IPM) to explain this
process. It consists of three main components, sensory memory, working memory, and long-term
memory. Sensory and working memory enables people to manage limited amounts of
information during processing, whereas long-term memory is a permanent repository for
knowledge storage. The terms that describe this efficient cognitive processing in working
memory are limited attentional resources and automaticity. Sensory memory is effective during
processing with a high degree of automaticity when it utilizes familiar spoken or printed words,
faces, and sounds. Long-term memory does not have these limitations for attention and provides
an unlimited storage for facts and knowledge that are held for very long periods of time.
Research has identified the two key aspects of long-term memory as what types of information
are represented, and how information is then organized. The recall ability of long-term memory
increases due to this efficient organizational strategy. The IPM provides a three-component model
which explains these different capabilities involving memory and provides an excellent
framework for our understanding of the principles of effective learning.

Tobias, S., Fletcher, J. D., Bediou, B., Wind, A. P., & Chen, F. (2014). Multimedia Learning with
Computer Games. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia
Learning. (pp. 762-784). New York: Cambridge.

Multimedia video games quantity and quality are reviewed through research with an emphasis on the
effects on computer games that improve learning. These games are environments that respond rapidly to
users actions. Most games use multimedia to display graphic images, text, and sound. This research
determines the effectiveness during instruction and cognitive processes that leads to more successful
learning because of greater motivation and more frequent use. This type of enhanced learning produces
greater transfer of knowledge and longer retention of learned knowledge. It found the greater the overlap
in cognitive processes, the more likely the transfer of knowledge occurs (p.763). The research was
summarized in three areas after playing one game to determine the value of multimedia used during
instruction: value added, instructional strategy, and cognitive effects. The effects of playing the computer
game were then found in five areas: cognitive, neurophysiological, neuropsychological, practical use and
school performance (p.765). The positive results from utilizing computer games were found to be that the
number of game studies has increased therefore research quality has improved and greater exemplary
games on market that produces expanded research (p.773). Since learning occurs while we play computer
games it is common to assume improved cognitive capabilities in attention skills, working memory
capacity, decision making efficiency, and improved speed and accuracy are related to this use of
multimedia learning (p.776). Though games require media for the application to run, they are still
considered instructional strategies use in learning. The research in this chapter focuses comparing the use
of multimedia games with various other approaches to validate the assumptions of improved cognitive
learning. This research establishes computer games as instructional strategies that provide an
understanding of deeper cognitive processes. The multimedia presence offers the additional features that
enable learners with specific characteristics to achieve targeted educational goals (p.777).