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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


PROCESS ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2 (CPE553)

NAME : MOHAMAD FAZRUL BIN BASRI (2013331897)


GROUP : EH2414 (GROUP1)
EXPERIM : LAB : SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
ENT
DATE : 30 OCTOBER 2015
PROG/CO : EH241
DE
SUBMIT : MDM LIM YING PEI
TO
N Title Allocated Marks
o Marks (%)
1 Abstract 5
2 Introduction 5
3 Objectives 5
4 Theory 5
5 Procedures/Methodology 10
6 Apparatus 5
7 Results 10
8 Calculation 10
9 Discussion 20
10 Conclusion 10
11 Recommendations 5
12 References 5
13 Appendices 5
TOTAL 100

Remarks:

Checked by: Rechecked by:


Date: Date:
ABSTRACT

This experiment was conducted to evaluate and study the performance of the shell and tube
heat exchanger heat load and heat balance, LMTD, overall heat transfer coefficient, Reynolds
shell side and tube side, heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop at shell side and tube side.
Every run will be using different flow rate. From the result, the pressure drop depends on the
flow rate not the temperature. Heat exchanger is a device that are design to transfer or
exchange heat from one matter to another in efficiently. There are several types of heat
exchanger and one of it that are mostly use in industrial applications is a shell and tube heat
exchanger. Fluids that flow in this device are in counter-current flow where two fluids flow
against each other, maintaining a maximum temperature difference between the hot and cold
streams which allows for maximum heat transfer. We assumed that internal, potential and
kinetic energy was negligible in this process, so Q H must be equal to Q C. In experiment 1, FT1
was constant at 10LPM. The highest efficiency of heat transfer was 99.58% at FT1=10 and
FT2=6. It means that heat transfer occur efficiently at equal volumetric flowrates of hot and cold
water. the results was different than the basic theory where the amount of heat release by hot
water was not equal to the amount of heat absorb by cold water, Q H QC due to some errors
and the recommendation and precautions were made to improve this experiment.
INTRODUCTION

Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are commonly used in oil refineries and other large-scale
chemical processes. Heat exchanger is a device that are design to transfer or exchange heat
from one matter to another in efficiently. It means that matter that release heat will decrease in
temperature while the other matters that gain heat will increase in temperature. A heat
exchanger is a device that is used to transfer thermal energy between two or more fluids,
between a solid surface and a fluid a fluid, or between solid particulates and a fluid at different
temperatures and in thermal contact In this model, two separated fluids at different
temperatures flow through the heat exchanger: one through the tubes (tube side) and the other
through the shell around the tubes (shell side).

Heat exchangers can be in cross-flow, parallel-flow or countercurrent. Cross flow is the flow
where the cold and the hot fluid flow axis is at an angle to each other. Hence, the fluids will
cross each other in this arrangement. Mostly, this type of flow has the angle between axes as 90
degree. Parallel flow or co-current flow is the flow where the hot and the cold fluid is flow in the
same direction. The most effective flow in the heat exchanger is a countercurrent flow where the
fluid paths flow in opposite directions, with exiting and the other enters. This results in faster
heat exchange.

Heat exchangers are classified according to transfer process, number of fluids, degree of
surface contact, design features, flow arrangements and heat transfer mechanism. Several
design parameters and operating conditions influence the optimal performance of a shell-and-
tube heat exchanger. The main purpose of this model is to show the basic principles for setting
up a heat exchanger model. It can also serve as a starting point for more sophisticated
applications, such as parameter studies or adding additional effects like corrosion, thermal
stress, and vibration. . There are several types of heat exchanger and one of it that are mostly
use in industrial applications is a shell and tube heat exchanger.
Figure 1: Shell and tube heat exchanger

It contain a large number of tubes (sometimes several hundred) packed in a shell with their axes
parallel to that of the shell. Heat transfer takes place as one fluid flows inside the tubes while the
other fluid flows outside the tubes through the shell. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are further
classified according to the number of shell and tube passes involved.
OBJECTIVES

1. To evaluate and study the heat load and head balance, LMTD and overall heat

transfer coefficient.
2. To calculate the Reynolds numbers at the shell and tubes sides.
3. To measure and determine the shell and tube sides pressure drop.

THEORY

The main function of heat exchanger is to either remove heat from a hot fluid or to add heat to

the cold fluid. The direction of fluid motion inside the heat exchanger can normally categorized

as parallel flow, counter flow and cross flow. In this experiment, we study only counter-current

flow. For counter-current flow, both the hot and cold fluids flow in the opposite direction. Both the

fluids enter and exit the heat exchanger on the opposite ends. In this experiment, we focused on

the shell and tube heat exchanger.

Heat load and heat balance

QH
This part of the calculation is to use the data in Table 1 to check the heat load and

QC QC QH
and to select the set of values where is closest to .

HW
Hot water flow rate ( )

QH FH Cp H (t1 t 2 )
=
CW
Hot water flow rate ( )

QC FC CpC (T2 T1 )
=

Where:

QH
= Heat load for hot water flow rate

QC
= Heat load for cold water flow rate

FH
Hot water mass flow rate

FC
Cold water mass flow rate

t1
Hot water inlet temperature

t2
Hot water outlet temperature

T1
Cold water inlet temperature

T2
Cold water outlet temperature

LMTD

Calculations of log mean temperature difference (LMTD).


(t1 T 2 ) (t 2 T1 )
LMTD
(t T2 )
ln 1
(t 2 T1 )

Where, all variables are same with the above section:

(t1 T2 )
R
(t2 t1 )

(t2 t1 )
S
(T1 t1 )

FT FT
Both equations would determine the value of correction factor . Practically, value

R S
obtained from the graph with respect to and value. In this case, the correction factor would

apply to enhance the LMTD value. So, equation below show the corrected LMTD can be

determined.

LMTD FT LMTD

U
Overall heat transfer coefficient,

UD
Overall heat transfer coefficient at which equivalent to can be calculated by using equation

A
below. In this case, the value of total heat transfer area has been given and equal to 31.0 ft2
Q
U
A LMTD FT

Where:

Q
Heat rate with respect to the average head load

FT
Correction factor

Reynolds Number Calculation

Re(s) CW
Shell-side for

De.Gs
Re( s )

Where:

de
De
12
2
do
4(1 / 2 PT 0.86 PT 1 / 2 . )
de 4
1 / 2 .do

At which:

PT
Pitch = 0.81inch

do
Tube outside diameter, inch


Viscosity, taken at average fluid temperature in the shell, lbmft-1hr-1

Ws
Gs
As
(lbmft-2hr-1)

Ws
Flow rate in (lbmhr-1)

As
0.029 ft2

Re(t ) HW
Tube-side for

D.Gt
Re( t )

Where:

D
Tube ID = 0.04125 ft


Viscosity, taken at average fluid temperature in the tube, lbmft-1hr-1

Wt
Gt
At
(lbmft-2hr-1)

Wt
Flow rate in lbmhr-1

At
0.02139 ft2

Pressure drop

This part would determine the following:


H w : The measured tube-inside pressure drop DP (tube) which will be corrected and is

expected to be more than calculated tube-side pressure drop.

CW
: The measured shell-inside pressure drop DP (shell) which will be corrected and is

expected to be more than calculated tube-side pressure drop.

Notice that, both calculated pressure and also measured pressure are considered in unit

mmH2O. In this case, since calculated pressure drop in both of shell and tube side have been

obtained during the experiment, so its only required conversion factor to change the value into

unit of mmH2O.

Conversion factor:

1 105 Pa 1mmH2O
x.bar
1bar (9.81) Pa
.

Where x is the calculated pressure value in the unit bar.


APPARATUS

Figure 2: SOLTEQ Heat Exchanger Training Apparatus (Model HE 158C)


PROCEDURE

General start-up procedures

1. A quick inspection is performed to make sure that the equipment is in a proper working

condition.

2. All valve are initially closed, except V1 and V12.

3. Hot water tank is filled up via a water supply hose connected to valve V27. The valve is

closed after the tank is full.

4. The cold water tank is filled up by opening valve V28 and leaves the valve opened for

continuous water supply.

5. A drain hose is connected to the cold water drain point.

6. Main power is switched on and heater for the hot water also switched on and set the

temperature controller to 50C.

7. The water temperature in the hot water tank is allowed to reach the set point.

8. The equilibrium is already set up.

General Shut-down

1. The heater is switched off. The hot water temperature drops is wait until below 40.

2. The pump P1 and P2 is switched off.

3. Main power is switched.

4. All the water in process lines is drain off. All valves is closed.
Experiment 1: Counter-current Concentric Heat Exchanger

1. The general start-up procedure is performed.

2. The valve is switched to counter-current Concentric Heat Exchanger arrangement.

3. The pumps P1 and P2 are switched on.

4. The valve V3 and V14 is opened and adjusted to obtain the desired flowrates for hot

water and cold water stream.

5. The system is allowed to reach steady state for 10 minutes.

6. FT1, FT2, TT1, TT2, TT3 and TT4 is recorded.

7. The pressure drop measurement for shell-side and tube side also recorded for pressure

drop studies.

8. The steps 4 to 7 is repeated for different combination of flowrates FT1 and FT2 as in the

result sheet.

9. The pumps P1 and P2 is switched off after the experiment is completed.

The next experiment is proceed.


RESULTS

Experiment 1

Table 1: Counter-current Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger at constant FT1

FT 1 FT 2 TT 1 TT 2 TT 3 TT 4 DPT 1 DPT 2
(LPM) (LPM) (0C) (0C) (0C) (0C) (mmH2O) (mmH2O)

10 2 44.7 29.5 47.5 48.8 95 5

10 4 37.5 27.5 46.9 50.0 98 17

10 6 34.9 28.6 45.3 49.1 86 84

10 8 33.8 28.5 44.8 49.5 91 125

10 10 33.2 29.2 44.2 49.5 93 215

Experiment 2

Table 2: Counter-current and Tube Heat Exchanger at constant FT2

FT 1 FT 2 TT 1 TT 2 TT 3 TT 4 DPT 1 DPT 1
(LPM) (LPM) (0C) (0C) (0C) (0C) (mmH2O) (mmH2O)

2 10 30.7 28.7 39.5 48.3 5 209

4 10 31.3 29.3 42.8 48.5 5 211


6 10 32.2 28.9 43.5 48.8 28 212

8 10 32.7 28.6 43.7 49.8 57 213

10 10 33.2 29.2 44.2 48.4 93 215


CALCULATIONS

Experiment A: Counter-Current Flow

Hot Water

Density: 988.18 kg/m3

Heat Capacity: 4175.00 J/kg.K

Thermal condition: 0.6436 W/m.K

Viscosity: 0.0005494 Pa.s

Cold Water

Density: 995.67 kg/m3

Heat Capacity: 4183.00 J/kg.K

Thermal condition: 0.6155 W/m.K

Viscosity: 0.0008007 Pa.s


1. Calculation of heat transfer and heat lost

Hot Water Flowrate = 10.0 LPM Cold water flowrate = 2, 4, 6, 8 & 10 LPM

1)

L 1m 3 1min kg J
Q hot (W )=m h C p T =10.0 988.18 3 4175 ( 48.847.5 ) =893.89W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

L 1 m3 1 min kg J
Qcold ( W )=mh C p T =2.0 995.67 3 4183 ( 44.729.5 ) =2110.21 W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

Heat Lost Rate=Qhot Qcold =( 893.892110.21 ) W =1216.32W

Q 893.89
= = 100 =42.36
Qmax 2110.21

2)

L 1 m3 1 min kg J
Qhot (W )=mh C p =10.0 988.18 3 4175 (50.046.9)=2131.59 W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

L 1 m3 1 min kg J
Q cold ( W )=m h C p T =4.0 995.67 3 4183 (37.527.5 ) =2776.59 W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

Heat Lost Rate=Qhot Qcold =( 2131.592776.59 ) W =645 W


Q 2131.59
= = 100 =76.77
Qmax 2776.59

3)

L 1 m3 1 min kg J
Q hot (W )=mh C p =10.0 988.18 3 4175 ( 49.145.3 ) =2612.91 W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

L 1m3 1min kg J
Qcold ( W )=mh C p =6.0 995.67 3 4183 ( 34.928.6 ) =2623.88 W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

Heat Lost Rate=Qhot Qcold =( 2162.912623.88 ) W =10.97 W

Q 2612.91
= = 100 =99.58
Qmax 2623.88

4)

3
L 1m 1 min kg J
Qhot (W )=mh C p =10.0 988.18 3 4175 ( 49.544.8 ) =3231.76 W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

L 1 m3 1 min kg J
Q cold ( W )=m h C p T =8.0 995.67 3 4183 ( 33.828.5 ) =2943.19 W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

Heat Lost Rate=Qhot Qcold =( 3231.762943.19 ) W =288.57 W


Q 2943.19
= = 100 =91.07
Qmax 3231.76

5)

L 1 m3 1 min kg J
Q hot (W )=mh C p =10.0 988.18 3 4175 ( 49.544.2 ) =3644.33 W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

L 1m3 1 min kg J
Qcold ( W )=mh C p T =10.0 995.67 3 4183 ( 33.229.2 ) =2776.59W
min 1000 L 60 s m kg

Heat Lost Rate=Qhot Qcold =( 3644.332766.59 ) W =877.74 W

Q 2766.59
= = 100 =75.91
Qmax 3644.33

2. Calculation of Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)

[ ( Th ,Tc ,out ) ( Th ,out Tc , ) ]


T lm=
( Th, Tc ,out )
ln [ ]
( Th, out Tc , )

1)

[ ( 48.844.7 ) ( 47.529.5 ) ]
T lm= =9.40
( 48.844.7 )
ln [ ]
( 47.529.5 )
2)

[ (50.037.5 ) ( 46.927.5 ) ]
T lm= =15.70
( 50.037.5 )
ln [ ]
( 46.927.5 )

3)

[ ( 49.134.9 ) ( 45.328.6 ) ]
T lm= =15.42
( 49.134.9 )
ln [ ]
( 45.328.6 )

4)

[ ( 49.533.8 )( 44.828.5 ) ]
T lm= =16.00
( 49.533.8 )
ln [ ]
( 44.828.5 )

5)

[ ( 49.533.2 )( 44.229.2 ) ]
T lm= =15.64
( 49.533.2 )
ln [ ]
( 44.229.2 )

3. Calculate of the tube and shell heat transfer coefficient

0.8 0.33
At tube side (hot water-cooling process): Nu=0.023 Pr
1 m3 1 min 3
L 4 m
V =10 =1.67 10
min 1000 L 60 s s

2 2
d (0.02664) 2
A= = =0.000557 m
4 4

V 1.67 104 m
v= = =0.299
A 0.000557 s

kg m
988.18 0.299 0.02664 m
vd m 3
s
= = =14327 ( turbulent flow )
0.0005494 Pa s

J
( 0.0005494 Pa s ) ( 4175 )
Cp kg K
Pr= = =3.564
k W
0.6436
mK

0.8 0.33 0.8 0.33


Nu=0.023 Pr =0.023 14327 3.564 =73.55

W
73.55 0.6436
Nuk m K W
h= = =1776.91 2
d 0.02664 m m K

0.8 0.4
At shell side (cold water-heating process): Nu=0.023 Pr

At the shell side: 2 LPM


1m 3 1 min 3
L 5 m
V =2 =3.33 10
min 1000 L 60 s s

0.085

( 2( 0.0334 )2)


(d 2sd 2o)
A= =
4

V 3.33 10
5
m
v= = =0.0069
A 0.0048 s

kg m
955.67 0.0069 ( 0.0850.0334 m)
v ( d sd o ) m 3
s
= =
0.0008007 Pa s

425 ( laminar flow )

J
( 0.0008007 Pa s ) (4183 )
Cp kg K
Pr= = =5.49
k W
0.6155
m K

Nu=0.023 0.8 Pr0.4 =0.023 4250.8 5.490.4 =5.76

W
5.76 0.6155
Nuk m K W
h= = =68.68 2
d (0.085 m0.0334 m) m K

At the shell side: 4 LPM


1m 3 1 min 3
L 5 m
V =4 =6.67 10
min 1000 L 60 s s

0.085

( 2( 0.0334 )2)


(d 2sd 2o)
A= =
4

V 6.67 10
5
m
v= = =0.0139
A 0.0048 s

kg m
955.67 0.0139 ( 0.0850.0334 m)
v ( d sd o ) m 3
s
= =
0.0008007 Pa s

856 ( laminar flow )

J
( 0.0008007 Pa s ) (4183 )
Cp kg K
Pr= = =5.49
k W
0.6155
m K

Nu=0.023 0.8 Pr0.4 =0.023 8560.8 5.490.4 =10.80

W
10.80 0.6155
Nuk m K W
h= = =120.26 2
d (0.085 m0.0334 m) m K

At the shell side: 6 LPM


1 m3 1 min 3
L 4 m
V =6 =1 10
min 1000 L 60 s s

0.085

( 2( 0.0334 )2)


(d 2sd 2o)
A= =
4

V 1 10
4
m
v= = =0.0208
A 0.0048 s

kg m
955.67 0.0208 ( 0.0850.0334 )
v ( d sd o ) m 3
s
= =
0.0008007 Pa s

1281 ( laminar flow )

J
( 0.0008007 Pa s ) (4183 )
Cp kg K
Pr= = =5.49
k W
0.6155
m K

Nu=0.023 0.8 Pr0.4 =0.023 12810.8 5.49 0.4=13.91

W
12.35 0.6155
Nuk m K W
h= = =166.03 2
d (0.085 m0.0334 m) m K

At the shell side: 8 LPM


1 m3 1 min 3
L 4 m
V =8 =1.333 10
min 1000 L 60 s s

0.085

( 2( 0.0334 )2)


(d 2sd 2o)
A= =
4

V 1.333 10
4
m
v= = =0.0278
A 0.0048 s

kg m
955.67 0.0278 ( 0.0850.0334 )
v ( d sd o ) m 3
s
= =
0.0008007 Pa s

1712 ( laminar flow )

J
( 0.0008007 Pa s ) (4183 )
Cp kg K
Pr= = =5.49
k W
0.6155
m K

Nu=0.023 0.8 Pr0.4 =0.023 17120.8 5.49 0.4=17.55

W
17.55 0.6155
Nuk m K W
h= = =209.38 2
d (0.085 m0.0334 m) m K

At the shell side: 10 LPM


L 1 m3 1 min 3
4 m
V =10 =1.667 10
min 1000 L 60 s s

0.085

( 2( 0.0334 )2)


(d 2sd 2o)
A= =
4

V 1.667 104 m
v= = =0.0347
A 0.0048 s

kg m
955.67 0.0347 ( 0.0850.0334 )
v ( d sd o ) m 3
s
= =
0.0008007 Pa s

2137 ( laminar flow )

J
( 0.0008007 Pa s ) (4183 )
Cp kg K
Pr= = =5.49
k W
0.6155
m K

Nu=0.023 0.8 Pr0.4 =0.023 2137 0.8 5.490.4 =20.96

W
20.96 0.6155
Nuk m K W
h= = =250.02 2
d (0.085 m0.0334 m) m K
Overall heat transfer coefficient:

Total exchange area , A= tube od length= 0.02664 m 0.5 m=0.05 m2

1.

Qhot 893.89 W W
U= = 2
=1901.89 2
A T lm 0.05 m 9.40 m K

2.

Qhot 2131.59W W
U= = 2
=2715.40 2
A T lm 0.05 m 15.70 m K

3.

Qhot 2612.91W W
U= = =3388.99 2
A T lm 0.05 m 2 15.42 m K
4.

Qhot 3231.76 W W
U= = =4039.7 2
A T lm 0.05 m2 16.00 m K

5.

Qhot 3644.44 W W
11 U= = 2
=4660.41 2
A T lm 0.05 m 15.64 m K
DISCUSSION

This experiment is conducted by using SOLTEQ Heat Exchanger Training apparatus which is
used as cooling devices. Some of the purposes of this experiment are to cool the hot streams
until both cold and hot streams have the same temperature, to study the working principle of
counter flow heat exchanger and to evaluate and study the overall heat transfer coefficient,
LMTD and heat transfer and heat loss for energy balance. In this shell and heat pump
exchanger, cold water flows through the outer pipe (the shell) while hot water will flows through
the inner pipe (in the tube). Heat will be transfer from high temperature (hot water stream) to low
temperature (cold water stream). This causes hot water to decrease in temperature while cold
water to increase in temperature until both hot and cold water streams have the same
temperature. We need also calculate Reynoldss number at the shell and tube heat exchanger
and measure and determine the shell and tube side pressure drop. During the experiment, we
carried out Run III and Run IV experiment. Every run consist of three set of data which need to
be considered.

It is found that the calculated values of QH and QC are not really satisfied the theory since
supposedly, the ratio of QC/QH is unity means the ideal condition is the value of QC should be
closed to the value of QH. But in the calculated results, it is found that there are some
deviations in the value but it is normal because it is impossible to have an ideal system in real
life. For LMTD, the calculations consist of the use of graph which called as correction factor
graph. This graph is used to obtain a more accurate LMTD as the calculated LMTD values may
deviated from the actual one. The correction factor, FT is obtained from the graph by finding the
values of R and S.

In the experiment, volumetric flowrates of hot water is constant which is 10 LPM while
volumetric flowrates of cold water is change every 10 minutes from 2 LPM to 10 LPM. Heat
transfer of hot water, QH is higher than heat transfer of cold water, QC. However, QH keep
decreasing while QC keeps increasing as volumetric flowrate of cold water increases. The
highest efficiency in experiment is 99.58% at FT1=10 LPM and FT2=6 LPM where its
QH=2612.91 W, QC=2623.88 W, heat loss rate is 10.97 W, LMTD=15.42 and heat transfer
coefficient, U=3388.99 kg/s2. It means that heat transfer occur efficiently at almost equal
volumetric flowrates of hot and cold water.

At the end of the experiments, all objectives are met although maybe there are some errors.
Presence of air bubbles in the tube also is one of the factors that cause inaccurate results.
CONCLUSION

Based on the experiment, the main objective is to evaluate and study the overall heat transfer
coefficient, LMTD, heat transfer and heat loss for energy balance as well as to evaluate and
study the performance of shell and tube heat exchanger at various operating condition. . In this
shell and tube heat exchanger, the fluids flow in counter-current flow which results in faster heat
exchange. The experiment shows that the flow rate of one of the stream is directly proportional
to the rate of heat transfer since the rate of heat transfer is increases as the flow rate of fluid
increases. The basic theory in this experiment is Q H=QC, which the amount of heat release by
hot water is equal to the amount of heat absorb by cold water. However, the results is different
than the basic theory where the amount of heat release by hot water is not equal to the amount
of heat absorb by cold water, QH QC. This is due to some errors during conducting this
experiment which are the presence of bubbles in tube where the hot water flows. The presence
of these bubbles can cause corrosion and disturb the process of heat transfer. Although the
results are not following the basic theory, this experiment can be said as successful because
objectives of this experiment were already achieved.

RECOMMENDATIONS

There are a few recommendations and precautions that need to be taken during conducting this
experiment in order to get an accurate value and success results. Make sure that the equipment
is in good condition so that the flow of the experiment does not disturb by the inconstant data.
To ensure the data obtained is accurate, make sure there is no air bubbles in the tube during
experiment. The readings of FT1, FT2, DPT1, and DPT2 must be taken when the system is
stabilized and reach its steady state to get good results in calculations. The eye must be
perpendicular to the reading scale of volumetric flowrates of hot and cold water to avoid parallax
error during changing this flowrates. Besides that, the heat exchanger must be well insulated in
order to reduce the heat loss to the surroundings. The last set of temperature readings should
be taken when all the temperatures are fairly steady. While recording the data, make sure that
the pressure and temperature is at constant value because this can affect the calculation made.
Lastly, to improve the system of shell and tube heat exchanger, it is recommended that the shell
and tube heat exchanger have alert sign or alarm that can give a sign to the engineer who
handles the equipment to take the readings at the correct time in order to get accurate readings.
REFERENCES

Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger, by amirhazwan, Retrieved from


https://www.scribd.com/doc/27156908/CONCENTRIC-TUBE-HEAT-EXCHANGER
Coulson and Richardson. Chemical Engineering; Volume 1, 6th edition.
Kessler, D.P., Greenkorn, R.A. (1999). Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer
Fundamentals, New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., pp (768-828).
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger(2015) retrieved from
http://www.ejbowman.co.uk/products/ShellandTubeHeatExchangers.html
Yunus A.Cengel, 2006, Heat and Mass Transfer: A Practical Approach. Mc Graw Hill,,
3rd Edition
Yunus A. Cengel, Afshin J. Ghajar.(2011). Heat and Mass Transfer: Fundamentals &
Applications Fourth Edition McGraw-Hill.

APPENDICES