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Orissa Review

Buddhism, Tantrism could practical ways to realize

flourish luxuriously. Tantrism spiritual excellence. Tantrism,
became almost an inseparable in other words, is the most
part of Buddhism right from the direct, the surest and the safest
Shaktism: time of Nagarjuna, one of the path to gain knowledge and
celebrated Buddhist monks4. In achieve realization.
Tantra and the mainstream of Indian
The other name of
religious practice we notice two
Mantra in courses; one Vaidic, the other
tantra is Agama. The branch
of knowledge that is capable of
Tantric. As the trend of history
Sarala shows, tantrism gained its
giving both enjoyment and
det achment is Agama.
popularity all across the Indian
Mahabharata sub-continent during the
Tantrism, however, is divided
into three major streams
medieval period and was
practised widely by the religious Agama, Nigama and Yamala.
preachers of almost all faiths The one that comes directly
Dr. Satyabrata Das
and creed. from the lips of Lord Shiva is
Dr. U. N. Sahoo called Agama; the one that
Tantra or tantrism, as comes from Shakti is called
we commonly perceive, refers Nigama; the third one that
to the Holy Scriptures relating comes neither from Lord Shiva
to Shaktism. This however is a nor Shakti is called Yamala.
The tradition of tantra in India narrow perception. In fact Though Yamala comes neither
is very ancient. Historians fail tantra, as a concept and from Lord Shiva nor Shakti,
to determine exactly when it branch of knowledge, is quite still it has its intimate links with
began. However, the majority broad and versatile. In its both. As a matter of fact, there
of Scholars and Researchers broader perspective tantrism is not much of difference
agree that tantrism flourished refers to the branch of between Agama and Nigama.
at some point of time between knowledge that protects and Agama is further divided into
5th and 6 th century1. We get liberates its practitioners. As a
two sub-branches Sadagama
ample references to tantrism Western scholar Sir John
and Asadagama.
in the ancient Vedic literature. Woodroff looks at it, tantra is
In course of time we find the holy Bible of the Hindus that The Sadagama creed
evidence of the application of they practise for the liberation prescribes in all details the
tantra in Hinduism, Buddhism of their souls5. Thus tantrism rituals and the code of
and Jainism. The latt er is not at all theoretical. Rather, conduct for the follower or
Buddhism is popularly known it is a lively, vibrant branch of practit ioner. Whereas,
as Tantric Buddhism 2. It knowledge that is practised Asadagama is relatively more
flourished between 8th and 12th and applied directly in life. In flexible and accommodative.
century A.D.3 Historians argue this we find a very sophisticated However, tantra is a much
out that owing to the favourable and exhaustive analysis of broader field of knowledge that
attitude and circumstances of human body system and the includes medicine, philosophy,

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chemistry, astrology, mantra, flourished in ancient Kalinga. Khandava fire (in which the
yantra and yoga. In course of time Saivism, Khandava f orest was
It is fascinating to note Vaishnavism and Shaktism all completely destroyed) and
that both tantrism and the fused themselves with the taught the latter a number of
Vedas are very intimately Buddhist Sahaja Yana and tantric techniques such as
related. Often their relationship Vajra Yana and created a Stambhana, Mohana,
wonderful integration. We may Basikarana, Uchattana etc.
is compared with Jeevatma
recall how the celebrated Similarly, Sarala mentions how
and Paramatma.
Buddhist monk Nagarjuna had Mayavati, had mastered most
The tradit ion of mastered the Mayura Vidya of these Tantric techniques such
tantrism in Orissa is very and popularized his own creed as Stambhana, Mohana,
ancient. Since as early as the Sunya Vada during 6 th Basikaran, Uchattana and
third and the second century century A.D. In the 7th Century Gutika etc. Mayavati (the
B.C. tantrism has been there three great Buddhist scholars mother of the Pradyumna), the
in the ancient Kalinga, the (Manjushree, Budhisree and wife of Kamadeva, as Sarala
modern Orissa. Different kings Chandragami) popularized mentions, offers princess
and rulers patronized tantrism the Buddhist Nagantaka Subhadra such Tantric
and helped promote this sect. philosophy. This Mayura techniques like mantra Anjana
Especially during the tenure of Vidya was basically Tantric in and Gutika that helps her win
the Bhaumakara dynasty it got its approach. Both the over Arjuna. In this context
a lot of attention and patronage Nagantaka and t he Sarala gives extensive
and reached the pinnacle of its Yogantaka philosophy ended references to mantra, tantra
glory. Evidences are galore that up in the Tantric activities like and yantra. At that point of time
in the ancient Kalinga there tarana and marana. it was a usual practice to resort
were a great many tantra to those techniques to win over
Sarala Mahabharata is
Sadhakas who could do a man or woman.
indeed a treasure-trove of
spectacular things that amazed
tantra. There are extensive Sarala further mentions
the kings and rulers. And in turn
discussions on the various how Kamaksya Devi knew all
they gained the royal aspects of tantrism in this great those tantric techniques like
confidence and support. That epic. For example, Shatkarma Stambhana and Mohana etc.
took them a long way in (a tantric method capable of She could serve lakhs and lakhs
consolidating their position and achieving impossible things like of people by cooking only a
popularity. gratifying the sensual desires, pot-full of rice. She was in fact
Since t he historic getting rid of the incurable the divine power who blessed
invasion of emperor Ashoka, diseases and protecting oneself all the tantric practitioners. In
ancient Kalinga has been the against natural disasters etc) a similar account Sarala
nourishing gro und of has been mentioned widely in mentions how Krupi, the wife
Buddhism. The two sects of Sarala Mahabharata. We may of Dronacharya, could feed
Buddhism (Sahaja Yana and recall how Agnidev (the God thousands of soldiers of the king
Vajra Yana), those were of Fire) was pleased with of Drupada. She too knew the
heavily influenced by tantrism, Arjuna after the great Tantric method. Sahadeva, one

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of the Pandava brothers, was Sri Krsna some dust charged Kamapala (of Kaunri) the latter
a veteran in the art of with mantra that made all the refrained himself from it at the
Stambhana, Mohana and cow-herd boys fall into deep instruction of Goddess
Anjana. Sarala mentions how sleep instantly. All those Kamakshi. At another point it
Lord Shiva Himself was mantras could make is mentioned that Bhairavi of
seduced by a demoness impossible possible. They Kamrup had offered a mantra
(Hiranyaksi). He forgot his could give super-natural (Called Kamyak) to Bhima to
wife Parvati (temporarily powers to the mortals and cure win the war and to keep the
though) and enjoyed the incurable diseases. army well-fed only with a
demoness Hiranyaksi. handful of rice. Goddess
Similarly, Arjun was an
Sarala Dasa also expert in Garedi mantra. As Kamakshi was pleased with
mentions about various Sarala Dasa mentions prince Bhima and taught him some
mantras those are effective in Uttara Kumar was bitten by a mantra like Stambhana and
realizing various worldly poisonous Cobra while getting Ulluka to help and facilitate the
ambitions and desires. For the arms out of the tree trunk. Raja Suya Yanja organized by
example, Gorekhanath had Arjun instantly cured him by Sri Ram at the end of the
offered stambhana mantra to reciting the Garedi mantra. Mahabharata war.
Nakula. Lord Shiva had also Sarala ment ions how In yet another episode
blessed Nakula with t he Aswatthama was shooting Sarala talks about princess
mantra to restrain himself from powerful arrows charged with Bhanumati s knowledge of the
sleep and sex. Sri Krsna, as some intricate Mantras. In science of tantra that could
Sarala mentions, had given the another situation Sarala take care of the hospitality of
Ulluka mantra t o t he mentions how Agnidev (God all the aspiring princes in the
Pandavas that could make them of Fire) was pleased with Arjun Swayamvara ceremony. It
invisible. It was a very effective after the latt er set t he was Bhanumati herself who
strategy to evade enemies. In Khandava Forest on fire and oversaw the whole affair by her
another episode we get the offered him a Mantra that could Tantric power and everything
account of Sri Krsna who multiply the arrows that Arjun ended in a grand manner.
sustained injury on his fore- shot at his enemies. In yet
head as he was trying to sneak Similarly, in the context
ano ther context Sarala of the abduct ion of
into Sri Radha s chamber. He
mentions how Mayavati gave Kamadhenu by the Astavasus
bled profusely. Sri Brahma
some Mantras (like anjana and Sarala talks of the Go Harana
touched the wound reciting the
gutika) to Subhadra that (abduction of cows) mantra. In
Kataksya Mantra and Sri
helped her quench the sex ano ther episode Sarala
Krsna go t instant relief.
passion of Arjun. Here Sarala mentions how lord Shiva
Brahma gave Sri Krsna a
has mentioned about the mantra brought king Drupada back to
balm that was charged with
that could open any locked- senses (as he lays unconscious
mantra. When the latt er
room. It is called Ulluka. after doing penance for eighteen
applied that balm in his eyes He
could even see clearly in the Similarly, when Bhima years) by applying tarana
dark. Further, Brahma gave advanced to fight with king mantra. In yet another instance

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we see how Arjun could bring at midnight she is Mohini were Kali, Tara,
back to life the dead Kaurava (enchantress) and Chamunda. C h h i n n a m a s t a ,
soldiers with the Jeevani She is above time and she Bhubaneswari, Bagala,
mantra. possesses such mysterious Dhumavati, Tripura Sundari,
powers as Stambhana, Matangi, Shodashi and
Different Goddesses Bhairavi6. Sarala s unique
Mohana, Basikarana and
associated with Tantra : conception of the ten
Marana etc. The poet calls
In the Puranic age Goddess Kamaksya by incarnations of the Goddess
Hinduism was divided into five different names such as is based on it.
mainstreams. They were Katyayini, Aparna, Anadi, Moreover, we get an
Shaivya, Vaishnava, Saura, Anakara, Priya, Niranjani, account of the specific deities
Shakta and Ganapatya. Mahamaya and Maheswari. who offer specific protection7
Orissa was especially Goddess Kamaksya is as in the Mahabharata. As Sarala
dominated by the Shakta cult. effective and helpful in puts it, Narayani in the war
As we notice in t he overcoming passions like sex field, Maheswari in water,
Mahabharata Sarala makes and sleep as she is in fulfilling Durga in the forest, Rudrayani
elaborate mention of and higher wishes and ambitions. for fever, Brahmayeni for
attaches great importance to the cough, Varahi for gastro,
Po et Sarala Dasa
tantric power and shows great Kamakshi fo r sex,
visualizes and portrays his
reverence to the Goddesses Pingalakshi for illness,
supreme deity, mother Sarala,
associated with it. It sends a Ugratara for dyspepsia,
as parama Vaishnavi,
message loud and clear that Bhairavai during child-birth
Vidyadatri, Palanakartri, (labour-pain),Tripura for
during 15th century the Shakta Parama Maheswari and
cult had a very strong following body-ache, Kalika for
Parvati. Just as t he t en accident, Mangala for safe
in Orissa. The presiding deity incarnations of Lord Vishnu journey, Hingula for cooking,
of Kamrup or Kamaksya is poet Sarala Das imagines ten Mahakhali Devi for eating
Goddess Kamaksya who is incarnations of mother Sarala. delicious food, Varunai for
the source of all tantric power. They are, Ketuka, Parvati, agriculture, Hiranyai for
Int erestingly, Goddess Uma, Himavanta Duhita, hunting-expedition, Jagulai for
Kamaksya was very popular Krupajala Nandini, sound-sleep, Arunangi for
in Orissa during 15th century. Narmada Saraswati good education, Vikhanda for
Sarala, in the Mahabharata, Pushkara Kanya, Sarala night-mare, Bhadrakali to
holds Goddess Kamaksya in Sarva Mangala, Hingula and appease the Grahas (Planets)
the highest esteem. The poet Shiddha Sarala (the daughter and Sarva Mangala for all
gives an elaborate account of of Kirata). As the tantric purposes. Further, as Sarala
this Goddess; how she takes on literature has it, Goddess Dasa has portrayed the seven
different forms at different hour Parvati (during the Yajna of mothers (Sapta Matruka);
of the day and night. In the Daksya) created ten deadly they are Maheswari, Varahi,
morning she appears youthful, forms out of Herself and Indrani, Chamunda,
at noon she is old, in the obstructed lord Shiva from all Vaishnavi, Bhairavi and
evening she is passionate, and sides. Those deadly forms Kaumari.

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As the historical mind which ultimately facilitates ancient times9. And Sarala
records show the sixty-four realizing the God-head. In Dasa has taken the very essence
Yoginis (Chaushathi Yoginis) Sarala s account there is, and the best of tantrism to
were being worshipped in however, no reference to base enrich the epic. His magnum
Orissa during 10th and 11th sensual gratifications through opus, the Mahabharata in
century A.D.8 That strengthens tantra. His version of the then Oriya, is indeed a compendium
the fact that Shakta cult was prevailing tantric tradition is of that.
very popular and powerful essentially aesthetic and References :
during this phase of Orissa elevated. All along t he
history. Sarala confirms this Mahabharata we come across 1. Cultural Heritage of
belief by elaborately describing nothing repulsive or obnoxious
the details of the Chaushathi about tantra as we notice 2. Das Gupta, S. Obscure
Religious Cults,1962.pp.14.
Yoginis in the Mahabharata. He elsewhere. However, Sarala
gives an exhaustive account of elevates the position of the 3. Ibid.pp.14.
those Goddesses who were Goddesses. We may refer to 4. Cultural Heritage of India.
mostly war-mongers and had the episode that depicts how Vol.IV.pp.73.
the ghosts, spirits and vampires mother Parvati could subdue 5. Principles of Tantra.pp.33.
under their command. Sarala the two demons which Lord 6. Sarala Mahabharata. Vana
Dasa, himself being a tantric Shiva Himself failed to do. Parva.Vol.I.pp.534.
yogi, had a first-hand Further, in Sarala s account 7. Sarala Samikshya, pp.120.
realization of the beneficial Draupadi has consistently
8. Mishra Neelamani, Bharatiya
aspects of tantra and thus received the highest status. The Tantra Shastra.pp.131.
gives a convincing and critics are unanimous on the
9. Kar, Dr.Karunakar. Ascharya
exhaustive account of the point that Draupadi was the
Charyachaya. pp.223.
various aspects of this science best creation (of all t he
in the Mahabharata. He characters) of the poet. She
highlights the knowledge and received t he best of his
insight one gets about the imaginative power and creative Dr. Satyabrata Das is the Head,
intricacies of human anatomy energy. Dept. of English in Ekamra College,
and body system from the Bhubaneswar.
In the light of the above
tantric studies. He shows how reasoning and facts we may
this helps bringing about a Dr. U. N. Sahoo is the Professor,
conclude that tantric Buddhism P.G. Dept. of Oriya, Utkal University,
balance between body and has been there in Orissa since Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar.

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(Buddhi) and the force of becomes active and it is then

creative urge (Purusartha). The that the Supreme Divine Force
intellect of man is the determiner becomes active and mobile and
of what is good and what is creates the Universe. Maya
Place of bad in the human dispensation
in life. The force of creative
being the poignant stirring
Divine Force is divided as
Sabari as the urge is something of a superb
divine quality that urges human
Vidya Maya and Avidya
Maya. Bidya Maya propels all
Symbol of beings to do Karma for societal
the best action. Avidya Maya
is the evil inspirational force that
Para Bhakti in But the peculiar
creates all the worst in the
cosmic creation.
phenomenon of the cosmic
the Ramayan creation is that the Lord who Para Bhakti is the
creates the world is actually creation of Vidya Maya. Apara
static, un-moving and immobile Bhakti is the creation of Avidya
Durga Madhab Dash in nature. He becomes mobile Maya. Sometimes Para Bhakti
only when He comes in contact and Apara Bhakti are mixed up
with Maya. What is Maya to hobnob good with bad for
then? Is Maya actually which reason some human
The Lord created the universe. greater than or superior to the beings are inspired to achieve
He also created the scriptural Almighty Divine. The answer, mundane things through even
laws for sustenance and as ordained in the scriptures, is religious practices in our day-
maintenance of the universe. that the Divine Almighty whom to-day life. This is known as
These laws actually constitute we call Lord or God is the only human action created out of
the doctrine of Dharma. The the Supreme Divine Cosmic Apara Bhakti.
laws of Dharma are actually Force that is omnipresent and In Bhakti Tatwa, Para
meant for the guidance of omniscient. So Maya that way Bhakti is the impeccable
human beings. They are to is not superior to God. Maya spiritual force of Vidya Maya
follow these laws, for on them, is creation of God. God alone in the cosmic creation. Through
largely depends t he is the Supreme Divine Force. Para-Bhakti, one can safely
preservation and maintenance He is the Supreme Divine attain God realization in life.
of the universe. As per the Power of the universe. Maya Para Bhakti is the ultimate goal
cosmic laws, it is man that has according to Sakti Tawta, is the of spiritual aspirants. The path
the best and the highest place primary dominant force which of Para Bhakti is not fraught
in the ladder of evolution. He engulfs the entire universe. It with any sort of danger. It is
is said to be the spectacular is the divine energy which also not infested with any sort
divine creation of the Lord. makes the Divine mobile and of complex barriers. It includes
Among all the creations of the moving for the cosmic the elements of total surrender
Lord, it is man alone, who is creation. So when the Almighty to the Almighty Lord. In Para
blessed with two invaluable Divine is in contact with Maya, Bhakti, the devotee marches
divine qualities namely intellect their cosmic communion on his path in a selfless way for

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spiritual achievements in life. said, was very frequently going acquaintance of saints and
Here he is not concerned about in to Sahaja Samadhi while hermits. She attended
fruits of actio n. In t he writing the episode on Sabari Satsangs and listened to
Ramayan, the Sabari character in his Bhabartha Ramayan. spiritual discourses. One day
is the illustrious example of Para In her past life, as while Sabari was taking her
Bhakti i.e impeccable devotion described by Ekanathji, Sabari mo rning ablut ion in t he
to the Lord. Tulsi Dash was a Maharani, the chief confluence of three sacred
Maharaj and Ekanath Maharaj queen of a very powerful king. rivers-the Ganga, Jamuna and
have illustrated her glorious She was a pious lady. Although Saraswati- she slipped in to the
example in a delightfully a queen, she was not well deepest part of the confluence
graceful way. disposed to the life-style of an and breathed her last.
Sabari was a tribal empress confined to the golden There is a saying in the
woman. She was a unique walls of her palace. She scriptures that whosoever
devotee of Sri Ram. She deplored her lavish style of attains death at the confluence
always loved Sri Ram with living. She abjured her material of the three sacred rivers shall
utmost devotion. It is said that surroundings. She was fond of either have Mokshya in life or,
at the tender age of ten, she was Satsangs and longed for the in the alternative, attain another
worshipping Sri Ram with company of Sadhus. But the birth according to his or her last
inimitable regularity and king was averse to such a wish at the time of death.
sincerity. She soon joined the spiritual surrounding in the Sabari had the desire to attain
Ashram of Rishi Matang and Royal Palace. So Sabari was Mokshya only after seeing her
served him devotedly after never happy with her lifestyle beloved Lord. Naturally
taking initiation in his Ashram. in her royal home. The therefore she had another
She used to keep the Ashram restrictions of the palace were human birth and this time again
clean while performing Jap. unbearable to her. Nobody as the daughter of the king of
She always said the holy name could realize this vacuum in the Bhillas in the southern part of
of Sri Ram in body, mind and heart of the queen. Even the Bharat Desh. As the only
soul. She sang many holy king could not know the feelings daughter the Bhilla King, Sabari
songs in the glory of the Lord. of her mind. had a very pleasant time at
Ekanatha Maharaj has One day it so home and in her surrounding.
very beautifully described the happened that the king, at the Since she was the daughter of
spiritual glory of Sabari in his instance of the Maharani, made the forest, she moved around
Bhabartha Ramayan in a a programme to attend a freely and independently in her
picturesque way. His spiritual congregation at Kashi. forest-surrounding shorn of any
presentation of this holy Both of them attended the restriction. Over the period of
character is by far considered congregation in great splendour time, as Sabari grew up in age,
most lively from the point of along with the courtiers of the her father settled her marriage
view of Para Bhakti as the Royal Palace. Reaching with a young Bhilla youth who
safest path to God-realization Kashi, Sabari had t he too had a superior birth among
in life. Ekanath Maharaj, it is opportunit y t o have t he Bhillas in their community.

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The Bhilla king had she rendered services to all the excommunicated by them for
fixed a date for the marriage of saints in the forest area without this purpose. Matanga Rishi
her daughter but Sabari was not their knowledge and the didn t have any reaction in the
aware of those arrangements. knowledge of the Ashramites. matter. Rather, he prayed to the
One day, she, to her surprise, That was the humility of Sabari Almighty Lord for condoning
found a large collection of goats in her pious disposition. their sin. One day, Matanga
numbering 300, all tethered to Humility in behavioural Rishi had the feeling that his last
the nearby trees in front of her dispensation is the hallmark of days had arrived and he was
house. Casually Sabari asked Para-Bhakti as laid down in shortly going to depart from the
her father as to why the goats scriptures. In night hours, when world. So he called Sabari to
had been brought there and tied the Ashramites were fast her side and revealed her the
to the trunks of the trees. Her asleep, Sabari would get up information about himself. He
father said that the goats had and sweep the path-ways of the permitted her to remain in
been brought there for the forest leading to Pampa Lake Ashram till the last days of her
purpose of a community feast lest the Rishis while walking life. He further said that in her
in connection with her marriage down to the lake for their present life, she would attain
which was scheduled to be held morning ablution might be hurt Mahaprayan but after having
shortly. Sabari was greatly by sharp thrones. She also the Darshan of Sri Ram.
stupefied. She never expected collected flowers and fruits and Matanga Rishi thus passed
a big sacrifice of 300 goats on kept portions of them in all the away one day, Sabari continued
the occasion of her marriage. hermit ages according to to live in the Ashram and
This brought about a change in requirement. She chanted performed her services as
her mind. Her heart writhed in Ram s name while rendering before. Every-day that came,
agony because of the ghastly services in that way. That was she waited for Sri Ram s arrival
sight. Most disgustingly, she how she spent her time every at the Ashram. After evening
left the house and entered the day in the forest. when she would be sure that
deep forest in search of an One day she was Sri Ram would no longer come,
Ashram where she could live found by Matanga Rishi while she would distribute the fruits
for the rest part of her life. she was sweeping his Ashram- of the day among the children
Ult imat ely she came to yard. He came to know all and the cows of the forest
Matanga Rishi s Ashram. But details about her life and the co nsidering t hem as t he
she had a reservation in her purpose of her visit to the creatures of her Lord. In this
mind. She knew well that, by forest. Graciously pleased, he way, she waited and waited for
birth, she was a tribal woman, gave her shelter in the Ashram a pretty long period for the
lowly placed in the society. She and also initiated her in the name darshan of Sri Ram and his
was also dull headed due to of her Lord. Sabari was a full- brother. One day the Lord and
lack of proper education in fledged Yogin now. But his brother arrived at the
scriptures. Not only this. She Matanga Rishi was abhorred Ashram. Matanga Rishi was
was always haunted by the fear by the other Rishis for providing no longer there. Sabari was
that she might not be accepted shelter to an untouchable tribal alone to receive the Lord.
in any Ashram for which reason woman. Matanga was Other Ashramites, although

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present, simply behaved as if joining her palms with utmost The second is marked
they were mere onlookers. humility. She most humbly by one s fondness for the
Sabari was then 90 years old. submitted, Prabhu, how can I stories of the Lord. The
extol thy divine self. I am the devotee find s in these stories,
In Para-Bhakti Yoga,
lowest in descent. I am the a unique moral strength. By
there is a scriptural belief that if
dullest wit of a woman by birth. hearing spiritual stories, one
a devotee does meditation for
I know not how to eulogize the develops within oneself an
long 12 years, he/she shall have
grace of thy esteemed self, inclination towards leading a
perfection in the initiated poor as I am in my stock of
incantation. Sabari had done spiritual way of life. Spiritual
words. The Lord of Raghus
that austerity in her life. Ekanath strength generates actual
answered, Listen, O good
has nicely illustrated in his physical strength of man.
lady, you are extraordinarily
Bhabartha Ramayan that all divine. I recognize no other Humble service at the
through her life, Sabari had kinship except devotion. You lotus feet of the Lord is the third
done immaculate Sadhana and are unparalleled in this divine form of devotion. Mind is
attained perfection in her achievement. A man lacking in always fleeting in nature. Its
spiritual austerity. He has said devotion is of no more worth stirring mobility is attuned to a
in this regard that to a common than a cloud without water. very unusual standard of
man, tears in eyes, pose barriers Now I tell you the nine forms speed. The mind should
to actual sight. Tears actually of Devotion (Para Bhakti). therefore be brought under
blur the vision. But in the case Cherish them in your mind .
proper control. We should
of Sabari, when she had the The Lord thus explained the
tether it to the feet of the Lord.
Darshan of the Lord, she was nine forms of Para-Bhakti as
found unsteady in her follows :- Then only humble service is
composure. Tears welled up in possible in the life a devotee.
The first in order
her eyes which blurred her according to Sri Ram is The fourth form of
vision. But she perceived well fellowship with saints. In Devotion consists in singing
within her inner self the divine Sanskrit, this is known as Lord s praises and the fifth in
presence of the Lord in all his Satsanga . There is a saying saying His name with
spiritual gaity and divine among the common people that unswerving faith.
effulgence. This is t he as one befriends, so one The sixth form consists
benchmark of Para Bhakti in becomes in life. Jiva is very
actual Sadhana. Gradually, in worshipping the Lord in a
simple at the time of his birth.
after regaining her composure, picture or an idol form. It is said
The concept of sin does not
she fell prostrate before the lotus touch his self at the nascent in this connection that the idol
feet of the Lord and embraced stage of life. He becomes form of the Lord is better than
his legs. She was so complicated as he grows in the this picture form. In the idol
overwhelmed with love that no society in the company of form we follow various
words came to her lips. At last others. This is not Satsang . practices like conducting
with water, she laved their feet Satsang is immaculate ablution, offering of clothing to
and then conducted them to a fellowship with good people the Lord in proper attire,
seat of honour in the hermitage having faith in the Lord. offering of Prasad and so on.

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The seventh and the Lord was playing the cosmic was actually not the fault of
eight forms consist in loving all game in the form of a human Sabari. Nature however
creatures of the universe as the being with his brother before rebuffed the morbidity of the
creatures of the Lord, shorn of Sabari. He asked Sabari very sage in the appropriate coin the
any distinction. Not only this. casually, Do you have any water of Pampa became red
A devotee, for that purpose, wish for fulfillment." Here again like blood. The lake was no
should remain happy with while replying to the Lord, longer suitable for taking
whatever he gets and should Sabari displayed her broad ablution. The sages suffered a
not find fault with any body or mind with all magnanimity at lot on account of the aforesaid
any things around. heart. She said, Prabhu , the situation. The Lord showing his
The ninth form water of Pampa Lake has gratefulness said to Sabari,
demands that one should be become polluted. Its water has Sabari, you should take your
guileless and straight in one s turned red. My Lord may bath first in Pampa Lake. The
dealings with others. The kindly be gracious enough to lake can then revert to its
devotee should have implicit make the water of the lake previous condition. Sabari
faith in the Lord without either pure, transparent and clean as obeyed the words of the Lord
exultation or depression. before so that the sages will be and, behold ! Pampa relapsed
Whoever possesses any one of able to take their ablution . to its original condition.
these nine forms of devotion is There is a beautiful story in this This is Para Bhakti as
most dear to the Lord. The regard. explained by Eknath Maharaj
Lord said to Sabari, that she One day very early in in the Sabari episode of the
was blessed with all those the morning, Sabari was Ramayan. In Kali Yug, it is
qualities and she had excelled sweeping the pathway leading Para-Bhakti that can safely
all other Yogis in those ways. to Pampa Lake as usual. Some lead one to Mokshya in life.
The Nirguna now sages were walking along that
coverted to Saguna , felt very pathway to go to the lake for
hungry. He asked Sabari for morning ablution. By mistake,
food. Sabari offered the ripe one sage came upon the broom Durgamadhab Dash lives at House
fruits she had collected for Him of Sabari and in anger, the sage No-138, Ananta Vihar, Phase II,
as usual the night before. The kicked Sabari on her legs. It Pokhariput, Bhubaneswar.

10 October - 2010
Orissa Review

The transversion of the persons from among both of the

said saying may be as ends. All of them describe the
elucidated below :- legendary story in all most all
similar manner quoting identical
The name of t he
names of the places and
Janmati, The Drum was Dasmati and the
Tantrik deity dwelling in it was
persons. Of course in respect
of some minor characters a
Tantrik Deity Janmti (otherwise known as
Jalmati). The drum was being
negligible dissention was
of Kandhamal worshipped by a Dom man of
Gumma (Now under As discussed above
Tumudibandh Block) who the miraculous incidents of
according to the lineage group Goddess Janmati took place
Kshetrabasi Manseth belonged to Bibhar dynasty. around eight hundred years
At that time only two Kondh ago. As the story goes, there
families of Kakamajhi and his lived a Dom man in the village
brother lived at Gumma named Gumma. He belonged
The people of Dom community to the Bibhar dynasty of Dom
(ancient name Paergabda
in the District of Kandhamal are Community who were famous
Atadgabda ). They were
well known for their Tantrik for practicing Tantrik cult. By
known as Pangdia Kondh in
rituals of mistic nature. They profession he was a Bajnia i.e.
view of their excellency in black
also attain a distinct position in drummer. His name is no more
arts. Being the primitive tribe of
the society for fostering a rich kept in memory by any body
Nag lineage group they were
oral tradition. The dialect they at Gumma. But it could be
treated as the sons of the soil.
use at present coincides with the ascertained that he was the heir
A miraculous incident of the
proto-Oriya language i.e. apparent of the Gaddu and
Trantrik Goddess Janmati took
Apabhransa. The first treatise Banda Mahurias (Sahanai
of this language was place during the reign of Ganga
dynasty in the then Odisa. blowers) having legendary
discovered in the Charya fame. He was using a big
Geetika o f eight y four According to t he Lishan (Drum) as his individual
Siddhacharyas of Sahajayana history of Odisa the ruling musical instrument. The name
Buddhism. Amo ng t he period of glorious Ganga of the drum was Dasmati .
thousands of valuable idiom, dynasty extends from 12th Generally the drummers/
phrases and proverbs one Century AD to 14th Century blowers among the Doms have
proverb throws ample light on AD. The episode of deity the advantage to invoke, make
the history and socio- religious Janmati origins at Gumma dance and appease the deities.
milieu of the then society, which (Kandhamal) and ends at Being dam pleased with the
reads as follows :- Madanpur-Rampur of thundering Pa (suitable
Dasmati Lishan, Janmati Debta Kalahandi District. As a matter rhythms) emitting from the
Pangdia je Kand, Bibhar je Dom of fact the author considered it Dasmati Lishan, Janmati Devi
Nag bansar mati, imperative to contact and settled down therein.
Gang bansar Raja consult the surviving authentic Goddness Janmati was a

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Orissa Review

vibrant and ferocious Tantrik At that time there (Vermillion) & Kajwal (a
deity. In case of slight existed two gigantic water black material used for eye
negligence or deviation in her reservoirs towards the North of make up). All Tantrik deities are
rites she displayed devastating his residence called very much fond of these
acts by killing all members of Indarmunda and divinely cosmetics. Thereafter
the errant wo rshipper s Dumermunda . Indarmunda he placed three handful of
dynasty. As the drummer was contained so much water that Akhta (unbroken sacred rice
aware of t he fact he its depth was said to be obtained from unboiled paddy)
worshipped her with utmost unfathomable. There also lived rice. Acco rding t o some
care and devotion. But as ill fishes of unimaginably larger persons a brass lamp which
luck would have it the man sizes. Once the local folks consisted of seven weeks in
became poor and poorer day could not take out a big fish seven steps was also lit and
by day. While trying to make trapped in the net. They sought placed on the drum.
his both ends meet he could not for the assistance of the King s
elephant in their effort. A big tug He also placed one
arrange goats, hens etc. for egg on the rice kept on the
of war took place in between
sacrificing before Janmati. Lishan as offerings to his family
the fish in the water (caught in
When Janmati Devi did not get Goddess Janmati and let float
net) and the elephant on the
her bloody offerings she raged the divinely drum in the river
bank of the reservoir. Though
to fury. Thereafter she started emanating from Indarmunda. At
the elephant succeeded
displaying her anger. Once she the time of seeing off it he
ultimately, the fish was so big
ate up the father of the drummer prayed saying O mother
that initially it pooled the
enroute deep in the jungle in elephant into the deep water. Goddess Janmati ! Please
disguise of a tiger. The poor old excuse me. I can no more serve
man was returning home after The drummer man or worship you. At present I am
paying a visit to his Kondh made up his mind to commit too poor to arrange even food
friend on the occasion of Puni suicide in the reservoir of and clothes for my living. I know
Kalu (New Alcohol Festival). Indarmunda alongwith the you took the life of my father,
Thereafter within a short span Dasmati Lishan . He tied the wife and both of my kids. You
of period his son, daughter and Dasmati Lishan hanging did not keep any heir in my
around his waist and dived into
even wife died one after dynasty even for your
the reservoir. But to his utter
another. The drummer man worshipping in the future
surprise, the deity threw him out
attributed all these mishaps to generations. I do not
of the water all the times with a
the displeasure of Janmati Devi. understand as to why you
greater force. From this
When he lost all his family spared me unnecessarily ! Now
incident the man could realize
members he became fade up of you please go away wherever
that the Goddess desires not
his life. So he decided not to you wish.
that he should die. When his
keep the Dasmati Lishan or efforts failed he surrendered Dasmati Lishan
Janmati Debta within his himself before Devi Janmati. He (Drum) being the abode of
cottage premises and to get rid adorned the Dasmati Lishan Tantrik deity Janmati possessed
of her. with blood red Sindur miraculous powers. It floated

12 October - 2010
Orissa Review

downwards in the river named accept offerings from these Singh Deo a heir apparent of
Kanu. River Utei is otherwise people. It is due to the Tantrik the royal family of Madanpur-
called as Kanu-Nand by the power of Janmati Devi a Chiken Rampur one of his forefathers
local people of Gumma and had taken birth from the egg and came from Chhotnagpur region
Belghar region. The origin point it had grown up to a cock of Madhya Pradesh during
of river Utei is Gumma. The overnight. The cock was then 1062 A.D. who first settled at
initial stream woozes from the crowing Kakare-Kan, Madanpur (Now Budhigarh).
forest called Gunjianu - Maa Kakare-kan .. incessantly. Rajraj Deva the then king of
anu. Basically the same water The bathing ghat (river point) Kalinga (South) of Ganga
flowing through village Kranja of village Burat area was so dynasty invited them with a
and Sarenwali Jogerwali mixed deep at that time that even view to suppress the rebellions
with the river of Indarmunda elephants could sink. Dasmati seen in his Kingdom.
and Dumermunda alongwith Lishan (drum) did move no As per information
some trifling sources feed river more in the river current from received from the villagers of
Utei at the beginning stage. This that spot. It simply started Burat, King Uday Pratap Deo
river has travelled a long route swimming in the deep water proceeded towards the river
amidst the forest ranges of whirling and whirling around. ghat (South-Eastern part)
Belghar, Lankagarh, Barbanda, Even after sun rise the cock was accompanied by three of his
Sindibanda, Madanpur sitting on the drum as if fastened orderly Paiks named Sunu,
Rampur and ultimately with rope. Both the banks of Gunu and Jena. The King saw
converged with Telnadi at the river was covered by dense in fact a big drum floating on
Belkhandi which is well known forest. The tranquility of the the surface of the deep water.
as an ancient Shaivite Shrine. region due to silence was A cock was also crowing in its
Goddess Janmati with broken by the Kakare-kan, own style sitting on it. The King
the drum Dasmati continued her Kakare ..kan sound of the was spell bounded to witness
voyage all through the night. At cock. Dasmati Lishan gave a the uncommon scene. He
the time of dawn she had frightening look when the found the descriptions of the
already entered into t he dazzling rays of the morning sun informers to be true. The King
territ ory of t he King of fell on its body painted with and his followers attempted to
Madanpur Rampur vermillion and collyrium. The take out the Dasmati Lishan
(Kalahandi). Since the deity people of nearby village Burat from the water but failed to even
reached the desired spot of her first had a glimpse of the drum touch it despite their all out
destination the drum halted floating in the river. For them efforts. From this the king could
near a Dom hamlet named that was certainly a very rare understand that there was some
Burat. In Burat the people of and surprising scene. They unseen divine force behind it.
Bibhar lineage group belonging brought the fact to the notice He got disappointed and sat
to Dom Caste lived in large of the King without causing any down under the thick shadow
number. To this particular ethnic delay. The King of Madanpur- of the tall Khin trees packed
group the drummer man of Rampur kingdom was Uday on the river bank. All of a
Gumma belo nged. Most Pratap Deo. According to the sudden he fell into deep sleep.
possibly the deity chose to version of Sri Samarendra He saw a dream. Through the

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Orissa Review

dream Devi Janmati gave her slow pace and ultimately help of a Dab Khar (A long
real identification to the King touched the river bank near grass used generally for
and said King ! you call the which the goat-herd boys were thatching roof). Subsequently
two boys who are watching the playing on the fake music. With the piece o f grass was
grazing goats on the river bank due honour to the deity the King converted to a sword by Devi
at a short distance. They are took it out of the water. As a Janmati. The local people
Dom by caste and Bibhar by matter of initial offering the believe that it is the same
their lineage group. You order cock was caught and sacrificed divinely sword which has been
them to play on my favourite before Janmati Devi. Thereafter preserved and worshipped as
musical Par (a particular all of them marched towards a symbol Janmati Devi in the
musical rhythm and bits) and the King's palace. One of the temple of Manisiri
well-come me. I shall touch the goat-herd boys carried the (Manikeswari) with a sense of
shore at my own accord. You wonderous drum on his much fear and devotion.
can not acquire me without their shoulder. By that time a good The spot where the
assistance. O King ! you number of subjects had already humble Paik, Jena was
should further keep in mind that gathered to see the miracles of sacrificed a Gudi (small
I am the Khatni Rachni Tantrik Devi Janmati. A team of temple) of god Jena stands at
(family Goddess) of Bibhar traditional drummers also present. In the days when
Doms . As such I shall accept reached there and made the Tantrik occult was popularly in
all sorts of offerings from their journey a colourful and festive practice a buffalo was to be
hands only and not from any occasion. The King felt himself sacrificed before god Jena
body other else . proud enough to get such a every year. The small temple of
The King woke up after Goddess of enormous Tantrik Jena god is generally located
a few moments. Immediately he powers. He marched as if he near deep forest at the outskirt
called in the two goat-herd has been victorious in a war and of the villages. It has been told
boys through his Paik conquered a fort. On the way that the blood of the sacrificed
followers. They are variously a minor God called Jena animal was used to be served
known as Chhinu-Chhuti, entered into the body of the in a piece of broken earthen pot
Kanu-Chhuta and Timagana King s Paik follower Jena and for the tiger. Days were then
Enchagana. He narrated before manifested himself. He is also when men as well as the wild
them all about the dream he a very popular Tantrik deity of animals were tied up in a single
saw. Accordingly one of them the locality. The King politely string of faith and truthfulness.
asked as to what he wanted. There are also sayings that the
blew Mahuri (Sahanai) in his
He said Jenaku de . This tiger of the jungle used to come
mouth and the other bit his chest
means give some offerings to and eat up the blood offered in
in two hands. In this peculiar
Jena (God). But the King presence of the priest and his
manner they played on the
mistook it. He beheaded his solitary associate drummer
favourite Par of Devi Janmati.
follower Jena considering that man, Dholia at the mid-night
It is to the astonishment of the
Devi Janmati desired to take hours.
King and his fellowmen
Dasmat i Lishan swam human blood. It is told that the The King of
majestically in the water with a King cut Jena s head with the Mandapur-Rampur took both

14 October - 2010
Orissa Review

of the drum and the deity and Janmati Devi is still deeply pomp and grandeur in the rites
placed them inside the palace prevalent in the minds of the of Janmati/Dasmati is seen no
complex. But Devi Janmati did local people as such no one more. A Goddess of mystic
not prefer to stay inside the royal ordinarily treads in and around Tantrik cult in the past having
palace surroundings. Several the spot out of fear. Devi so glorious mythical
times the deity disappeared Janmati and drum Dasmati are background has been confined
with the drum and that was worshipped only during certain to a dilapidated Gudi roofed
located and recovered from the occasions in a year. These are, with local made earthen tiles.
cottage of Tima Gana-Encha Dashara festival, Chaitra The story of Dasmati Lishan,
Gana of Burat village. Hence festival, Nuakhai, Dukri Puja, Janmati Debta is a historical
the King placed the drum Death anniversaries of all event and has been turned to a
outside his palace which deceased members of the royal myth with a blend of Mantra
actually Devi Janmati wished. family, marriage ceremony in and Tantra. In other words the
In connection with the the Bibhar Dom (Gana) family deity stands for the regional and
reason for placing Dasmati of Burat, Tujung or Phapsi communal harmony between
Lishan some other people give villages. At present a devotee the people of Kandhmal and
a different view. According to named Sri Jogindra Bibhar of Kalahandi which once
them many members of the Burat acts as the Dom priest of constituted a single
royal family faced unexpected Goddess Janmati. homogenous cultural zone from
death when the drum was kept During the last eight the time of famous Mahakoshal
inside the palace campus. The hundred years or more our Kingdom.
King got frightened to notice society has undergone a lot of Persons Contacted :
such un-precedented incident. changes in respect of religious Denga Paraseth, Gumma.
He attributed all the mishaps to belief. The days of Tantrik cult
Gangadhar Desinayak, Lankagarh.
the wrath of the Tantrik deity are gone. Once upon a time
Janmati and nothing else. He Dasmati/Janmati though Khusiram Bag, Balipada.
prayed Devi Janmati to excuse regional minor deities attained Dutia Bibhar, Burat.
him for his faults committed due royal patronage of the kings Samarendra Deo, M. Rampur.
to ignorance. With a view to suit ruling over Southern and
the sweet wheel of the Goddess Western regions of Odisa in
a separate Gudi was built different times. The royal family
outside the palace fencing walls of Patnagarh (Bolangir) has
and herself alongwith the drum been wo rshipping Devi Kshetrabasi Manseth, Banashree
was accommodated inside it. Dasmati in a separate temple till Sahitya O Sanskruti Parishad,
Such ferocious episode of to-day. But at M. Rampur the Tumudibandh, Kandhmal-762107.

October - 2010 15
Orissa Review

Vana Durga, Mahishasur-

mardini Durga, Jaya Durga,
Sulini Durga, Bidhyavasini
Durga, Maha Durga and Anala
Durga. In her different images,
Durga : The the number of her hands varies.
She is portrayed and shown as
Mother of the having two four, eight, ten,
twelve, sixteen and eighteen
Universe hands. The eyes are usually
three. She is gorgeously
dressed with red cloth and
several ornaments. Among the
Balabhadra Ghadai
objects held in hand, the more
common ones are conch,
discus, trident, bow, arrow
Durga, the mother of the sword, dagger, shield, rosary,
universe and primo dial cause wine cup and bell. She is found
of all creation is depicted in the earliest representation of the to be standing on a lotus or on
Durga Saptasati as Durgasi- Mot her Goddess in o ur a buffalo s head or as riding
Durgabhava-sagaranau- country. Besides it, the epics lion. The worship of Sakti
rasanga i.e she is Durga, the and Puranas throw much light (Durga) was in vogue in all ages
boat devoid of attachment that on the Shakti cult. In the Vedas, (Yugas). In Satya, as is revealed
takes man across the difficult we come across Devi Sukta from Markandeya Purana
ocean of worldly existence. In dedicated to the worship of Surtha, the king, got back his
the Mahabharata and Go ddesses like Usha, lost kingdom by worshipping
Harivansa, she is described as Saraswati, Rat ri, Surya, Durga with the help of his
the sister of Krishna and Indrani, Varunani, Rudra and spiritual preceptor Maharshee
daughter yosada. She is called Aditi, In the Rigveda we fine the Medha. Sita Devi, In Tretaya
Mahisasuramardini, the killer of descriptio n o f a mother Yuga had worshipped Goddess
Mahisaura (Buffalo-demon). Goddess named Aditi. In the Viraja to get Rama Chandra as
She is called Chandika as she Kathoponished, Aditi testifies her spouse. It has been
beheaded beheaded the giants all the Gods and Goddesses (2/ described in the Devki
Chanda and Munda. In order 5/7) She is all light, Iustrous and Bhagabata that lord Ram
to trace the genesis and history invincible (Rig Veda, 1/36/3). Chandra had worshipped
of the Shakti cult, we have to In Yajurveda and Atharrva Goddess Durga in autumn, on
rely on the archaeological, Veda she has been invoked as the advice of Devarshee
literary and epigraphic sources. the Goddess who gives Narada and due to grace of
The terracotta figurines, seals, protection and bliss. Goddess Durga he was able to
amulets and ring stones found In the Puranas, Durga, conquer Lanka, killed the
at the Harappan sites are the Puja has been described as the demon-king Ravana and

16 October - 2010
Orissa Review

rescued his beloved wife Sita. held for nine plants called a pillar of Stambheswari at
In Dwapara Yuga, as revealed Navapattrika as manifestation Sonepur and a Temple of the
in the srimad Bhagvat, Gopis of the goddess as nurturing goddess at Aska in Ganjam.
achieved Lord Krishna as their nature. Special puja is held for The practices of worshipping
celestial lover due to worship nine plants called Navapattrika wooden pillars continue in many
of Katyayini devi. Rukmini too as manifestation of the goddess villages of the hill tribes of
could marry lord Krishna due as Chandika vanquished Orissa. Jajpur, situated on the
to grace of Durga and Chanda & Munda. On bank of the river Vaitarani was
Shishupala was defeated. In Dasami, since the cosmic play an old and prominent seat of
kurukshetra, before the bettle of the goddess is over, She is Shakti cult and Tantric cult and
of Mahbharata Arjuna prayed immersed in water. its history is traceable since the
Goddess Durga being advished days of the Mahabharata when
Orissa has lo ng it was a sacred place of
by Lord Krishna and got the tradition of Shakti worship that
blessings of victory from pilgrimage.
dates back to the prechiristian
Goddess Durga. In Kaliyuga era. Kalika Purana, a treatise Durga puja being a
also some great sadhakas like on saktism mentions Odra chief festival of India is
Rama Krishna Paramahansa, (Orissa) an important Sakti celebrated all over India with
Nigamanada have achieved the Pitha , The earliest epigraphic great pomp & fervour. The
grace of Durga. evidence regarding sakti spiritual significance of Durga
Durga puja is wo rship is found in t he puja is contemplated by the
celebrated is autumn during the Kalahandi Copper Plate Grant devotees, but the goddess is
month of Ashwin. During the of Tust ikara Deva who worshipped by all through a
navaratra, the nine days from perhaps flourished about the 5th magnificent socio-religious
or 6th Century A.D. and was a ceremony, offering opportunity
the first day after day after the
worshipper of Goddess as a part of the ritual for union
new moon the goddess is
Stambheswari was the family with one another forgetting all
worshipped in various forms.
deity of the Sulkis and she was distinctions as preparatory to
On the eve of the new moon
represented in the form of a union with the cosmic self.
offering is made to ancestors in
pillar indicating Siva & Shakti.
gratitude of their contribution to The same Goddess is also
posterity. In Durga puja on the mentioned in the Copper Plant
sixth day, shasthi, the goddess Grants of the Bhanjas and the
is awakened and invoked for Tungas who ruled over different Balabhadra Ghadai, Principal, M.K.
acceptance of offerings and parts of Orissa from the 8th to College, Khiching, Mayurbhanj,
praters. On Saptami, puja is the 11th century A.D. There is Pin-757039

October - 2010 17
Orissa Review

for Malli flower and handloom Sambalpur is about 80

textile. Everybody has been kilometers, Bolangir is 50
Bali Jatra of shedding crocodile tears for the
heritage locations in Odisha.
kilometers and Boudh is 50
kilometers away from Sonepur.
Sonepur Despite all the hype and hoopla
by the Government over the
It is on the National Highway
No 224. Remember t he
development of heritage sites Sonepur palace. The ruins form
and tourism spots, most popular the background for the
Dr. Chitrasen Pasayat destinations of Odisha are traditional Bali Jatra. Here,
gradually losing popularity. history repeats itself every year
Temple town Sonepur is such with barua, with dhulia, with old
a place. The declined trend is audience, with new faces.
Sonepur is known for the more likely associated with the One may find persons
Samadhi Pitha of Bhima Bhoi intrinsic problems like poor who do not believe in
at Khaliapali village. It was infrastructure, marketing, bad supernatural power. But, one
great feeling when I was told it condition of connecting roads cannot ignore the fact that, a
is the same location where and inability to gauge the need belief system on power
Bhima Bhoi spent his last days. of tourists. An old man of superior to human being has
I will always cherish that Sonepur once t old me always played a vital role in
experience. Bhima Bhoi was a something that disturbed me society s survival and growth
much loved folk poet whose deeply, Even the local people since time immemorial. One
soulful verses are still sung by are not showing any concern to finds some visual ritual
many including the gifted and protect their heritage. performances in Sonepur
popular Odia singers, who Architectural treasures in through which the idea or
drew inspiration from Bhima Sonepur get vandalized. It is message of this power superior
Bhoi s poetry. His poems are due to the greed of man, who to human being is spread to
to simply teach the love of God without valuing his own rich others. During my research
and the prophet wit hout heritage and without caring for work an old lady said, I wish
becoming enmeshed in future generations is busy in for my children to visit Sonepur
theological debate. Such verses destroying his own heritage and on this occasion and be a part
written in the local Odia tradition. of this tradition. The idea
language were a bridge to the behind my desire is very simple.
Sonepur is situated on
masses who were not learned It is as simple as to bring back
the confluence of two rivers
in Sanskrit, the language of the my children to the path of
namely the Mahanadi and the
elite. spirituality and repose their faith
Tel. It is the headquarter town
Like Varanasi and in religious beliefs .
of Sonepur district, created in
Bhubaneswar, Sonepur is 1993. It is situated about 279 Sonepur has been the
known for its temples. It is also kilometers away from the state land of Shakti worship since
known for the river Mahanadi, capital Bhubaneswar via time immemorial. Bali Jatra is
its water and boat. It is Nayagarh and about 310 an annual festival of Sonepur
recognized for fish, for Matha, kilometers via Redhakhol. related to Shakti worship. It is

18 October - 2010
Orissa Review

celebrated in the Hindu month

of Aswina (September-
October) from Amavasya Tithi
or Mahalaya (New moon day)
to Purnami Tithi (Full moon
day). It continues for 16 days.
It is a folk religious festival
where various nitis are properly
planned and prescribed for
different Tithis (days). On this
occasion, the Barua represents
the deity to whom the people
worship. He moves from
temple to temple and from
place t o place dancing common people believe it a When Madan Gopal left
vigorously with the beating of proud privilege to be linked with Sambalpur for Sonepur, he
Dhol, Nisan and Ghant. this significant traditional event bro ught wit h him Pata-
The literary meaning of of Sonepur. Nowadays, this Khanda, Dola-Khanda,
Jatra is travelling. Different yearly Bali Jatra has not only Pata-Maheswari,
deities leave their temples established itself as an accepted Bhubaneswari and Bahuta
during Bali Jatra and make folk festival in its native land but Chhatra and initiated Bali
journey to various places to be also known as one of the Jatra in Samaleswari,
worshipped by the people as appealing and attractive Khambeswari and Sureswari
per the prevailing tradition. This festivals in the neighbouring temples of Sonepur. But as per
is the reason that this festival is areas including Sambalpur, the oral tradition, human
called Jatra. Our subsequent Bolangir and Boudh. sacrifice was prevalent during
analysis reveals the fact that, Bali Jatra is replete Bali Jatra in olden days. This
Bali or animal sacrifice is the with stories of persons whose reminds us the Meriah sacrifice
essential part of this ritual. work has creat ed and of Kandhas of this area.
Hence, this festival is known as established Bali Jatra as an Prior to Chauhan rule
Bali Jatra. Bali means institution and furthered the in Sonepur, this area was under
sacrifice, which is as old as growth and popularity of this the Bhanja of Baudh. There
human race. The essence of Jatra. It is said that Bali Jatra were tribal chiefs of Kandha
sacrifice emerges from the started in Sonepur during the origin in Sonepur region.
belief that, the sacrifice brings reign of Raja Madan Gopal Sambalpur Raja Balaram Dev
gain to the sacrificers and their Singh Deo (1635-1660), who (1605-1630) defeated the king
community. What is sacrificed was the first Chauhan Raja of Siddha Bhanja of Baudh. As a
losses itself by being slain. The Sonepur. He received Sonepur result, Bhanja surrendered the
loss of the sacrificed victim is as his Bhai-Bhaga i.e. shares. Sonepur region, which was
somehow seen as bringing gain Accordingly, Sonepur was annexed to Sambalpur
to the sacrificers. Every year, created as a separate kingdom. kingdom. Subsequently, his

October - 2010 19
Orissa Review

Jatra is noteworthy and worth

mentioning. Jatra begins from
Samaleswari temple on the
night of Amabasya i.e. new
moon day in the Hindu month
of Aswina (September-
October). The deity ascend
through two non-Brahmin
human beings i.e. Thanapati
Barua Dangua and Keunt
The traditional musical
instrument namely Dhol plays
an important role. It is the
Khambeswari Temple Bharni-Par which is played at
the time of ascending the deity
second grand-son Madangopal not ed historian B. C. through the Barua. The ritual
was made the Chief of this Majumdar, the wife of Raja continues amidst the high
newly acquired territory of Rajsingh Deo had initiated this sounding beat of Dhol, Muhuri
Sonepur (Senapati and festival in Sonepur. Raja and Ghanta. The literary
Mahanti, 1971: 62; Sahu, 1985: Rajsingh Deo had married the meaning of Bharni is pouring
14). In view of this, it may be princess of Khemendi. The or transferring. Barua is the
suggested that, Bali Jatra was newly married wife of the king person who holds the deity in
prevalent even earlier. had brought with her the his body. The Barua becomes
However, Madan Gopal was wooden image of Bali after the deity appears in
the first Raja of Sonepur where Khambeswari and started the his body. Barua is often known
he established a new chain of worship of the deity in Sonepur. to be in a trance, a state of
Chauhan dynasty. Subsequently, Raja Rajsingh spiritual bliss attained through
Deo had constructed the music and dancing. In other
It is pertinent to
present Khambeswari temple words, the deity or the unseen
mentio n that worship of
in honour of the deity. celestial power is transferred to
Khambeswari is believed to be
the body of Barua. Here the
the earliest form of Sakti As it has been noted meaning of Bharni-Par lies. It
worship in West Odisha. It is above, t hese three Sakti causes to flow the divine power
prevalent since fourth century. Pithas are the main centres of to the human body of the
It is difficult to ascertain the Bali Jatra in Sonepur. Role of Barua. In other words, the
exact time of worship of Brahmin priest during Bali deity ascends through him.
Khambeswari in Sonepur, Jatra is insignificant and When the deity appears in the
which is considered to be an unimportant. On the other body of Barua, at that time he
earliest seat of Khambeswari. hand, function and meaning of lo ses his sense and acts
Nevertheless, according to the non-Brahmin priests in this according to the direction of the

20 October - 2010
Orissa Review

unseen force. Here he is temple and the deity leaves his Chaturthi Tithi is a
addressed as Maa. People body at the twin poles (Juda significant day of Bali Jatra. On
worship him (deity in the body Khamba) near the temple. this day, the Barua collects
of the Barua), ask him various It is not out of place to sacred soil from the Khaul-
questions to solve their mention that, the neighbouring Gad, situated near Sureswari
problems and the deity replies districts of Boudh and Phulbani temple. This niti is called
them accordingly. It is said that are Kandha dominated areas. Khaul-Phita. This Khaul-Gad
Bali can foretell the past, Before 1993 i.e. the year of is located under a tree near the
present and future of the partition, Boudh and Phulbani pond of the temple. At night,
devotees on prayer. were under one district animal is sacrificed here. This
The Brahmin priest administration named is known as Khaul-Bali. It is a
hands over the Kala-Bauti Kandhamal i.e. the highland of Gupta-Niti of Bali Jatra in
Chhatar to the Keunt Barua, Kandhas. Kandha people Sonepur. It is performed in
who carries it and leaves the worship a deity called Chhatar secret and very confidentially.
temple. Thereafter, Thanapati Bauti. She is portrayed as a General public are not allowed
Barua leaves the temple. It is terrified deity of Kandha to witness this ritual. Only the
believed that, if at that time the society. If incited and provoked, non-Brahmin priest called
Thanapati Barua pulls the she is supposed to be the cause Khambeswaria Purohit and
Chhatra carried by the Keunt of deat h in the Kandha Khaul-Phita Dangua are
Barua then the death of Keunt community. Use of Kala present on the spot when this
Barua is imminent. Such (Black)-Bauti Chhatar and niti is performed. When the
situation also indicates that Dhala (White) Chhatar during Khaul-Phita Dangua
Sonepur has to face a lot of Bali Jatra points out that, Bali completes the ritual, he shouts
tragedies and misfortunes that Jatra is influenced by the tribal three times. Hearing his shout,
year. When the Keunt Barua culture and tradition in Sonepur. his wife sacrifices a Boda (he-
arrives at the palace, the deity goat) in her house at once. It is
After the Amabasya
leaves his body. Thanapati ritual, Bali Jatra of Pratipada believed that, any deviation in
Barua sits near the Budharaja (first day), Dwitiya Tithi this ritual might cause death of
temple situated in front of the (second day) and Trutiya Tithi the Barua. However, Barua
Sonepur palace. Samaleswari (third day) is called Nisa-Bali, collects the soil in three earthen
ascends him. One or two Buka because it is performed at mid- Kundi and takes to Sureswari
(he-goat) are offered to the night. Nisha implies mid-night. temple. In the temple he
deity (Barua). In other words, In these t hree days, becomes senseless and the
the ritual of animal sacrifice is Samaleswari ascends the deity leaves his body. Then
performed there and the blood body of the Barua and visits animals are sacrificed and
is offered to him (deity). It is the palace to be worshipped Kundi-Puja is performed. It
most surprising to see that the and returns thereafter at mid- may be noted here that this soil
Bali drinks the fresh blood of night. At this time, a lot of curd is used during next year s Bali
the Buka i.e. he-goat just after is poured over the head of the Jatra.
its sacrifice. After that, the Barua, who is found in the state As it has been
Barua returns to Samaleswari of ecstasy. mentioned above, rituals are

October - 2010 21
Orissa Review

performed at Khaul-Gad. the Khaul-Gad. People identify begins on Saptami Tithi.

Animals are sacrificed there. and recognize it with Earlier, Bhubaneswari and
Blood sacrifice is the integral Parasuram. It is also believed Bana-Durga were also
part of this ritual. The literary that, Parasuram raised his war propitiated by Sonepur Raja.
meaning of Gad is hole. Khaul- against the Kshatriyas because Consequently, as per the
Gad represents female sex they became very unkind and tradition the ritual of animal
organ. As Linga represents cruel. He fought 21 times and sacrifice is performed at the
Lord Siva in its uniconic form annihilated the Kshatriyas from palace before Bhubaneswari
in various Saiva Pithas the earth. Thereafter, he threw and Bana-Durga at night of
Khaul-Gad represents Sakti at all his Pothi in the Khaul-Gad. Saptami Tithi.
this place. In other words, As per the other oral narrative,
Rituals of Astami Tithi
Sakti in this form is worshipped Parasuram performed a
are imperative. The ritual of
at Khaul-Gad. It is pertinent to Yajna here and on his mother s
animal sacrifice is performed in
mention that, in Sindhekela of instructio n he installed
Titilagarh sub-division and in the temples of Asta-Chandi
Sureswari Devi here. So also,
Khariar the deity Duarseni is this is famous as Renuka- (Sureswari, Narayani,
worshipped in such form i.e. Pitha. Bhagavati, Samaleswari,
hole. Similarly, in Jena-Khal Khambeswari, Ramachandi,
The ritual of Panchami Dasamati and Bimalakshi) of
during Chhatar Jatra of Tithi is important in the sense
Bhawanipatna Manikeswari is Sonepur. Also, the ritual of
that it is known as Ghoda- animal sacrifice is performed at
worshipped in this form. So, it Panchami. Previously,
may be said that, in some parts Chari-Nala (Sashi-Sena
Sonepur Raja used to perform Tikra, Rana-Rahu Tikra, Hul-
of West Odisha Sakti worship puja in his Ghoda-sala,
in the form of Yoni worship is Bhita Tikra and Sulia Tikra),
because horse was not only an Chari-Khala or Gada
prevalent. important war instrument but (Manei-Gad, Danei-Gad,
There are numerous also an imperial mode of Mahi-Gad and Kanhei-Gad),
myths and legends associated transport. So, for the safety as Chari-Bata (Khambeswari
with Khaul-Gad. Sonepur is well as growth of this wealth, Bata, Kulipada Bata,
viewed as t he land of Sonepur Raja used to offer Budharaja Bata and Samalei
Parasuram. The Khaul-Gad ritual to the deity on this
Bata) and Chari-Ghata (Raj
under study is supposed to be occasion. As per the tradition,
Ghat, Gouri Ghat, Kadamb
the Entudisala i.e. birth place the Barua leaves Samaleswari
Ghat and Samalei Ghat) of
of Parasuram. It is also said temple and visits the palace at
Sonepur. Sonepur Raja used to
that, Parasuram killed his night. After the ritual of animal
perform the ritual of animal
mo ther Renuka on t he sacrifice, the deity i.e. the
sacrifice in these places for the
instruction of his father. Later Barua returns to the temple.
safety of Sonepur.
on, he repented a lot and The ritual of Sasthi Tithi is also
performed a Yajna. Khaul- very significant when the Barua Rituals of Navami
Gad is understood to be that goes to the palace at night and Tithi are also very important.
Yajna-Kunda. There is a stone the ritual of animal sacrifice is Mahakali Devi spends this day
image of Abalokiteswara near performed. Sodasa Puja with Samaleswari Devi in

22 October - 2010
Orissa Review

or Nisha Bali is organized.

Mahakali is worshipped on this
occasion. As per the tradition,
the deity i.e. the Barua visits the
palace where Podh or Mahisi
Bali i.e. buffalo sacrifice was
once prevalent.
Once upon a time, the
Gauntia i.e. the headman of
the village Sakma and his family
members were performing the
role of Barua on the occasion
of Bali Jatra in Sonepur. At
that time, he was greeted in the
Samaleswari Temple Samaleswari temple and taken
to the palace with a grand
Samaleswari t emple and to Samaleswari temple where procession. Traditionally, they
returns thereafter. Bali Jatra of also the ritual of animal sacrifice were also enjoying free lands
this night is known as Maha- is performed. From there, the of the village Sakma. However,
Bali or Khambeswari Bali. deity goes to the palace where time has changed. People have
Khambeswari temple is the her feet are washed at Bali- recorded the religious property
main attraction of this ritual. At Chaunra and the ritual of in their names. The people of
night, Khambeswari Devi animal sacrifice is performed. Sakma are also reluctant to
ascends the Barua. The ritual Then the Barua returns to perform the role of Barua now-
of animal sacrifice is performed Samaleswari temple where he a-days.
and then the deity (Barua) visits becomes senseless and the In this context Dr. P.
the town. At the door of almost deity leaves the body of the K. Chaulia, former Collector of
every household, the owner Barua or Dangua. Sonepur once told me that,
greets and washes the feet of when he was the Collector of
On Dasami Tithi,
the deity and offer puja, even Sonepur in 2005 the traditional
Dasahara Bali is organized in
animal sacrifice. Then the deity
the temple of Samaleswari. Baruas of Sonepur did not
returns to her temple where the
This is known as Maidhania want to perform the role of
Barua loses his sense and the
Bali because it is performed in Baruas on the ground that, they
deity leaves his body. After
the noon. On this day also, did not want to drink the blood
sometime, the deity ascends the
Barua visits the palace with the of animals anymore. So, they
Barua again and the ritual of
animal sacrifice is performed. two Kala-Chhatras. Final were reluctant to act as Baruas.
There from, the deity goes to ritual is performed on Aswina It clearly shows the sign of
the temple of Sureswari where Purnima i.e. on the full moon change from inside.
the ritual of animal sacrifice is day. At night, Puni Bali However, in course of
performed. Then the deity goes otherwise known as Jaunli Bali time, the management of the

October - 2010 23
Orissa Review

temples in Sonepur is taken of Sonepur Lakshmikara (drum) which pours or transfers

over by the Endowment propounded Sahaja-Yana and the deity into the human body
Commissioner. Limited funds popularized this stream of i.e. Barua. The chorus creates
provided by the Government on Buddhism in this area during a breathtaking and thrilling
this occasion are not sufficient ninth century. She is regarded sensation among the devotees
to meet the expenditure of such as one of the traditional 84 who congregate from different
a grand festival. There is no Siddhas of India. Subsequently, areas. But it had generated a
denying the fact that, today it is during the Hindu revival sense of fear in me.
simply difficult to organize Bali movement Saivism with It is interesting how the
Jatra in Sonepur without public Saktism flourished in medieval elite of the society mock and
support and their patronage. period. Perhaps, Tantric scorn the Bali Jatra tradition,
Barua is an important Buddhism and Tantric Saivism because it does not fall inside
character of Bali Jatra in with Saktism have influenced their acceptance parameters.
Sonepur. His most impressive the activities of Baruas of Bali This is not to eulogize and
feat is perhaps his balancing Jatra of Sonepur. Means i.e. praise Bali Jatra as the best
act. Besides being the hero of Sadhana of doing this are form of ritual dance. Or even
Bali Jatra, he is also the mouth- called Tantras. By to criticize that, it is a cruel and
piece of the deity. He pronouncing the right formula heartless form of ritual practice.
represents the deity. In other i.e. Mantra in the correct This is to say that, Bali Jatra is
words, Barua symbolizes the manner or by drawing the as good as a ritual dance
deity. So, Barua though male correct magical symbol i.e. incorporated with t he
by sex is addressed as Maa Yantra, one may force the deity traditional ideas of Tantra,
when the deity appears in his or superior power to appear in Mantra and Yantra when the
body. Thus, different deities in his body. Barua does not feel any pain
the human form known as It appears that, the and physical exhaustion during
Barua or Kalisi come out of Barua of Bali Jatra hypnotizes his performance.
the temple once in a year and himself. It appears to be a Hundreds of people
travel to different places like magical mysticism. For some, assemble near the Sureswari,
Sonepur palace and temples of this is a higher form of Yoga, Khambeswari and
other deities where certain when the Barua is completely Samaleswari temples and near
rituals are performed. Notably, anaesthetized. It is believed the Sonepur palace on different
Chhatars are also carried with events of Bali Jatra and
that, Bharni Paar of Dhol and
Baruas. Thereafter, the deities witness this rich folk festival of
devotional songs with a tantric
in the appearance of Barua Sonepur. In fact, the entire
overtone in Malashree Rag on
return to their respective Sonepur feels the vibration of
this occasion takes the Barua
temples. The literary meaning of Bali Jatra right from the
from a state of consciousness
Jatra is travelling. For this beginning of Aswina. Notably,
to the state of meditation and
reason, this annual festival is Sureswari is the reigning deity
finally that of Samadhi. Here
called Bali Jatra. of Sonepur and Samaleswari
lies the meaning of the word
Once, Buddhism Bharni Paar of Dhol. Bharni is the presiding deity of
spread in this area. The Queen Paar is a specific beat of Dhol Sambalpur. Khambeswari is

24 October - 2010
Orissa Review

Time has changed. In

due course of time, severe form
of blood sacrifice i.e. human
sacrifice has been stopped and
animal sacrifice has been
replaced. It is believed that this
transformation has come during
the British Raj when the
practice of Meriah sacrifice i.e.
human sacrifice was ruthlessly
suppressed and curbed by John
Campbell during December
1837 and January 1842 in the
adjacent Boudh-Kondhmal
areas. In order to expedite the
Sureswari Temple suppression of human sacrifice,
the Governor General in
Co uncil also decided to
the most popular deity of was offered to the deity. Every establish a cohesive agency
neighbouring Kalahandi, Boudh year, the Barua was sacrificed including all Kandha areas
and Phulbani. Their during Bali Jatra. It reminds us under an agent directly
participation in Bali Jatra the famous Meriah sacrifice a responsible to the Central
indicates that since long, Bali long time ago prevalent among Government. It was known as
Jatra has not only entertained the Kandhas of neighbouring Meriah Agency which was
the people of these areas but areas. As per the Meriah established in July 1845.
also acted as an emotional bond custom, the Kandhas never Captain S. C. Macpherson was
of unity among them. It is an sacrificed a Kandha. They used the first Agent for the Meriah
instrument of social harmony in to kidnap a non-Kandha boy Agency, who took over the
a bigger and larger society. Bali from the plains. The boy lived charges in December 1845.
Jatra creates an environment in the Kandha village as a very As mentioned earlier,
by facilitating people of all caste honoured guest. He used to get the traditional Baruas of Bali
and tribe to develop emotional plenty of wine, whatever food Jatra have also expressed their
attachment. It creates a greater he wanted and even had the dissatisfaction over this bloody
place to work and foster better company of any Kandha girl he ritual. Even once a group of
social awareness. desired. Naturally, he did not activists campaigned against
It is said that, once try to run away from the place. animal sacrifice during Bali
upon a time human sacrifice On the day of the sacrifice he Jatra. These people believe
was prevalent during Bali is so drunk that he is completely that, many people are mute
Jatra. As per the tradition, anaesthetized. Portions of his spectators to this bleeding ritual
when the ex-state was under body could be cut away practice. They think that, even
the tribal rulers human blood without feeling any pain. the social organizations and

October - 2010 25
Orissa Review

Government agencies working

against such rituals do not seem
to bother. So, conscious
citizens should take up this issue.
But wait, let us stop here and
think. In every Sakti Pitha it is
happening in the month of
Aswina and Chaitra. This
happens every day simply
because these innocent
creatures are not claiming their
right to live. They do not have
voice and strength to do so.
Let us, however, not
wonder who is innocent and
who is guilty, for the law Mahabali Jatra
professes to be doing that
already. Let us not pronounce materially. It is the time to enjoy of celebrating Bali Jatra and
Bali Jatra as a sick tradition things and acquire things. There making this festival more
because it makes little sense is no denying that, the intensity popular are the sacred
and brings us no closer to any of celebration is unparallelled responsibilities of the general
concrete conclusion at the end particularly during Bali Jatra in people of Sonepur at large.
of it. What we want to say is Sonepur. What you are talking Bali Jatra is organized under
how naked this tradition is in about commercialization is the guidance of the District
front of us. It is truthfully a real absolutely correct. But, it is not Administration. The number of
show, a reality show for the a new phenomenon; it was animal sacrifice has been
masses. We cannot help it, there earlier too. We cannot say reduced to a great extent.
simply because it is an essential that, this is only the age of Common people have left no
ingredient of human nature and, commercialization . Yes, such stone unturned to achieve this
we believe, at least in this case, event always and certainly feat. They have been devoting
that we are human. We are brings me an opportunity to themselves to keep this century
physically superior to these earn more . long tradition alive.
animals and they are helpless One of the great It is pertinent to
even to save their lives. Minus disasters of post independent mention that, Sonepur is a
this part of animal sacrifice, India has been the absence of temple town just like
every thing seems to be all right. royal patronage to Bali Jatra. Bhubaneswar, the capital city
During my research trip However, there is no denying of Odisha. The
to Sonepur on the occasion of the fact that, common people Kosalanandam Kavya, a
Bali Jatra one Pasrawali told extend their patronage and work of seventeenth century
me, Festival is for celebrations, support this festival once a year. declares Sonepur as another
not only spiritually but also Unquestionably, the inheritance Varanasi with its numerous

26 October - 2010
Orissa Review

sacred shrines of Siva and everything around you have Pasayat, C. (2008), Bali Jatra (in
Parbati. Regrettably, the spirit contributed positively or Oriya), Souvenir, Lok-Mahotsav-
2008, Sambalpur: District Council
of heritage tourism has not negatively for your success. of Culture.
reached to Sonepur till date. Since you are in Sonepur, write
Sahu, N. K. (1985), Veer Surendra
Sonepur is finding it tough to an English paper on Bali Jatra
Sai, Department of Cultur e,
lure travellers partly due to for outsiders. Just before his Government of Odisha.
accommodation problem. sad demise, the author got an
Senapati, N. and B. Mahanti (1971),
However, if you want to take opportunity to work in Sambalpur District Gazetteer,
your family on a holiday, please Sonepur. It helped him to Cuttack: Orissa Government Press.
spend some time while improve his knowledge on Bali Senapati, N. and N. K. Sahu (1968),
travelling in this place. Jatra. Today, Bhagirathi Bolangir District Gazetteer,
Nepak is no more to read this Cuttack: Orissa Government Press.
The author is thankful paper. However, it is a tribute Senapati, N. and D. C. Kuanr
to Bhagirathi Nepak, whom he to that great soul. (1983), Boudh-Khondmals District
met during his field study in Gazetteer, Cuttack: Orissa
1989. At that time, he inspired References : Government Press.
the author to write a paper in Barik, Sarmistha (2009), Bali Jatra
English on Bali Jatra. He of Sonepur , Odisha Review, Vol.
LXVI, No.2, September, pp 160-162.
awakened the author, get rid
of the view if any that you are a Pasayat, C. (1998), Tribe, Caste and
Folk Culture, Jaipur : Rawat
flourishing scholar and Publications. Dr. Chitrasen Pasayat resides at
successful writer because of 152, VijayVihar, Nuagaon Road, P.O:
Pasayat, C. (2006), Sonpurara Bali
your talents and skills. You are Jatra (in Oriya), Souvenir, Subarna Sish upalgar h, Bhubaneswar,
successful despite yourself, for Utsav-2006, Subarnapur: District Odisha, 751002. E-mail:
the reason that everyone and Council of Culture, pp.71-76.

October - 2010 27
Orissa Review

Durga Temple
at Nuasatanga

Dr. Ratnakar Mohapatra

State Archaeolo gy Art and Architecture of the

Department. This temple is built temple :
Introduction in burnt bricks and stones A. Vimana :
The temple of goddess (rare). The foundation of the
original vimana as well as The vimana of the
Durga at the village Nuasatanga temple is a pancharatha rekha
(Motia) in the Niali Block of the jagamohana is built of laterite
blocks. The temple faces to deula and its height is about 35
Cuttack district is one of the
west. The presiding deity of the feet from the surface of the
important Shakta shrines of the
temple is a best specimen of the temple complex. It is
Prachi Valley in Odisha. This
Orissan classical art. The site completely a renovated
temple is located about 5 km
of the temple is a considered structure. The vimana has four
from Amaresvara on the left
as a place of Shakta worship fold vertical divisions such as
bank of the river Prachi. The
in the coastal belt of Odisha. pistha, bada, gandi and
temple was in ruined condition
Shakta worship in the Prachi mastaka. The pistha is about
but it has been completely
valley is incomplete without 1 feet high and it consists of
renovated in 2001 by the
referring to the goddess Durga three horizontal mouldings
Orissa State Archaeology
Department, Bhubaneswar. of Motia. From the religious made of stones and bricks. The
Originally the temple consisted point of view, the Durga temple base of the bada measures 20
of three structures such as of Motia is well known in the feet in the eastern and western
Vimana, Jagamohana and Prachi Valley. This temple is a sides and 17 feet in t he
Natamandapa. Now t he good representative of the southern and northern sides
structure of natamandapa has brick monument in the coastal respectively. The bada of the
not existed. The platform or belt of Odisha. A modest vimana co nsists of five
pistha portion o f t he attempt has been made in this component parts viz ;
natamandapa is available at article to highlight the detailed pabhaga, tala jangha,
present only. Now the temple art and architecture of the bandhana, upper jangha and
is being protected by the Orissa temple. baranda. The pabhaga

28 October - 2010
Orissa Review

padmasana, is being Durga image of the Gagnesvari

worshipped as Kutamachandi.1 temple of Bayalishbati.3 The
This goddess may be one of the head of Mahisasura is
side deities of the original Durga depicted detached from his
temple of Motia.2 The raha body. Lion, the conventional
paga of the northern and mount of goddess Durga is
southern sides on the baranda carved on the left of the
are projected out by the pedest al. Observing t he
jhapasimha. iconography of the presiding
The gandi o f t he deity, T.E.Donaldson remarks
vimana is a curvilinear that chakra and conch, which
superstructure and it continues testify to the strong Vaishnavite
the pancha ratha plan of the influence permeating the area of
bada. The eastern and southern this time.4 In this connection,
side raha pagas of the gandi Hansanatha Sahoo is of the
are projected out by the view that the presiding deity is
gajakranta motif (lion on ornamentally decorated but the
contains the conventional crouchant elephant). Other presence of Champaka flower
mouldings of khura, parts of the gandi are devoid garland suggest s it to
khumbha, patta and basanta. of sculptural decoration. Deula Vaishnavite affiliation.5 He also
Here the kani is not built by the Charini figures and dopichha says that the attributes of
masons. The talajangha and lions are completely absent in sankha and chakra in upper
upper jangha of the bada are their respective places above hands identify it as Durga
complet ely plain. The the gandi. Madhava. 6 Two female
bandhana of the bada cotains attendant figures are flanked on
The mastaka of the both sides of goddess Durga.
three horizontal mouldings. The
vimana consists of beki, The backside of the head of
baranda above the upper
amalakasila, khapuri and deity is carved with trefoil arch,
jangha has four horizontal
kalasa. Here the ayudha and makara head at the base and
mouldings, which are joined by
dhvaja are missing. the kirtimukha motif at the
a vertical band at the centre of
each paga. Small tankus are The sanctum preserves apex. Apsara figures holding
carved on all the mouldings of the image of goddess Durga as garland are depicted on both
the baranda. The central niches the presiding deity of the side top corners of the slab. The
of the three sides of the bada temple. The four armed image dazzling appearance and the
are decorated with pidha of goddess Durga is carved in pass of attacking the demon
mundies. All the central niches standing posture on the double create sensational feelings in the
of the three sides of the bada petalled lotus pedestal. She minds of visitors.7 The image
are completely blank. There is displays chakra in upper right Durga is made of black chlorite
no side deity in its niche at hand and sankha in upper left stone. It measures 3 feet 1
present. On the north-western hand. The lower two hands inches in height and 1 feet 10
bank of the nearby pond, under hold the trident, by which, she inches in width respectively.The
a Banyan tree an image of six- is piercing the heart of presiding deity is installed on the
armed goddess, seated in Mahisasura as on the detached simhasana of 1 feet high.

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The backwall of the sanctum places.10 Another stone slab of the sanctum. The two armed
near the presiding deity is containing an image of image of Sun god is carved in
decorated with trefoil arch, Chamunda noticed on the left st anding post ure on t he
makara head at the base and side of the presiding deity. The pedestal, which is decorated
the pidha mastaka design at four armed Chamunda image is with a chariot drawn by seven
the apex. Some of the earlier carved in standing posture on horses. Aruna, the charioteer
scholars opine that the image of the prostrait body of a corpse. holds the reins of all the horses.
presiding deity is a rare She displays khadga in upper Two diminutive figures of Usha
specimen of the Orissan art.8 right hand, dambaru in lower and Pratyusha are flanked on
Here H.C.Das is of the view right hand, panapatra in upper either side of the deity. The Sun
that the presiding deity of Motia left hand and trident in lower left god was depicted holding the
is one of the best hand. The image of Chamunda stalk of full-blown lotus flower.
respresentative specimens of is made of sand stone. It But both the hands of Sun god
are broken from the elbow
the Ganga period.9 Besides the measures 1 feet 6 inches in
portion. Flower medallion is
presiding deity, the sanctum also height and 1 feet inch in
carved on both side top corners
preserves the images of Surya width.
of the slab. The image of Sun
Devata and a four armed Inner walls of the god is made of sand stone. It
Chamunda. The two armed sanctum are devoid of measures 1 feet 3 inches in
image of Surya Devata is decorative ornamentation. The height and 9 inches in width
carved in riding a chariot drawn sanctum has one doorway respectively. Observing this
by seven horses with the towards the jagamohana. The image, T.E.Donaldson remarks
charioteer Aruna who holds the doorframe is designed with that stylistically the image of Sun
reins of all the horses. The Sun three vertical sections. The base god can be placed in the 13th
god holds the stalk of the full- of both side doorframes are century A.D.11
blown lotus flower in his two decorated with khakhara Goddess Durga : An image
hands. Figures of Dandi and mundis, which are housed with of goddess Durga is noticed at
Pingala are flanked on either the figures of dvarapalikas. the left side of the doorway of
side of the Surya Devata. They The centre of the doorway lintel the sanctum. The four armed
are depicted on the base of the is carved with an image of image of goddess Durga is
slab. Usha and Pratyusha are Gaja-Lakshmi in abhiseka carved in standing posture like
also carved on the centre of pose. Navagrahas are not the presiding deity. She holds
either side of the slab. The found engraved on t he chakra in upper right hand and
backside of the head of Surya architrave above the doorway sankha in upper left hand. In
Devata is decorated with trefoil lintel. Loose sculptures of the lower two hands, goddess
arch. Apsara figure is carved Surya Devata and goddess Durga is piercing the heart of
on both side top corners of the Durga are kept on the right and Mahishasura by a trident.
slab. The image of Surya left sides of the doorway of the Lion, the conventional mount of
Devata is made of chlorite sanctum respectively. They are goddess Durga is carved on the
stone. It measures 1 feet 9 being described as follows: left of the pedestal. The image
inches in height and 1 feet in Durga is made of sand stone.
width respectively. The image Surya Devata : The image of It measures 1 feet 6 inches in
of Surya Devata was possibly Surya Devata is found installed height and 1 feet 2 inches in
brought from some other at the right side of the doorway width respectively.

30 October - 2010
Orissa Review

B. Jagamohana : ghanta, above which there is of Ganesha (eroded condition)

The jagamohana of another beki, amalakasila, and an image of Astabhuja
the temple is a pancharatha khapuri and kalasa. Here the Durga. Here the image of
ayudha and dhvaja are not Astabhuja Durga is being
pidha deula and its height is
found to be inserted in their mentioned below.
about 26 feet from the surface
respective places.
of the temple complex. The Durga : A huge stone slab
structure of the jagamohana Inner walls of the contains an image of eight
has been rebuilt on the same jagamohana are completely armed goddess Durga. The
ruined platform of the vimana. plain. The jagamohana has right side hands of goddess
The bada of the jagamohana one doorway towards the open Durga display khadga, trident,
has four parts such as natamandapa. The doorway varada mudra and one of the
pabhaga, talajangha, of the jagamohana is bereft of hands of the right side holds
bandhana and upper jangha. decorative embellishment. pasa, which lies on the neck of
The pabhaga is designed with C. Open Mandapa : the asura. The left side four
the conventional mouldings of hands hold the hairs of asura
khura, kumbha, patta and There was probably a in one hand, severed head
basanta. Here the moulding of natamandapa existed in front (chhinna mastaka), an
of the jagamohana though
kani is not noticed like the indistinct object and the rest
only fragments of pistha
vimana. The tala jangha and hand of the left side displays
remain.12 Now the pistha or
upper jangha are devoid of abhaya mudra. Here the
platform of the earlier structure
decorative elements. The asura is depicted holding a
is available and it is being used
baranda of the bada is not dagger in his hand. Lion, the
as the open natamandapa of
made by the architects. Small conventional mount of goddess
the temple. This platform is
open window is found on both Durga is carved on the right of
about 3 feet high from the
the northern and southern sides the pedestal. The image Durga
surface of the temple complex.
of the bada. is made of sand stone. Some
Masonry steps of t he
The gandi o f t he of the local devotees consider
descending order are provided
jagamohana is a pyramidal it as goddess Kali.
for approach towards the
superstructure and it continues jagamohana as well as the Additional Shrine :
the pancha ratha plan of the sanctum. Two jhapasimhas of There is an additional
bada. The gandi consists of the original temple are shrine dedicated to Lord
five flat shaped pidhas and unmistakably installed on both
Muktesvara Shiva noticed on
each pidha is decorated with sides of the masonry steps of
the north- west corner of the
tankus in all sides. Deula the open mandapa.
temple complex. It is a pidha
Charini figures and dopichha There are some loose deula and is about 20 feet in
lions are completely absent in sculptures of the original temple height. The central niches of the
their respective places above preserved at the left side bada of that shrine are housed
the gandi. western bada wall of the with the parsvadevata images
The mastaka of the jagamohana. They are Deula of Ganesha, Kartikeya and
jagamohana consists of beki, Charini figures (four), an image Devi Parvati. According to the

October - 2010 31
Orissa Review

local people, the shrine was the original Durga temple of References:
built in 1990 s. Motia can be tentatively 1. P.K. Ray (ed.), Archaeological
Boundary Wall : assigned to the 2nd half of the Survey Report Prachi Valley,
13th century A. D. The present Orissa State Archaeology;
The temple complex is Bhubaneswar, 1975, p.14.
temple has been rebuilt in 2001
enclosed by a boundary wall, by the Orissa State 2. Ibid.
which is made of burnt bricks. Archaeology Department, 3. T.E. Donaldson, Hindu Temple
The original boundary wall of Art of Orissa, Vol.2, Leiden,
Bhubaneswar. 1986, p.681.
the temple complex is indicated
by the existence of its lower Now the temple is 4. Ibid.
portion at some places. 13 being managed by a local 5. Hansanath Sahoo, The Rare
committee of that village. but Less-known Monuments
Recently, the earlier damaged of Prachi Valley , in P.K.
boundary wall has been rebuilt Conclusion Pradhan(ed.), Incre dible
by the Orissa State Prachi Valley: It s Monuments
Thus, it is known from and Tourism Possibilities,
Archaeology Department. The Adaspur, 2007, p.57.
the above discussion that the
boundary wall is about 5 feet
Durga temple of Motia is 6. Ibid.
in height. An ancient brick well
completely a renovated temple 7. P.K. Ray (ed.), op.cit., p.58.
is found existed at the southern
side of the temple complex. of that locality. The original 8. Ibid, p.14. Also see R.P.
structures of the temple are not Mohapatra, Archaeology in
Date of the Temple : available at present. The temple Orissa (Sites and Monuments),
Vol.1, New Delhi, p.148.
There is no authentic has been rebuilt by the Orissa
9. H.C. Das, Iconography of
historical record with regard to State Archaeolo gy Shakta Divinities, Vol. II, Delhi,
the exact date of the original Department. Iconographic 1997, p. 321.
Durga t emple of Mot ia. features of the presiding deity 10. R.P. Mohapatra, op.cit., p.148.
Various scholars suggest convey the artistic tradition of 11. T.E. Donaldson, op.cit., 1986,
different views regarding the the Orissan classical art of the p.682.
date of the temple. G.S.Das Ganga period. The image of 12. Ibid, p.681.
records that the brick presiding deity is rare 13. P.K. Ray (ed.), op.cit., p.58.
monument of the Motia village considering its artistic features. 14. G.S. Das, Exploration of the
is assignable to the 8th and 9th Although the temple is primarily Prachi Valley, Bhubaneswar,
century A.D.14 Here P.K. Ray dedicated to the Shakta deity 1958, p.15.
is of the view that the Durga still it preserves other deities like 15. P.K. Roy, op.cit., p.27.
temple of Mot ia was Sun god, Ganesha, etc. From 16. T.E. Donaldson, op.cit., pp.681-
constructed in circa 9th century the architectural point of view, 682.
A.D.15 Here T.E. Donaldson the temple is an important brick
has categorized this temple into monument of the Prachi Vally.
the 13th century A.D.16 On the Dr. Ratnakar Mohapatra is a
On the whole, the Durga temple
ICHR Post Doctoral Fellow,
basis of the original pistha and of Motia is one of the important P.G. Department of History,
the iconography of the presiding Shakta shrines in the coastal Sambalpur University,
deity, the construction period of belt of Odisha. Jyotivihar, Burla-768019.

32 October - 2010
Orissa Review

Biswabasab, t he As per the views of

brother of Biswabasu brought research scholars Goddess
the Chaka shila (the Pedestal Maninag Durga was at first
on which Lord Nilamadhab worshipped by Her devotees
was seated) to Ranapur and as Goddess Ambika. In 942
fixed the same on the hill top of A.D. Pravabati, the newly
"Mainak Parbat" and installed married queen of king
the deity of Goddess Maninag Gadadhar Singh of Ranapur
Durga. Scholars and wisemen fought a battle with the Muslim
opine that the Bija Mantra of invadors of Bengle and gained
"Vishnu", "Siva" and "Durga" victory over them. Being
has been inscribed on the body pleased with the uncommon
of holy Chaka shila which valour and patriotism of the
has been installed on the hill top queen, the Gajapati king of
of "Mainak Parbat". Orissa honoured her with
Maninag When Biswabasab
arrived at Ranapur it was ruled
Nagamani Saree and since
that event the Presiding deity of
Durga, the by a tyrant demon king namely
Ranasur . The common
Ranapur was called and
worshipped as Maninag in
Presiding subjects were living in Ranapur
state with constant fear, terror
stead of Ambika.
The king of Ranapur
Deity of and anxiety. The people of
Ranapur prayed befo re
had to go to the hilltop of
"Mainak Parbat" every day for
Ranapur Goddess Maninag Durga with
deep devotion to save them
offering Seva Puja to Goddess
Maninag, by crossing the thorny
from the oppression and bushes and unpalatable road. In
Braja Paikaray tyranny of Demon king Ranasur order to avoid these obstacles
Goddess Maninag Durga king Brajasundar Narendra of
fought a fierce battle with
Ranapur constructed a new
Legendary Biswabasu, the Ranasur for seven days and
temple in 1830 A.D. at the foot
tribal chief and Biswabasu, the seven nights and at last slew the
of the Mainak hill in the back
founder of Ranapur royal demon king by Her powerful
of Ranapur royal palace. The
dynasty were two brothers. feet stroke. While slaying the
devotees use to call the deity
Biswabasab was a great demon Ranasur by feet stroke
of this temple as Tala
devotee of Lord Nilamadhab Mainak Parbat shivered
and was worshipping the God vigourously and a new water
in deep mountain caves spring came out of the mountain Due to lack of proper
encircled with forest. In course which was later on called as modern education and out of
of time Lord Nilamadhab was Asur Kumari . It has now blind belief the rulers of
brought to Puri and became become a tourist spot for the Ranapur had created the nasty
Lord Jagannath. visitors. and hateful custom of human

October - 2010 33
Orissa Review

sacrifice before Goddess had warned the then king illegal orders of the king who is
Maninag Durga. 80 families of Krushna Chandra Narendra a mere servant of t he
Ranapur had been granted Bajradhar Mohapatra to Britishers.
Rakta Patta Jagirs by the abolish the hellish custom of In fact the hateful
ruler for killing human beings human sacrifice before custom of human sacrifice
and offering their blood to Goddess Maninag Durga. before Goddess Maninag was
Goddess Maninag in the whole abolished in Ranapur after the
For the bet ter
month of Magha. These hateful brutal killing of British Political
Killers were called by the appreciation of the readers the
English translation of the Oriya Agent Major R.L. Bazelgettee
common subjects as Tantia on 5th January 1939 by the
Katas and Magha Masias . stanza of the poem is herewith
given below. angry mob when the king was
Patrio t Dibakar divested of all this royal power
Parida, the dynamic leader of The hellish custom of by the British Govt..
Ranapur Rebellion of 1938-39 human sacrifice in the month of
A.D. had penned the Ranapur Magha by Tantiakatas would
Rebellion in his revolutionary not be tolerated & allowed Braja Paikaray is an Advocate &
poem Jagi Utha in which he further, We the people of Notary Public in Bhubaneswar
Ranapur would defy all the Court, Bhubaneswar-14
had called upon the people and

34 October - 2010
Orissa Review

Oh Mother Goddess Durga

Bikram Keshari Barma

Pitamaha Brahma had bestowed

Oh, Goddess Durga, the universal Mother Mahinsha with a boon
You are the source of power He only can be killed
You are source of unity and harmony by a naked woman.
You are our real saviour. Narayan, the Supreme God Baikunthadhiswar
Mahinsha, the king of giants Created you, Oh Mother
And his two commanders And requested you to kill Mahinshasura.
Sumbha and Nisumbha You asked the Gods
Invaded Swargapur. To be united forgetting their petty rivalry
Indra, the king of Gods And to handover their best weapons.
was miserably defeated The Gods agreed and being united
And with his followers Handed over their best weapons
left the Heaven quickly. To you to fight with the giants.
Mahinsha sat on the throne of Indra You, sitting on Lion
Declared himself as Debendra Being well-equipped
Gods in fear Attacked the giant's where kingdom where
Worshipped his feet with fear. Sumbha and Nisumbha were killed
Devraj Indra, Pitamaha Brahma Atlast Oh Mother !
Kailashpati Mahadev, God Moon and Sun, you mesmerised Mahinshasura
Met the Supreme Narayan For the interest of the Heaven and Earth
And described their distress And he was killed.
Prayed for the rescue
From the hand of Rakshash.

Bikram Keshari Barma is the Ex-MLA of Mahanga.

October - 2010 35
Orissa Review

with welfare of all sections of

people the poor, the down
trodden, the exploited and the
least. He had the ideal of
Gandhian Sarvodaya of social upliftment,
economic emancipation and
Sarvodaya moral resurrection of all.
Gandhiji considered this ideal
as the only real dignified human
doctrine is the greatest good of
Prabodh Kumar Rath all, he cherished this welfare of
the rich and the poor, the prince
and the dullard, the dumb, deaf
and mute. He had envisioned
development with moral, ethical
M. K . Gandhi was by He located the truth of Indian and spiritual values than the
common consent one of the ideas through study of Tolstoy western economic parameter
greatest leaders. Asia has and Ruskin. He can be alone. Gandhiji cherished to
produced in an era of colonial acclaimed as a politician, establish a democratic state and
nationalisms and decolonization, prophet, a humanist, a social a new social order on principles
who in his own life time was scientist, a democrat and above of truth and non-violence with
called a saint and a all an economist. Sarvodaya.
Machiavellian politician and
who has become in He viewed the function Sarvodaya as an ideal,
independent India both a of the existing state as evil a vision and a movement in
national myth and an which hardly would permit a Gandhian philosophy in its
embarrassment.1 new social order of his dream. origin, dynamic in outlook, it is
He opined for a co-operative solidly based on a philosophy
The political philosophy federation of village republics. of praxis that demands the
of M.K. Gandhi had been He pointed the role of majority commitment of its follower to
analysed thoroughly in the rule in western democracy and the care and the uplift of
country and abroad. He had precarious position of humanity, especially of the last
been a successful man of action minorities. These are not and the least in any society.
in pre-independent India. He conducive for promotion of Gandhi s dream of Sarvodaya
had struggled hard to win the welfare of one and all. society is an ideal towards
freedom by non-violent means. which he worked and for which
He had aimed to end He coined the term he expected a continuity of
exploitation and set up a new Sarvodaya to mean good of commitment till it is realized.
social order on principles of all for the title version of Ruskin The dynamics of Sarvodaya are
truth and non-violence. He was not the greatest good of the deeply rooted in the world view
a great social scientist often greatest number, Gandhi of Gandhi, within which he
experiencing certain principles. viewed his class- less society thought and acted and from the

36 October - 2010
Orissa Review

perspective of which he viewed level, the Harijans, Tribals and inspiration for the formation of
other realties and which gave members the lower castes Sarvodaya. But Gandhi admits
him the inner direction for his would be given all the rights of his debt to certain other
search for and experiments with equality. sources like the Gospels by
truth. Tolstoy and Thoreau.5 Gandhi
Sarvodaya owes its obviously drew a lot of
The dynamics of origin to Gandhi. The concept inspiration from Jainism,
Sarvodaya assumes a process Sarvodaya was first used by besides Jainsim Gandhi s
that begins with the last and the Gandhi to express an idea
thought owes much to the
least in the society and moves which he found. Very
scriptures of Hinduism, Islam,
on toward the dawn of a captivating in Ruskins un to this
Christianity and Buddhism.
Moksha on earth or Ram Rajya last. In order to understand the
(Kingdom of God). This full meaning and implications of The ideal of Sarvodaya
kingdom was to be attained on Sarvodaya, one has to situate is implied in the word itself;
earth and had to be created and it in the broader perspective of Sarva and Udaya. Sarva means
nurtured with Sarvodaya beliefs Gandhi s thinking. Gandhi never all and the key to this and
and practices. 2 Through attempted to build a systematic Udaya means uplift . The
Sarvodaya Gandhi attempted thought pattern or sat down to culmination of Sarvodaya
to recapture the spiritual write a whole book containing vision, which was the life
heritage of India, which had a systematic exposition of his mission of Gandhi, is nothing
thrived in the villages and used ideas. Instead, he wrote in bits but a liberated society, a
it to build the nation. He and pieces, usually for journals Sarvodaya Samaj. He devoted
criticized western civilization not put out by his organizations. He his entire life for the achievement
because it was totally corrupt, never hesitated to admit of this goal. Since Sarvodaya
but because it was contrary to inconsistencies in his thinking stood for the welfare of all,
the needs of India. In western and writings. For Gandhi commitment to all kinds of
values he saw a craze for Sarvodaya was a concrete sacrifices, even unto death, for
comfort, multiplication of wants manifestation of many spiritual the welfare of others was at the
and self indulgence, which could ideas found in many religious core of Sarvodaya.
lead t o greed, conflict traditions.3 Like many other
suppression of the weak by the great concepts, the evolving Gandhi s original use of
strong and social disparity. and expanding concept of the term Sarvodaya dates back
Gandhi was convinced that Sarvodaya had a small and to the year 1904. In translating
decentralization of power is the humble beginning. Gandhi into Gujurati, Ruskin s unto this
key to just and equitable seems to have borrowed the last the bo ok t hat he
society. On economic level concept Sarvoday from a Jain acknowledge as exerting the
decentralization of power scripture written by Acharya most radical and revolutionary
meant disco vering big Samaanta Bhadra who lived influence on his life and
industries and encouraging about 2000 years ago.4 No philosophy he first used the term
village cottage industry. Small doubt for Gandhi Ruskin s Sarvodaya. The title of the
is beautiful thus would become book un to the last was one book when translated in to
the economic slogan. In a social of the main sources of Gujrati was Sarvodaya or the

October - 2010 37
Orissa Review

welfare of all but the idea of down trodden rather. Than all. the following ideology of Hindu
welfare of all formed a part As Vinoba Bhave has observed saints and seers. The Bhagvad
of his mental make up even The proper rendering of unto Gita is also replete with
before he read this book.6 this last would be Antyodaya references to the concept of
Ruskin s book according to uplift of lost , rather than universal welfare or the welfare
Gandhi had three lessons for Sarvodaya. 8 But Gandhi of all. Apart from Hindu
him. intentionally used the word Scriptures, Buddhism and
Sarvodaya or welfare of all Jainism served as adjuncts to
1. That the good of the instead of Antyodaya. Hinduism also lay equal
individual is contained in the
emphasis on the welfare of all.
good for all. The Gandhian concept
The universal love and universal
2. That a lawyers work of Sarvodaya also inherited
welfare form the corner-stones
has the same value as the from the cultural heritage of
of the Buddhist philosophy.
barber s in as much as all have India-Indian culture since the
The Jainas equally accept as
the same right of earning their early days of recorded history
their ideal the welfare of all.
livelihood from their work. clearly conceives of the welfare
Even before the Christian Era
of all. Even Kautilya s
3. That a life labourer of the term Sarvodaya was used
Arthasastra, a masterpiece of
the that is the life of the tiller of by one Jaina t eacher
ancient Hindu treatise on
the soil and the handicraftsman Samantabhadra. Islam not only
diplomacy and state craft
is the life worth living. prescribes that the ruler must be conceives of Allah or God as
But to Gandhi our of Omniscient-Omnipresent
just and righteous, his supreme
the three lessons the first one is consideration being the welfare having no beginning and no end.
most significant. But Gandhi of the people. It also concedes that all is from
had deep in his heart the God.10 The message of God
cherished objective of welfare In the happiness of the and the kingdom of God
of all or Sarvodaya even before subjects lies his happiness, in advocated by him comprehend
he read Ruskin s unto this their welfare his welfare. universal good or the welfare
last. 7 Whatever pleases himself he of all. Thus the Gandhian
shall not consider as good, but concept of Sarvodaya or the
Gandhi had deep whatever pleases his subjects uplift or welfare of all was
down in his heart the desire to he shall consider as good .9 stimulated by the combined
see the welfare of all. unto his effect of Common humanity
last, he stimulated this desire Indians conceived of as preached by all religions.
and instilled in him a sense of universal love and universal
determination and dedication to service in terms of The philosophy of
work for it, to give his life for it. Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam Sarvodaya makes the attempt
Sarvodaya or welfare of all and Svadesha Bhubana of reorienting human mind, of
became hence forward his trayam . The concept of reconstructing human society.
polestar. Unto this last literally universal brotherhood, Sarvodaya means welfare and
translated lays emphasis on the universal love and service to the prosperity of all. All most
last, the oppressed and the entire creation is contained in progress together without

38 October - 2010
Orissa Review

collision of interest. Prosperity Kisans, Uplift of labour, Uplift 2. Thomas Veltickal, Gandhian
is not attained in vacuum. It of Lapers, Uplift of Adivasis, Sarvodaya; A Realistic utopia
Gyan Publishing House, New
needs money after all but what Uplift of Students. Delhi, 2002. P-8.
type of money ? Money earned
without moral and spiritual Sarvodaya pleads for 3. Archana Sinha, the school
the replacement of the concept ph ilosophy of Sarvodaya
consideration leads to animality. (Patna, Janki, Prakasan) 1978
When becomes possession- of class struggle by the more
rational theory of social goods 4. T.S. Deva Das, Sarvodaya and
oriented he does not care for th e pr oblem of Political
anything good or bad. This and harmony. This social
Sovereignty, Madras, 1974
leads to social imbalance. harmony is to be realised not
by mere verbal profession. It is 5. Essays on Gandhian Politics
Sarvodaya is a philosophy Oxford, Clear endon Poets,
which provides checks against to be experienced in daily 1971, PP17-25
these imperfections of human conduct.
6. Gandhi, M.K. The story of my
mind and soul. It endeavours to Gandhi s ideals have Experiments with truth P 224
put man on the tract which may often left little mark on Indian 7. Ibid, P -224
lead him t o real social society and politics and where 8. Gandhi M.K. : Harijan 10 April
happiness. Sarvodaya ideals they have been influential they 1949
have been there since the Vedic have often been distorted in 9. Kautilya, Arthasastra, Book-I,
times. practice by social conditions. Chapter VII.
For building a What left by the Mahatma in 10. Al Quoran, Chap-iv, quoted in
Sarovadoya society in India, modern India is not a social and Islam by Annie Besant P-22
Gandhiji gave 18-fold political reformation, but merely
programme. They are :- a tiny group of devot ed
Gandhis. Some, under the
Communal unit y, leadership of Jaya Prakash
Removal of untouchability, Narayan, preach the doctrines
Prohibition, Khadi, Other rural of Sarvodaya, the welfare of all.
industries, Village sanitation,
Nai Talim, Adult Education, References :
Uplift of women, Education in 1. Originally published in the
health and hygiene, Provincial modern Asian Studies, Prabodh Kumar Rath lives
language, National language, Cambridge University Press, in Plot No.184, Paikanagar,
Economic equality, Uplift of Vol. III, 1969, PP-321-22 Bhubaneswar-751003.

October - 2010 39
Orissa Review

a great political strategist who this almost sums up his

evolved and practised politics approach in social, political and
Gandhian of the capture of State power
through a prolonged mass
economic fields. The power of
non-violence is manifested
Philosophy : movement, an orthodox
religious believer who stood for
even in the life of an individual,
but it becomes a mighty power
Still Relevant the social liberation of women,
the ending caste oppression
through mass movement as
shown by Gandhiji during the
Today and discrimination, and in
general, application of reason
freedom struggle. People's
power is manifested when they
Rabindra Kumar Behuria to all aspects of social life; a adopt non-violent means. It is
person who had the vision of a for all those who have faith in
In the words of Mulk Raj world where all conflicts would Gandhian Ideology to awaken
Anand : be settled without violence. the inner power of the people
"Certain men turn the world Gandhi opposed the and make them realised the
upside down, and history violence of our age which, greatest power on earth is
changes its direction, to an except for some short periods people's power. Declaring the
extent, to achieve balance in of peace, has seen two world importance of non-violence in
favour of survival of human wars fought mainly from the his social philosophy he said,
beings, for a time, until the rivalry of the 'have not' powers "Non-Violence is the first article
deathwise possesses whole against the 'haves', who have of my faith. It is also the last
people's, led by ambitious built up their empires largely by article of my creed." Violence,
leaders who upset the tilt, while conquest of weak peoples, by according to him, is the law of
our globe seemingly goes round use of the ever-perfecting brutes while non-violence is the
but is really threatened with instruments of war. Against the law of human beings. Here he
imbalances and is nearly restlessness and turmoil of the absolutely differs with
drowned in chaos, portending late 19th and early 20th Darwinian Principle of 'struggle
the end of the world itself.... centuries, he spoke of the need for existence' and survival of the
The men who change the main to pity for the helpless, the fittest. Non-violence, according
trend of an age towards good rejected and the oppressed, to him, is not merely an ideal, it
are archetypal men. In our especially in Africa where he is a fact. Replaying to his critics
century, one such man among stood against apartheid and in who called his philosophy
a few others in the world, like India where he led the protests utopian and visionary he said,
Tolstoy, Lenin, and Tagore, against martial law and murder. "I am not a visionary, I claim to
was Gandhi. I call these men be a practical idealist. The
If anyone was asked to religion of non-violence is not
world changers."
give the essence of the political meant for the Risis and saints.
Gandhi was a many philosophyof M.K. Gandhi in It is meant for the common
splendoured personality - a one word, he should call it people as well. Non-violence
person who kept the highest Non-Violence. Gandhi so much is the law of our species, as
standard of morality in politics; emphasized this principle that violence is the law of the brute.

40 October - 2010
Orissa Review

The spirit lies dormant in the characteristic of Satyagraha is Martin Luther adopted the
brute, and he knows no law but that it can be used most method of Gandhiji and
that of physical might. The successfully even by one succeeded in forcing this
dignit y of man requires individual and that too in every government to look to their
obedience to a higher law of the sphere of life. It is an ideal grievances. This type of fight
strength of the spirit." Moreover weapon of war of has been adopted in many
violence and war have never righteousness. It is latent in countries successfully.
been able t o so lve any every one of us, we have to Gandhiji was deeply a
problem. They have lost all make it active. It is a universal religious person and a very
relevance in this Nuclear age. course. In essence it is the moral being. For years he
Nuclear weapons are more introduction of truth in political argued that religion and politics
dreaded than understood. life. Explaining the working of could not be separated. But
Advancing argument in support Satyagraha as a political when he saw that t he
of his cult of non-violence weapon, Gandhi has insisted communalists were using
Gandhiji said, "The fact that that it is based on truth and non- religion to far hatred and
there are so many men still alive violence. Besides, it includes violence against followers of
in the world shows that it is such techniques as involved other religions, he completely
based not on the force of arms mutual dialogue such as changed his formulation and
but on the force of the truth and arbitration, negotiation etc. It said in 1942, "Religion is a
love. Therefore, the greatest also includes non-violent personal matter which should
and most unimpeachable pressure t actics such as have no place in politics." He
evidence of the success of this agitation, demonstration, was even more categorical after
force is to be found in the fact picketing, dharana, economic the communal holocaust of
that in spite of wars of the boycott, non-payment of taxes, 1946-47. He said in 1947,
world, it lives on." emigration, non-cooperation, 'Religion is the personal affair
Satyagraha, the chief ostracism, civil disobedience, of each individual. It must not
weapon of Gandhian political and formation of parallel be mixed up with politics in
action has been defined as soul government. When Gandhiji national affairs."
force by him. He said, "Its was in South Africa he wanted
(Satyagraha's) equivalent in the to fight against the alien Gandhi was not a
vernacular rendered into Government against the politician in the Machiavellian
English means truth force. I discrimination shown towards sense, but he did what his
think Tolstoy also called it soul- the balck people. He found the knowledge a priori taught him.
force or love-force and so it is." weapon of "Satyagraha" during He never lost touch with his
Satyagrah is bound to be non- those days. When he came to spirituality even in the moments
violent, otherwise it turns into India being head of Congress of his great political
Duragraha. Satyagrah is Party, he has again used engagements. He, like
different from passive "Satyagraha" as an effective Machiavellian and modern
resistance also, it is active weapon against Brit ish politicians, Marxists and others,
resistance, acting on the path of Government. Even in America, did not separate religion from
truth. the most important leaders of the Negro King politics but tried to provide a

October - 2010 41
Orissa Review

synthesis of the two. Gandhi, democratic Stat e." The and untouchables. His idea was
primarily based all his social and Gandhian concept of secularism to uplift untouchables in all
political doctrines on the stemmed from his unflinching respects by giving equal status
religious and spiritual view of conviction that fairness and and equal justice.
human life. According to him, justice to all was inextrible part
Gandhiji's commitment
politics devoid of religion is a of truth, which for him was the
as also contribution to the
death trap, because it kills the quintessence of religion. He had
women's cause is also well-
soul. Gandhiji most often used personal experience of western
the word religion in two known, but not the fact that he
Civilisation, African Civilisation
different sense; one on its understood that the extent of
and Indian Civilisation and he
denominational sense, i.e. in women's liberat ion was
has opportunities to study the
terms of Hinduism, Islam, dependent on their occupying
scriptures of all religions in his
Christianity, etc. and the other the space outside home. The
serach for truth. For him, "Gita"
in the traditional sense of Civil Disobedience Movement
and "Upanishads" provided
dharma the moral code which marked massive participation of
adequate answers for his
guided a person's life. In doubts on what truth and justice women in Prabhat Pheries,
asserting that politics should be were. public demonstrations,
based on religion, he meant that picketing of foreign cloth and
they should have a moral On April 30, 1936, at liquor shops and the salt, forest
foundation in dharma. Sevagram during his prayer and other Satyagrahas. But the
meeting Gandhiji said, "I can active movement came to an
But Gandhiji also only try to pursuade you to end with the Gandhiji-Irwin
believed that to quote him; "The shed the ideas on caste and
fundamental ethics are common pact in March 1931. Gandhiji
untouchability". Gandhiji then called Mridula Sarabani
to all religions. It was in part to believed that mere political
emphasize this commonness and other women political
unliftment and Harijans would activists and told them. "I have
that he changed his earlier not end the caste system and
formulation" God is truth to brought women out of the
caste discrimination but would kitchen. It is your task now to
"Truth is God." And truth, end to perpetuate them. As
according to him, can be see to it that they do not get
pointed out in 1931, "Separate confined there again".
realised in perfect sense through electrorates to the 'untouchable'
love and Ahmisa. 'He prayeth will ensure them bondage and Gandhiji's conception
best who loveth best, both man of Swaraj was "full economic
perpetuity. Do you want the
and bind and beast' was his freedom for the toiling millions.
'untouchables' to remain
diction. As far back as 1931 he wrote
'untouchable' for ever?... what
Gandhii frequently is needed is destruction of that the "Swaraj of his dream
used the word secular during the untouchability'. Gandhiji's was the poor man's Swaraj"
heyday of communalism. For purpose in life was to fight and emphasized that freedom
example, he said in 1947 "the poverty, remove exploition and was meaningless unless the
state is bound to be wholly put an end to suffering and basic necessitives of life were
secular" and "the state of our starving of poorest people of guaranted to the masses. This
conception must be a secular, India - Harijans, downtrodden socio-economic revolution was

42 October - 2010
Orissa Review

possible only by organising the conducted on a cooperative and Satyagraha, which he had
workers, both in the industrial basis. There will be no caste successfully used in the struggle
and agricultural sectors for non- systems such as we have to- against British imperialism was
violent action against social and day with its graded as relevant, if not mere, for the
economic injustice. untouchability. This was soial and economic
Gandhiji's dream of a free India emancipation of the masses.
Gandhiji had strongly
which will be comprised of self- Gandhiji's view of
advocated the decentralisation
sufficient, self-reliant villages all labour and capital was clear.
of political and economic
working in harmony to wipe the He was of the opinion that the
power in favour of more or less
tears of the lowliest. "rich cannot accumulate wealth
self-sufficient and self-
governing village panchayats. The enactment of the wit hout the conscio us
He regarded t hese local 73rd Const itutional cooperation of the poor in
institutions as the models of Amendment enforcing society." He described capital
non-violent organisations. Panchayati Raj institutions in to be nothing but acumulased
the nearest we have come to labour and wanted labour to be
His idea of village Gram Swaraj. Implementing regarded as equal partners for
Swaraj is that it is a complete these amendments by all State the well being of the industry.
Republic, independent of its Go vernment s need t he He propounded the theory of
neighbours for its own vital unswerving vigilance especially "trusteeship" by which capital
wants and yet interdependent of the intelligentsia and every and labour are to be mutual
for many others in which responsible citizen of our trustees and both, in turn, to
dependence is necessary. Thus country. function as join-trustees of the
every village's first concern will consumers or the community.
be to grow its own food crops, Gandhiji believed that
and cotton for it's cloth. It working for economic equality The most important and
should have a grazing reserve meant "abolishing the eternal yet the most controversial point
for its cattle, recreation and conflict between capital and in the economic philosophy of
play-ground for adults and labour." It meant "the levelling Gandhi is the theory of
children. Then if there is more down of the few rich in whose trusteeship. He was against
hands is concentrated the bulk capitalism and yet he was not
land available, it will grow useful
of the nation's wealth on the against capitalists. He wanted
cash crops, but excluding
one hand and a levelling up of to use their genious as
Ganja, Tabacco, Opium and
the semi-starved naked millions managers of industries. He was
such narcotics.
on the other." It was his firm against destruction of anything
The village will maintain view that non-violence was including the capitalist class. His
a theatre, school, reading room most harmless and yet effective non-violent means were all
and public hall. It will have its way of dealing with the political pervasive including t he
own water works ensuring and economic wrongs of the economic field. Therefore, he
clean water supply. Education down-trodden portion of said, "In reality the toiler
will be compulsory up to the humanity." He, therefore, felt intelligently combine, they will
final Basic Course. As far as the technique of violent action, become an irresistible power.
possible every activity will be consisting of non-cooperation This is how I do not see the

October - 2010 43
Orissa Review

necessity of class conflict. If I theory and practice. trustee of national wealth and
thought it inevitable I shall not Sarvodaya, as an ideal seeks people's faith. Democratic
hesitate to preach it and teach to build a new society on the decentrali-sation as far as
it." He was sware of the foundation of the old spiritual possible is the alternative of our
dangers of state capitalism and and moral values of India. Its democracy and the implication
therefo re, prescribed philosophy is integral and of its present working.
decentralisation of industries. synthetic in character. In it
At this point t he
His idea was equitable Gandhi made a synthesis of the
question of means and ends, as
distribution if not equal ideas of Vedanta, Buddhism,
relation, crops up. Generally
distribution. Labour, according Christianity, Ruskin, Tolstoy,
Gandhi believes that the means
to him, the master of means of Thorau and tried to incorporate
does not become good merely
production and never a slave of his ideas at more critical and
upon the preference that the end
it. Capital is the servant of analytical levels. Besides
is good. "The end can not justify
labour and not its master. He, Gandhism, it also includes
therefore, like Karl Marx some of its ideas from the the means." But Gandhi has
advised the labourers to get socialistic philosophy. Thus, also conceded exceptions to
united for a non-violent Sarvodaya represent s a this rule. For example, it was
struggle. Like Marx again he synthesis of Gandhism and Gandhi himself who originated
aimed at a stateless society, but social philosophy, a synthesis of and implemented the campaigns
this stage has to be achieved theoritical abstractions and against the notorious salt law.
through non-violent revolution political and econo mic The exception has two aspects,
as anything secured through generalisations. Vinoba, a true the first where both the means
violence, according to Gandhi, Gandhian, and J.P. Narayan, a and the ends are related to the
is bound to fail in the end. true socialist were the true main same individual and the second
leaders associated with comes into action when all the
The Gandhian idea of superior means have failed.
'Sarvodaya' is the apex of Sarvodaya movement.
Under such circumstances the
Gandhian Socialism. Sarvodaya believes in use of even bad means may be
Sarvodaya does not mean that the ideal of demo crat ic right. But it is essential that the
majority alone is enough; the decentralisation or Gram
aim be good under every
growth and upliftment of Swaraj which is nothing but the
everyone is vitally necessary. In revival of an extinct institution.
this respect, Gandhian It believes in the proper Gandhi was a practical
socialism thinks of society as an representation and equal idealist. Among his various
organic whole where participation of all sections of ideals his concept of Ram Rajya
differences do not exist. The the village population in is an important one. This is the
concept of organic unity, where panchayat activities. Selection ideal laid down by him before
all individuals have equal to panchayat is through a the country. Like Plato, Gandhi
importance and the rise of process of opinion recording hoped that the principle of
everyone is dependent on the and decisions and upon a divine reason should be
rise of other, is a fundamental universal consensus. The concretely realised in the world.
contribution to socialistic national government is only a In the ideal state of Ram Rajya

44 October - 2010
Orissa Review

there will be the sovereign was born on October 2, 1869, 'Satyagraha' from Henry David
authority of the moral authority in the small state of Porbandar, Thoreau's famous essay on
of the people. The state would Western India, where his grand Civil Disobedience. Gandhi
vanish as an organisation of father, father and elder brother also came in contact with 'The
violence. He was convinced were Prime Ministers. His Light of Asia' by Sir Edwin
that a mere organisation of the father later became the Prime Arnold and Madam
state will not do and bring Minister of the Kathiawar Blavatsky's key to Theosophy.
perfection. It will not be States of Rajkot to which Besides all this, Ruskin's "Unto
sufficient for the concrete Mohandas was taken as a boy this last" had been one of the
realisation of truth. A formal of seven. In his education transforming influences which
change may mean only change Mohandas never went beyond shaped Gandhian outlook. This
of rulers. Therefore, to bring the matriculation ex-amination book was given to Gandhiji by
about a perfect reorganisation of London University. He had Henry S. Polak who at that time
of society Gandhi visualised the immense love for his mother. was working as the Asst. Editor
concept of Ram Rajya. Her gentleness of character, her of the Transvaal critic. That
Gandhi wrote "political natural wisdom and her deep book, he said, marked the
power means capacity to religious sense made a turning point in his life.
regulate national life through profound impression upon him
from his early years. Probably Gandhiji again was
national representatives. If
this love was one of the deepest influenced by Tolstory. He read
national life becomes so perfect
emotions of his life and gave him Tolstoy's "The kingdom of God
as to become self-regulated, no
the tenderness that is so much is within you" at a time when he
representative is necessary.
There is then a state of enlighted a part of his otherwise spartan was passing through a crisis of
anarchy. In such a state disposition. scepticism. He accepted this
everyone is his own ruler. One book as a sort of creed in the
Being of a Vaishnava solution of all problems in life.
rules himself in such a manner family, he was largely
that he is never a hindrance to Tolstoy's philosophy which is
influenced by Jainism. Among called Christian Anarchism is
his neighbour. In the ideal state, the sources which moulded the
therefore, there is not political the application of the teachings
Gandhian outlook, 'Gita' ranks of the senmon on the mount. He
power, because there is no the foremost. To quote his own
state. But the ideal is never fully advocated it as a solution of the
words : "The book struck me
realised. Gandhi write, "such a modern social, economic and
as one of the priceless worth.
state is perfect and non-violent political problems. Besides
The impression has ever since
where the people are governed Tolstoy, the late Rajachandra
been growing on me with the
the least. The nearest approach also exercised a great spiritual
result that I regard it today as
to purest anarchy would be a influence on the life of Gandhiji.
the book par excellence for the
democracy based on non- The first great period of
knowledge of truth. It has
afforded me invaluable help in his life covers the years from
Mohan Das my moments of gloom." It has 1893 to 1914. He got the
Karamchand Gandhi, known to often been said that Gandhiji commission to go to South
the world as Mahatma Gandhi, bo rrowed t he idea of Africa for a year to represent

October - 2010 45
Orissa Review

professionally an Indian firm the liberation for the country. It Change and imperma-
which had an important case is immaterial whether he was in nence is the characteristic of
pending in So uth Africa a minority of one or a majority life. Old values and institutions
Republic. He arrived in Durban of a million. He said : "I belong are crumbling with onslaught of
in 1893, having no reason to to the tribe of Columbus and industriali-sation and
except other than good and Stevenson who hoped against modernisation. This made rush
decent treatment. But in the hope in the face of heaviest for power hungry partisan
course of his journey and during odds." political approach is eating
his stay there he met several The Gandhian political away the vital of the nation. For
indignities and humiliations. In philosophy was a fusion of short-term gains, some people
South Africa he found that individualism, idealism and and parties are fanning the
Indians had been subjected to socialism. And the key-words communal passions and trying
degrading and mortifying of his economic and political to divide the country in the name
discriminations. Indians had programme were self- of caste, sub-caste, religion and
been going to Netal since the sufficiency, non-competition, other parochial considerations.
sixties of the last century as equitable distribution and This trend in quite contrary to
indentured labourers. The decentralised production. He the noble tradition of freedom
treatment meted out to them incarnated India's traditional struggle under the inspiring
and their descendents by the ideal of saint, but on the other leadership of Mahatma Gandhi
Whit e's was humiliat ing. hand, he belonged to the most and other illustrious leaders.
Gandhi fought for t he modern type of mass leader. As part of Mahatma
restoration of Justice to his Through his doctrine of non- Gandhi's concept of alternatives
fellow countrymen. The Netal violence and Stayagraha, he to the machine civilisation
Indian Congress was formed revolutionised the entire Indian pursuing technological
in August 22, 1894 mainly at approach for the solution of all advances, to make ever mere
his suggestion. Gandhi rose as social and political problems. devastating bombs and prepare
a defender of liberty and the unique contribution of for state wars, which is all
equalit y and became the Gandhiji lies not in the fact that exalted as "material progress."
acknowledged leader of the he discovered new truth but We would define the limits of
Indian Community in the that he applied old and eternal our mechanisation by the
protracted Satyagraha truths for the solution of modern minimum wants of a basic
Movement from 1906 to 1914. problems. He had immense need-based society, rather than
From about 33 years faith in human nature and its allow the rulers thoughtlessly to
from 1915 to 1948 Gandhi capacity to perform even the ent er into competit ive
worked in India for the sake of most formidable task. His ideas developmental process of the
his country's freedom. Non- on politics, religion, education, so-called avanced, death-
violence and Satyagraha that he economics and social reform oriented techno logical
suggested as weapons for shall continue to receive civilisation of the west which
fighting against British universal approbation as long have now piled up enough
imperialism. He alone with as people continue to bother weapons to destroy life on the
others, fought hard and brought their heads about such matters. planet several times over.

46 October - 2010
Orissa Review

Against the violence, through caste systems by our of methods, fearlessness and
portended by the revival of ancestors and further sub- commitment to the basic ideals
armament-making, Gandhian divided by our rulers into tribes, of Gandhi, we have to plan our
non-violence is the only Mantra religions and classes. The programmes and chalk out
for our prayers. Gandhi's Gandhian sentiment of "Love strategies which are relevant to
absolutism about non-violence one another" which was to be our times. It is the people's
may not be possible, but its the undertone of the new initiative and people's power
relevance for recently freed despension was forgotton. We and social action that would
countries may be in refusal to at home might remind ourselves strengthen democracy and
collaborate, or to be purchased that throughout his political life Gandhism.
to offer bases for the war. Gandhi persisted in preaching Bibliography :
non-violence, fasted several
We are at t he 1. Chandra, Bipin. Essays on
times against the divisions of
crossroads of history. Learning Indian Nationalism, New Delhi,
religions by the ruling power in Har-Anand, 2005, p.91-119.
lessons from the past, we have
pursuit of their policy of 'Divide
to adopt innovative approaches et impera' and risked his life by
2. Gupta, R.C. Great political
for ushering in social change. thinkers, XI Rev.ed; Agra, EP,
going into the thick of riots led 2006, p.119-28.
We have to grow beyond the by the Muslims and Hindu
sectarian considerations of 3. Anand, Mulk Raj. Sansthakul,
communalists. Was he not Vol.21, No.11, Feb.1992, p.3-7.
caste and religion and assasinated by a Chauvinist
strengthen the secular ramparts 4. Mehta, Kanti, Sansthakul,
Hindu who unmistakenly Vol.22, No.2, May 1993, p.13-4.
we guard. It is the time to turn thought he was favouring the
the tide in favour of idealism, 5. Sin gh , Sukbir. History of
Muslims ? Political Thought. Vol.II, 3rd ed;
large heartedness and
The Gandhian Meerut, Rastogi, 1994, p.373-
collective effort for the national 86.
reconstruction. As partisan constructive programme was
approach is t he bane of illustrative, and with the 6. Sharma, U. Modern Indian
changing times and situations, Political Thought, 6th ed; Agra,
Nation's progress and the Ep, 2006, p.227-88.
communal frenzy in the name of new programmes, new ideas
and innovative approaches will 7. Souvenir : All India Gandhian
caste, religion leads to social construtive workers'
have to be incorporated to fulfil
and political disintegration, it is conference; Tirupati, 2-3
the aims and aspirations and September'94. [published by
high time that we learn lessons
needs of the present generation. Akhil Bharat Rachanatmak
from the past and follow the
Gandhi has shown us the Samaj, New Delhi.]
path of Gandhi.
method and path to follow. The
The attainment of rights details have to be worked out
of man, which we have defined by each generation, keeping in
as fundamental human rights in view the vissitudes of time and
Rabindra Kumar Behuria is a
our constitution were to circumstances. Gandhi was Lecturer in the Department of
promote, not only liberty and never dogmatic and he was Library and Inf. Science, Chandbali
equality but fraternity in our ever changing in his experiments College, Chandbali, Dist.- Bhadrak-
society which had been divided with truth. Following operations 756133.

October - 2010 47
Orissa Review

not see a person of his high achieved independence

ideals in the days to come. (1947), he became a minister
Lal Bahadur Shastri in the state government of Uttar
was born in an ordinary family Pradesh, and he later served in
on October 2, 1904, at the federal cabinet as a minister
Mughal Sarai in Uttar Pradesh. of transport (1952-1956),
His childhood was spent in want industry (1957-1961) and
and penury. But, he was a man home affairs (1961-1963). He
full of honesty, humanism and resigned from the cabinet
straightforwardness. After owning moral responsibility for
education at Kashi Vidyapeeth, a railway accident, thus setting
he devoted his times to social a rare example for politicians.
service under Servants of Shastri became the Prime
People Society founded by Minister on the death of
Remembering Lala Lajpat Rai. Jawaharlal Nehru in 1964.
Shastri held the office for a
That was the time
Lal Bahadur when the freedom movement
period of 582 days, from June
9, 1964 to January 11, 1966.
was at its peak. Shastri plunged
Shastri : The into freedom struggle. He
actively participated in the Civil On June 9, 1964, Lal Bahadur
Little Big Man Disobedience Movement of Shastr i (1964-1966)
1930. Nehru was so much succeeded Nehru as the
of India impressed by the organizational second Prime Minister of India.
abilities of Lal Bahadur that In his style of functioning, Lal
he appointed him as the Bahadur Shastri was an
Siddhartha Dash General Secretary of effective Prime Minister. During
Allahabad District Congress his short period he faced
Committee in 1930. In 1937 enormous problems but he was
he was elected to t he remarkably firm yet flexible in
Lal Bahadur Shastri is a legislative assembly of United handling them. He delicately
towering statesman. He is best Province. During the Quit handled the strained centre-
known for his qualities of India Movement of 1942 he state relations, accommodating
simplicity, leadership and incurred the displeasure of the the demands of state chief
unblemished career. The Great British government and was ministers. He demonstrated
Little Son of India is a model imprisoned. He was several remarkable flexibility in
for the youth as he has been an times imprisoned by the British agreeing to the indefinite
enchanting force to many of our rulers before Independence. At co ntinuation of English
nation builders. He was a giant first, he got into UP politics. It alongwith Hindi as the official
amongst the generation that was Pt. Nehru who took him language of the country, as
fought for freedom. We may to the Centre. When India demanded by southern states.

48 October - 2010
Orissa Review

He as instrumental in made t hem feel their The enemy tanks rolled

formulating the Green partnership in the government menacingly on. Now Shastri
Revolution strategy with the decisions. He preferred pulled off a master-stroke, by
purpose of increasing cooperation to confrontation. asking the Indian Army to
agricultural output and He gave genuine impression of march into the West Punjab.
achieving self sufficiency in food sincerity and seriousness in This at once relieved the
in the long run. It was though consultation. At cabinet pressure on Jammu sector and
only later, in Indira Gandhi s meetings he would ask every too k the Indian tro ops
regime, that this strategy was member to express his personal tantalizingly close to the great
pursued vigorously. Shastri views. He would listen to them city of Lahore. A ceasefire was
also set up his own Prime quietly and attentively as they called, to be followed by a
Minister s Secretariat, as a were being expressed. As in the peace agreement brokered by
source of information and cabinet so in the parliament, the Soviet Premier Aleksee
advice to the Prime Minister Shastri maintained all norms of Kosygin, which mandated that
on policy matters, independent a democratic system. both sides pull back to the
of the ministries. The Within a year of taking positions they had held before
Secretariat, which came to be office Shastri had proved August 5, 1965. Shastri agreed
known as PMO (Prime himself capable of filling to these unfavourable terms as
Minister s Office) started Jawaharlal Nehru s place. But the other option was the
acquiring great deal of influence one who persisted in resumption of the mutually
and power in the making and underestimating the little man disastrous war ; that would
execution of government was Field Marshal Ayub Khan have also meant losing Soviet
policies. The way Shastri acted of Pakistan. He had not been support on the Kashmir issue
in combating corruption in power for long when he had in the UN Security Council and
through the institution of to attend the difficult matter of in the supply of defence
Central Bureau of Paskistani aggression along the equipment, especially Mig
Investigation, the way prompt Rann of Kutch in April 1965. planes and medium and heavy
follow-up action was taken on Though a ceasefire under the tanks. Shastri s conduct during
the Das Enquiry Report against auspices of the United Nations the 1965 war made Shastri a
Punjab Chief Minister Pratap put a temporary halt to the hero-and justly so. Lal Bahadur
Singh Kairon and, above all, fighting, the scene of conflict Shastri died on the night of
the way he conducted affairs soon shifted to the more January 10/11, 1966 in the
during the days of war against troubled territory of Kashmir. Uzbek city of Tashkent, hours
Pakistan revealed that in a very In August 1965, Pakistani- after signing a peace agreement.
short time the second Prime backed infiltrators began The war, however,
Minister managed to surpass fomenting trouble in the took a huge toll on the state
the achievements of his Kashmir valley. When Indian exchequer. Ties with the US,
predecessor and mentor army units chased them back which had taken a hit, meant
Nehru. He looked upon the over the border, Pakistan that wheat was in short supply.
opposition as an important part mounted a massive offence in Shastri hated the idea of going
of the democratic set up and the Chamba sector of Jammu. around with a begging bowl.

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Orissa Review

So he hit upon a novel idea. highest chair of the biggest motionless with their mouths
He went on air to appeal to his democracy of the globe. wide open.
countrymen to skip a meal a Shastri never allowed his
Lal Bahadur gave the
week. The response was children to exploit his name. His
nation the slogan of Jai Jawan
overwhelming. Even son Anil sought admission to
Jai Kishan and exhorted the
restaurant s and eateries St. Stephen s College, New
people to make all sacrifices in
downed the shutters on Delhi. After getting admission
the honour of adversity. More
Monday evenings. Many parts he was standing in a long queue
than three decades later, A B
of the country observe the to deposit his admission fee.
Vajpayee added Jai Vigyan to
Shastri Vrat even today. On The summer season was at its
the slogan. Lal Bahadur was
October 19, 1965, Shastri peak. He was perspiring and
posthumously conferred with
gave the seminal Jai Jawan Jai his tongue and throat had
the Bharat Ratna award in
Kishan slogan at Urwa in become as dry as chalk. As ill
1966. A memorial was set up
Allahabad that became a luck would have it, he fell on
at Vijay Ghat, Delhi, which shall
national religion. the ground and became
always remind us about this
Lal Bahadur Shastri unconscious. Two students
Great Son of India. Now the
enjoyed blotless career carried him to the dispensary.
UPA Government use the aam
spanning over four decades. A handful of water was
aadmi slogan to justify its rule
His honesty has no parallel in sprinkled on his face. After
in the Centre. But if ever there
the world history. At the time sometime when he came to his
was someone who epitomized
of his death, he owed a few normal self, one of the teachers
this philosophy it was the little
thousand rupees to the bank asked him about his father s
big man called Lal Bahadur
from which he had taken a car name and address and
loan on instalment basis. The telephone number, if any . Anil
loan was repaid by his widow in a feeble voice gave the name
out of her family pension. He and address of his father. All
used to sell Khadi cloth from the students and teachers
door to door and that too bare present there spoke with one
footed and later rose to the voice Lal Bahadur Shastri our Siddhartha Dash lives at N-4/205,
dizzy heights to occupy the Prime Minister and stood IRC Village, Bhubaneswar-751 015.

50 October - 2010
Orissa Review

to the erection of temples. The the Dravida and the Vesara4.

Temple is an abode of Hindu All the available texts are
Gods and Goddesses. agreed on the point that the
Etymologically, the word Nagara style was prevalent in
temple is derived from the Latin the region between the
word Templum, which means Himalayas and the Vindhyas.
Ramesvara an open or consecrated space The Dravida country is well
or a building inaugurated by an known and the texts rightly
Group of augur. It is generally conceived confine the Dravida style to
that a building used for the that part of the country lying
Temples at worship of Hindu Gods and between the river Krisna and
Goddesses. In its primitive the cape of Kanyakumari. The
Boudh sense, this word corresponds Nagara and Dravida style can
to a place marked off as sacred thus be explained with
Ramesh Meher to a God, in which the house of reference to Northern India
God may be erected. In its and the Dravida country
usage, it is rather employed in respect ively, and t he
a restricted sense to denote characteristic form and feature
various religious affiliations of each easily determined. The
except Christianity and Islam1. term Vesara, however, is not
According to t he free from vagueness. Some of
Introduction :
Brahminical concept the temple the texts ascribe the Vesara
Orissa is a Land of is not merely a place of style to the country between the
temples and it is also believed devotion, but also an object of Vindhyas and the river Krishna.
to be t he Epicentre of devotion like an image and the This separate style of temple
panchapasana of Hinduism. All invisible spirit. Hence the architecture may be recognized
through the ages Orissa has temple is visualized as the a style known to t he
retained a cultural identity much human body, with architectural archaeologists as t he
more prominent than her connotations2. It is true that Chalukyan style . The
geographical situations and temple in some form must have Vesara or Chalukyan style,
political establishment. The originated as soon as the image however, is a hybrid one,
political stability by periodic worship came into vogue. borrowing elements and feature
order and economic vitality When God was universally both from the Nagara and the
through a larger part of history visualized in human form, such Dravida. The Nagara style
were responsible for the growth an anthropomorphic form developed in North India and
of culture. The enormous required a habitation or a the Dravida style in South
wealth of the country led to the shelter and this probably India. But the indigenous
development of art and resulted in a structural shrine.3 scholars have classified the
architecture. The importance The Indian Silpasastra entire temple architecture of
given to image worship in India recognizes three main types of India into four types such as the
and belief in personal God led temples known as the Nagara, Nagara, the Dravida, the

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Orissa Review

Vesara and the Kalinga. Some Kalinga is in order to revivify A survey of the extant
eminent scholars like R.D. its manifold graces of the past, temples of Orissa reveals that
Banerjee, R.P. Das and K.C. its changing affiliation in there was brisk architectural
Panigrahi have accepted the religious cults and trends, its activity from about the 6th, 7th
temples of Orissa as a subclass underlying fidelity to a co- cent uries AD to the 11 th
in the category of Indo- Aryan ordinated life style, depicting Century AD, the Orissa temple
Nagara style t emples of dance, music, devotio n, style became complete and
Central and North India5. In the sensualism, esoterics, and all established its distinct feature,
Dravida style the sikhara that human kind envisions in its which were to shape the pattern
(spire) of the temple is marked persistent quest after the for later temple building
by a succession of gradually meaning of life. activities. The style reached its
receding storeys. The Nagara climax about the middle of the
With the growth and
style of temple architecture is thirteenth Century AD. It is also
development of Brahminical
characterized by curvilinear difficult to trace its origin
religious in Orissa, the structural
sikharas. The Kalinga style shrines grew throughout the whether the temples that were
temples architecture of Orissa land. Though differing in erected in Orissa followed an
appears to have been a dimensions and details, they independent pattern from the
product of the Nagara style posses s common features and very beginning or were related
temple architecture of North thus we may agree with to the Gupta type of temples.
India. But it has also some fergussen that Orissan temples Though we cannot be certain
distinctive characteristics of its form one of the most compact about the origin of Orissan
own. This Kalinga style and homogeneous architectural temple architecture, in course
architecture shows that even in groups in India.7. Orissa has a of its evolution, it developed
the pre-Muslim period the rich and unique heritage of art certain individual features of its
predominant temple style of tradition beginning from the own. Because of these
Orissa came to be recognized sophisticated ornate temple distinctive features, Orissan
as distinct one. architecture and sculpture to temples fo rm a class by
folk art in different forms. The themselves and the many
The Kalinga country, in study of architectural tradition manifestations of this school of
its stages of art and cultural in Orissa is fascinating subject temple architecture in Orissa
growth assiduously preserved in view of the fact that the can conveniently be labelled as
to transcribe its own artistic monuments associated with it Kalinga style after the territory
environment, which we find have survived to a greater extent where the temples are found.
reflected in the entire gamut of through the ravages of time. An inscription on the capital of
its temple creation, which in the The temples of Orissa survived a pillar in the mukha mandapa
sequel, have become the near about one-thousand years of the Amritesvara temple at
cynosure of attracts and through the vicissitudes of time Holal (Bellary district of
examination of the world of affording a varied and Karntaka state) mentions the
scholars, artists, artisans and interesting study to the students Kalinga type (along with the
the intellectual elite. 6 The of History and Architecture in Nagara, Dravida and Vesara)
treatment of the temple art of particular. as one of the four categories of

52 October - 2010
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temples in India8. Most of the There are several Brahminical shrines long before
scholars have accepted the terms used for the temple in Kharavela s accession to the
temples of Orissa as a sub- Orissa. Among the popular throne in the 1st Century B.C14.
class in the category of Indo- words used are Devayatana, Those shrines decayed and thus
Aryan Nagara style of temples. Mandira, Prasada, Devalaya. required renovation, which was
According to Manasra the Devakula etc.11 On the basis of promptly attended to by
Northern or Indo-Aryan style Vastusastra, it is found that Kharavela, a ruler of very
of architecture covers the Prasada is the most common liberal outlook. In very early
whole area occupied by the word used to indicate a temple period, such a shrine might
Aryans usually designated as in North Indian context. But in have been made of wood,
Hindustna , the North of Tapi Orissa, the nomenclature thatch and bamboo, but in later
and Mahanadi rivers.9. R.C. Mandira, which is widely phase it so on became a
Majumdar has also referred prevalent now a day, was sanctum of stone. It is most
that the region from the Orissan altogether absent during the unfortunate that all the earlier
coast on the east to Kashmir ancient period.12 The builder of temples are perished by nature.
on the west, the whole of temples in Orissa, however, Being the products of the
North India was studded with had several canonical texts to tentat ive efforts of t he
temples of Indo Aryan style.10 guide them in the planning and craftsmen, those temples did
Most of the Orissan temple execution of a temple. Some of not possess the inherent
these texts, which have come strength to resist the fury of
were built from the 7th Century
to limelight are Bhubana- nature. This experience must
AD to the 16th Century AD
pradipa, Bhubanapravesa, have led the craftsmen to invent
when Orissa was successively
Silpapothi, Silpasastr a, the technique of imparting
ruled by five principal dynasties.
Upanisada, Silpa Ratnakosa, stability to the temples under all
They are Sailodbhavas of
Padma Kesara, Deula Mapagu circumstances in later period.
Kongoda mondala,
Nagara etc. indicating the
Bhaumakara of Tosali/ Utkala, According to Bhubana
standard achieved by the
Somavamsis and Gajapatis. Pradipa, a treatise on temple
ancestors of builders in the field
Thus Orissan temples, one of of temple architecture of architecture, the temples of
the most distinct variations of Orissa.13. Orissa have been classified into
the Nagara style of temple three orders viz; Rekha, Pidha
construction is particularly The practice of building and Khakhara.15 The temples
rewarding in that there exists a houses for Gods and thus evolved in Orissa consists
continuous series of Goddesses is very old in of the sanctum and the porch
monuments spanning nearly a Orissa. According to or frontal hall, the two forming
thousand years of architectural Hatigumpha inscription, component parts of one
activity. The Orissan provincial Mahameghavahana Kharavela architectural scheme. The
temple style is distinctive and repaired Savadevayatanas i.e. Sanctum (called Vimana) can
enticing to the students of Indian all devayantanas or houses of be divided into three types viz
History and Temple Art in God. This postulates the Rekha, Pidha and Khakhara
particular. existence of several orders. Similarly the frontal hall

October - 2010 53
Orissa Review

or Mukhasala is either a flat

roofed rectangular hall with the
roof arranged in Pidhas i.e.
tiers. So the later is called
Pidha deulas. From the artistic
point of view, the district of
Boudh is one of the important
Centres of the Kalinga school
of Art in the central part of
Orissa. The extant temple of this
region reveals the good
specimen of the Rekha and
Pidha types of temple. The
for trade and other socio- There are three star
Khakhara order temple is not
found in that place. economic movement, which shaped temples standing in a
added a greater advantage to triangular construction within
Boudh is one of the the state located on its bank. It the complex of modern
centrally located districts of was quite natural that the Ramesvar temple at Boudh
Orissa. Its boundaries in the imperialistic policy of the town. All of these temples are
north extend up to Sonepur and Somavamsis and constructed with indigenous
Angul districts in the south to Bhaumakaras who had tradit ions. They are
Phulbani district, in the west to established their kingdom at the Bhubanesvara, Kapileswara
Balangir and Sonepur districts bank of the upper course and and Sidhesvara17. These are the
and in the east to Nayagarh lower course of Mahanadi wonderful temples built of red
district.16 The strategic location respectively tried to capture this sand stone, profusely carved
of Boudh led her to play an fertile land located on the and star shaped in plan. The
significant role in the evolution middle course of the river, in general form of these temples
of Orissa and her culture. Being order to strengthen their power is like three identical temples
located on the bank of and position. As a result the each standing on a raised
Mahanadi, Boudh offered a major portion of the political platform (Pista). These temples
suitable land to various political and the cultural history of bear the name of Bhuvanesvara,
powers to display their Boudh was regulated by two Swapnesvara, and Paschima
efficiency in the field of politics most powerful dynasties of Somanatha18. Each of them had
and cultural activities. The Orissa, i.e. the Somavamsis a cell and an attached small
reason was that, Mahanadi and the Bhaumakaras at portico. The triangular placing
River occupies the premier different times. On the other of these temples within the
position among the rivers of hand, a close study of the courtyard is quite unusual. They
Orissa. It provides the richest epigraphs found from Boudh definitely do not represent three
deltaic area with maximum and its suburb reveals that of the four corner shrines of a
density of population. It served ultimately the Somavamsis one-time panchaytan temple
as the cent ral line of occupied this sub- region of in which the main shrine has
communication and was used Orissa. been obliterated. However the

54 October - 2010
Orissa Review

star like plan results as a Though small in scale the shrine has in its middle a
pilaster, decorated with kany temples are richly decorated. triangular projection. The wall
scroll and kirtimukha with becomes divided into four
garlands. The triple temples are Architectural features of the facets of equal length. The
arranged on three corners of a Temples facets have been relieved by
rectangle, the first two facing The Group of offsets at regular intervals. In
east and the other to west. Two Ramesvara temples consists of front of the temple, the one-
temples are standing at the one structure i.e. Vimana and dimensional projection of the
Southern and Northern ends of other part of temple are not porch with an octagonal pillar
the base line of the imaginary obtainable. The Vimana of at either side substitutes for the
triangle, known respectively as theses temples are Rekha Deula triangular projection. D.R. Das
Bhubaneswara and and divided into four parts such observes that the pista is
Swapnesvara facing east. The as Pista, Bada, Gandi, composed of a number of
temple at the apex of the triangle Mastaka. horizontally aligned mouldings.
is Kapilesvara, which faces Though extremely damaged
west. The ruins of a fourth Pista khura, kumbha, kani and
temple discovered near them Vasanta can be recognized
suggest that they were possibly Pista is prepared of among them21.
subsidiary shrines though red sandstone; all of the three
nothing of a central shrine temples are sited on a pista of Bada
survives except for several 50 inch high, being approach by
a flight of steps. Very little of The bada is tri-anga
images which are too large for types such as pabhaga (the
the extant temples19. On the the decoration of the pista
survives as the facing stones lower), jangha (middle), and
other hand except t he baranda (upper). 22
difference in direction, these have mostly been broken off.
three temples are otherwise However enough remains Pabhaga
identical in respect of their plan, suggest that it was rich
elevation and embellishment. ornamented, as images of two The pabhaga consists
Each and every one of them is riders leaping on the opposite of five moulding and measures
dedicated to Lord Siva and in direction and a kirtimukha 25 inches high. The moulding
each shrine a Linga is installed. placed between them can be from pedestal up, consists of a
The temples have an eight observed on various faces of khura, kumbha, patta, Kani
pointed stellate plan formed by the pista though highly and vasant, A champaka leaf
two intersect ing square abraded. It assumes the star hanging from the kumbha links
measuring 11 feet each.20 The ground plant of the temples. up with a chaitya or kirita
shrines have a small projecting The round plan is prepared on densing as the khura as at
portico and the silhouette of the principle of rotating a Gandhardi. The top three
their gandi curves sharply near square round the same exist or mouldings are linked together
the top in contrast to the by two intersecting squares. As by vertical bars decorated with
gradual curvature typical on a consequence the wall on each diminutive standing figures,
earlier Orissan temples. side excepting the front of the separated by the thin band

October - 2010 55
Orissa Review

scroll-work forming the flat with the same section of the the purnaghta style23. Above
edge of the Kani. So except for original deula. The jangha of this is a standing female figure
the Kani, which has not yet these miniature shrines carved in high relief, the first
unspecified its pointed shape, accommodates a recessed example on an Orissan temple,
the pabhaga thus takes for niche within a rectangular frame where by the major figure on a
granted the fully developed currently empty, the niche paga projects out from the
plan which will become seems to have one contained a surface rather than being
standard on virtually all, later divine figure. Thus the niche of covered within a niche. This
Orissan temples. A ridge or an the mundis rests directly on top performance may have difficult
overflowing foliage is added on of the pabhaga and without a to sink niches into pilasters
the kumbha here in order to talagarbhik. But the niche has meeting at such sharp angles.
produce the consequence of a a small urdhva garbhika at the These figures actually appear
gate with pallava. However, top. The vimanik crowing the on blocks, which project
the leaves in the present niche consists of multiple sharply out from the pilaster in
instance are reduced to a thin horizontal mouldings leading the a rather awkward manner,
leafy band. Kani is not a knife- gandi of the miniature shrine to almost like an addition, an
edge moulding but similar to be divided in to five bhumi aspect, which suggest the
two khuras clasped face to barandikas and crowned by a experimental natural history of
face the patta in custody with Khakhara mundi. Like in a the decorative programme. The
its true nature is square. The typical Khakhara shrine, its remainder of the pilaster, above
Vasanta is a moulding of the mastaka has a kalasa the figure carved in high relief
inverted khura form but in between two lions. The lions in is decorated with scrollwork
contrast with the lower khura, the present instance are out of and a kirtimukha at the top
it is rather narrow. control and mounted by riders. dripping festoons of pearls, a
The pilasters forming the tips of mo tif also appearing at
Jangha: Gandhardi. The capit al
the star shaped design seem to
Jangha is 50 inches in be influenced more by Central crowning the shaft is decorated
height and thus confirms to the Indian traditions though in over with an atlantid dwarf housed
all design it keeps its Orissan in a shallow niche.
standard Orissan plan whereby
it is twice the height of the traditions, based essentially on The major figures on
pabhaga. Each point in the star free standing pillars with dwarfs the walls of the bada, those in
shaped plan is 32 inches wide carved on the capital. The niche (now all missing) and the
and consists of two multi pilaster has a base, a shaft and figure carved in high relief on
faceted Khakhara mundis and a capital. The base is a tala- the pilasters are thus suggested
a pilaster. The Khakhara bandhana or lower string in the overall decorative
mundis (miniature shrines) look course consisting of multiple programme rather than
like a real temple in necessary mouldings, which continues till appearing on the same ground
information. All of them are the top of the niche on the line, an arrangement presaging
complete with Pabhaga, neighbouring mundis on which the development of a two-
jangha, gandi and mastaka. a titled S-like pattern is carved. sto ried jangha. 24
The pabhaga corresponds D.R. Das observed the base of Unfortunately some of the

56 October - 2010
Orissa Review

projecting block with the figures subdivided into four barandis. but with a pheni decorated with
in high relief have crudely The barandis are decorated petals replacing the bhumi
knocked off from the pilasters primarily with chaitya or floral amla, a design more consistent
and carried away. There are motif as an earlier Orissan with traditions in Chattisgarh, as
several detached images of temple. The anartha paga at Kharod and Palari, where
deities, including one of Brahma (middle paga) consists of the bhumi amla is fashioned as
and one of a four armed superimposed mo uldings a pheni with petals rather than
Natarja in the bhujanga continuing up to the Visama. a ribbed disc.
transits pose above Pismire, a The decoration, as at
rare example of this particular Gandhardi, consists of triple Mastaka:
dance mode in Orissan art. chaitya medallions with The mastaka of these
There are also images of interlacing ribbons connecting Vimana consists of an amlaka,
Ganesha, chmund and each chaitya with one above. a khapuri, a kalasa and a
possible Vishnu. In contrast to Gandhardi, ayudha. The last t wo
however, where, much of the members, ho wever, are
Baranda: decoration is missing or left in preserved only in the mastaka
The baranda consists complete, so that only the section of the Kapilesvara. It
of two projecting roll framework survives. The remains unexplained why in a
mouldings and a recess or decoration on the Boudh Siva Temple the ayudha is a
gandi above relieved with temples is extremely ornate and Chakra.
figures on panels and jali produce an almost lace like
decoration. incrustation. The jewel like Portico
delicacy of this repeating motif,
Gandi Decoration wit h it s intricate ribbon The temples, as
construction signify the vertical indicated are built on a high
The silhouette of the or ascending aspect of the pista consisting of five courses
gandi bends inward sharply at Gandi and almost obliterates leading up to the sanctum
the t op near the beki t o the horizontal division of the doorway inside the projecting
produce an overall elliptical bhumi barandis. The trend portico. The roof of the portico
profile for the building. The from here on is to replace the is held up by two octagonal
decoration continues the earlier decorative motifs based pillars in front and a projecting
vertical alignment of the bada essentially on floral decorative pilaster in each side. The
with three pagas on each of the motifs and human figures with pilasters are decorated with a
points in the star shaped plan25. more elaborate ornamentations figure carved in high relief above
The star plan of the temple which stress the verticality of the pabhaga and scroll work
results in the absence of any the structure, a change in as of the type found on the
rahas. The facets between are keeping with the increasing jangha of the bada of the duel.
treated here as anarthas. The desire to erect higher and higher The octagonal pillars have a
corner pagas are divided into structure. The inside paga is large kumbha with an over-
five bhumis by bhumi-amlas in divided into uneven barandis flowing foliage or a ghta
typical fashion with each bhumi simulating the corner or Kanika pallava near their base while

October - 2010 57
Orissa Review

the shaft is decorated with nine grahas. Among the nine Central design (bho). The
scrollwork. Near the top is a grahas Rahu is represented by medallion of the bho encloses
frieze of kirtimukha with head only in contrast to the the superstructure of the
festoons of pearls dripping from usual motif of a half bust figure, khkar shrine on the raha. It
their mouths to form looping Ketu is represented seated with seems that, at the peak of the
garlands. All the base of the legs crossed or in Bhumi bho was kirtimukha. Traces of
porch is the door leading to the sparasamudra in the manner string and bell on a chain
garbhagriha. The doorframe of the other panel suspended its mouth may still
has three bands of scrollwork, representations rather than as be recognized at this place. The
which continues across the lintal a figure with serpent coils as in sidewalls of the sukansa were
above. Two Saivite dvraplas later temples. Ketu lifts both fashioned like demi-bhos
are housed in arched niches at hands up. The objects in the mostly damaged these demi-
the base of the jambs. They are two raised hands of the Ketu bhos used to house figure
four armed and their hair is piled are indistinct. Sani holds a sculptures, the extant examples
up in a tall jatamukuta on top sword in his right hand while the are of female figures.
of their head, but most of their attribute in his left hand is
Jatamukata crown is one of
details have been weathered indistinct. Soma, Mangala,
them. If they were of divine
away. However sarpakundala Buddha, Brihaspati and Sukra
nature, the indications are
is also identifiable in the right display in common a pot in the
ear of one of them. They stand upraised right hand and rosary
in a tribhanga pose and are not in the left. The garbhagriha of
provided with attendants. the temple is approached from
Gajalaxmi shows on the dvra The veranda is
prevailing by the sukansa, the door across a stepped sill
Lalt bimba panel over the and through a vestibule built in
doorway. The Goddess being appears at the base of the
triangular projection in front of to the thickness of the wall. The
bathed by two elephants is vestibule is divided into two
seated in lalitasana with the the gandi. The sukansa is a
three sided rectangular section. storages. The lower store
right leg-hanging pendent over
The face of the sukansa is corresponds to the passage
her pedestal. She holds a lotus
trinatha of which the raha is through which t he
in the left hand and displays
conceived as a miniature shrine garbhagriha communicated
abhayamudr in the right
of the Khakhara order. The with the veranda. The upper
hand. This pose becomes
kanikas are also created like store is a triangular space
standardized in the later
temples and replaces the more shrines but without produced by the corbelled arch
rigid padmsana pose popular superstructures. Probably spanning the two sides of the
on earlier Orissan temples. image of divinities were once set vestibule. This story is
in these shrines, which are separated from the lower one
A lintel keeping its two actually niches. These three by a ceiling, which in fact is the
ends on the two walls between shrines are made to support a extension of the door lintel. It
the pillars of the porch and the beautifully executed large constitutes the womb of the
door case existing as a brow decorative motif with a highly sukansa and serves effectively
of the latter bears a panel of stylized chaitya arch as the to reduce weight on the door

58 October - 2010
Orissa Review

lintel. Three stone slabs placed normally arranged in a large within the recess is an image of
side by side have constituted it. chignon on one side of the head Ganesa. Diminutive images
though in one case on female carved on the sloping face of
The Siva Linga figure standing in a hieratic pose the barandies of the gandi
installed in the temple is stuck on the lateral side of the vajra include dancers and Linga
into an arghya of heither to mastaka panel. Over the puja. There are also numerous
unknown design. In keeping portico, the coiffure is piled in fragments and detached images
with plan of the temple, it is also a tall tiara arrangement as on scattered within the compound,
made stellate on the principle the dvrapalas. Fequently, as including Buddhist and Jain
of intersecting two squares26 at
on the Muketesvara temple, a images, which most likely
angles of 4527, for the drainage
meandering vine grows behind belonged to other temples. The
of ablution water.
the females and forms a canopy most interesting decorative
Decorative motifs with large flowers above her motif is the large kalasa with
head. flanking jagratas, which
Theses temples are surmounts the Khakhara
covered with minute and An additional popular
moulding crowning the paga
intricate carving. There are no figure mot if is t he
designs. Similar water jars;
surviving cult-images in the bhararaksaka decorating the
though minus the leaping lions
niches of t he t emples, capitals of the corner pilasters.
also appear on 10th Century
suggest ing that as at A motif peculiar to the temples
temples in eastern Orissa. As
Gandhardi, the figures must of the early Somavamsi period,
suggested, the inspiration for
have been carved separately characteristic of this atlantid
the motif most likely comes
and then placed in the niches in figure is the large potbelly and
from Daksina Kosala though it
contrast to the Bhauma the manner in which the limbs
does not appear there in this
technique whereby the figures assume a similar shape. Often
exact manner.
were part of the wall itself. The the fingers are very stiff and
most dominant figures carved resemble foliage emerging from Significance of the stellate
in high relief on the projecting pots. In some cases the erotic plan
panelled of the pilasters at the nature of the bhararaksaka is
points. Though, badly mutilated stressed, as when holding his Frequently questions
most of them are depicted in a enlarged Lingam28. There are are raised about the explanation
graceful tri-bhanga pose with also examples of erotic rituals of the stellat e plan and
one hip pushed out. They were including purascarana, in the triangular placing of these three
a strand of jewels, which hugs baranda recess, which stress temples. Not only that the
the lower contour of their the tantric nature of the temples. garbhagriha but t he
globular breasts rather than Other erotic motifs include a arghapatta of the Siva lingas
crossing at the waist as in the Maithuna with the female within have this stellate design.
figures on the Vaitl Deul. Their seated on the lap of a male and K.C. Panigrahi furt her
girdle generally consists of three a srngarana scene with a male emphasizes that the star like
chains and a tassel hangs pointing his Lingam at a female shape of the shrines and the
between their legs. The hair is figure29. Among the deities Saktis of the Siva Lingas

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Orissa Review

enshrined in them indicate that same ground plan like at Boudh discovered in Western Orissa.
both the temples and the deities and Budhi Komna. According Formally this part of Orissa was
were made in the form of to the view of K.C. Panigrahi included within Kosala, which
Mandalas or mystic figures with and R.D. Banerjee the stellate also comprised Durg, Raipur,
the help of which the Tantrikas plan of the shrines and the Bilaspur and Raigarh districts of
wanted to attain their Siddhis30. Saktis of the Lingas and the M.P. A number of stellate
The Tantric nature of the shrines triangular placing of the temples temples have been noticed in
is furthermore suggested by are due to the Tant ric that region of M.P36 with the
small images of erotic rituals significance, then why there is possible exception of one37.
placed in the baranda recess only one stellate temple each at The plans of these temples do
though only a few examples Budhi Komna and Kansil in the not reproduce exactly what has
survive31. R.D. Banerjee also place of three identical temples, been found in Orissa. In M.P.
explains that the triangular out to be placed in a triangular the central element on each
placing of the temples at Boudh fo rmat ion. So it may be face of the temple is rectangular
is of Tantric significance32. believed that the arrangement instead of being triangular.
Vidya Dehejia agrees with R.D. of the Boudh temples in a These differences apart, the
Benerjee for want of only other triangular formation may have principles guiding the layout of
explanation. 33 . But R.D any implication other than the temples of Orissa and M.P
Banarjee does not explain why Tantric. Further the Tantric are fundamentally similar as
Siva temples should be nature of the shrines might have such they seem to constitute a
arranged in such a way as to been indicated by the execution group by themselves and
make an imaginary yantra. of erotic figures of bigger represent a Kosalan version of
Further K.C.Panigrahi has said dimension and prominence, but the Rekha temple sytle38. S.K.
to associate the Boudh temple why there are so small erotic Saraswati refers to a list of ten
with the Tantrikas is not figures at Boudh as observed kinds of circular temples
believable. The Tantrikas do by Donaldson. On the other enumerated by t he
not make a Mandala or a hand we cannot imagine the samaranjgana satradhara39.
yantra on the principle of erotic figures as indicatives of The plans of a few of the temple
intersecting squares. the Tantric significance of the types are said to have been
temples. There are so many reached by rotating the square
At Budhi Komna, a temples at Bhubaneswar, Puri
small village in the Kalahandi ksetra all around or in different
and other parts of Orissa, full
district of Orissa, there is a brick direction. S.K.Saraswati finds
of bigger erotic figures, but
temple34 locally known as the in this description on obvious
certainly devoid of any Tantric
Pat alesvara which t he allusion to the stellate plan of
department of Orissa State the temples at Boudh and other
Archaeology has renovated by On the other hand, it places. Krishna Deva who also
way of restoration, having may be of a few significance that considers the samarangana
stellate ground plan, like the all the known example of sutradhara description of some
temple at Boudh35. In the temples built on a plan of two temples of the Circular class as
Bolangir district, has also the intersecting squares have been referring to the stellate layout of

60 October - 2010
Orissa Review

the plan40 thinks that the way in arghyas inside these temples peculiarities distinguishing the
which the text has treated and were made Star like. Orissan group of temples from
extolled these temples makes it the sikhara temples of North
clear that the circular temples Comparative Study and India, Central Provinces,
formed the Metropolitan Date of these temples Rajputn, and Gujrat. The
Malava type. He furt her Ramesvara group of temples at
Every monuments of
believes that the original nucleus Bo udh, which we have
temple architecture in Orissa
of the Amaresvara temple at discussed about their
and central India represents a
Onkar Mandhata in the East architectural features, their
regional demonstration of the
Nimar District (M.P.) being decorative motifs as well as the
Nagara temple style and has
assignable to the second half of iconography of these images
certain common features, being
the 10th Century is the earliest certainly played a significant
derived from the same model.
of such temples 41 . In this role in the long evolution of
The entire temples of Orissa
temple he recognizes the Kalinga temples. Each of these
have curvilinear spires and
beginning of the bhumija mode temples have the common
square plans with projected
of the Nagara temple style. It features of indigenous sub-
angles of sikhara type or of
is evident that both styles of temple architecture of
Rekha order and it ultimately
S.K.Saraswati and Krishna Central India and Orissa and
became the dominant form the
Deva were unaware of the pave the way for matured
temple architecture in Orissa.
Kalinga style which is marked
existence of a plan Now, the earliest temple
perfectly in the Lingaraj temple
characterized by o blique represents the nature products
of Bhubaneswar.45
projection between the rahas of that type. But the Orissan
in a group of Kosalan temples temple architecture by reason There is no paleography
of a date earlier than the stellate of its own distinct individualities or epigraphic sources available
temples at Boudh or Malwa42. and long history of evolution for the determination of the
Therefore it may be understood soon came to acquire for itself dates of these temples of
that this plan, which became a a separate nomenclature i.e. the Boudh. However these temples
do minant feat ure of t he Kalinga style. Prof. R.D. can be co-related on the basis
bhumija class of temples43 Banerjee has drawn our of their architectural features,
originated in Kosala and not in attention to an inscriptions of their deco rative motifs,
Malwa. the pre-Muslim period in the sculptures and iconography of
temple of Amriteswara at Holal their image to one or other of
Fro m the above in the Ballary district, in which the monuments of which the
discussion it may be that, the mention has been completed of chronology is known as
star shape of these temples at four classes of temple Nagara, analytical study of the dated and
Boudh is not to meet the Kalinga, Dravida and datable temples and cumulative
ritualistic need of Tantrikas but Vesara. 44 Prof. Banerjee results. When applied to study
to confirm to a standardized observation has further been these undated temples as
plan evolved in Kosala. It may supported by another scholar, cognates of one or other of the
also be due to a desire to Mr.D.P.Gho sh who has date and datable temples. We
introduce a novelty that the exposed certain well-marked may not be able to find out the

October - 2010 61
Orissa Review

exact date of their construction temples of Bhubaneswar in Boudh provides a close

but we can place them to architectural elevation but it similarity though not absolute
particular period as cognates of possesses a super affinity with the pabhaga mouldings
the particular temple of which towards the decorative motifs, of mukteswar. On the Gouri
the date is known. Such a sculptural programme and temple the Kanika has four
chronology, tho ugh iconographic peculiarities of mouldings, but the anartha has
approximate is borne out by the other Orissan temples. five mo uldings where a
logic of the evolutionary talagarbhika is inserted unlike
process experienced by the The number of Boudh. There are no vertical
archit ectural movement, pabhaga moulding used to bars or champaka leaf and it
through different period of change in long evolution of is less ornamentally decorated
Orissan history. Orissan temples. Boudh is a than Bo udh. While t his
step forward to Gandhardi, arrangement of four mouldings
The stellate plans of the having five horizontal mouldings on the Kanika and five on the
three Siva temples of Boudh at pabhaga. A new moulding twin piers of the anartha is
represent a pure Kosalan is added here in between patta repeated on the Muktesvara
version of the rekha temple and Vasanta i.e. Kani. As a but like Boudh there is no
style46. Among such stellate result of which there is now talagarbhika inserted beneath
temple of South kosala, it has khura, kumbha, patta, kani the anartha niche, merely a
been observed that temple at and vasanta or pabhaga at
Kharad and Pallari are the shallow indentation. The
Boudh. But kani has not yet got moulding on the anartha is
earliest one. Buddhi Komna,
its point shape, rather the edge ornamentally decorated than
Kansil and Dhobini temples,
is flat. A champaka leaf from on Gauri with the champaka
are a step further to Kharad and
the Kumbha links up with a leaf added to the Kumbha as
Pallari, whereas Boudh has the
chaitya on the muhanti of its is possessed by Boudh.
most modified, developed and
khura as at Gandharadi. The Though the temples of 11th and
latest temples among them47. It
top three moulding are linked 12th Century possesse the five
is more fully adapted to the
together by vertical bars moulding ofpabhaga uniformly
Orissan architectural tradition
and exhibit s a furt her decorated with diminutive on kanika and anartha, tala
elaboration of the decorative standing figures separated by garbhika are eliminated from
programme evolved at this band of Scroll work. This the anartha, but by this time
Gandhardi. On the other hand, arrangement of five mouldings kanika has already achieved its
a comparative style of its became prevalent at perfect pointed shape. There is
features with the dated temples Bhubaneswar from the temple no vertical bar linking these
of Eastern Orissa can clearly of 10th Century A.D.48 Among upper three moulding as at
point out the time of its those temples most popular are Boudh but there is a very small
construction. While the temples Gauri and Mukteswar of 10th figure motif. Generally, erotic
of Boudh, which has a stellate century A.D. Brahmeswar and carved at the base of the coming
plan having seven Konarkas on Rajarani of 11th Century A.D. Pidha in the centre of patta
the body can not be easily Lingaraj and other temples of and Vasanta. The kirita design
compared with the Kalinga 12th and 13th Century A.D. on t he khura is now

62 October - 2010
Orissa Review

transformed into a small temples, where the elongated and jagrata below t he
vajramundi with the niche, khakhara mundis were used baranda mouldings. The
housing various figures, motifs as the paga division are pilaster, forming the tip of the
and the crowning completely eliminated from the star shaped design, where two
vajramastaka linked to the bada of the temple of 11th, 12th slaps meet to form an angular
champaka leaf above. centuries. The bada of those projection has a base, a shift
Therefore the decorative plan post 10th centuries temples and a capital. The base is
for the pabhaga achieves its became panchanga with two decorated with lower string
nature form on the temples sto ried Jangha with a course, consisting of multiple
dated from 11th Century A.D. bandhana within lower and mouldings on the shift a female
So, considering pabhaga is the upper jangha. As we mark, figure is carved in high relief.
most valuable source to date an nothing of the criteria of the The remainder of the pilaster,
undated temple. Boudh should bada of post 10 th century above the figure carved in relief
be placed in 10th Century as temple is seen on these Siva is decorated with scroll work
cognate member of temples of Boudh, it seems and a kirtimukha at the top
Mukteswar and its group. By irrelevant to place it among dripping festoon of pearls. The
reason of the unique stellate those later temples of Rajarani, capital crowning the shaft is
plan of Boudh, it cannot be Lingaraj, Brahmeswar etc. decorated with an attentive
compared with other Orissan dwarf housed in a shallow
temple in respect of paga The Vimanika niche. The kanika pilaster of
division on the bada. However, crowning the niches of the the Panchayatana temple at
the vertical alignment of the elongated Khakharamundi Ganeswar (dedicated to Visnu)
bada can be discussed with consists of multiple horizontal is decorated in the exact
three pagas on each side of the mouldings leading to the gandi manner at Boudh, but the
points in the star shaped plan. of the miniature shrine to be standing female figure in the
We may discuss the other divided in to five shaft is encashed within a niche.
decorative and sculptural motifs bhumibarandikas and These attaint dwarfs are also
as possessed by jangha at cro wned by a Khakhara soon on the upper raha niche
Boudh and can compare them mundi. A similar fashion is at Mukteswara. Above all the
with other dated Orissan developed on the anuratha of decoration of the bada at
temples. the bada at Mukteswar and Boudh combined the characters
Each point in the star Ganeswarapur. Due to the that of Mukteswar, Gauri and
fashioned plain is 32 inches increased height of Mukteswar, Ganeswarpur temples dated to
wide and consists of two there are in its vimanik, the 10th CenturyA.D. Vidya Dehjia
multifaceted elongated smaller khakhara shrine rightly placed them in one
khakhara mundi and a crowned by a kalasa flanked group belonging to the
pilaster, with small by a lion on either bhumi culmination phase of Orissan
urdhwagarbhikas above the barandikas side similar to the temples. The notable feature of
niches, as at Ganeswarpur, bada of Gauri temple of 10th these temple is that with the
Gouri temple, Mukteswara and Century A.D. where the transformation of the paga
other 9 th and 10 th century anartha is crowned by kalasa from a vajramundii to

October - 2010 63
Orissa Review

Khakhara mundi is thus on each side of the points in the sukansa, which supports a
complete now the jagratas star shaped plan. The Kanika beautifully executed large bho.
with kalasa in between crowns or tip of each point has four The constr uct ion of t he
the khkhar mundi in the barandis in each the 5 bhumi. sukansa is dictated here by
place of a vajramastaka. The barandis are decora the necessity of the plan, where
ted primarily with chaitya or the gap between the gandi of
The bada at Boudh floral motifs as in earlier the shrine and the porch is to
was full of images of Gods and temples. Kosalesvara temple at be filled. However, as in
Goddesses. Unfortunately Baidyanath, Ganeswarpur and Boudh, Mukteswar also has the
some of the projecting blocks Mukteswara have the similar bho motifs whereas there is
with the figures have knocked pattern of kanika division at the single bho motif rests in the
of from the pilaster and carried gandi. With the coming of the front of the shine at Boudh.
away. There are several 11th Century the kanika paga There are four bho motifs on
detached images mo st became divided into five each of the four side of the
important to other eastern bhumis having five gandi at Mukteswar. Due to the
Orissan temples possess bhumibarandikas in the place angler projection at the middle
Natarja and Ganesa. The of four as in earlier temples. The of other three sides at Boudh,
images of Natarja of Siva as it is also impossible to have bho
middle paga consists of
the Lord of dancers is a motifs on every side as at
superimposed mo ulding
frequently occurring motif in Mukteswar.
continuing up the height of the
the temple of Bhubaneswar.
gandi decorated with this scroll The doorframe inside
Most important among them
motif exquisitely carved so as the porch has three hands of
are Vaital, Sisiresvar,
to produce a lace like scrollwork, which continues
Muktesvara, Rajarani and
incrustation, which accentuates across the lintel above.
Ppansini. Numerous images
the vertical thurft of the paga Donaldson observed that, the
of Ganesa are also seen in
by obliterating the horizontal number of jambs on either side
Parasurmeswar, Vaital,
division of the barandis. The of the doo r is generally
Sisireswar, Mohini and
anartha paga of standardized at three initial
Bhratesvar etc belonging to
Ganeswarpur and Mukteswar experimental phase and from
different periods of history of
is decorated in a similar fashion the 10th Century the scroll
Orissan temples.
as on the above side middle mo tifs are likewise
The gandi at Boudh is paga at Boudh.So far as the standardized . This the door

effectively demarcated from inside paga at Boudh is frame at Boudh is based purely
the bada by the baranda and concerned, which is divided on the tradition of Orissan
the silhouette though containing into uneven barandis by a temple of 10th Century A.D.
only five bhumis bends in pheni with padma pista in the Gajalaxmi rests on t he
sharply near the top rather than place of ribbed amla. It is more dvralalta bimba panel and
curving gradually as an early influenced by Chhatisgarh as at rectangular navagraha slab
temple. The decoration Khanod and Pallani than the above it. As group as at
continues the vertical alignment Orissan tradition. On the front Kotitirthesvara temple which
of the bada with three pagas side, just above the porch is a belongs to Muktesvara group

64 October - 2010
Orissa Review

laxmi and Nava graha panel

are concerned.

In general the door

frame at Boudh is relatively flat,
the jambs being nearly flush with
one another rather than
progressively stepped as in the
architectural traditions and there
are no large figures flanking the
door on either side, except two
Saivite dvarapalas housed in
arched niches at the base of the
jambs. Originally in earlier
and at Mukteswara itself. Laksmanesvara temple, now temples these dvarapala used
Laxmi is being bathed by two housed in Orissa St ate to be housed in small niches but
elephants seated is lalitsana. Museum; whereas the earliest later on it becames arched and
Which is typical in post-9th navagraha slab appeared on eventually transformed first into
Century temples at the temples of Budhikomna and vajramundii and then into a
Bhubaneswar whereas laxmi is then at Boudh. At Pidhamundi in 11th and 12th
found seated in rigid Budhikomna, except Rahu all centuries.
Padmsana in earlier temples. eight-seated graha are
depicted ardhaparyanka, Above all Boudh and
On the earliest temples where as t hey are in Muktesvara possess in
there are only eight grahas Bhumisparasa mudra at common the same subdivisions
represented Ketu being absent Boudh as at Muktesvara and at the base such as khura;
and it is not until the 10 th Kotitirthesvar of Bhubaneswar kumbha, patta, kani and
Century that the number is belonging to 10th Century A.D. Vasanta with a leaf design in
increased to nine possibly due Rahu is reduced to head only the kumbha linked up with a
to the popularity of the Astottari as at Muktesvara. Ketu is not chaitya arch above; the same
system of astro logical represented as a serpentine form of rounded corners and
calculation in the early period from the waist down but the same kind of sunken panel
in which Ketu is not included. appears in Bhumi marking the transition between
It is quite likely that Vimsottari sparsamudra. It shows that the the bada and sikhara. We also
system of calculation temples of Boudh was a later find in them the same form of
prescribed by Varahamihira50 construction to Budhikomna the nine, not eight as in earlier
was introduced into Orissa by and belong to the age of temples, in which Rhu has
Somavamsis. This system Kottit irthesvara and been represented by a head,
incorporates Ketu among the Muktesvara. Muktesvara is an but not be a half-buse figure,
Grahas. The earliest Astagraha exact duplicate of Boudh so far the same types of doorkeepers,
slab was attached to the the trisakha door jam, Gaja Alasakany, Kirtimukha,
Southern raha niche of the chaitya archs the dwarf with

October - 2010 65
Orissa Review

uplifted hands as if supporting possess striking similarities 5. R.D.Banerjee, History of

the Sikhara and the same form particularly with Muktesvar Orissa; vol-II, Calcutta, 1931,
of pouncing lion-riders. The p.335.
and ot her temples of
decorations consist of a Bhubaneswar belonging to 10th 6. K.V.S. Rajan, Early Kalinga
peculiar type of interlacing Century A.D., which were Art and Architecture, New
scrolls at Sikhara. The pitchers constructed under t he Delhi, 1984.
carved in alto relive in its Somavamsis patronage. It 7. James Fergusson, History of
vimna, a large chaitya arch bears the idea that as these Indian and Eastern
flanked by the two saivite image three temples are to be found Architecture, London, 1875,
holding a chain with a belt at on the original place of p.414
the end dropped into a lotus Somavamsis, the follower of 8. Th e in scription of th e
medallion is to be found in those Saivism. The early Somavamsis Amritesvara temple at Holala
two places. The miniature rulers might have constructed it of Karn ataka in Madras
images of lakulis in various in the same 10th Century A.D. epigraphica Report, 1914-15, P-
mudrs too occur at Boudh 90 also sees Stella kramisch.
as Muktesvar52. Though, it The Hindu Temples, Vol-I,
and Muktesvara. might be of two or three Calcutta, 1946, pp.286-295.
Thus in the overall decades earlier than the latter.
9. S.K. Sarasvati, Temples of
architectural and decorative Peoples of this town and the Orissa, in OHR, Vol-I, N-4,
programmes of the shrine, neighbouring village worship Bhubaneswar, 1935, pp.233, -
porch and door frame, Boudh, these deit ies with great 235.
though sharing various motifs devotion. Festivals like Makara
10. R.C.Majumdar, Ancient India,
with Kosalan temple style is Sankranti, Pana Sankranti, and New Delhi, 1952, p.436.
uniquely Orissan and has a fair Sivaratri etc are regularly
similarity with Muktesvar, observed in this temple complex 11. Alice Borner & SadaSiva,
wit h much pomp and Ratha Sarma, Silpaprakas,
Panchayatana, Vishnu temple Leiden, 1966, p.XXVI...
of Gonesvarapura, Gauri and enthusiasm.
Kottitirthesvara temples of 10th 12. T.P. Bhattacharya, The canons
References: of India Art (A study on
Century. A. D. So, it deserves
Vasnavidya), Calcutta, 1986,
to be regarded as a cognate 1. T.V. Sairam, Indian temple p.227.
member of Muktesvar group forms and foundation, New
and belongs to this epoch Delhi, 1982, pp 18-19. 13. N.K.Bose, Canons of Orissa
also51. Architecture, Calcutta, 1932,
2. Hayasirsa Pancaratra; quoted p.5.
in Har ibhata Vilsa;
Conclusion Agnipurana, chapter 61, vs- 14. Vide Hatigumpha inscription,
19-27. line 17.
It is known from the
above discussion that the 3. Vidya Dehejia, Early stone 15. N.K. Bose, Op.cit., p.78.
architectural feature of the Temple of Orissa, New Delhi,
1979, p.20. 16. S.C. Bhatt, The Encyclopadic
temple is important like other
District Gazetters of India
notable temples of Orissa. The 4. Isana Sivagurudeva paddhati Eastern Zone, vol-9, New
triple Siva temples of Boudh and others. Delhi, 1997, p.567.

66 October - 2010
Orissa Review

17. A., Cunningham (ed), 31. T.E. Donaldson op. cit, P-224. 43. Pramod Chandra, (ed), op.cit.,
Archaeological survey of p.95
India Report, vol. Xiii, p.118. 32. J.B.O.R.S Vol-XV 1929, P-67
44. R.D. Banerjee, History of
(R.D. Banerjee, Antiquities of
18. P.K. Mishra, Comprehensive Orissa vol-II Calcutta, 1931,
Boudh state).
History and Culture of Orissa, P.335.
33. Vidya Dehejia, op cit, p.149.
vol-1, p.655. 45. Percy Brown, In dian
34. A.N. Tiwari, (ed), New Architecture, Buddhist and
19. T.E. Donaldson, Hindu Temple Dimension of tourism in Hindu, Bombay, 1949, p.122.
Art of Orissa. Vol-I, Laiden, Orissa. Bhubaneswar 1976
1985. p.224. 46. D.R.Das, stellate temple of
Orissa, Art and culture, 1983,
20. Ibid. 35. S.K. Saraswati, The History p.10.
and culture of the Indian
47. T.E. Donaldson, op.cit., p.755.
21. D.R. Das, stellate temple of people, Vol-V, p.556.
Orissa, Art and culture, off 48. T.E. Donaldson, op.cit., p-799.
36. J.G. Wiliams, (ed)
print, 1983. p.4.
Kaldarsana, & New Delhi, 49. T.E. Donaldson, op.cit., P-850.
22. P.K. Mishra, comprehensive 1981, p.137.
50. O.H.R.J. vol-XI, (1962), pp.70-
History & culture of Orissa 37. The plain of a ruined temple 71.
vol- p-656. at Arbhor (Raigarh dist),
51. K.C. Panigrahi. op.cit., p-159
noticed by N.K. Bose, intion
23. D.R. Das, Op- cit p.5. temple Designs, & Calcutta, 52. K.C. Panigrahi, Archaeolgical
1981, p.170. remains at Bhubaneswar,
24. T.E. Donaldson. Op.cit. p.226. Calcutta, 1961, p-159
38. D.R.Das, op.cit., p.10.
25. T.E. Donalson op.cit., p-2007.
39. S.Ritti and B.R.Gopal, (ed),
26. R.D. Banergee, History of studies in Indian History and
Orissa, vol- II, calcurta 1931 Culture.
pp.355-56. 40. Pramod Chandra, (ed) Studies
in Indian temple
27. D.R. Das Op. Cit, p.6. architecture, New Delhi, 1975,
28. T.E. Donaldson Op.cit., p.228.
41. Pramod Chandra, (ed), op.cit.,
29. Ibd. Ramesh Meher is the Mender,
Rabindra Bhawan, Viswa Bharati,
30. K.C. Panigrahi, History of 42. J.G.Williams(ed), op.cit., Shanti Niketan, P.O. Bolgarh, Dist.-
Orissa & Cuttack, 1931 p.392. 1981,p.137. Birbhum, West Bengal.

October - 2010 67
Orissa Review

elephant food yam for enriching

technical know how on
elephant food yam cultivation.
Elephant Foot During 2007-08
Yam and Poor (kharif) and 2008-09 (kharif),
all the trained farmers were
Farmers of given 25 kg elephant foot yam
to be planted in 40 m2 small plot
Bhadrak each in homestead garden.
Elephant foot yam was planted
District during second fortnight of June
at 90 cm x 90 cm spacing. A
pit size of 30 cm x 30 cm x 30
and hence majority of the cm was dug out. Then a well
Biswanath Sahoo
people do not consume the decomposed cow manure 2 kg
S.K. Jata
tubers. Regional Centre of was mixed with the top soil and
M. Nedunchezhiyan
Central Tuber Crops Research filled th of the pit. 500 g cut
Institute, Bhubaneswar is tubers of elephant foot yam
popularizing Gajendra a non were treated with cow dung
acrid variety throughout Orissa. slurry (one kg of fresh cow
More than 67% of Bhadrak
The yield potential of dung in one litre of water) one
district (Orissa state) population
Gajendra is very high. It day before planting on the pit
is resource poor and living
yields about 3-4 kg/plant in well and then closed the pit with the
below the poverty line.
managed fields. The average remaining soil and small mound
Resource poor farmers and
multiplication rate is 7-8 times. was formed on the pit. Crops
farm women usually have
It is rich in calcium, phosphorus like cowpea, cucumber, leaf
employment during kharif
and other minerals and vitamins. vegetables etc were grown as
season and remain unemployed
intercrop in the elephant foot
rest of the year. Food security Krishi Vigyan Kendra, yam. The farmers duly followed
is a major problem in this Ranital, Bhadrak has other recommended package
district. introduced elephant foot yam in of practices. Each farmer
Elephant foot yam its adopted villages-Gopalpur, harvested about 150-175 kg
(Amorphophallus Janajodi and Madhusudanpur corm within 6-7 months after
paeoniifolius) a tropical tuber to create supplementary planting. During evaluation of
crop is found throughout Orissa income during off-season. the demonstrations, we realized
as a wild crop. People during KVK has selected thirty farm that elephant foot yam
off-season collect the tubers families belonging to two self- cultivation has played an
from nearby community lands, help groups and two farmers import ant role as a
mango orchards, forests etc. club in these three villages. The supplementary source of
The wild type of elephant foot farmers were trained on household food and nutritional
yam is having itching property, production technology of security as well as petty cash

68 October - 2010
Orissa Review

income for these resource poor consumption 30% of the cultivation of elephant foot yam
farm families. produce was used and the in their homestead garden.
Farmers used elephant remaining 70% was sold at the The cultivation of
food yam as a vegetable as well rate of Rs18-20/kg in local elephant food yam variety
as a supplementary source of Bhadrak market. Each farmer Gajendra in large scale will
petty cash. There is a great sold elephant foot yam tubers play a possible role in improving
demand for Gajendra variety of to the tune of Rs 1000. Short livelihood among resource poor
elephant foot yam and farmers duration vegetables such as farmers by providing household
can easily sell the produce in the cowpea, leafy green security and supplementary
market. When there is an vegetables, black gram, green income as well as empowering
urgent need of petty cash, they gram, cucumber etc. grown as women.
can take two to three tubers to intercrop provided additional
the market for sale. As elephant income apart from household
food yam is a cheap source of consumption. Elephant foot
yam storability of 5-6 months Biswanath Sahoo, SMS (Hort),
carbohydrate and is rich in KVK (OUAT), Bhadrak
minerals and vitamins, it has gave farmers more flexibility in
potential to provide household marketing. Consumption of S.K. Jata, SRF, Regional Centre of
elephant foot yam depends on Central Tuber Crops Research
food and nutritional security Institute, Dumuduma,
among resource poor farm family needs and market price. Bhubaneswar
families. During evaluation of Interestingly some farmers were
M. Nedunchezhiyan , Senior
the demonstration it was found preparing pickles from
Scientist (Agronomy), Regional
that women farmers were more elephant foot yam for Centre of Central Tuber Crops
interested in elephant foot yam household consumption. All the Research Institute, Dumuduma,
cultivation. Household farmers were continuing the Bhubaneswar

October - 2010 69
Orissa Review

derive sustainable productivity

in agriculture sector.
Block-wise Watershed
Development Development programme
Tileibani: - 12 (twelve) nos.
Programme of of watersheds under IWDP,
2(two) Nos. of watersheds
Deogarh under RVP and 1(one) No.
(iii) Utilisation of the
available land to its maximum
under NWDPRA are in
District progress covering a gross
productivity by adopting
appropriate measures and as
treatable area of 9362 hectares
per land use capability without
consisting of 45(forty five)
any environmental degradation.
Barada Prasanna Das revenue villages.
(iv) To increase the level of
Barkote: - 2 (two) nos. of
income status of people living
watersheds, 1 (one) under RVP
in the watershed area.
and 1 (one) under NWDPRA
are in progress covering a gross (v) To restore ecological
Soil Conservation Activities treatable area of 5392 hectares balance by harnessing,
of Deogarh District consisting of 17(seventeen) conserving and developing the
revenue villages. natural resources i.e. land,
Taking into consid-
water and vegetation.
eratio n the geographical Reamal : - 14 (fourteen) nos.
feature, degradation of forest of watersheds under IWDP and (vi) For development of
and severity of soil erosion in 1 (one) No. under NWDPRA employment generation,
the upper catchment of the are in progress covering a gross poverty alleviation, community
district, 32(thirty two) nos. of treatable area of 7250 hectares improvement etc.
watershed projects are being consisting of 48 (forty eight) Developmental Work Under
operat ed by the Soil revenue villages. MGNREGA
Conservation Department. The
treatment is going on in 3(three) The Aim and Objectives of Most of the people of
Blocks of the district namely the Projects Deogarh district depend upon
Tileibani, Barkote and Reamal (i) Preservation of soil by agriculture productivity in
covering 119 villages consisting adopting suitable soil and water respect to their livelihood. The
26 (twenty six) watersheds conservation measures.
under IWDP, 3 (three)
(ii) Conservation of water
watersheds under RVP and 3
as much as possible in the
(three) watersheds under
place where it falls without
disturbing the ground water
The primary objectives level and to maintain it for
of the above schemes are to sustainable use.

70 October - 2010
Orissa Review

and are useful for developing

the socio-economic status of the
beneficiaries concerned.
Construction of Farm Ponds
and Mo-Pokhari
Under this Programme
total 213 Nos. of Farm Ponds
were completed during the year
2008-09 to 2009-10 with a
gross expendit ure of
Rs.106.50 lakhs. Similarly
agriculture productivity people and improving irrigation during the year 2010-11, 178
depends upon only to the rain potentiality to the lands of the nos. of Mo-Pokhari have been
wat er due t o very low farmers of the district. constructed with an
percentage of irrigation in the The measures taken by expenditure of Rs.89.00 lakhs
district. Also a large number of soil conservation department by this department. So as a
BPL families lead a very out of M.G.N.R.E.G.A grant whole 391 Nos. Farm Ponds/
precarious life and depend are as follows:-
upon mainly on wage
employment for their Construction of Supple-
subsistence as productivity of mentary Irrigation Project
their land is very low. Water, the Under this sector 25
most valuable and critical (twenty five) nos. of W.H.S and
natural resource eludes their Diversion Weir Projects were
land as equitable access to constructed by this department
natural resources is still a dream till now with a gross expenditure Mo-Pokhari have been
to the rural people. Keeping in of Rs.164.00 lakhs during the completed till now for the
view to the above, year from 2007-08 to 2009- Small Farmers, Marginal
implementation of N.R.E.G.A 10. By the construction of this Farmers and B.P.L. categories
scheme to the district will project 608 hectares of lands which is giving irrigation facilities
obviat e the problems by are being benefited with to 156.40 hectares of land by
providing job security to the supplementary irrigation during lift means besides other benefits
Kharif and 126 hectares in Rabi of Pisciculture etc.
besides the other benefits of
pisciculture and bathing, cattle
feeding etc. Also 98,400
mandays has been generated
during its construction. These
projects now stand as an Barada Prasanna Das is the District
Information & Public Relations
insurance against the drought Officer, Deogarh.

October - 2010 71
Orissa Review

number of tribals is not less in creating awareness about laws

Keonjhar. and democratic rights through
It is not uncommon to var io us inno vat ive and
find out that there are certain conceptual methods, t he
NGOs have been contributing
tribes which are not yet
to the building of what may be
touched even by the fringe of
civilization. In India, tribes called a Civil Society .
Civil Society are equated with Adivasi The origins of the tribe
who are primitive and live in lie in the earliest stages of
and Tribal hills, forests and remote areas. human evolution. The word
Tribals as the weaker section tribe conjures up in most
People of India s population from the people s mind images of
ecological, economic, social primitive societ ies, near
and educational angles naked warriors and mystical
Subhrabala Behera constitute the matrix of India s ceremonies. Tribalism to
poverty. most of us, represents an
earlier stage in the evolution
In order to improve
of the human race something
the socio-econo mic
came to an end with the end
co ndit ions of the tribal
of civilization. Yet, tribalism
communities, many policies
has never disappear ed,
and programmes have been
however, much of societies in
Next only to Africa, India has launched since British period
which we live may be
the largest tribal concentration and after independence of the
removed from those of our
in the world. The 2001 co untr y through bo th
hunter gatherer ancestors.
Census put the number of constitutional measures and
persons belonging to the Five Year P lan Ant hr o po lo g ist s
Schedule Tribes in India at programmes of the nation. define a tribe as a collection
84.3 million which is 8.2% of But the objectives of these of groups of people who
the to t al po pulatio n. legislations have remained share pattern of speech, basic
Scheduled tribes are largest in confined to statute books due cultural characteristics and in
Madhya Pradesh followed by to lack of awareness among the tr adit ional sense, a
Maharast ra, Orissa, the vulnerable sections about common territory. The term
Rajasthan and Jharkhand. the legislative intensions of the tribe has been derived from
Orissa is one of the largest Welfare State and biased its Latin root Tribes meaning
tribal concentrations in India. administ rat ive syst em thereby a social group . (Dr.
In Orissa, the tribals are controlled by vested interests. Taradat t a 2001:17) The
largely concentrated in the In such a situation, the NGOs Oxford Dictionary explains
district s o f Sundargarh, charged with emotion and tribe as a group of people in
Mayurbhanj, Kandhamal, idealism, feel for immediate an authority of a chief and
Koraput and Kalahandi. Yet, intervention and activism. By usually regarding themselves

72 October - 2010
Orissa Review

as having a co mmo n Scheduled Tribes in India at The decadal

ancesto r . These are 84.3 million which is 8.2 % of population growth between
endogamous organizations the total population. There the Census years 1981-1991,
with a simple social structure were about 60 major tribal in tribal population has been
and a self contained economy groups accounting for about higher at 31.64% than that for
having minimal contact with 80% of the to tal tribal t he ent ire po pulatio n at
other groups. They live in population of India in 1991. 23.51%; however during the
seclusion, are governed by There were over 100 medium Census years 1991-2001 it
their own social norms and tribal groups and 130 minor has been 24.45% against the
largely manage their own tribal groups. About 60 growth rate of 22.66% for the
affairs. o thers were numerically entire population.
The most accepted Karnat aka has
definition in the Indian context According to 2001 witnessed highest growth rate
is given by the late Prof. D.N. Census, Scheduled Tribes are o f 80.8 2% follo wed by
Mazumdar. According to him, largest in Madhya Pradesh Nagaland 67.23%. The
a tribe is a social group with followed by Maharashtra, lowest growth rate as per
t errit orial affiliat io n, Orissa, Rajast han and 2001 Census was recorded in
endo gamous wit h no Jharkhand. The Scheduled Andaman and Nichobar
specialization of functions, Tribes formed the largest Islands at 10.08% followed
ru led by t ribal affair s, pro por tion of the tot al by Himachal Pradesh at
hereditary or otherwise united population in Lakshadweep, 12.02%.
in language o r dialect , Mizor am and Nagaland.
The sex ratio among
recognizing social distance According to 1991 census,
Scheduled Tribes stand at
from tribes or castes but the population of Scheduled
977 females per 1000 males.
without any stigma attached in Tribes was 67.8 millions
In all states except Andhra
the case of a caste structure constituting about 8.08% of
Pradesh, Tamilnadu and
followed tribal traditions, the total population of the
Uttaranchal, the Scheduled
beliefs, customs, illiberal of country. According to 1991
Tribe sex-ratio as per 2001
naturalization of ideas from Census, t hey were
Census was more women
alien sources; above all, predo minant ly found in
Mad hya Prad esh and
conscious of homogeneity of
Chhatisgarh (combined) 154 The literacy rate for
et hnical and t errit o rial
lakh, Maharashtr a 73.17 Scheduled Tribes increased
lakh, Orissa 70.32 lakh, from 29.62% to 47.10%.
Tribes in India: Bihar and Jhar khand The female lit eracy rate
India is one of the few (co mbined) 66.1 6 lakh, among tribals increased from
countries in the world with Gujarat 61.63 lakh, 18.19% to 34.76% in 2001.
the large concentration of Rajasthan 54.71 lakh, There are about 283
tribal population. The 2001 Andhra Pradesh 41.99 Scheduled Tribe communities
Census put the number of lakh, West Bengal 38.06 who have been declared as
persons belonging to lakh and Assam 28.00 lakh. such under Article 342 of

October - 2010 73
Orissa Review

the Constitution. In the Mundari, (iii) Dravidian and languages. In 2003, 92 nd

country there are about 105 (iv) Tibeto-Burmese. In the Amendment added four more
tribal languages/dialects and past, most of the tribal languages in the Constitution
225 subsidiary dialects, which languages were non-literary in including Bodo, Dongri,
belong to four language character. In recent years Maithili and Santhali.
families, namely (i) Indo- some tribal communities have
Aryan, (ii) Austro-Asiatic or devised scripts for their own

State/Union Territories in descending order of percentage of Scheduled Tribes of Total
Population, 2001.
Sl.No. Rank in State/Union Territory Scheduled Tribes to Rank in 1991
2001 Total Population
2001 1991

1 1 Mizoram 94.5 94.8 1

2 2 Lakshadweep 94.5 93.1 2
3 3 Nagalanda 89.1 87.7 3
4 4 Meghalaya 85.9 85.5 4
5 5 Arunachal Pradesh 64.2 63.7 6
6 6 Dadra & Nagar Habeli 62.2 79.0 5
7 7 Manipur 34.2 34.4 7
8 8 Chhatisgarh 31.8 32.5 8
9 9 Tripura 31.1 30.9 9
10 10 Jharkhand 26.3 27.7 10
11 11 Orissa 22.1 22.2 12
12 12 Sikkim 20.6 22.4 11
13 13 Madhya Pradesh 20.3 19.9 13
14 14 Gujarat 14.8 14.9 14
15 15 Rajasthan 12.6 12.4 16
16 16 Assam 12.4 12.8 15
17 - Jammu & Kashmir 10.9 N.A -

74 October - 2010
Orissa Review

18 17 Maharashtra 8.9 9.3 19

19 18 Daman & Diu 8.8 11.5 17
20 19 Andaman & Nikobar Islands 8.3 9.5 18
21 20 Andhra Pradesh 6.6 6.3 20
22 21 Karnataka 6.6 4.3 22
23 22 West Bengal 5.5 5.6 21
24 23 Himachal Pradesh 4.0 4.2 23
25 24 Uttaranchal 3.0 3.0 24
26 25 Kerala 1.1 1.1 25
27 26 Tamil Nadu 1.0 1.0 26
28 27 Bihar 0.9 0.9 27
29 28 Uttar Pradesh 0.1 0.1 28
30 29 Goa N N 29
31 - Punjab NST NST -
32 - Chandigarh NST NST -
33 - Haryana NST NST -
34 - Delhi NST NST -
35 - Pondicherry NST NST -
Source : Census of India 2001.

1. Excludes Jammu & Tribes in Orissa: The total population of Orissa

Kashmir for ranking as 1991 There are as many as was 70. 32 lakhs which
Census data is not available. 62 communities that include worked out to be 22.16%
2. Excludes figures of 13 primitive tribes which have tribes of the total population,
Paomata, Mao Maram and been recognized as Scheduled according to 1991 Census.
Puru Sub- divisions of Tribes in Orissa under Article Tribal population growth is
Senapati District of Manipur 342 of the Constitution. The lower than that of others is
for 2001. total population in the state of evident from the fact that the
Orissa is 81.45% lakhs which percentage of tribals of the
NST- No Scheduled Tribes tribal population which was
notified worked out to be 22.13%
tribes of the total population, 22.39% according to 1981
N- Negligible according to 1991 Census. Census in t he state got
reduced to 22.16% in 1991

October - 2010 75
Orissa Review

and 22.13% in 2001. The sex Orissa are larg ely Nabarangapur, Kandhamal,
ratio among Scheduled Tribes concentrated in the districts of Gajapat i, S undargar h,
stands at 972 females per Malkangiri followed by Koraput and Keonjhar.
1000 males. The tribals in Mayurbhanj, Rayagad a,

District wise Percentage of Scheduled Tribe Population in Orissa : 1971, 1981 and
1991 Census.
Sl.No. District Percentage of Scheduled Tribes to Total Population
1971 1981 1991 2001
1 Balasore 7.06 6.84 10.57 11.28
2 Bolangir 19.72 19.12 22.06 20.63
3 Cuttack 2.89 3.13 3.49 3.57
4 Dhenkanal 12.91 12.96 12.68 12.79
5 Ganjam 9.98 9.48 2.93 2.88
6 Kalahandi 29.26 31.28 28.88 28.65
7 (Keonjhar) (46.96) (44.82) (44.52) (44.5)
8 Koraput 56.34 55.22 50.67 49.62
9 Mayurbhanj 58.56 57.67 57.87 56.6
10 Phulabani 40.31 38.94 51.51 51.96
11 Puri 3.70 3.45 0.27 0.3
12 Sambalpur 28.13 27.21 35.08 34.5
13 Sundargarh 53.40 51.26 50.74 50.19
14 Angul 11.68 11.67
15 Baragarh 19.56 19.36
16 Bhadrak 1.69 1.88
17 Boudha 12.92 12.47
18 Deogarh 33.31 33.6
19 Gajapati 47.88 50.79
20 Jagatsinghpur 0.61 0.82
21 Jajpur 7.40 7.76

76 October - 2010
Orissa Review

22 Jharsuguda 31.88 31.34

23 Kendrapara 0.40 0.52
24 Khurda 5.14 5.18
25 Malkanagiri 58.36 57.43
26 Nawapara 35.95 34.71
27 Nayagarh 5.96 5.88
28 Nowrangpur 55.27 55.03
29 Rayagada 56.04 55.76
30 Sonepur 9.50 9.78

ORISSA 23.11 22.43 22.16 22.13

Source: Census of India, 2001.
Ethnically the tribes of Civil Society : the rule of law, was that of the
Orissa belong to the Proto- creation and consolidation of
S ince 1970s, a sphere for collective action
Australoids and Dravidian dramatic resurgence of the
groups and linguistically they that would be independent of
concept of civil society in the state where ordinary men
either belong to the Mundari both political theory and
group of the Austric language and women would be able to
practice is witnessed. Civil associate and express their
family or they belong to the Society has come to a
Dravidian linguistic groups. sentiments in freedom and
commanding posit io n in wit hout fear under t he
Most of the tribals of coastal recent times. In 1970s and
plains have in course of time protection of institutionalized
1980s, East Euro pean civil rights and the rule of law.
been transformed into caste Intellectuals, Political activists
groups while the hilly regions Intellectuals theorizing in the
and Trade union leaders Tocque villean mode termed
of Western Orissa still contain turned their back on the two
lar ge number o f t ribal t his sphere of social
po lit ical o pt io ns t hat associatio n based on
communities. The tribes of historically has been available solidarity and self-help as
Northern Western Orissa to them. The first was reform civil society .
are expo sed to great er of state power from above.
amount of industrialization The seco nd was social Traditionally, radical
and mining developments revolution from below. The t heo ry had fo cussed o n
while the tribes of South third option that represented harnessing political passions
Orissa are still continuing their t o people reeling under to the cause of social and
traditional life and they are insensit ive stat e po wer, polit ical t ransformation.
comparatively less exposed to arbitrary bureaucracies, lack Now, it was seeking to yoke
such opportunities. of civil and political rights and these very same passions to

October - 2010 77
Orissa Review

the liberal-democratic project political system) and distinguished the two terms
Civil Society began where commercial institutions of the clearly as we understood
revolution ended . Habermas market. In normative terms, them today. Hegel is widely
has called in another context civil society is widely seen as regarded as the first theorist
that civil society is the Life empowering the people, who distinguished the state
world from the instrumental mo bilizing t hem fo r from civil society. As for the
rationality of the State. participat ion, enforcing role of civil society in his
The Concept: accountability, moderating scheme of the state, he has
both state and market, helping explained it in detail by using
Civil So ciet y is a in the supply of public goods the term dialectic to describe
concept which has been and social services. the movement of reason in
elaborated in the framework human affairs. According to
of modern weste rn Civil societies are
oft en po pulated by him, three stages are in the
philosophy, political science
or ganizat io ns such as process by which reason
and sociology. It is related to
regist ered charit ies, moves through history
both the state and the market,
de velo pment no n- thesis, anti- thesis and
but it should not be confused
governmental organizations, synthesis. He asserted that
with either. It may be seen as
professional associations, the family is called unity, civil
not rooted in the family or in
trade unions, self-help groups, society is called particularity
economic power or in state
social movements, business and t he st ate is called
administration seek to affirm
associations, coalitions and universality.
themselves and defend their
rights and prerogatives. The advocacy groups. Reverting But when the ethical
social dynamism of this sector to NGOs the typology covers life of the state looks for its
is manifested by people s a bro ad spect rum of material needs, a new idea
associations or public non- develo pment activit ies. arises to overshadow/eclipse
governmental organisations NGOs have mushroomed in the Hegelian idea, namely
(NGOs). various sectors. Marxism. Karl Marx explains
By civil society it Evolution: civil society in primarily a
means the entire network of Historically, the idea theatre of history. He, in fact,
churches, charit ies, of civil society was opposed does not like civil society. In
co mmunit y grou ps and to that of Aristotlian notion of his opinion, civil society is
voluntary associations and Koinonia Politika and the projected as a part of the
institutions. It is composed of notion of civil society was superstructure meant for
the totality of voluntary civil alien to the Greeks. Hobbes serving bo urgeo is class
and social organizations and and Locke used the terms interest. So long as state and
institutions that form the basis civil and political society its approaches are there, civil
of a functioning society as interchangeably. Both of society is also found in the
oppo sed to the forced them used civil society as a society.
backed structures of a state concept opposed to the state The t wo opposit e
(regardless of that state s of nature. But neither of them views of civil society Hegelian

78 October - 2010
Orissa Review

and Marxian again synthesise consider the natural resources 5. Shifting Cultivation:
in Gramscian who uses as common co mmunal At t he mo me nt ,
Mar xism wit h a lit t le properties and strictly abide shifting cult ivation is an
modification. To Gramsci, the by t he communit y essential practice and is
idea o f st ate cannot be management of resources. unavoidable as it is a way of
understood without the idea life for several tribes. But the
2. Problems related to forest:
of civil so ciet y be ing 1988 National Forest Policy
understood. He says that The t r ibals have banned it without taking
state should be understood always lived in an intimate consideration of alternative
not only as an apparatus of relationship with the forest. avenues of income.
govt. but also as the private They regarded himself as the
app arat us o f hegemo ny owners of the forests. Now 6. Pastoralism:
where civil society rests. Civil they have been turned into The co ndit ion of
so ciet y is based o n t he subject s and have been pastoral tribes is equally
consent of the citizen to placed under t he Forest deplorable. They now face
maintain its domination. Department of the state. The t he severe problems of
traditional rights of the tribals pasture and fodder for their
The Government and Role
are no longer recognized as livesto ck. For want of
of NGOs as a Ci vil
rights . adequat e feed, their
Society :
livestock s get emancipated
Problems of Tribes: 3. Boundary Dispute:
and diseased.
Tribal societies are In some of the states,
7. Bonded Labour:
small-scale, simple in the forest boundaries run very
close to the tribal habitats. In spite of the fact that
character, with contiguous
This has led t o conflict forced or bonded labour is
populations and socio-cultural
between the tribal and the prohibited under Article 23 of
homogeneity. There is less
Forest Department. the Constitution, it still exists
complex division of labour,
in one form or another in the
apart from those necessitate 4. Conversion o f Fo rest tribal areas.
by age and sex factors. The villages into Revenue villages:
problems faced by each of the 8. Problems of health and
Due t o improved hygiene:
vulnerable groups are unique
accessibility, some of the
in nature Sudden change in the
States have converted forest
1. Economic Factor: eco -syst ems of t ribal
villages into revenue villages
settlements and migration of
All the primitive tribes to providing uninterrupted
non-tribal population into
are still in the stage of food manpowe r fo r fo rest ry
tribal areas, led to the spread
gathering, collection, hunting operation. Nevertheless,
of diseases with which they
and shifting cultivation. They there still exist between 2500 were not familiar in the past.
continue to veer round pre- to 3000 forest villages in the Moreover, medical facilities in
agricultural technology. They country. Besides these; there the tribal areas are utterly
are more egalitarian. They are unauthorized inhabitants. inadequate and they continue

October - 2010 79
Orissa Review

to depend on their traditional phenomenon impedes their having authoritative culture.

magico-religious and ethno- development. Although the Laws provide
medical systems. The various problems for a minimum wage rate,
experienced by the tribes, as allotment of ceiling surplus,
9. Exploitation:
summarized by Padhy, the reservations in educational
With large scale of institutions and jobs, waste
onslaught of market forces,
land alienation, depletion of land in favour of landless,
alien itinerant traders, money
fo rest reso urces and pro hibit ion of shar ing
lenders and merchants, the
imposition of restriction on the cropping system, protection
immigration of non-tribal
traditional tribal mode of use of civil rights by making
artisans and peasants, the
of forest and other natural establishment of mo dern untouchability and any kind of
resources have made them industries, mines and hydro- social discrimination on the
mo r e vu lner able to electr ic P rojects in grounds of birth, a punitive
exploitation by money lenders juxtaposition to their habitat, offence and abolition of illegal
and unscrupulous traders who recruitment of tribal labour money lending, etc the
operate to sabotage govt. into t he ever-expanding objectives of these legislations
schemes. informal sector and the special have remained confined to the
Constitutional provisions for statute books due to lack of
10. Problems of Education
Scheduled Tribes, together aw areness amo ng t he
and Communication:
brought even the remote food vulnerable sections about the
Ther e has been a legislative intensions of the
gathering communities in to
steady rise in the level of the matrix of regional political Welfare State The Govt.
education of the tribes as a economies. programmes are also time
whole but the educational bound and target oriented. In
achievement of primitive In order to improve such a situation, the NGOs
tribes is far from satisfactory. the socio-econo mic charged with emotion and
In tribal interiors, educational co ndit ions of the tribal idealism feel for immediate
institutions function only in Communities, many Policies intervention and activism.
records and rarely in reality. and Programmes have been They try to stimulate the
launched since British period interests in the community
11. Traditional Institution and and after independence of the work with their innovative
Problem of Leadership: co untr y through bo th attitude. The involvement of
Traditional kinship and Constitutional measures and the NGOs in the process of
non-kinship associations and the Five Year P lan sustainable tribal development
institutions among the tribes Programmes of the nation. in countries designed as
are gradually becoming weak. Tribal communities developing all over the
Still from among the particular are weaker sections of the world.
tribes, modern leaders have Society who lives in hills, So me of t he
not emerged in any forests and remote areas, who indigenous NGOs have
perceptible manner for lack of are landless, small and performed commendably in
modern education and such marginal farmers, illiterate and org anizing t he weaker

80 October - 2010
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sections of tribal communities pay visit s to villages in capabilities of the poor for
besides present ing an connect io n wit h family self-reliant and sustained
alt ernat ive approa ch planning and immunization development may however
co mbining welfare and with the objective of achieving reveal a gap between the
development together with the targets , the NGO s appearance and reality.
community participation. The provide preventive health care The arguments are
increasing demands fo r facilities through improved advanced that the NGOs are
minimum wages and social sanitation, drinking water and non-bureaucratic, non-
audit of community works ed ucat ion abo ut t he hierarchical and are better in
executed through contractors advantages of small family etc. feeling the felt needs at the
or elected bodies are results NGOs also provide free micro level, besides governed
of participating mobilization consultancy and advocacy by what is called the articles
and awareness generated by support by bridging t he of faith , i.e. heterogeneity,
some NGOs. distance bet we en t he reaching t he po or,
Education as a key beneficiaries, banks and govt. participat ion in decision
and critical input for self- officials. making process vs. outcome,
reliant and sustained Thus, the NGOs have flexibility, experimentation,
development in order to the potential of achieving institution building, etc. By
overcome the difficulties in success in social as well as creating awareness about laws
organizing and motivating the economic sector. Aiming at and democratic rights through
poor towards small family empowerment of the poor, var io us inno vat ive and
norms, proper child care, NGOs encounter challenges, concept ual methods, the
sanitation, functional literacy, including those posed by the NGOs have been contributing
etc. the NGOs are providing dominant power structure that to the building of what may be
opportunities for non-formal exists in the village and keeps called a Civil Society.
educat ion through night t he vulner able sect io ns
schools to those who did not isolated.
have access to elementary But the activities of
education in their formative NGOs particularly in the
Subhrabala Behera is a Ph.D
years. Resear ch Sch ola r i n t h e
tribal areas and their claims of Department of Political Science,
While public health comparative advantage and Utkal University, Vani Vihar,
functionaries of Govt. tend to competence to develop the Bhubaneswar.

October - 2010 81
Orissa Review

The Epic Success Story of SGSY

The (Pine) Apples of Odisha's Eyes

Gurbir Singh

Munising and Randhiba of Gajapati District

In 2007-08, the first chapter of the epic success story began to be
written. 4 SHGs in villages of the Rayagada block in the Gajapati district were
covered under SGSY with sanctions of Rupees 2,50,000/- each under the
Pineapple Processing Scheme. Each SHG was eligible for a subsidy of
Rs.1,00.000/- and that required a repayment of only Rs.1,50,000/- to the banks.

Initially The DRDA, Gajapati had sanctioned an amount of Rs 5,00,000/-

to set up two Pineapple Processing Units at Munising and Randhiba with amazing
storage infrastructures which included 100 nos. of Barrel (50 lts Capacity each)
for storing the Pineapple juice during production.

Before the SGSY help had come to the villagers in form of providing
financial support coupled with technical know-how and marketing support,
the villagers used to grow pineapples and sell them at local markets at the
rate of Rs.2 per piece. The traders who bought their produce were a handful,
as such the choice for growth was also far in sight.

To make things worse, during the distress sale, they even sold their juicy
pineapples at Rs.1/- per piece.

The DRDA rolled in the OMFED to train

the SHGs concerned grow and produce pineapple
juice with buy back guarantee. The DRDA then
planned and sanctioned the Pineapple Processing
Scheme to 4 (four) groups under SGSY scheme. Soon the cost of pineapple
saw a rise to Rs.7/- per piece. The farmers now sell their produce on
weight basis.

By now, the success of the SHGs is in full flow.

Every year each group produces 7,500 lts of pine apple juice;
together the groups produce 30,000 lts juice. OMPAC (Orissa Agro
82 October - 2010
Orissa Review

Processing Centre, Bhubaneswar), a subsidiary division of OMFED

as per the order is their major buyer. Rest of juice is marketed
locally and through exhibitions. Main Season of pine apple farming
is from the middle of May to the end of July.

The success story of pineapple farming has taken to epic

dimension as some 37 other SHGs have successfully involved
themselves with adjacent villages like Loba, Gotasahi, K.K.Singh,
Raikasahi, Puttar, Ukarsing, Pondasahi, Talmunda,Ragidising,
Sindhiba, Munising, Gopalpur, Jallang, Sarigisahi, Jambosahi, Dombalo & Raigumma and many others.
All these groups are involved in collection and sale of K.Lime,
Orange & Pineapple.

The cost / benefit analysis for extraction of pine apple juice is

based on the following assumptions:

The Net Fruit Weight (after cleaning) to extracted juice will be

approximately 40%.

The average fruit weight after cleaning will be 750 gm. to 1,250 gm.

Cost Calculation for Extraction of One Kilogram of Pine Apple Juice

Particulars Rs.

Procurement Price of 2.3 Kg. of Pine Apple Fruits @ Rs.6/-per kg. 13.80

Cost of transportation (From the farmer s field to SHG point & handling charge) 0.50

Labour charges 2.20

Extraction process, energy charges & other miscellaneous expenses 2.00

Total Cost of Production 18.50

Net Profit 7.50

Sale Price per Kg. 26.00

The SHG will get around Rs.7.50/- (Rupees Seven fifty only) as net profit for extracting
one kg. of pine apple juice.

October - 2010 83
Orissa Review


Block : Rayagada Dist. Gajapati

Sl. S.H.G. Members Villages Gram Remarks

No. Panchayats
1. Jeevan Vikas Mahila Sangha 10
2. Annapurna Mahila Mandal 11
3. Pragatibadi Mahila Mandal 12 Loba
4. Maa Sarala Mahila Mandal 12
All these
5. Prabhat Mahila Mandal 10 groups are
6. Santi Mahila Mandal 10 Loba involved in
7. Maa Tarini Mahila Mandal 15 Gotasahi collection
and sale of
8. Maa Padmaja Mahila Mandal 15 K.Lime,
9. Maa Tarini SHG 10 K.K.Singh Orange &
10. Mini Shakti SHG 10 Pineapple.
They all
11. Maa Kamala SHG 10
belong to
12. Maa Kamala Mahila Mandal 15 Rayagada
13. Maa Santoshi Mahila Mandal 10 Raikasahi Puttar Block in
14. Maa Santoshi SHG 10 Gajapati
15. Rajeswari SHG 18 Puttar
16. Ukarsing Mahila Mandal 15 Ukarsing Talamunda
17. Diptimayee Mahila Mandal 10 Pondasahi
18. Santimayee Mahila Mandal 15 Talmunda
19. Santimaytri Mahila Mandal 12 Regidising

Sl. S.H.G. Members Villages Gram Remarks

No. Panchayats
20. Maa Bhabani Mahila Mandal 20 Raigumma
21. Anusaya Mahila Mandal 15 Dombalo
22. Diptimayee Mahila Mandal 15 Jambosahi
23. Sarojini SHG 14 Sindhiba Dombalo
24. Surabhi SHG 12
25. Indira SHG 14

84 October - 2010
Orissa Review

26. Mariya SHG 12 Munisingi All these groups

27. Indira SHG 15 are involved in
collection and
28. Marry SHG 17
sale of K.Lime,
29. Janani Mahila Mandal 12 Orange &
30. Maha Laxmi Mahila Mandal 20 Jallang Jallang Pineapple.
31. Soura Jollang W.F. 12 They all belong
to Rayagada
32. Gayatri SHG 15
Block in
33. Maha Bharati SHG 14 Sarigisahi Mangarajpur Gajapati
35. Jagadhatri SHG 14 District
36. Indira SHG 10 Gopalpur Mangarajpur
37. Parbati SHG 18
Total 479

Gurbir Singh is working as DI & PRO, in Gajapati District

October - 2010 85
Orissa Review

Success Story of Gopalpur, Puri

Rural Water Supply System : Puri PWS -

A Real Truth
Damodar Padhy

This PWS is 2 kms distance from Puri town and Puri Sadar Block is also 2 kms. away only.
The people of Gopalpur (around 3643) ever dreamt of a modern lifestyle. Being in a urban sector area
and surrounded by sea, ponds etc. people were fed up to their life for a long time. Here agriculture is
main source. Gen., ST/SC, OBC are living together here.
They did not have any thing to take pure drinking water. Traditionally before many years one
big deep well was able to supply drinking water to the villagers. During the summer the villagers have
seen the hardship how they have collected the drinking water from the big pond and Chua. They still
remember those unforgettable days ! Later on some tube wells were provided by RWSS Department
to meet the drinking water demand. That was not sufficient
also. Villagers were facing a lot of difficulties in absence
of this water demand.
Things no longer remain the same. Life has
changed. In the year 2007-08 RWSS Division Puri
commissioned a PWS in this village with 10 Nos. of stand
post. The large sized population of this village creates a
special image in Puri District Map. This PWS is oriented
with Gopalpur UGME School with 400 students and 7
teachers, four nos. of Anganwadi Kendra where RWSS
Puri have arranged separate stand posts inside their
premises. They are able to meet their drinking water purposes.
Hadibandhu Pradhan (64 yrs) Retd. Govt. employee, Akshaya Kumar Mala (51 yrs) Sarapanch,
Saraswati Pradhan (34 yrs.) Ward Member, Niranjan Jena (30 yrs.) Ward Member, Bijaya Kumar
Maharana (34 yrs.) the villagers describe the brother-hood prevailing among the communities. No
disease are found ever. They villagers are getting pure, safe and qualitative water. Keshab Narayan
Singh (45 yrs.) is the SEM posted here to run the pump house. Villagers express their token of gratitude
to RWSS, Puri.
Gopalpur village of Puri Block has shown the way modern living to the villagers.

Damodar Padhy is the District Information & Public Relations Officer, Puri

86 October - 2010
Principal Secretary


Director-cum-Joint Secretary


Joint Director-cum-Deputy Secretary

Editorial Assistance
Bibhu Chandra Mishra
Bikram Maharana

Production Assistance
Debasis Pattnaik
Sadhana Mishra

Manas R. Nayak
Cover Design & Illustration

Hemanta Kumar Sahoo

Manoj Kumar Patro
D.T.P. & Design

Raju Singh
Manas Ranjan Mohanty

The Orissa Review aims at disseminating knowledge and information concerning Orissa s
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in the Orissa Review are not necessarily those of the Government of Orissa.
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Shaktism : Tantra and Mantra in Sarala Mahabharata Dr. Satyabrata Das

Dr. U.N. Sahoo ... 1

Place of Sabari as the Symbol of Para Bhakti in the

Ramayan Durga Madhab Dash ... 6

Janmati, The Tantrik Deity of Kandhamal Kshetrabasi Manseth ... 11

Durga : The Mother of the Universe Balabhadra Ghadai ... 16

Bali Jatra of Sonepur Dr. Chitrasen Pasayat ... 18

Durga Temple at Nuasatanga Dr. Ratnakar Mohapatra ... 28

Maninag Durga, the Presiding Deity of Ranapur Braja Paikaray ... 33

Oh Mother Goddess Durga Bikram Keshari Barma ... 35

Gandhian Sarvodaya Prabodh Kumar Rath ... 36

Gandhian Philosophy : Still Relevant Today Rabindra Kumar Behuria ... 40

Remembering Lal Bahadur Shastri : The Little Big

Man of India Siddhartha Dash ... 48

Ramesvara Group of Temples at Boudh Ramesh Meher ... 51

Elephant Foot Yam and Poor Farmers of Bhadrak District Biswanath Sahoo
S.K. Jata
M. Nedunchezhiyan ... 68

Development Programme of Deogarh District Barada Prasanna Das ... 70

Civil Society and Tribal People Subhrabala Behera ... 72

The (Pine) Apples of Odisha's Eyes Gurbir Singh ... 82

Rural Water Supply System : Puri PWS - A Real Truth Damodar Padhy ... 86

Mahatma Gandhi Lal Bahadur Shastri Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

2.10.1869 - 30.01.1948 02.10.1904 - 11.01.1966 31.10.1875 - 15.12.1950

Jaya Prakash Narayan Utkalmani Gopabandhu Das Baji Rout

11.10.1902 - 08.10.1979 09.10.1877 - 17.06.1928 (Shot dead on 11.10.1938)