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INDEX:

1 Discussion
2 Nomenclature
3 References
4 Standard Separator Sizes as per API
5 Separator sizing with mist extractor
5A Two Phase (Gas - Oil) Vertical Separator as per API 12J
5B Two Phase (Gas - Oil) Horizontal Separator as per API 12J
5C Three Phase (Gas - Oil - Water) Vertical Separator as per API 12J
5D Three Phase (Gas - Oil - Water) Horizontal Separator as per API 12J
6 Separator sizing without mist extractor
6A Two Phase (Gas - Oil) Vertical Separator As per Petroleum and Gas Field Processing
6B Two Phase (Gas - Oil) Horizontal Separator as per Petroleum and Gas Field Processing
6C Three Phase (Gas - Oil - Water) Vertical Separator as per Petroleum and Gas Field Processing
6D Three Phase (Gas - Oil - Water) Horizontal Separator as per Petroleum and Gas Field Processing

Prepared by:
Ajay S. Satpute
Sr. Process Engineer
Ramboll Consulting Engineering, Qatar
DISCUSSION

This spreadsheet provides an easy and simple approach to (2/3 phase and vertical/horizontal) separat
Formulae and references are also provided for process engineers to edit/duplicate this work (file is NO
password protected).

There is as much art as there is science to properly design a separator. Three main factors should be
considered in separator sizing:
1) vapor capacity, 2) Liquid capacity, and 3) operability.
The vapor capacity will determine the cross-sectional area necessary for gravitational forces t
the liquid from the vapor.
The liquid capacity is typically set by determining the volume required to provide adequate residence
de-gas the liquid or allow immiscible liquid phases to separate. Operability issues includ
separators ability to deal with solids if present, unsteady flow/liquid slugs, turndown, etc. Finally, the
design will usually result in an aspect ratio that satisfies these requirements in a vessel of reasonable
These factors often result in an iterative approach to the calculations.

Two sets of calculations are carried out here.


1. Separators with Mist Extractors and
2. Separators without Mist Extractors

Several useful guidelines for separator design are provided below;


Momentum & Velocity criteria for nozzles (Source: DEP 31.22.05.12 - Gen.- 2008)
Inlet Nozzle
No Internal
Half open pipe
Schoepentoeter used as inlet device

Gas outlet Nozzle

Liquid outlet Nozzle

Selection guideline for separator types


System Characteristics
Large vapour, less liquid Load (by volume)
Large liquid, less vapour Load (by volume)
Large vapour, large liquid Load (by volume)
Liquid-liquid separation
Liquid-solid separation

Level setting in the separator


Level type
Level Alarm High High (LAHH)
Level Alarm High (LAH)
Normal Alarm Level (NAL)
Level Alarm Low (LAL)

Level Alarm Low Low (LALL)

Typical K factors for the sizing of wire mesh demisters (Source: IPS-E-PR-880, 1997)
Separator type
Horizontal (with vertical pad)
Spherical
Vertical or horizontal (with horizontal pad)
At atmospheric pressure
At 2100 kPa
At 4100 kPa
At 6200 kPa
At 10300 kPa
Wet steam
Most vapours under vacuum
Salt and caustic evaporators
INDEX

mple approach to (2/3 phase and vertical/horizontal) separator sizing.


d for process engineers to edit/duplicate this work (file is NOT

o properly design a separator. Three main factors should be

ity, and 3) operability.


e the cross-sectional area necessary for gravitational forces to remove

rmining the volume required to provide adequate residence time to


uid phases to separate. Operability issues include the
esent, unsteady flow/liquid slugs, turndown, etc. Finally, the optimal
o that satisfies these requirements in a vessel of reasonable cost.
pproach to the calculations.

re.
nd
tractors

sign are provided below;


zzles (Source: DEP 31.22.05.12 - Gen.- 2008)
Momentum or Velocity Limit
Max. Momentum, m V2m 1400 Pa
Max. Momentum, m V2m 2100 Pa
Max. Momentum, m V2m 8000 Pa

Max. Momentum, g V2g,out 4500 Pa

Maximum velocity, 1 m/s

es
Type of Separator
Vertical
Horizontal
Horizontal
Horizontal
Vertical

Level setting
30 60 seconds or 200 mm whichever is greater
30 60 seconds or 200 mm whichever is greater
60% of horizontal separator
30 60 seconds or 200 mm whichever is greater

30 60 seconds or 200 mm whichever is greater Should be


at least 200 mm above the vessel bottom or maximum
interface level

e mesh demisters (Source: IPS-E-PR-880, 1997)


K factor (m/s)
0.122 to 0.152
0.061 to 0.107
0.055 to 0.107
0.107
0.101
0.091
0.082
0.064
0.076
0.061
0.046
NOMENCLATURE

A total cross sectional area of the separator.


Aw cross sectional area of the separator occupied by water, ft 2
Ao cross sectional area of the separator occupied by oil, ft 2
Ag cross sectional area of the separator occupied by gas, ft 2
CD drag coefficient
d vessel internal diameter, in.
dm bubble or drop diameter, m
D vessel diameter, ft
h liquid height, in.
hg gas-phase space height, in.
ho oil pad height, in.
hw water pad height, in.
K mesh capacity factor, ft/sec
Leff or L effective length of the vessel where separation occurs, ft
Lss or Ls seam-to-seam vessel length, ft
NLL normal liquid level, %
P operating pressure, psia
Qc continuous liquid-phase flow rate, bbl/day
Qg gas flow rate, MMSCFD or ft3/s
Qo oil flow rate, bbl/day
W or Qw water flow rate, bbl/day
Re Reynolds number
T operating temperature, R
V liquid settling volume
Va max. allowable velocity through secondary separation section
Vm velocity of the mixture, m/s
Z gas compressibility
c continuous phase dynamic viscosity, cp
w water dynamic viscosity, cP
density, lbm/ft3
g gas density, lbm/ft3
l liquid density, lbm/ft3
o oil density, lbm/ft3
m mean density of mixture, kg/m3
w water density, lbm/ft3
INDEX
REFERENCES

http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Vapor-liquid_separator

API 12J, Specification for oil and gas separators, 1989

http://petrowiki.org/Separator_sizing

http://www.cheresources.com/invision/topic/11856-selecting-vertical-separator-ld-ratio/

Petroleum and Gas Field Processing - Hussein K. Abdel-Aal, Mohamed Aggour, M. A. Fahim

http://books.google.com.qa/books?id=BZOPlA-SmMUC&pg=PA97&lpg=PA97&dq=%22three+phase
%22+separator+L/D+ratio+%22GPSA
%22&source=bl&ots=u979BoWCxd&sig=p13fCbqS52y7bE3eGRDtfj7nGq0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=s9dMVJH
http://www.cheresources.com/invision/topic/17158-three-phase-separator-design-suggestion-needed/
wO4tIK4BQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=%22three%20phase%22%20separator%20L%2FD%20ratio
%20%22GPSA%22&f=false
http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Vapor-liquid_separator

http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=8913.0

http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=9252.0

http://www.cheresources.com/invision/topic/41-sizing-a-flash-tank-or-vapor-liquid-separator/

http://www.eng-tips.com/faqs.cfm?fid=1153

http://process-designs.com/

http://www.razifar.com/cariboost_files/Design_20Two_20Phase_20Separators_20Within_20the_20Right
s.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Souders%E2%80%93Brown_equation

http://books.google.com.qa/books?id=lpA83iVcaGYC&pg=PA159&lpg=PA159&dq=Kh+
%3D+1.25+Kv+separator&source=bl&ots=fV8ewKHkag&sig=q70X8-
xfxPnk9MBMHgaEFwLhIhU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=M-NVVPepM4XWPfaLgYAI&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=
IPS-E-PR-880, 1997
%20%3D%201.25%20Kv%20separator&f=false
GPSA - Engineering Data Book (12th Ed)
INDEX

tor-ld-ratio/

r, M. A. Fahim

7&dq=%22three+phase

&hl=en&sa=X&ei=s9dMVJHiHKvcy
esign-suggestion-needed/
rator%20L%2FD%20ratio

iquid-separator/

_20Within_20the_20Right_20Limit

9&dq=Kh+

ir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Kh
STANDARD SEPARATOR SIZES AS PER API INDEX
D [in] x H or L [ft]
12 in x 5 ft
12 in x 7 ft
12 in x 10 ft

16 in x 5 ft
16 in x 7 ft
16 in x 10 ft

20 in x 5 ft
20 in x 7 ft
20 in x 10 ft

24 in x 5 ft
24 in x 7 ft
24 in x 10 ft

30 in x 5 ft
30 in x 7 ft
30 in x 10 ft

36 in x 5 ft
36 in x 7 ft
36 in x 10 ft
36 in x 15 ft

42 in x 7 ft
42 in x 10 ft
42 in x 15 ft

48 in x 7 ft
48 in x 10 ft
48 in x 15 ft

54 in x 7 ft
54 in x 10 ft
54 in x 15 ft

60 in x 7 ft
60 in x 10 ft
60 in x 15 ft
Two Phase (Gas - Oil) Vertical separator: As per API 12J
INPUT PARAMETERS
Qg 25 mmscfd Gas rate
Qo 3000 bbl/d Oil rate SCHEMATIC

Yellow boxes are input boxes.


0.70 Gas specific gravity
'o 40 oAPI Oil density
o 0.83 Oil specific gravity
P 814.5 psia Operating pressure
T' 80 oF Operating temperature
T 540 o
R Operating temperature
MW 20.3 lb/lbmole Molecular weight
t 1 minutes Retention time (Refer Table 2)
Z 0.84 Gas compressibility
g 0.013 cP Gas viscosity
H 10 ft Shell height (assume)
K 0.30 ft/s Refer Table 1
NLL 30% Normal liquid level (assume)

CALCULATIONS EQUATIONS TABLES


Step 1: Determine gas and oil properties
g 3.4 lb/ft3 Gas operating density Table 1

o 51.5 lb/ft3 Oil operating density Height, ft

5
Step 2: Souders-Brown equation 10
Va 1.13 ft/s
Qg,a 4.55 ft3/s Actual volume flow of gas Table 2

Ag,min 4.03 ft2 Minimum gas flow area Oil Gravities

Dmin 27 in Minimum ID of separator Above 35 oAPI


20 to 30 oAPI
Dselected 30 in Next larger and appropriate size 10 to 20 oAPI
H 10 ft Shell height
H/D 4.0 unitless Refer Note 4

Step 3:

V 2.6 bbl Liquid volume (excluding bottom head)

Liquid capacity of separator should be Manipulate NLL and H to get


W 3777 bpd appropriate W.
more than 3000 bpd (input value)

NOTES
1. The maximum allowable superficial velocity calculated from the above factors is for separators normally having a wire mesh mist extracto
rate should allow all liquid droplets larger than 10 microns to settle out of gas.
2. Additional resource for K factor from GPSA Engineering Data Book:
Pressure, barg K factor, m/s Adjustment of K factor for pressure
0 0.11 Pressure, psig % of Design value
7 0.11 Atm. 100
21 0.10 150 90
42 0.09 300 85
63 0.08 600 80
105 0.07 1150 75

GPSA Notes:
1. K = 0.107 at a gauge pressure of 7 bar. Subtract 0.003 for every 7 bar above a gauge pressure of 7 bar.
2. For glycol or amine solutions, multiply above K values by 0.6 - 0.8.
3. Typically use one-half of the above K values for approximate sizing of vertical separators without mesh pads.
4. For compressor suction scrubbers and expander inlet separators, multiply K by 0.7 - 0.8.
3. Additional resource for retention times from gas Conditioning and Processing, Volume 2.
Natural gas-oil 1 to 3 minutes
Lean oil surge tanks 10 to 15 minutes
Fractionation feed surge tanks 8 to 15 minutes
Refrigerant surge tanks 4 to 7 minutes
Refrigerant econonomizers 2 to 3 minutes
4. As per GPSA, typical vertical H/D ratios are normally in the 2 to 4 range.
INDEX

1
Typical K factor
range
0.12 to 0.24
0.18 to 0.35

Retention time,
minutes (Typical)

1
1 to 2
2 to 4

e mesh mist extractor. This


Two Phase (Gas - Oil) Horizontal Separator: As per API 12J
INPUT PARAMETERS SCHEMATIC
Qg 25 mmscfd Gas rate
Qo 3000 bbl/d Oil rate

Yellow boxes are input boxes.


0.70 Gas specific gravity
'o 40 oAPI Oil density
o 0.83 Oil specific gravity
P 814.5 psia Operating pressure
T' 80 oF Operating temperature
T 540 o
R Operating temperature
MW 20.3 lb/lbmole Molecular weight
t 1 minutes Retention time (Refer Table 2)
Z 0.84 Gas compressibility
g 0.012 cP Gas viscosity
K 0.5 ft/s Refer Table 1
NLL 30% Normal liquid level (assume)
L 10 ft Shell Length (assume)

CALCULATIONS EQUATIONS TABLES


Step 1: Determine gas and oil properties
g 3.4 lb/ft3 Gas operating density Table 1

o 51.5 lb/ft3 Oil operating density Length, ft

10
Souders-Brown equation
Step 2: Other Lengths
Va 1.881 ft/s
Qg,a 4.55 ft3/s Actual volume flow of gas Table 2

Ag,min 2.42 ft2 Minimum gas flow area Oil Gravities

Dmin 4 in Assume Above 35 oAPI


Ag,min 2.42 ft2 20 to 30 oAPI
Error 0.00 10 to 20 oAPI
Dselected 30 in Next larger and appropriate size
L 10 ft Shell length
L/D 4.0 unitless Refer Note 4

Step 3:

V 3 bbl Liquid volume (excluding bottom head)

Liquid capacity of separator should be Manipulate NLL and L to get


W 3644 bpd appropriate W.
more than 3000 bpd (input value)

NOTES
1. The maximum allowable superficial velocity calculated from the above factors is for separators normally having a wire mesh mist extracto
rate should allow all liquid droplets larger than 10 microns to settle out of gas.
2. Additional resource for K factor from GPSA Engineering Data Book:
Pressure, barg K factor, m/s Adjustment of K factor for pressure
0 0.11 Pressure, psig % of Design value
7 0.11 Atm. 100
21 0.10 150 90
42 0.09 300 85
63 0.08 600 80
105 0.07 1150 75

GPSA Notes:
1. K = 0.107 at a gauge pressure of 7 bar. Subtract 0.003 for every 7 bar above a gauge pressure of 7 bar.
2. For glycol or amine solutions, multiply above K values by 0.6 - 0.8.
3. For compressor suction scrubbers and expander inlet separators, multiply K by 0.7 - 0.8.
3. Additional resource for retention times from gas Conditioning and Processing, Volume2.
Natural gas-oil 1 to 3 minutes
Lean oil surge tanks 10 to 15 minutes
Fractionation feed surge tanks 8 to 15 minutes
Refrigerant surge tanks 4 to 7 minutes
Refrigerant econonomizers 2 to 3 minutes
4. As per GPSA, typical horizontal L/D ratios are normally in the 2.5 to 5 range.
INDEX
12J

1
Typical K factor
range, ft/s
0.4 to 0.5
0.4 to 0.5 x (L/10)0.56

Retention time,
minutes (Typical)

1
1 to 2
2 to 4

wire mesh mist extractor. This


Three Phase (Gas - Oil - Water) Horizontal Separator: As per API 12J
INPUT PARAMETERS
Qg 8 mmscfd Gas rate SCHEMATIC
Qo 8000 bbl/d Oil rate
Qw 3000 bbl/d Water rate

Yellow boxes are input boxes.


0.70 Gas specific gravity
'o 40 oAPI Oil density
o 0.83 Oil specific gravity
P 250 psia Operating pressure
T' 60 oF Operating temperature
T 520 o
R Operating temperature
MW 20.3 lb/lbmole Molecular weight
H 18 ft Shell height (assume)
to 5 minutes Oil retention time (Refer Table 2)
tw 5 minutes Water retention time (Refer Table 2)
Z 0.84 Gas compressibility
g 0.013 cP Gas viscosity
K 0.35 ft/s Refer Table 1
NLL 50% Normal liquid level (assume)

CALCULATIONS EQUATIONS TABLES


Step 1: Determine gas and oil properties
g 1.1 lb/ft3 Gas operating density Table 1

o 51.5 lb/ft3 Oil operating density Height, ft

5
Souders-Brown equation
Step 2: 10
Va 2.4 ft/s
Qg,a 4.58 ft3/s Actual volume flow of gas Table 2

Ag,min 1.92 ft2 Minimum gas flow area Oil Gravities

Dmin 19 in Assume Above 35 oAPI


Next larger (than Dmin) and
Dselected 96 in Below 35 oAPI
appropriate size
H 18 ft Shell height 100+ oF
H/D 2.3 unitless Refer Note 4 80+ oF
60+ oF
Step 3:

V 81 bbl Liquid volume (excluding bottom head)

Liquid capacity of separator should be Manipulate NLL, D and H to


W 11602 bpd
more than 11000 bpd (input value) get appropriate W.

NOTES
1. The maximum allowable superficial velocity calculated from the above factors is for separators normally having a wire mesh mist extract
rate should allow all liquid droplets larger than 10 microns to settle out of gas.
2. Additional resource for K factor from GPSA Engineering Data Book:
Pressure, barg K factor, m/s Adjustment of K factor for pressure
0 0.11 Pressure, psig % of Design value
7 0.11 Atm. 100
21 0.10 150 90
42 0.09 300 85
63 0.08 600 80
105 0.07 1150 75

GPSA Notes:
1. K = 0.107 at a gauge pressure of 7 bar. Subtract 0.003 for every 7 bar above a gauge pressure of 7 bar.
2. For glycol or amine solutions, multiply above K values by 0.6 - 0.8
3. Typically use one-half of the above K values for approximate sizing of vertical separators without mesh pads
4. For compressor suction scrubbers and expander inlet separators, multiply K by 0.7 - 0.8
3. Additional resource for retention times from gas Conditioning and Processing, Volume2.
Natural gas-oil 1 to 3 minutes
Lean oil surge tanks 10 to 15 minutes
Fractionation feed surge tanks 8 to 15 minutes
Refrigerant surge tanks 4 to 7 minutes
Refrigerant econonomizers 2 to 3 minutes
4. As per GPSA, typical horizontal H/D ratios are normally in the 2 to 4 range.
INDEX
r API 12J

1
Typical K factor
range, ft/s
0.12 to 0.24
0.18 to 0.35

Retention time,
minutes (Typical)

3 to 5

5 to 10
10 to 20
20 to 30

wire mesh mist extractor. This


Three Phase (Gas - Oil) Horizontal Separator: As per API 12J
INPUT PARAMETERS
Qg 8 mmscfd Gas rate SCHEMATIC
Qo 8000 bbl/d Oil rate
Qw 3000 bbl/d Water rate

Yellow boxes are input boxes.


0.70 Gas specific gravity
'o 40 oAPI Oil density
o 0.83 Oil specific gravity
P 250 psia Operating pressure
T' 60 oF Operating temperature
T 520 o
R Operating temperature
MW 20.3 lb/lbmole Molecular weight
L 18 ft Shell Length (assume)
to 5 minutes Oil retention time (Refer Table 2)
tw 5 minutes Water retention time (Refer Table 2)
Z 0.84 Gas compressibility
g 0.013 cP Gas viscosity
K 0.35 ft/s Refer Table 1
NLL 50% Normal liquid level (assume)

CALCULATIONS EQUATIONS TABLES


Step 1: Determine gas and oil properties
g 1.1 lb/ft3 Gas operating density Table 1

o 51.5 lb/ft3 Oil operating density Length, ft

10
Souders-Brown equation
Step 2: Other Lengths
Va 2.388 ft/s
Qg,a 4.58 ft3/s Actual volume flow of gas Table 2

Ag,min 1.92 ft2 Minimum gas flow area Oil Gravities

Dmin 2.4 in Assume Above 35 oAPI


Ag,min 1.92 ft2 Below 35 oAPI
Error 0.00 100+ oF
Next larger (than Dmin) and
Dselected 78 in 80+ oF
appropriate size
L 18 ft Shell length 60+ oF
L/D 2.8 unitless Refer Note 4

Step 3:

V 77 bbl Liquid volume (excluding bottom head)

Liquid capacity of separator should be


W 11036 bpd Manipulate NLL, D and L to
more than 11000 bpd (input value) get appropriate W.

NOTES
1. The maximum allowable superficial velocity calculated from the above factors is for separators normally having a wire mesh mist extract
rate should allow all liquid droplets larger than 10 microns to settle out of gas.
2. Additional resource for K factor from GPSA Engineering Data Book:
Pressure, barg K factor, m/s Adjustment of K factor for pressure
0 0.11 Pressure, psig % of Design value
7 0.11 Atm. 100
21 0.10 150 90
42 0.09 300 85
63 0.08 600 80
105 0.07 1150 75

GPSA Notes:
1. K = 0.107 at a gauge pressure of 7 bar. Subtract 0.003 for every 7 bar above a gauge pressure of 7 bar.
2. For glycol or amine solutions, multiply above K values by 0.6 - 0.8
3. For compressor suction scrubbers and expander inlet separators, multiply K by 0.7 - 0.8
3. Additional resource for retention times from gas Conditioning and Processing, Volume2.
Natural gas-oil 1 to 3 minutes
Lean oil surge tanks 10 to 15 minutes
Fractionation feed surge tanks 8 to 15 minutes
Refrigerant surge tanks 4 to 7 minutes
Refrigerant econonomizers 2 to 3 minutes
4. As per GPSA, typical horizontal L/D ratios are normally in the 2.5 to 5 range.
INDEX
PI 12J

1
Typical K factor
range, ft/s
0.4 to 0.5
0.4 to 0.5 x (L/10)0.56

2
Retention time,
minutes (Typical)
3 to 5

5 to 10

10 to 20

20 to 30

a wire mesh mist extractor. This


Two Phase (Gas - Oil) Vertical Separator: As per "Petro
Processing - Hussein K. Abdel-Aal, Mohamed Aggo
INPUT PARAMETERS
Qg 15 mmscfd Gas rate
Qo 3000 bbl/d Oil rate
0.6 Gas specific gravity
'o 35.0 oAPI Oil density
o 0.85 Oil specific gravity
P 985 psia Operating pressure
T' 60 oF Operating temperature
T 520 oR Operating temperature
t 3 minutes Retention time (Refer Table 1)
Z 0.84 Gas compressibility
g 0.013 cP Gas viscosity
dm 100 Micron Smallest oil droplet size to be removed

CALCULATIONS
Step 1: Determine gas and oil properties
g 3.7 lb/ft3 Gas operating density
o 53.0 lb/ft3 Oil operating density

Step 2: Determine Cd
Cd 1.13 Assume Drag coefficient
u 0.41 ft/s Settling velocity of oil droplet
Re 56 Reynolds no.
Cd 1.16
Use goal seek to get error zero, by changing
Click me
Error 0.00 asssumed Cd

Step 3: Check for gas capacity constraint


D2 974 in2
Minimum allowable vessel diameter for separation
Dmin 31.2 in of oil droplets down to 100 micron

Step 4: Check for liquid capacity constraint


DH 2
77085

H = Height of oil column


Try different combinations of D.
TABLE 1
H = Height of oil column

D, in H, in Ls, ft SR
30 85.7 13.5 5.4
36 59.5 11.3 3.8
42 43.7 10.5 3.0
48 33.5 10.1 2.5
54 26.4 10.0 2.2
60 21.4 10.1 2.0
66 17.7 10.3 1.9
72 14.9 10.6 1.8
78 12.7 10.9 1.7
84 10.9 11.2 1.6
90 9.5 11.6 1.6

Ls 11.3 ft Seam to seam length (select from Table 1)


SR 3.8 Slenderness ratio (typical value 3 to 4) (select from Table 1)
D 36.0 in Separator diameter (select from Table 1)

NOTES
1. As per GPSA, typical vertical H/D ratios are normally in the 2 to 4 range.
INDEX
As per "Petroleum and Gas Field
hamed Aggour, M. A. Fahim"

SCHEMATIC
Yellow boxes are input
boxes.

EQUATIONS
TABLE 2 (Ref. API 12J)
Retention time,
Oil Gravities
minutes (Typical)
Above 35 oAPI 1
20 to 30 oAPI 1 to 2
10 to 20 oAPI 2 to 4

e 1)
ect from Table 1)
1)
Two Phase (Gas - Oil) Horizontal Separator: As per "Petroleum and Gas Field Process
- Hussein K. Abdel-Aal, Mohamed Aggour, M. A. Fahim"
INPUT PARAMETERS
Qg 15 mmscfd Gas rate SCHEMATIC

Yellow boxes are input boxes.


Qo 3000 bbl/d Oil rate
0.6 Gas specific gravity
'o 35.0 oAPI Oil density
o 0.85 Oil specific gravity
P 985 psia Operating pressure
T' 60 oF Operating temperature
T 520 oR Operating temperature
t 3 minutes Retention time (Refer Table 2)
Z 0.84 Gas compressibility
g 0.013 cP Gas viscosity
dm 100 Micron Smallest oil droplet size to be removed
NLL 50% Normal Liquid Level

CALCULATIONS EQUATIONS
Step 1: Determine gas and oil properties
g 3.7 lb/ft3 Gas operating density
o 53.0 lb/ft3 Oil operating density

Step 2: Determine Cd
Cd 1.2 Assume Drag coefficient
u 0.40 ft/s Settling velocity of oil droplet
Re 55 Reynolds no.
Cd 1.19
Use goal seek to get error zero, by changing
Click
Click me
me
Error 0.00 asssumed Cd

Step 3: Check for gas capacity constraint


LD 83 in.ft

Step 4: Check for liquid capacity constraint


D2L 12852 in2.ft

Try different combinations of D.


TABLE 1
SR = 12
Ls, ft Governing ls (oil or
D, in Lg, ft (gas) Lo, ft Ls, ft (oil) case gas)/D
Liquid
6 13.85 14.35 357.00 476.0 Capacity 952.00
Liquid
12 6.93 7.93 89.25 119.0 Capacity 119.00
Liquid
TABLE 2 (Ref. API 12J)
24 3.46 5.46 22.31 29.8 Capacity 14.88
Liquid
Oil Gravities
30 2.77 5.27 14.28 19.0 Capacity 7.62
Liquid
Above 35 oAPI
36 2.31 5.31 9.92 12.4 Capacity 4.14
Liquid
20 to 30 oAPI
42 1.98 5.48 7.29 9.8 Capacity 2.80
Liquid
10 to 20 oAPI
48 1.73 5.73 5.58 8.1 Capacity 2.02
Liquid
54 1.54 6.04 4.41 6.9 Capacity 1.53
Gas
60 1.39 6.39 3.57 6.1 capacity 1.28
Gas
66 1.26 6.76 2.95 5.5 capacity 1.23
Gas
72 1.15 7.15 2.48 5.0 capacity 1.19

Ls 12.4 ft Seam to seam length (select from Table 1)


SR 4.1 Slenderness ratio (typical value 3 to 5) (select from Table 1)
D 36 in Separator diameter (select from Table 1)

NOTES
1. As per GPSA, typical horizontal L/D ratios are normally in the 2.5 to 5 range.
2. If D>30", Ls = 2.5 + Lo;
Else, Ls = (4/3)*Lo
Ref. http://process-designs.com/separators_and_scrubbers/separators_and_scrubbers.jsp
INDEX
as Field Processing
m"

I 12J)

Retention time,
minutes (Typical)

1 to 2

2 to 4
Three Phase (Gas - Oil - Water) Vertical Separator: As per "Petroleum and Gas Fi
Processing - Hussein K. Abdel-Aal, Mohamed Aggour, M. A. Fahim"
INPUT PARAMETERS
Qg 8 mmscfd Gas rate SCHEMATIC
Qo 8000 bbl/d Oil rate
Qw 3000 bbl/d Water rate

Yellow boxes are input boxes.


'o 27.6 oAPI Oil density
o 0.89 Oil specific gravity
o 20 cP Oil viscosity
w 1.04 Water specific gravity
0.65 Gas specific gravity
Z 0.89 Gas compressibility
P 250 psia Operating pressure
T' 95 oF Operating temperature
T 555 oR Operating temperature
tw 10 minutes Water retention time (Refer Table 2)
to 15 minutes Oil retention time (Refer Table 2)
g 0.013 cP Gas viscosity
dm,w 500 Micron Smallest water droplet size to be removed
dm,o 100 Micron Smallest oil droplet size to be removed

CALCULATIONS EQUATIONS
Step 1: Determine gas and oil properties
g 0.89 lb/ft3 Gas operating density
o 55.5 lb/ft3 Oil operating density

Step 2: Determine Cd
Cd 2.07 Assume Drag coefficient
u 0.65 ft/s Settling velocity of oil droplet
Re 22 Reynolds no.
Cd 2.09
Use goal seek to get error zero, by changing
Error 0.00 Click me asssumed Cd

Step 3: Determine minimum diameter for water droplet settling


D2min 28428 in2
Dmin 168.6 in

Step 4: Check for gas capacity constraint


D2min 1475 in2
Dmin 38.4 in

Dmin 168.6 in Larger of Step 2 and 3 values

Step 5: Check for liquid capacity constraint


D2(Ho + Hw) 1286400 in3

Try different combinations of D.


TABLE 1 TABLE 2 (Ref. API 12J)
SR = 12 Ls Retention time, mi
Oil Gravities
D, in Ho + Hw, in Ls, ft /D (Typical)
16 5025 425.1 318.8 Above 35 oAPI 3 to 5
20 3216 274.3 164.6 Below 35 oAPI
24 2233 192.4 96.2 100+ oF 5 to 10
30 1429 125.4 50.2 80+ oF 10 to 20
36 993 89.0 29.7 60+ oF 20 to 30
42 729 67.6 19.3
48 558 53.9 13.5
54 441 44.6 9.9
60 357 38.1 7.6
120 89 20.8 2.1
132 74 20.5 1.9

Ls 20.8 ft Seam to seam length (select from table 1)


SR 2.1 Slenderness ratio (typical value 1.5 to 3) (select from Table 1)
D 120.0 in Separator diameter (select from Table 1)
Qg 86 mmscfd Calculated gas capacity for selected L & D (Should be more than 8 MMSCFD - input value)

NOTES
1. As per GPSA, typical vertical H/D ratios are normally in the 2 to 4 range.
INDEX
m and Gas Field
Fahim"

etention time, minutes


Typical)
to 5

to 10
0 to 20
0 to 30
t value)
Three Phase (Gas - Oil - Water) Horizontal Separator: As per "Petroleum and Gas Fie
Hussein K. Abdel-Aal, Mohamed Aggour, M. A. Fahim"

INPUT PARAMETERS
Qg 8 mmscfd Gas rate
Qo 8000 bbl/d Oil rate
Qw 3000 bbl/d Water rate

Yellow boxes are input boxes.


'o 27.5 APIo
Oil density
o 0.89 Oil specific gravity
o 20 cP Oil viscosity
w 1.04 Water specific gravity
0.65 Gas specific gravity
Z 0.89 Gas compressibility
P 250 psia Operating pressure
T' 95 oF Operating temperature
T 555 o
R Operating temperature
tw 10 minutes Water retention time (Refer Table 2)
to 15 minutes Oil retention time (Refer Table 2)
g 0.013 cP Gas viscosity
dm,w 500 Micron Smallest water droplet size to be removed
dm,o 100 Micron Smallest oil droplet size to be removed
NLL 50% Normal liquid level due to oil and water

CALCULATIONS EQUATIONS
Step 1: Determine gas and oil properties
g 0.89 lb/ft3 Gas operating density
o 55.5 lb/ft3 Oil operating density

Step 2: Determine Cd
Cd 2.07 Assume Drag coefficient
u 0.65 ft/s Settling velocity of oil droplet
Re 22 Reynolds no.
Cd 2.09
Error 0.00 Click me Use goal seek to get error zero, by changing asssumed C d

Step 3: Determine minimum diameter for water droplet settling


Ho,max 36.0 in
Aw / A 0.10 Ao + Aw = NLL * A
Ho / D 0.315 Assume
Aw / A 0.13
Error 0.00 Click me Use goal seek to get error zero, by changing asssumed H o/D
Dmax 114 in Maximum allowable vessel diameter

Step 4: Check for gas capacity constraint


DL 122 in.ft

Step 4: Check for liquid capacity constraint


D2L 214350 in2ft

Try different combinations of D (smaller than D max).


TABLE 1
Ls (gas)= L
Ls (liquid)= 4 L/3, Governing
ft SR = L /
D, in L (gas), ft + D/12, L, ft
case (D/12)
ft
Liquid
12 10.2 11.2 1488.5 1984.7 TABLE 2 (Ref. API 12J)
Capacity 1984.7
Liquid
24 5.1 7.1 372.1 496.2 Oil Gravities
Capacity 248.1
Liquid
30 4.1 6.6 238.2 317.6 Above 35 oAPI
Capacity 127.0
Liquid
36 3.4 6.4 165.4 220.5 Below 35 oAPI
Capacity 73.5
Liquid
66 1.9 7.4 49.2 65.6 100+ oF
Capacity 11.9
Liquid
72 1.7 7.7 41.3 55.1 80+ oF
Capacity 9.2
Liquid
78 1.6 8.1 35.2 47.0 60+ oF
Capacity 7.2
Liquid
84 1.5 8.5 30.4 40.5
Capacity 5.8
Liquid
90 1.4 8.9 26.5 35.3
Capacity 4.7
Liquid
96 1.3 9.3 23.3 31.0
Capacity 3.9
Liquid
102 1.2 9.7 20.6 27.5
Capacity 3.2

Ls 35.3 ft Seam to seam length (select from Table 1)


SR 4.7 Slenderness ratio (typical value 3 to 5) (select from Table 1)
D 90.0 in Separator diameter (select from Table 1)
Effective length of
L 26.5 ft
the separator
Qg 156 mmscfd Calculated gas capacity for selected L & D (Should be more than 8 MMSCFD - input value)

NOTES
1. As per GPSA, typical horizontal L/D ratios are normally in the 2.5 to 5 range.
INDEX
oleum and Gas Field Processing -
A. Fahim"

SCHEMATIC

QUATIONS

ABLE 2 (Ref. API 12J)

Retention time, minutes


Oil Gravities
(Typical)

Above 35 oAPI 3 to 5

Below 35 oAPI

100+ oF 5 to 10

80+ oF 10 to 20
60+ oF 20 to 30

FD - input value)