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You are on page 1of 8

2. Modeling of DC Motor

pendulum

The most common device used as an

arm

motor. For example, the control of a rotary

DC motor

drive the arm and the pendulum as shown in

Figure 2-1

Figure 2-1.

Ra La

ia(t) +

vs(t)

+ vb(t) TL(t)

TM(t)

Figure2-2

dia t

Ra ia t La vb t v s t (2-1)

dt

where ia(t) is the armature current, vb(t) is the back emf voltage and vs(t) is the voltage

source. The back emf voltage vb(t) is proportional to the angular velocity (t) of the

vb t k b t (2-2)

where k b is the back emf constant. In addition, the motor generates a torque TM

2-1

NCTU Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 2015 Spring Course

<Dynamic System Simulation and Implementationon> by Prof. Yon-Ping Chen

TM t kT ia t (2-3)

If the input voltage vs(t)=Vs is a constant, the resulted armature current ia(t)=Ia,

angular velocity (t)= and torque TM(t)=T are also constant in the steady state. From

Ra I a k b Vs (2-4)

T kT I a (2-5)

Under the conservation of power, we know that the input power IaVs is equal to the

Vs I a T Ra I a2 (2-6)

T kb I a (2-7)

From (2-5) and (2-7), we know that both kT and k b are the same. From (2-2), we can

dia t

Ra ia t La k t v s t (2-8)

dt

TM t kia t (2-9)

d t

JM t BM t TM t TL t (2-10)

dt

where JM is the rotor moment of inertia and BM is the frictional coefficient.

Based on (2-8), (2-9) and (2-10), the dynamic equation of the DC motor can be

expressed as

dia t

La Ra ia t k t v s t (2-11)

dt

2-2

NCTU Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 2015 Spring Course

<Dynamic System Simulation and Implementationon> by Prof. Yon-Ping Chen

d t

JM t BM t kia t TL t (2-12)

dt

Note that the electrical time constant La/Ra is often neglected since it is at least one

order in magnitude smaller than the mechanical time constant JM/BM. In other words,

dia t

by neglecting the term , (2-11) becomes

dt

ia t v s t t

1 k

(2-13)

Ra Ra

d t BM k2

t t

1

TL t

k

v s t (2-14)

dt J M J M Ra JM J M Ra

Clearly, the motor will encounter two external sources, the input voltage vs(t) to drive

the motor and the torque TL(t) reacted from the payload.

Now, based on the above analysis, lets discuss the model of a DC motor in

First, lets consider the case which requires the DC motor to move in a constant

y(t)=(t) (2-15)

From (2-11) and (2-12) and choosing the state variables as x1(t)=ia(t) and x2(t)=(t),

we have

Ra x1 t La x1 t kx2 t vs t (2-16)

J M x 2 t BM x2 t kx1 t TL t (2-17)

Ra

x1 t x1 t x2 t v s t

k 1

(2-18)

La La La

B

x 2 t x1 t M x2 t TL t

k 1

(2-19)

JM JM JM

and the output equation

2-3

NCTU Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 2015 Spring Course

<Dynamic System Simulation and Implementationon> by Prof. Yon-Ping Chen

x t v t

where the state vector is x t 1 , the input vector is ut s , and the

x 2 t TL t

Ra k 1

L L 0

and c 0 1 . Note

La

system matrices are A a , B a

k BM 0 1

J M JM J M

1 L 0

where u1(t)=vs(t), u2(t)=TL(t), b1 a and b2 . If the motor is

0 1 J M

operated without any payload TL(t), i.e., u2(t)=TL(t)=0, then the state equation (2-23)

can be rewritten as

1 L

where the input is u(t)= vs(t) and the input matrix is b a .

0

If the goal of control is to drive the DC motor to a desired angle, not a speed,

t

include the angulr possition, we often change the integral form t d into

t

t t (2-25)

and choose the new state variable x3(t)=(t). As a result, the total system is changed

2-4

NCTU Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 2015 Spring Course

<Dynamic System Simulation and Implementationon> by Prof. Yon-Ping Chen

Ra

x1 t x1 t x2 t v s t

k 1

(2-26)

La La La

B

x 2 t x1 t M x2 t TL t

k 1

(2-27)

JM JM JM

x3 t x2 t (2-28)

where

x1 t

v t

x t x 2 t , ut s ,

x3 t TL t

R a La k La 0 1 La 0

A k J M BM J M 0 , B 0 1 J M , c 0 0 1 .

0 1 0 0 0

Similarly, without any payload TL(t), the state equation (2-30) can be expressed as

T

1

where the input is u(t)= vs(t) and the input matrix is b 0 0 .

La

kb=0.05 V/(rad/s) and BM=1.010 N-m/(rad/s). Without any payload TL(t), the motor

2-5

NCTU Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 2015 Spring Course

<Dynamic System Simulation and Implementationon> by Prof. Yon-Ping Chen

x t 200 0.40 0 x 2 t 0 u t (2-33)

2

x 3 t 0 0 x3 t 0

1

x t A x t b

where x1(t)=ia(t), x2(t)=(t), x3(t)=(t) and u(t)=vs(t). If the output is x3(t)=(t), then

x1 t

y t 0 0 1 x 2 t (2-34)

c x3 t

Based on (2-33) and (2-34), lets find the input-output description of the DC motor.

First, lets determine the characteristic polynomial of the DC motor from (2-33),

which is obtained as

s 333.33 33.33 0

sI A 200 s 0.40 0 s 3 333.73s 2 6799.33s (2-35)

0 1 s

yt 333.73 yt 6799.33 y t

(2-37)

c A3 333.73 A 2 6799.33 A x cA 2 bu t

we have the input-output description as below:

Y s

H s

133334

3 (2-39)

U s s 333.73s 2 6799.33s

Moreover, it can be further decomposed as

H s

133334

(2-40)

ss 21.80s 311.93

which implies the pole at s311.93 can be omitted since it is much faster than the

pole at s21.80. In other words, the transfer function H(s) can be approximated by a

2-6

NCTU Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 2015 Spring Course

<Dynamic System Simulation and Implementationon> by Prof. Yon-Ping Chen

H a s (2-41)

ss s s

2

where is near to 21.80. There are several methods to obtain the approximate transfer

function Ha(s). One of the simplest one is to determine Ha(s) under the condition that

H j

1, for 0 (2-42)

H a j

which leads to

H j H s H s

2

1, for 0 (2-43)

H a j

2

H a s H a s s j

H s

19.610

(2-44)

s 1 0.0491s 0.0001471s 2

H a s

19.610

(2-45)

s1 s

Hecnce, we have

H s H s

H a s H a s

1 s 1 s

1 0.0491s 0.0001471s 1 0.0491s 0.0001471s

2 2

(2-46)

1 2s2

1 0.0021s 2 2.1638 10 -8 s 4

1

2 0.0021 s 2 2.1638 10 -8 s 4

1 0.0021s 2 2.1638 10 -8 s 4

H s H s

Clearly, between and 1, there exists an error

H a s H a s

E s

2 0.0021 s 2 2.1638 10 -8 s 4

(2-47)

1 0.0021s 2 2.1638 10 -8 s 4

which is minimized when 2 0.0021 0 or 0.0458 . From (2-45), the

2-7

NCTU Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 2015 Spring Course

<Dynamic System Simulation and Implementationon> by Prof. Yon-Ping Chen

H a s

19.610 428.17

(2-48)

s1 0.0458s ss 21.83

which implies =21.83 near to 21.80 and =428.17 as shown in (2-41).

The other one is just neglect the state variable x1(t)=ia(t) since the convergence

rate of ia(t) is much faster than that of angular velocity x2(t)=(t). From (2-33), we

x t 200 0.40 0 x 2 t 0 u t (2-49)

2

x 3 t 0 1 0 x3 t 0

or

x3 t x2 t (2-52)

Y s

H a s

400

(2-57)

U s ss 20.4

which is approximate to the one derived in (2-48).

2-8

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