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z

Extracts from BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 Eurocode 3: b

Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules

tf

and rules for buildings

r

Table 3.1 Nominal yield and ultimate tensile strengths.

c = cw

Grade Nominal thickness

h

y y hw

d

t ≤ 40 mm 40 < t ≤ 100 mm

tw

2 2 2 2

fy (N/mm ) fu (N/mm ) fy (N/mm ) fu (N/mm )

S235 235 360 215 360 tf

**S275 275 430 255 410 c = cf
**

z

S355 355 510 335 470

Note: NA will recommend taking strengths from product standard. Figure E.1 Notation and axes.

Modulus of elasticity E = 210 GPa, and shear modulus G = E/2(1+ν). Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.3. Linear

coefficient of thermal expansion α = 12x10 /K.

-6

**Table 3.1 (Part 1-8) Nominal values of yield strength (fyb)
**

and ultimate tensile strength (fub) for bolt. UK NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005

Bolt grade 4.6 8.8 10.9 Resistance of cross-section γM0 = 1.00

Resistance of members to buckling γM1 = 1.00

2

fyb (N/mm ) 240 640 900

2

fub (N/mm ) 400 800 1000 Resistance of cross-section in tension to fracture

γM2 = 1.10 (Part 1-1) (and 1.25 (Part 1-8))

NA. 2.23 Clause 7.2.1(B) Vertical deflections and Clause 7.2.2(B) Horizontal deflections

Vertical deflections of beams

Cantilevers Length/180

Beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish Span/360

Other beams (except purlins and sheeting rails) Span/200

Purlins and sheeting rails To suit the characteristics of the

particular cladding

Horizontal deflections of beams

Tops of columns in single storey buildings, except portal frame Height/300

Columns in portal frame buildings, not supporting crane runways To suit the characteristics of the

particular cladding

In each storey of a building with more than one storey Height of that storey/300

Note: Circumstances may arise where greater or lesser values would be more appropriate.

**Warwick University, School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3, 1-5 & 1-8. AccessSteel
**

http://www.access-stel.com/ and NCCI. J. T. Mottram and T.M. Chan January 2010

81 (fy = 355 N/mm2) 2 N/mm ) Notes: For a web of a UKB (UB) or UKC (UC) section t is tw and c is the web dimension cw shown in Figure E.92 (fy = 275 ε = 0. School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3.1. ψ is the ratio of the end stresses (σ1/σ2).com/ and NCCI.M.1) When α ≤ 0.Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures 2 5.67 + 0.5 Classification of Cross-Sections Table 5-2 Maximum width-to-thickness ratios for compression parts Internal compression parts Part subject to Part subject to Part subjected to bending and Class bending compression compression (α is portion of c in compression) Stress fy fy fy distribution in +ve parts +ve c +ve αc c (compression -ve -ve -ve is +ve) fy fy fy 1 c/t ≤ 72ε c/t ≤ 33ε When α > 0.access-stel.2 contd.ψ)√(-ψ) ε = √(235/fy) ε = 1 (fy = 235 /mm2) ε = 0. Mottram and T. Table 5.5: c/t ≤ 396ε/(13α . J. Chan January 2010 . (pure compression (ψ = 1. T.5: c/t ≤ 36ε/α 2 c/t ≤ 83ε c/t ≤ 38ε When α > 0.5: c/t ≤ 41.5ε/α Stress fy fy fy distribution in +ve +ve parts c +ve c c (compression c/2 is +ve) -ve - fy ψ fy 3 c/t ≤ 124ε c/t ≤ 42ε When ψ > -1: c/t ≤ 42ε/(0. * ψ = − 1 .ψ ≤ -1 applies where either the compression stress σ < fy or the tensile Af y strain ε > fy/E.1) When α ≤ 0.5: c/t ≤ 456ε/(13α . AccessSteel http://www.0) is σ1 = σ2) & (pure bending (ψ = - 2 N Ed 1.0) is σ2 = -σ1). 1-5 & 1-8. Outstand flanges (with c = (b – tw –2r)/2) Part subject to Part subject to bending and compression Class compression Tip for compression Tip in tension Stress αc αc +ve distribution in +ve +ve parts c (compression is +ve) -ve -ve c c 1 c/t ≤ 9ε c/t ≤ 9ε/α c/t ≤ 9ε/(α√α) Warwick University.33ψ) When ψ ≤ -1*: c/t ≤ 62ε(1 .

85 ψ = σ2/σ1 (σ2 at outstand tip) 1 1>ψ>0 0 0 > ψ > -1 -1 0.Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures 3 2 c/t ≤ 10ε c/t ≤ 10ε/α c/t ≤ 10ε/(α√α) Stress +ve +ve +ve distribution in -ve -ve parts c (compression c c is +ve) 3 c/t ≤ 14ε c/t ≤ 21ε√kσ kσ is from Table 4.34) 1.2 Outstand compression elements (stress distribution has compression positive) ψ = σ2/σ1 (σ1 at outstand tip) 1 0 -1 1 ≥ ψ ≥ -3 0. for common case of UB and UC sections subjected to compression and major axis bending.578/(ψ + 0. J.57 – 0.81 (fy = 355 N/mm2) Notes: For UB and UC sections t is tf and c is the flange dimension cf shown in Figure E.M.com/ and NCCI.1ψ 2 Buckling factor kσ 0. AccessSteel http://www.21ψ + 0. Table 4.43 0. Use of this plastic stress distribution requires that the compression c 2 2 tw f y flange is at least Class 2.07ψ 2 Buckling factor kσ 0.70 23. 1-5 & 1-8. is. T.access-stel.57 0. Chan January 2010 .8 No equations for the design process are given herein for cross-sections of Class 4.92 (fy = 275 N/mm2) ε = 0. Mottram and T. given by 1h 1 N α = + Ed − (t f + r ) ≤ 1 . α.43 1. where the NA lies within the web.2 in Part 1-5 (given next) 2 ε = √(235/fy) ε = 1 (fy = 235 N/mm ) ε = 0. School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3.7 – 5ψ + 17.1. Warwick University. the ratio of the compressed width to the total width of an element.

6. 1-5 & 1-8. γ M2 γ M0 6. 6.5(4) Fastener holes in the tension flange may be ignored provided that for the flange 0. and where ρ = Ed − 1 and Aw = hwtw. 6. load parallel to the width is .com/ and NCCI.V.5Vpl. Rd = (Equ.Rd = ( Av f y / 3 ) (Equ.0.3 Tension – Design plastic resistance for the gross section is N pl. When VEd > 0.2. 6. Rd = pl.2(3) s2 b) t n d 0 − ∑ (Equ. M y.2. Chan January 2010 .4 Compression – Design compression resistance for Class 1.2 Resistance of cross-sections A fy 6. J. (Equs.6) and the γ M0 0.2. the spacing of the centres of 4 p two consecutive holes in the chain measured parallel to the member axis.22).2. where hw is depth of web (h – 2tf). Rd = ultimate resistance of the net cross section is Nu.2. n is the number of holes extending in any diagonal or zig-zag line progressively across the member or part of the member.2. 6.Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures 4 6.18). Mottram and T. t is the thickness. Ah for rolled rectangular hollow section of uniform thickness.5(2) about one axis . 6. 6. Rd = M pl. 6. the total area to be deducted for fasteners should be the greater of: a) the deduction for non-staggered holes given in 6.2.access-stel.Rd.Rd ≤ My. γ M0 6.Rd = (Equ. γ M0 2 2V which is from (6. AccessSteel http://www.7). load parallel to the web is = A − 2bt f + (t w + 2r )t f . p is the spacing of the centres of the same two holes measured perpendicular to the member axis. γ M0 6.In absence of shear the design moment resistance Wpl f y is M c. Rd = M el.30 and 6. T.2.3).2. Rd = (Equ.16). 6.Rd for an I section (with equal flanges) subjected to bending about the major axis the moment resistance the reduced design plastic (W − ρ Aw2 / 4t w ) f y resistance allowing for shear is given by.min f y sections M c.2.2.2(3) Provided γ M2 that the fastener holes are not staggered. School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3.2. 6.29) V pl.M.6 Shear – Design plastic shear resistance is Vpl.Rd (Equ. 6.c.5)).Rd = (Equ. (b + h ) 6.netfuu Af f y ≥ (Equ. 6.2.Rd Warwick University. A fy 6.6(6) Shear buckling resistance for unstiffened webs should be checked according to section 5 of BS hw ε EN1993-1-5:2005 if: > 72 (Equ.2.5 Bending moment: 6.2(4) Where the fastener holes are staggered. d0 is the diameter of hole.2. the conservative value for η is 1.9 Anet f u pl. but not < ηhwtw. BS EN1993-1-5:2005 recommends value of η = tw η 1.10).9 Anet f. y (but My.V.2.13) for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections. the total area to be deducted for fastener holes should be the maximum sum of the sectional areas of the holes in any cross-section perpendicular to the member axis. where shear area A : v γ M0 for a rolled I and H sections.8 Bending and Shear – If VEd is less than 50% of Vpl. 2 and 3 is N c.Rd (at same location) then NO reduction in design resistance moment is required.14). where Af is the area of the tension flange. where s is the staggered pitch. 6. For Class 3 cross- γ M0 Wel.

6. + + ≤ 1 (Equ.36) and n − a 2 for z-z bending is M N.34). where NRd.z. School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3. γ M0 1− n 6.Rd design cross-sectional resistances.38).25 N pl.9 Bending and Axial force – For a conservative approach the following simple linear interaction N Ed M y. J. 6.5.33) and N Ed ≤ (Equ. y. but a ≤ 0.Rd are the N Rd M y.9. z. 1-5 & 1-8. AccessSteel http://www. y.Rd A Warwick University.Rd ≤ M pl. N pl. y.Rd = M pl.1(4) For Class 1 and 2 doubly symmetrical I and H sections subjected to bending about a single principal axis and axial force a reduced plastic moment is NOT calculated: 0. y.5 a but M N. Mottram and T. Chan January 2010 . 6. T.access-stel.37).Rd and Mz. 1 − 0 .2.1(5) The reduced plastic moment of resistance for y-y bending is M N.Rd .2). 6. My.Rd M z. 6. γ M0 hw t w f y for minor (z-z) axis bending.Rd = M pl.5hw t w f y for major (y-y) axis bending. z.M. Ed formula can be used. z. (Equ. and M N. if N Ed ≤ (Equ. where n = and a = . Rd for n ≤ a (Equ. 6.35).Rd = M pl.com/ and NCCI. Rd = 1 − for n 1 − a N Ed A − 2 b tf > a (Equ.Rd . including any necessary reduction due to shear. 6.9.2.Ed M z. Rd (Equ. if N Ed ≤ 0.Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures 5 6.2. 6.

3150 0.1537 0.8504 0. For Class 1 to 3 cross-sections the non-dimensional slenderness for flexural A fy buckling is λ = .7961 0.1920 0.2 1.9701 0.0997 2.8430 0.0000 1.2345 0.1803 0.0994 0.9513 0.5732 0.6 0.1937 0.9 0.2 + λ 2 .1012 0.2521 0.9859 0.2577 0.7100 0.1 0. 6.5300 0.1766 2.13 0.3520 0.1404 0.9528 0.9775 0.1662 0.1399 2.2994 0.5797 0.49 0. Mottram and T.1234 0.1765 0.1425 0. where Φ = 0.6482 0.0 0.34 0.1639 0.9243 0.9235 0.5208 1.3953 0.21 0.4461 0.3422 0.7854 0. J.1467 0.com/ and NCCI.3079 0.5998 0.3055 1.5 0. 6.7253 0.1153 0.4781 0.0 0.3492 0.M. with Ncr the elastic critical buckling force for the relevant buckling mode N cr based on the gross properties of the cross-section.5352 0.7 0.2 0.9 0.1079 0.3385 1.1302 2.3 0.7339 0.2289 1.5960 0. Table 6.5053 0.6656 0.7793 0.9 0.1325 0.2229 0. Chan January 2010 .Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures 6 6.0000 1.1717 0.8477 0.1305 0.2702 0.1362 0.5 0.2141 0.1506 0.3A.3817 0.2093 1.2 0.1962 0.0 0.6431 0.3 Buckling Resistance of Members χ A fy For Class 1 to 3 cross-sections the design buckling resistance is N b.1779 0. γ M1 where χ is the reduction factor for the buckling mode (χ for flexural.7957 0.1515 0.8973 0.3762 1.8533 0.8 0.1132 0.1630 2.2833 0. and χT for torsional or torsional- flexural).2512 1.2842 0.2449 0.3145 0.1397 0.3 0.1628 0.4 0.8371 0.8 0.9261 0.1036 0.9641 0.1063 0.1920 2.5970 0. where α is an Φ + Φ −λ 2 2 imperfection factor.access-stel.8900 0.3888 0.0000 1.1062 2.4 0.0937 3. T.3.1299 0. Warwick University.1508 2.1267 0.8961 0.49).4179 0.3332 0.76 curve ao a b c d λ χ χ χ χ χ 0.4 0.2 Buckling curves χ= 1 [ ( ) ] but χ ≤ 1 (Equ.5 0.9276 0.2766 1.5399 0.8 0.6622 0.3 0.4338 0.0000 0.7247 0.6612 0.1105 0.0882 Note: Use linear interpolation for values of χ between 0.1060 0.2559 0. Rd = (Equ.1216 0.9491 0.1134 2.6 0.2781 0.1 0.1.7 0.3724 0.47).4842 0.0951 0.5 1 + α λ − 0. AccessSteel http://www.6 0.4269 0.2036 0. Buckling curves for χ (flexural) and χT (torsional or torsional-flexural) α (αLT) 0.2323 0. 6.2095 0.4671 1.1585 0.8842 0.4703 0. School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3.1867 0.1136 0.7 0.2294 0.1182 0.7837 0.1211 0.2117 0. 1-5 & 1-8.4189 1.7245 0.0000 1.1214 2.1 increments in λ .

where io2 = i y2 + i z2 when the io2 L2cr.2 and tf ≤ 40 mm y-y a z-z b h/b ≤ 1.T is the buckling length of the member for torsional buckling.com/ and NCCI. where Ncr = Ncr.3 To calculate λ we may use λ = . School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3.T.3.T shear centre and centroid of the gross cross-section coincide.1.3. T. 1-5 & 1-8.85L Restrained in directions at one end 0.7L position at both ends Partially restrained in direction at both ends 0.T . when the shear centre and centroid of the gross cross-section coincide.M. AccessSteel http://www. S275. 6. Lcr Effectively held in Not held in Effectively restrained in direction 1. N cr Elastic critical torsional-flexural buckling force is Ncr.access-stel.TF = N cr. for different end restraints.5L direction Not restrained in direction 2.9ε of flexural buckling.4 Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling A fy Non-dimensional slenderness λ T = (Equ. This mode of instability is relevant to centrally loaded channels where the centroid and shear centre do not coincide. S355 h/b > 1.0L Note: L is the system length and should be taken as the distance between the points of effective restraint on each axis.2 and tf ≤ 100 mm y-y b z-z c Hollow sections – Hot finished any a Cold-formed any c Lcr 1 6. J. Lcr.T = G IT + . 1 π 2E IW Elastic critical torsional buckling force is Ncr. Lcr Effectively held in Effectively restrained in direction at both ends 0.2L position and position restrained in Partially restrained in direction 1. and Lcr is the buckling length of the member in the plane under consideration and.85L Not restrained in direction at either end 1. Nominal buckling lengths Lcr in the buckling plane considered for compression members End restraint (in the plane under consideration) Buckling length.1.Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures 7 Selection of buckling curves for a rolled section (from Table 6. Warwick University. This approach corresponds to current UK practice.52). Lcr (or LE) is also referred to as the effective length 6.2) Limits Buckling about axis S235. Mottram and T. is given in the next table. consult [1] for appropriate formula. where i is the radius of gyration about the relevant axis i 93.0L One end Other end Buckling length.TF but Ncr < Ncr. Chan January 2010 .

T.2.3(2) To offer further enhancement in buckling resistance the reduction factor for ltb is modified by χ LT. For both cases the non-dimensional slenderness for ltb is λ LT = .3. Cross-section Limits Buckling curve Rolled I sections and hollow sections h/b ≤ 2 b 2.2.2.5 1 + α LT λ LT − λ LT.y for Class 1 or 2 cross-sections and Wel.5 1 + α LT λ LT − 0.57).2. Warwick University.mod ≤ 1(Equ.com/ and NCCI. Cross-section Limits Buckling curve Rolled I sections h/b ≤ 2 a h/b > 2 b Welded I sections h/b ≤ 2 c h/b > 2 d Others .0. AccessSteel http://www.0 = 0.0 + β λ LT 2 ] .3A. where Φ LT = 0.55).M. 1-5 & 1-8.4 and β = 0.2 and β = 1.access-stel. and λ LT. J.(2) Mcr is based on gross cross sectional properties and takes into account the loading conditions.2. To make the buckling curves for welded sections the same as the flexural buckling curves in Table 6. 6.2 + λ LT 2 . School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3.0 2 and the correction factor for moment distribution kc is from Table 6.3 If the beam is a hot-rolled section we have χ LT = . but χLT ≤ 1. 6.3.2. the real moment distribution and the lateral restraints. c and d given in Table 6.6E.5 (1 − k c ) 1 − 2.8 ) ]. d 1 6. but f ≤ 1.2 or 6. Lateral-torsional buckling curve for cross-sections using Equ. ) ] Φ LT + Φ 2 LT −λ 2 LT and αLT can be the imperfection factor for curves b.1 c h/b > 3/1* d Welded I sections (plate girders) h/b ≤ 2 c 2.3.Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures 8 6.3A we take λ LT. Chan January 2010 . 6.75 (from LT NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005). 6. 6. where the section modulus Wy is Wpl.3. mod = χ LT f [ ( .3.2 Uniform member in bending fy 6. 6. 6.3.0 λLT − 0.3.1* d Angles (for moments in the major principal plane) and . d other hot-rolled sections* Note: * is from NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 6.2(3) Design buckling resistance moment of a laterally unrestrained beam is M b. The reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling (ltb) χLT can be determined using Wy f y 6.3.3.56.2 General case: χ LT = 1 [ ( ≤ 1 (Equ.y for Class 3 cross-sections.2.0 = 0.56). γ M1 6. where M cr Mcr is the elastic critical moment for ltb. Lateral-torsional buckling curve for cross-sections using Equ.0 ≤ h/b > 3. but χLT. where f = 1 − 0.0 and χLT Φ LT + Φ LT 2 − β λ LT 2 ≤ 1 λ 2 [ ( ) (Equ. Mottram and T.0 < h/b ≤ 3. where Φ LT = 0. Rd = χ LT W y (Equ.58).57.

6E. Lcr Conditions of restraint at the ends of the beams Normal Destabilizing* Compression Both flanges fully restrained against rotation on plan 0.18 For buildings the recommended expression for f should be used in which kc is given by: 1 M for the actual bending moment diagram kc = where C1 = cr C1 M cr for a uniform bending moment diagram Values of C1 are given in Table C.94 0. beam Compression flange fully restrained against rotation 0.E.96L Compression flange partially restrained against 0. Mottram and T.2L + 2h flange laterally connection of bottom flange to supports unrestrained.2L Compression Restraint against torsion provided only by positive 1.2. Moment distribution kc Moment distribution kc Moment distribution kc 1.75L 0. T. J.4L + 2h rotate on plan bearing of bottom flange on supports Note: L is the system length and is length of the beam between its ends. * Exist when a load is applied to the compression flange of a beam or the tension flange of a cantilever and both the load and the flange are free to deflect laterally relative to the centroid of the beam. 1-5 & 1-8.90 0.com/ and NCCI.0L + 2h 1.Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures 9 Table 6.82 NA.M.85L 1. beam free to Restraint against torsion provided only by dead 1.9L fully restrained on plan against torsion Both flanges restrained against rotation on plan 0.0L 1.2L + 2h 1.0L rotation on plan Both flanges free to rotate on plan 1.0 -1 ≤ ψ ≤ 1 1.8L 0.91 0.85L flange laterally restrained.86 ψ=1 0.77 1 . Correction factors kc. Warwick University.33ψ 0.access-stel.7L 0.0 0. School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3. Nominal buckling lengths Lcr in the buckling plane considered for beam members in bending Buckling length. Chan January 2010 . AccessSteel http://www.33 − 0.

40ψ + 0.E. By way of the calculation of the value to Mcr. 1-5 & 1-8. Remember that Lcr = kL. k = kw = 1..75 2. Chan January 2010 . and with the standard conditions of restraint (i. Mottram and T.com/ and NCCI. AccessSteel http://www. Table C.5 for full fixity. and kw is a factor for the fixity of the end warping..e.5 for full fixity.5 π 2E Iz Iw L2cr G I T M cr = C1 + L2cr I π 2E Iz z where C1 is determined from Table C1.access-stel.e.752 ψ = -1 1. λ LT may be conservatively taken as S235 S275 S355 L L L λ LT = λ LT = λ LT = 104 i z 96 i z 85 i z Note: L here is the distance between points of restraint of the compression flange.132 0. the formula for a uniform doubly symmetrical cross-sections. loaded through the shear centre and subjected to uniform moment is 0. 2 M cr = C1 + 2 k w I z π E I z 2 Lcr where C1 is the factor depending on the type of moment distribution and support condition.. and varies from 1. School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3. C1 and C2 values for different loading and support conditions Loading and support conditions Bending moment diagram C1 C2 2. g is the correction factor for the increase resistance caused by increase curvature of the beam prior Iz to buckling ( g = 1/ 1 − ). C2 is a factor to account for the position of the load vertically with respect to the shear centre (i. For straight segments of hot-rolled doubly symmetrical I-sections with lateral restraint to the compression flange at both ends of the segment considered and with no destabilising loads.Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures 10 Methods to determine λ LT .0 for no fixity to 0. the centroid axis) and zg is the distance from the shear centre to the point of load application. under standard conditions of restraint at each end.E.927 M ψM ψ = -0. Removing the effects due to curvature and position of load application. Simplified method. T.454 Warwick University. I L2cr z π E Iz 2 A generalised loading and support condition formulae for Mcr is 0.5 to ψ = +1). J.70 (which is for ψ > -0.5 π 2 E I z k I w L2cr G I T 2 g + (C2 z g ) − C2 z g . and varies from 1. Iy k is a factor for the fixity of the end rotation about the minor z-z axis.0 for no fixity to 0.5 π 2E Iz Iw L2cr G I T M cr = + .88 − 1. The elastic critical moment for ltb of a beam of uniform symmetrical cross-section with equal flanges.52ψ 2 but C1 ≤ 2.M. not requiring calculation of Mcr.0) is 0. or for end moment loading from (ψ = Mmin/Mmax) C1 = 1. loaded through the shear centre at the level of the centroid axis.

J. 1-5 & 1-8.Rk = fyWi in (6.62) Class 1 2 3 Ai A A A Wy Wpl. for preliminary checks. need spreadsheet. and Mz.3. 6.Ed + k yy + k yz ≤ 1 (Equ.Rk M z. Cross-sections subjected to the combination of NEd. Not for hand calculation.0. Values of these factors may be obtained from Annex A (alternative method 1) or from Annex B (alternative method 2). For hand calculation. and Mz.3 Uniform members in bending and axial compression Members of sections with Class 1.Rk γ M1 γ M1 γ M1 Values for NRk = fyAi.z For members not susceptible to torsional deformation χLT would be χLT = 1.z Wel.Ed M z.554 1. School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3. 6.365 0. AccessSteel http://www. The preferred method for the UK is to be that given in Annex B.565 1.630 1. Warwick University.M.046 L L L L 6. T.Rk γ M1 γ M1 γ M1 N Ed M y.61) and (6.Ed + k zy + k zz ≤ 1 (Equ. 6.62) χ z N Rk χ LT M y.z Wpl. My. Ed method may be applied using + + ≤ 1 (Equ.2. which are subjected to combined bending and axial compression should satisfy N Ed M y.61) and χ y N Rk χ LT M y.2) N Rd M y.Ed M z. kzy and kzz have been derived from two alternative approaches.285 1. My.641 1. kyz.access-stel. Chan January 2010 . 6.Rk M z.Ed are the design values of the compression force and the maximum moments about the y-y and z-z axis along the member. Mottram and T.Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures 11 1.1(7) As a conservative approximate a linear summation of the utilisation ratios of each stress resultant may be used.y Wpl. Mi.Rd NEd. 2 and 3.Rd M z.com/ and NCCI. The interaction factors kyy.Ed this N Ed M y.y Wel.y Wz Wpl.Ed.Ed M z.Ed.

or 1.63.1 Table 3.25 or 1. the design resistance is given by Fb. d is nominal bolt diameter do is the hole diameter for a bolt. This resistance should only be used when bolts are used in holes with nominal clearance (2 mm for bolt sizes to M24).7 or 2. or 1.9 bolts may be designed as preloaded. gives the definitions to p1. for connections with more than one row of bolts. School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3. where As is tensile stress area of bolt and k2 γ M2 is 0.8 and 0.6.6 for class 8.com/ and NCCI.9. and e2 we have: p1 e1 e2 p2 e1 p in the direction of the load transfer.Ed Ft.2 Numerical values of partial factors relevant to connections Partial factor.Rd = .8 or 10. fu With reference to the figure that.4 Ft. α d = for end bolts and α d = 1 − 0. For shear. 1-5 & 1-8. where αb is the smallest of γ M2 f ub αd.5 for inner bolts. the design resistance of bearing type connections is given by α v f ub A Fv.4 lists the design rules for individual bolts subjected to shear and/or tension.25 γM3 or γM3. except for counter sunk bolts. the design resistance is Fb. Rd Warwick University. and is As where the shear plane passes γ M2 through the threaded portion of the bolt. d0 k 2 f ub As For tension. Chan January 2010 . αv = 0. k1α b f u d t For bearing.8 × − 1.5 where shear plane passes through the unthreaded portion of the bolt). k1 is the smaller of 2. where A is tensile stress area. Mottram and T. Ed For combined shear and tension the design resistance is given by + ≤ 1. J.Part 1- 8: Design of joint UK norm bolt is class 8.Rd 1.serv 1.0 . p2.25 for inner bolts.Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures 12 Extracts from BS EN 1993-1-8:2005 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures .8 and only appropriate classes 8. T. Rd = . 2.1 Note: NA to Part 1-8 (not published) to recommend national values. 3d 0 3d 0 and e2 perpendicular to the direction of load transfer. Rd = . where it is 0. γM Part 1-8 γM2 1. AccessSteel http://www.M. 3.4 × − 1.7 or 2.access-stel.0. or is the gross cross-section area A where the shear plane passes through the unthreaded portion of the bolt. e1.5 for class 10.5 for edge d0 p2 bolts.1 γM7 1.9 (but 0. Fv. Fv.

Cd is given by Fp. Chan January 2010 .7 f ub As 3. D. AccessSteel http://www. L. 1-5 & 1-8. The design bearing resistance for each bolt should be limited to 1. The minimum spacing is to be 2. γ M2 γ M0 3. the bolts should be provided with washers (hardened) under both head and nut.2do.3 states that for bolting the minimum end (e1) and edge distances (e2) should be 1.6.access-stel.9). γ M7 3. Rd = (Equ..2.’ Thomas Telford.Rd = 0.1(2) For preloaded bolts the design value of preload Fp. Mottram and T. T.2) γ M2 0. 3.5 f u d t Fb. and Nethercot. Cd = .com/ and NCCI. 2005.10). References [1] Gardner.10. 3.6.1. ‘Designers' guide to EN 1993-1-1: Eurocode 3: design of steel structures : general rules and rules for buildings.5(1) Table 3. For a bolt group subject to eccentric loading the design block shear tearing resistance is given by Veff. A.2 Block tearing For a symmetric bolt group subject to concentric loading the design block tearing resistance is given by Veff.1(10) In single lap joints with only one bolt row.5 f u Ant + (1 / 3 ) f y Anv (Equ. School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3.2do. where Ant is the net area subject to tension and γ M2 γ M0 Anv is the net area subject to shear. London.M.Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures 13 3.Rd = f u Ant + (1 / 3 ) f y Anv (Equ. Warwick University. 3. J.

0 M16 16 157 55.5 3 non-dim ensional slenderness λ λ Grade 8.5 398. Mottram and T.4 0.8 Bolt strengths Single bolt Hole diameter (d0) Tensile area (As) Shear capacity Double shear Tension capacity 2 (mm) (mm ) (kN) (kN) (kN) M12 14 84. This is not observed in all part to the Eurocodes.2 0.5 251.0 59.0 ao a Reduction factor χ 0.9 45.0 188. Chan January 2010 .5 1 1.2 1.9 299.7 M24 26 353 125.M.2 Notations in British Standards and Eurocodes Parameter BS EC3 Parameter BS EC3 Parameter BS EC3 Area of cross-section A A Axial force P N Yield stress py fy Width of a cross.5 2 2. AccessSteel http://www. B b Moment about Mx My Major-axis second Ix Iy section major axis moment of area Depth of a cross.1 174.0 0 0. T.access-stel. D h Shear force V V Polar second J IT section moment of area Flange thickness Elastic modulus T tf Z Wel Radius of gyration R i Web thickness Plastic modulus t tw S Wpl Warping constant H Iw Root radius Bending strength r r pb χLTfy Compression pc χfy (ltb) strength Note: Standard convention for the notation of variables is that the font is italic. d d Moment about My Mz Minor-axis second Iy Iz section minor axis moment of area Height of a cross. Warwick University.2 130. 1-5 & 1-8.6 c d 0. J.com/ and NCCI.Extracts from EC3 for Design of Steel Structures 14 Other useful information Buckling curves for flexural and tosional-flexural 1.8 b 0.7 M20 22 245 87.8 111.6 83.3 M30 33 561 199. School of Engineering BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 & parts 1-3.3 30.

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