PHYSICS

2002 National Qualifying Examination

SOLUTIONS
SECTION A Q1. Q2. Q3. Q4. Q5. Q6. Q7. Q8. Q9. Q10. Q11. Q12. Q13. Q14. Q15. Q16. Q17. Q18. Q19. Q20. D E E C A C D B D D A C A B E B B E C A 300,000/(400)2 A 25W incandescent bulb 1 GJ 10MJ is accelerating downwards Neither rise nor fall, just float where it is 50 cm 1.5 km They are all equally efficient. The kinetic energy of the gases is greater than the kinetic energy of the rocket Stays the same There is no effect on the spot 10 N/cm2 The slider will not undergo simple harmonic motion in the valley. The same as if the sphere were not there. The water forms a layer on the glass. The mercury floats. independent of R Copper is a better thermal conductor About the same

Explanations Q1. Gravitational force is proportional to the mass of the attracting body and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two bodies. At fixed voltage, power dissipated is inversely proportional to resistance. The highest resistance device dissipates the least power. Chemical energy put into the tank is the energy per volume multiplied by the volume. 3GJ/m3 x 0.33 m3 = 1 GJ. The energy required to force the hydrogen into the tank is the pressure mutliplied by the change in volume. This is the work done to move the piston back. W = 0.33 m3 x 30 MN/m2 = 10MJ. Acceleration of a body is always in the direction of the net force acting on the body. In this case, the net force is gravity acting downwards.

Q2.

Q3.

Q4.

Q5.

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Australian Science Olympiads

SOLUTIONS

2002 Physics NQE

Q6.

All bodies accelerate under gravity at the same rate. The bag, person, and elevator accelerate together. In the freely falling frame, the bag floats where it is. Wavelength equals speed of light divided by frequency. 3 x 108 /6x108 = 0.5 m 10% of thee screen corresponds to a delay of 5 microseconds. The extra path length is given by the delay multiplied by the speed of light. 3 x 108 x 5 x 10-6 = 1.5 x 103 metres. The total resistance is proportional to the length of the cable divided by the total cross sectional area. In this case the length and total cross sectional area of all three choices is the same and they are all equally efficient. The momentum of the rocket equals the momentum of the expelled gases. Kinetic energy is proportional to the square of the velocity and the kinetic energy of the gases exceeds that of the rocket. The volume of water is only half that of the oil. The only possibilities are A and E. The oil is less dense and must be higher in the tube. A is the only possibility. Although the speed of the sound as measured by the person is decreased by the wind, the wavelength also decreases and frequency remains the same. The same physics leads to a decrease in speed, a corresponding decrease in wavelength but unchanged frequency when a light beam enters a piece of glass with refractive index greater than 1. Rotating the glass slab will displace a ray horizontally downwards. The direction of a ray before and after the glass slide is unaffected. All parallel rays are focussed at the focal point of the lens according to ray optics, and there is no effect on the focussed spot. The net pressure is equal to the difference between the outside pressure and the inside pressure. If the inside pressure is negligible compared with the outside pressure, as it is in both cases here, the net pressure is to a very good approximation given by the outside pressure alone. As the outside pressure remains the same, the net pressure remains the same. There is no friction in the problem and the particle cannot dissipate any energy. If the particle enters with insufficient energy to climb the hill on the far side, it will turn around, and, after leaving the valley will propagate in the negative x direction at its initial speed. If it has sufficient kinetic energy to climb the hill on the far side, it will propagate in the positive x direction with a speed less than its initial value. In no case will it undergo simple harmonic motion in the valley. The inside surface of the conducting sphere has a total negative charge equal to that of the positively charged ball. As the conductor carries no net charge however, the outside surface must carry an equal and opposite charge. As the electric field in this problem depends only on the total net charge, the electric field with and without the sphere must be the same at all points greater than the outside radius of the conductor. Water is attracted to glass more strongly than it is to itself. At the edges of a glass of water, the surface bends upwards. Mercury is attracted to itself more strongly than it is to glass,

Q7. Q8.

Q9.

Q10.

Q11.

Q12.

Q13.

Q14.

Q15.

Q16.

Q17.

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Australian Science Olympiads

SOLUTIONS

2002 Physics NQE

and the meniscus bends down. In space, we would expect the glass sphere to attract the water and the water will coat the surface. The mercury on the other hand will be attracted to itself and form a floating sphere. Q18. The gravitational force and the force due to light pressure both decrease with the square of the distance from the Sun. If a ball of radius R floats, it must be neutrally buoyant and will float at any height above the sun. This is quite independent of the radius of the sphere. Both blocks are at room temperature, a temperature lower than that of the human body. When you touch a metal block, the block conducts heat away from your hand and the temperature of the surface of your hand decreases. The better the thermal conductor, the bigger the effect. The bouyant force on the balloon is equal to the mass of air displaced less the mass of gas That fills the balloon. As both the mass of helium and the mass of hydrogen are significantly less than the mean mass of the gases that make up air, the lifting force is about the same in both cases. As the density of air at atmospheric pressure and temperature is roughly 1kg/m3, this balloon could lift roughly 1 kg filled either with hydrogen or helium.

Q19.

Q20.

SECTION B Q21. First resolve the velocity into horizontal (Vx) and vertical (Vy) components. Vx = VcosA, Vy = VsinA The time of flight is determined by the initial height h and the vertical component of the velocity to be

t=

Vy g

+

Vy2 g
2

+2

h g

The horizontal distance covered is then ⎛ V sin A V 2 sin2 A h⎞ D = Vx t = V cos A⎜ + +2 ⎟ 2 ⎜ g g g⎟ ⎝ ⎠

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Australian Science Olympiads

SOLUTIONS

2002 Physics NQE

Q22. (a)

(b)

The bead will accelerate upwards and eventually come to rest at an equilibrium position where the upward force due to the electric field is equal and opposite to the downward force due to gravity. Depending on the magnitude of the frictional force, the bead may or may not oscillate as it approaches its equilibrium position above the triangle.

Q23. (a)
Constant Wind

At ground level rays are horizontal Downwind rays bend towards vertical

Upwind rays bend towards horizontal

(b)

Downwind rays bend downwards near the ground

Upwind rays bend towards vertical near the ground

(c)

In the diagram in part b, the upwind rays bend upwards away from the ground and is carried over the head of a nearby person. The sound seems to “disappears” in the upwind direction not because of absorption but rather because it tends to travels upwards. In the downwind direction, sound is bent downwards towards the person and seems to “disappear” at much greater distances from the bell.

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Australian Science Olympiads

SOLUTIONS

2002 Physics NQE

SECTION C

Q24. (a) If the acceleration due to circular motion of the slider at the top of the loop (the slowest point) exceeds the acceleration due to gravity, the slider will remain in contact with the loop.

(b)
h D

Conservation of energy gives us

1 2 1 2 mgh + mv = mvt + mgD 2 2
Where vt is the speed of the slider at the top of the loop. Solving for vt gives:

vt = 2g(h − D) + v 2
The minimum height of release for the slider to remain in contact occurs when the acceleration due to circular motion at the top of the loop is equal to the acceleration due to gravity.

2v2 t =g D
Substituting in the expression for vt gives:
hmin = 5D v 2 − 2g 4

(c)

Substituting D = 1 m, v = 2 m/s with g = 9.8 ms-2 in the expression obtained in part b and expressing the answer to 1 significant figure consistent with the data given yields hmin = 0.8 m. The radius of curvature of the squeezed loop is smaller at the top than that of the circular loop. For a fixed speed, the acceleration of the slider is greater and hmin is correspondingly smaller.

(d)

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