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Analysis of Glyphosate and AMPA in

Drinking Water with the Agilent 1200


Innity Series Online SPE Solution

Application Note
Environmental

Authors Abstract
Neil Cullum, This Application Note describes a robust and easy-to-use method for the
Anglian Water Services Laboratory, determination of glyphosate and its degradation product AMPA using the Agilent
Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, 1200 Innity Series Online SPE Solution.
United Kingdom
Glyphosate and AMPA were measured in drinking water with excellent precision
Bettina Schuhn, and linearity over a wide range of concentration.
Agilent Technologies Inc.,
Waldbronn, Germany
10 4
Glyphosate
1.4

1.2

1 AMPA
Counts

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5
Acquisition time (min)
Introduction Experimental and Instrumentation
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) Agilent 1200 Innity Online SPE Solution
glycine) is the worlds biggest selling Agilent 1260 Innity BinaryPumpG1312B and LAN card G1369C
and most used herbicide for weed Agilent 1260 Innity Standard Autosampler G1329B with 900 L head (G1313-60007) and an
control1. It is considered to be of low Agilent 1290 Innity Thermostat G1330B
toxicity to humans, but concerns for
Agilent 1290 Innity Flexible Cube G4227A with two valve drives
health and environment are increasing.
Agilent 1200 Innity Online SPE starter kit G4742A including one 2-position/10-port valve
In 2005, Richard et al. showed that a
long exposure to glyphosate can cause Agilent 1290 Innity Thermostatted Column Compartment G1316C
endocrine effects on mammals2. Agilent G6460A Triple Quadrupole LC/MS System with Agilent Jet Stream Technology
Analytical Column
Glyphosate has three polar functional Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18, 2.1 150 mm, 3.5 m (p/n 959763-902)
groups (carboxyl, amino, and phosphate). Trapping columns
It is highly soluble in water and the ability
2 Guard Column Hardware Kit (p/n 820999-901) as part of G4742A
to bind to mineral components makes
it persistent in the environment. For PLRP-S Cartridges, 4.6 12.5 mm, 15-20 m (p/n 5982-1270) as part of G4742A
example, in 2005 in Sweden, glyphosate 6-mL screw cap vials (glass p/n 9301-1377), screw caps (p/n 9301-1379), pre-slit septa (p/n 5188-2758)
was found to be present in groundwater Software
samples above the European maximum Agilent MassHunter data acquisition for triple quadruple mass spectrometer, Version 06.00
limit of 0.1 g/L3. Agilent MassHunter Optimizer software, Version 06.00
Agilent MassHunter Source and iFunnel Optimizer software, Version 06.00
Because of the interaction of
glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA Agilent MassHunter qualitative software, Version 06.00
((aminomethyl) phosphonic acid) with Agilent MassHunter quantitative software, Version 06.00
the environment and health, both
compounds were included in the annexIII HPLC method
of the 2008/105/EC Directive as a 1260 Innity BinaryPump
substance subject to review for possible
Solvent A Water, 2.5 mM ammonium acetate
identication as priority substance or
priority hazard substance.4 Solvent B Acetonitrile
Flow rate 0.3 mL/min
Hence, a fast and robust online SPE Gradient Time (min) % B
LC-MS method was developed for the 0 5
analysis of glyphosate and AMPA in 2 5
drinking and environmental water6. FMOC 8 70
(uorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride ) 8.5 100
was used for ofine derivatization for both 13 100
analytes. The derivatives were quantied Stop time: 13 minutes
Post time: 5 minutes
with an Agilent 6460 Triple Quadrupole
Agilent 1290 Innity Thermostatted Column Compartment
Mass Spectrometer coupled to a 1200
Innity Series Online SPE Solution for Temperature 60 C
online enrichment. With this method, Agilent 1290 Innity Flexible Cube
detection limits of less than 0.01 g/L Valve 2-position/10-port QuickChange valve head
can be achieved6. Solvent selection valve Solvent A1: Water
Solvent A2: Methanol
In this Application Note, we show Agilent 1260 Innity Standard Autosampler
excellent linearity and precision for
glyphosate and AMPA analysis with the Injection volume 900 L
1200 Innity Series Online SPE Solution, Needle wash in vial (ACN)
which is based on a 1290 Innity Flexible Draw and eject speed 450 L/min
Cube for online SPE. Sample Temperature 5 C

2
System configuration and principle Table 1. Piston pump timetable in the Flexible Cube for the online SPE method.
of operation Time Function Parameter
In comparison with previous 0 Pump volume Pump 2.5 mL, ow: 1.5 mL/min Channel A1
congurations for online SPE analysis
2 Right valve change position Increase valve position (switch valve)
where seven modules have been used6,
2.1 Pump volume Pump 5 mL, ow: 1.5 mL/min Channel A2
the 1200 Innity Series Online SPE
provides a very cost-effective solution. 6.5 Pump volume Pump 6 mL, ow: 1.5 mL/min Channel A1
Just ve modules are needed for the
same performance characteristics and Analytical Agilent 6460 Triple
column Quadrupole LC/MS
application. The system is based on the
1290 Innity Flexible Cube, which has a Flexible Cube
built-in piston pump for the loading and SPE 2 (Elute)
rinsing procedure, a solvent selection
Solvent
valve where up to three solvents can selection
be used, and two valve drives for the valve 1
10
2
conguration of two quick change valve
9
heads.
3
8
The full functionality of the online-SPE
system is achieved with a single HPLC 4
Flush 7
pump, a standard autosampler, a pump 5 6
thermostatted column compartment, and
SPE 1 (Load)
the 1290 Innity Flexible Cube, which has
one 2-position/10-port valve (Figures1
and 2).
Standard autosampler Quaternary
(900 L Head) pump Waste

Figure 1. Valve positions for loading the sample on trapping column SPE 1 while trapping column SPE 2 is
being eluted.

Analytical Agilent 6460 Triple


column Quadrupole LC/MS

Flexible Cube
SPE 2 (Load)

Solvent
selection
valve 1
10
2
9
3
8
4
Flush 7
pump 5 6
SPE 1 (Elute)

Standard autosampler Quaternary


(900 L Head) pump Waste

Figure 2. Valve positions for loading the sample on trapping column SPE 2 while trapping column SPE 1 is
being eluted.

3
The 1290 Innity Flexible Cube provides Table 2. MRM transitions for glyphosate and AMPA and their internal standards.
the alternate use of two trapping columns
Cell
to save time and enhance sample Precursor Product Fragmentor Collision accelerator
throughput. Up to three solvents with Compound ion (m/z) ion (m/z) voltage (V) energy (V) voltage (V) Polarity
the solvent selection valve can be used Glyphosate 390.2 167.8 100 6 3 negative
to load and clean the SPE cartridges Glyphosate 393.2 170.8 100 6 3 negative
(PLRP-S phase), which are reuseable internal
(>200 injections). standard
AMPA 332.0 109.8 100 6 3 negative
This system can be easily upgraded with
AMPA 334.0 111.8 100 6 3 negative
a second 2-position/10-port valve in the
internal
1290 Innity Flexible Cube to run direct standard
inject methods and online SPE methods
on the same instrument without any
setup modication7. Chemicals 25 mL Sample
Finally, the system was coupled to All solvents used were LC/MS
an Agilent 6460 Triple Quadrupole grade. Acetonitrile was purchased
LC/MS System for the detection and from Rathburns, Scotland. Fresh Spike with internal standard
quantication of glyphosate and AMPA in ultrapure water was obtained from a
drinking water. Milli-Q Integral system. Ammonium
acetate, FMOC, sodium tetraborate, Add EDTA solution, tetraborate buffer, and
MS method di-sodium EDTA, and phosphoric acid acetonitrile
were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.
An Agilent 6460 Triple Quadrupole LC/MS
All herbicide standards and internal
System with negative electrospray
standards were purchased from Qmx Add FMOC reagent
Agilent Jet Stream technology:
Laboratories.
Gas temperature 225 C
Gas ow 8 L/min Samples and sample pre-treatment Heat in an oven at 100 C for 30 minutes
Nebulizer 45 psi Glyphosate and AMPA were spiked
Sheath gas temperature 350 C in different concentrations with their
Sheath gas ow 11 l/min internal standards in drinking water (0, Leave overnight
Capillary 4,500 Volt
100, 200, 500, and 1,000 ng/L). Each
Nozzle: 1,000 Volt calibration concentration was measured
four times. One quality control standard Add phosphoric acid
Delta EMV 600 Volt
(QC) was also measured four times at a
concentration of 100 ng/L.
Table 2 shows the MRM transitions for Transfer to a 6-mL autosampler vial
glyphosate and AMPA, as well as their Glyphosate and AMPA are both
optimum MS conditions. highly polar compounds, therefore, an
ofine derivatization step with FMOC Analysis by Agilent 1200/6460 Triple Quadrupole
(uorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride) LC/MS System
is needed to achieve chromatographic
separation on a reversed phase column. Figure 3. The ofine derivatization of water with
FMOC reagent.
Further required reagents were EDTA
solution (0.1 M), tetraborate buffer (30
g/L), acetonitrile, FMOC reagent (20 mM
in ACN) and phosphoric acid (Figure 3)6.

Internal standards were added to


compensate for recovery variations in
different waters due to matrix effects.

4
Results and Discussion 103
2
After the ofine derivatization step, Glyphosate and AMPA and
1.6
glyphosate and AMPA could be 1.2
internal standard internal standard
separated on a reversed phase column 0.8
with retention times (RT) at 6.7 and 0.4
7.7 minutes (Figure 4). The online SPE 0
made it possible to inject the derivatives 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9
directly onto the SPE cartridges and to
ush the FMOC reagent in the waste
Figure 4. Chromatogram of glyphosate and AMPA and their internal standards at 100 ng/L.
during the loading process to protect the
analytical column from borate buffer and
derivatization reagent.
101 A
Linearity 2.8 R 2 = 0.99972006
Glyphosate and AMPA show excellent 2.4
linearity in the measured range of 100
Relative response

to 1,000 ng/L, with R2 of 0.9997 for both 2

analytes (Figure 5). 6

1.2

0.8

0.4

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000
Relative concentration

B
5
4.5 R 2 = 0.99974874
4
3.5
Relative response

3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000
Relative concentration

Figure 5. Calibration curve of glyphosate and AMPA 01,000 ng/L (ve levels, quality control standards at
100 ng/L, n = 4).

5
Precision Table 3. Area RSD for four concentration levels (n = 4), linearity coefcient, and retention time RSD
Precision data were determined (n=20) for glyphosate and AMPA.
for all spiked concentration levels RT RSD (%)
(1001,000ng/L, n = 4). Area RSD were (1001,000 ng/L)
< 5 % for all concentrations and both 100 ng/L 200 ng/L 500 ng/L 1,000 ng/L 01,000 ng/L n = 20
analytes. R2 for glyphosate and AMPA Area RSD Area RSD Area RSD Area RSD R2
showed excellent linearity with 0.9997. (%) (%) (%) (%)
Excellent retention time (RT) precision Glyphosate 2.18 2.27 1.49 1.76 0.999 0.111
with RSD of 0.111 % was observed for AMPA 3.29 2.48 4.45 4.07 0.999 0.111
both analytes. Table 3 summarizes these
results.

Conclusion References 6. P. Abrahamsson A Turn-key


Guaranteed Analyzer for the Routine
1. U.S. EPA Technical factsheet on:
The Agilent 1200 Innity Series Online Measurement of Glyphosate and
Glyphosate (2006).
SPE Solution based on the Agilent 1290 AMPA in Drinking Water and other
Flexible Cube offers a robust and fast 2. S. Richard, et al. Environ. Heal. Environmental Water Samples
analysis of glyphosate and its metabolite Perspect. 113:716720 (2005). Agilent Technologies, Publication
AMPA in drinking and environmental Number 5991-3276EN (2013).
water. The performance data show 3. L. Torstensso, E. Borjesson,
excellent linearity and great precision J.Stenstrom Pest Manag. Sci. 7. E. Naegele, Comparison of
for a wide concentration range. The 61:881886 (2005). Direct Injection and Online SPE
described method, with fully automated for Quantication by LC/MS of
online SPE, achieves detection limits 4. Directive 2008/105/EC of the Trace-Level Herbicides in Water
of less than 0.01g/L with an injection European Parliament and of the Agilent Technologies, Application
volume of 900L6. Council. Note, Publication Number
5991-2140EN (2013).
The 1200 Innity Series Online SPE 5. EU Council, Directive on the Quality
Solution provides a cost-effective way of Water Intended for Human 8. B. Schuhn, Detection of Trace-Level
for online enrichment. It does not only Consumption, 98/83/EC, 1998. Herbicides in Drinking, Surface and
provide the exibility to run online SPE Ground Water Using the Agilent Online
methods, but also offers an opportunity SPE Solution Agilent Technologies
to easily upgrade the 1290 Innity Application Note, Publication Number
Flexible Cube to direct inject methods. 5991-2405EN (2013).
Furthermore, every Agilent HPLC can be
upgraded to an online SPE system with
the 1290 Innity Flexible Cube and its
exible solutions.

www.agilent.com/chem
This information is subject to change without notice.

Agilent Technologies, Inc., 2013


Published in the USA, October 1, 2013
5991-3208EN