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STUDY OF AUTOMOTIVE AIR SUSPENSION

AHMAD ZHARIF FIKRI BIN AHMAD PUAT

1018777

Project Supervisor: Asst. Prof. Dr. Fadly Jashi Darsivan

STUDY OF AUTOMOTIVE AIR SUSPENSION AHMAD ZHARIF FIKRI BIN AHMAD PUAT 1018777 Project Supervisor: Asst. Prof.

A REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (MECHANICAL-AUTOMOTIVE) (HONOURS)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Assalamualaikum w.b.t,

Alhamdulillah all praises be to Allah, the most Merciful and beneficent for bestowing me with the good health and strength, Salawat and Salam to our Prophet Muhammad S.A.W, the Companion and all believers who follow His path. First and foremost, I would like to take this opportunity to express my very sincere appreciation and thankful to my honorable project supervisor, Assistant Professor Dr. Fadly Jashi Darsivan bin Ridhuan Siradj for his valuable guidance, encouragement and constructive suggestions during the planning and development of this project. Without him this project would not be as it is.

Besides, I would

like to take this chance to thank ahandful technician

of

Structure Test Laboratory, Kulliyah of Engineering, Bro. Farid Azmi for arranging and helping me carry out the experiments for this project. His willingness to give his time generously with the testing and collection of data has been much appreciated.

I would also like to extend my thanks to Muhammad Mudzakkir Mohamed Hatta, Mohd Nazrul Azam, Mohd Ridzuan Abdullah, Che Mohd Faris and Muhd Nurhaziq Anin for giving me assistance, moral supports and transportation assistance towards the completion of this project. Last but not least, my family and relatives. Thank you very much for everything.

ABSTRACT

This study is generally to understand the behavior and characteristics of the automotive air suspension, the difference between air spring suspension and conventional coiling springs or leaf springs and also what makes automotive air suspension provide more advantages than the latter one. The detail about the air spring configuration and working mechanism of air suspension are also being included in this study. The methodologies for this study include an experiment of suspension springs to obtain the spring stiffness which is part of the suspension system. Later on, the experiment for air suspension is designed for static experimental test for different initial inlet pressure. Results of the experiment are analyzed and discussed before the empirical model of the air spring can be generated for each different initial pressure. The conclusion of the study is also being concluded based on the results and data discussed earlier. The future recommendation about the study also being described in this study in case there is any development needed in the future. The study hopefully will provide the industry with what are really differences, advantages and disadvantages of the air suspension in producing abetter suspension system.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

i

ABSTRACT

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

iii

LIST OF TABLES

vi

LIST OF FIGURES

vii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

viii

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Introduction

1

  • 1.2 Project Scope

6

  • 1.3 Project Objectives

6

  • 1.4 Project Outcomes

7

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • 2.1 Introduction

9

  • 2.2 Automotive Air Suspension

9

  • 2.2.1 Automotive Air Suspension in Industry

10

  • 2.2.2 Air suspension system configuration

11

2.2.3

Main components of the air spring

12

 
  • 2.2.4 Types of Automotive Air spring

14

  • 2.2.5 Air bags

15

  • 2.3 Air suspension working principles

16

  • 2.4 Arrangement of the air spring

17

  • 2.5 Comparison between hydraulic and air suspension

18

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

  • 3.1 Introduction

21

  • 3.2 Activity Flow Chart

21

  • 3.3 Jig Preparation

23

  • 3.4 Helical Compression Spring Tests

26

  • 3.5 Static Experimental Test

28

 
  • 3.5.1 Experimental setup

28

CHAPTER 4

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

  • 4.1 Introduction

31

  • 4.2 Helical Compression Spring Stiffness

31

  • 4.3 Static experimental test and analysis

37

iv

4.3.1

Empirical Model of air spring

39

 
  • 4.3.2 Static stiffness of air spring

41

  • 4.3.3 Effective area

43

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

5.1

Overview

46

5.2

Future work and recommendation

47

REFERENCES

 

49

APPENDICES

51

 

LIST OF TABLES

Page

Table 2.2.3

Detail description of air spring components

13

Table 2.5

Comparison of hydraulic suspension and air suspension

20

Table 4.2.1

Summary of the spring 1result

34

Table 4.2.2

Summary of the spring 2result

36

Table 4.3.1

Curve functions with coefficient of determination for regression curve

40

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Page

Figure 1.1.1

Leaf springs, Coil springs and bar springs

2

Figure 1.1.2

Typical shock absorber configurations

4

Figure 1.1.3

Suspension model as sprung mass and unsprung mass

4

Figure 1.4.1

3D CAD modeling of air suspension

8

Figure 1.4.2

Air spring model (a) and its equivalent model (b)

8

Figure 2.2.2

Passenger vehicle air spring systems

12

Figure 2.2.3

Air Spring (detail view)

13

Figure 2.2.4(a)

Rolling Lobe air spring type

15

Figure 2.2.4(b)

Tapered sleeve air spring type

15

Figure 2.2.4(c)

Convoluted air spring type

16

Figure 3.2

Flow chart of the project activities

23

Figure 3.3.1

Complete designed jig

24

Figure 3.3.2

3D CAD modeling of the jig

25

Figure 3.3.3

Fabricated jig

26

Figure 3.4.1

Test for Spring 1 using Universal Testing Machine

27

Figure 3.4.2

Test for Spring 2 using Universal Testing Machine

27

Figure 3.5.1

Schematic Diagram of the static experiment setup

28

Figure 3.5.2

Pre-setup of components

29

Figure 3.5.3

Experimental setup for the static test

29

Figure 4.2.1

Spring 1Force versus Displacement graph (5mm/min)

32

Figure 4.2.2

Spring 1Force versus Displacement graph (10mm/min)

32

Figure 4.2.3

Spring 1Force vs. Displacement graph (20mm/min)

33

Figure 4.2.4

Spring 2Force vs. Displacement graph (5mm/min)

34

Figure 4.2.5

Spring 2Force vs. Displacement graph (10mm/min)

35

Figure 4.2.6

Spring 2Force vs. Displacement graph (20mm/min)

35

Figure 4.3.1

Displacement-Force curves in static for various pressures

37

Figure 4.3.2

Stiffness-displacement curves in static test for various pressures

41

Figure 4.3.3

Finding the effective area of air spring

44

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

mm

millimeter

mm 2

millimeter square

N/mm

Newton per millimeter

N

Newton

mm/min

millimeter per minute

kN

Kilo Newton

mm/s

millimeter per second

k

Spring constant/ spring rate/ stiffness

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Suspension system for vehicle is an integral part of automotive chassis system

whereas it can be described as the system that comprise of suspension springs, stabilizers

and vibration dampers. Suspension system has been developed during past years with the

first type of the suspension known as leaf springs before the coil springs typed gradually

being introduced. Suspension system must complete several numbers of tasks which are

essential for the overall function of the chassis. These purposes are not only for the ride

comfort ability, but definitely for the overall safety of the vehicle. The main goals of

having a suspension system in a vehicle aside from improving the ride comfort are to

maximize the friction force between the road surface and wheels as well as providing a

stable steering and good handling. Plus, Heißing, B. & Ersoy, M. (2010) stated that “this

system was intended to mitigate impacts from the road surface”. Absolutely the road

conditions are far from perfect for a smooth ride. Bumps and potholes on the roads

prompt the wheel to move up and down vertically. In order to control and reduce this, a

device known as shock absorber (damper) plays its roles by went through a process called

as dampening. Shock absorbers reduce the vibratory motion and slow it down by turning

the kinetic energy of vertical movement into heat energy and being dissipated through

hydraulic fluid afterward.

Additionally, the suspension system makes a quite contribution in helping

vehicle’s wheel maintain the contact with the roadway as evenly as possible. This is a

prerequisite for an effective force transfer between the tires and the road surface, which is

essential for road gripping, transfer of power, and braking, all of which are important for

overall driving safety.

Basically, there are two important components of suspension which are steel

springs and dampers. Steel springs can be categorized into three types; leaf springs, bar

springs and helical compression springs (coil springs). Three types of the steel springs can

be recognized in Figure 1.1.1.

Additionally, the suspension system makes a quite contribution in helping vehicle’s wheel maintain the contact with

Fig. 1.1.1: Leaf springs, Coil springs and bar springs [source: auto.howstuffworks.com]

Leaf springs were the first type springs used in vehicle suspension as mentioned

earlier. Multi-layer leaf springs offer a relatively inexpensive, yet great robust and reliable

solution. Today, the combination of conventional leaf springs and a rigid axle can only be

found on a small number of passenger vehicles (mainly SUVs). For commercial vehicles,

however, leaf springs over other types of springs is that leaf spring not only act as a

spring element, but they can also be used as a connecting element between the chassis and

the axle and can even control the axle kinematics with respect to the chassis.

Meanwhile, bar spring or simply torsion bar is described as a straight elastic bar

with a rectangular or circular cross section that is weighted mainly by a torsion and

moment. Torsion bar springs and twisted beams are usually functioned as suspension

springs in passenger cars and vans. They can be used in combination with lateral,

longitudinal, and semi-trailing suspension arms.

Coil springs definitely represent the best idea of spring design for the vertical

suspension of a passenger vehicle. Over time, helical springs almost completely replaced

leaf springs as the main vertical springing component used in modern vehicles. Unlike the

leaf springs, coil spring solely functioning as springing components. Other components

must be used to locate the wheel and dampen vibrations.

Damper or widely known

as shock absorber

is

also

an important part of

suspension. It can be said that suspension is a device that overcomes any unwanted spring

motion by slowing down or dampening the vibratory motions. In other words, it turns the

kinetic energy of the suspension up and down movement into heat energy that can be

released or dissipated through pressurized hydraulic fluid. Generally, shock absorber can

be indicated as an oil pump mounted in between car body frame and the wheels. The

upper part of the shock absorber is connected to the frame which can be modeled as

sprung mass. Meanwhile, the lower part of the shock absorber is connected to the axle,

nearby the wheels and can be modeled as unsprung mass. Figure 1.1.2 shows the

configuration of the shock absorber for most passenger vehicles.

upper part of the shock absorber is connected to the frame which can be modeled as

Fig. 1.1.2: Typical shock absorber configuration [source: bevenyoung.com.au]

While in Figure 1.1.3, the suspension can be modeled in term of sprung and unsprung

mass.

upper part of the shock absorber is connected to the frame which can be modeled as

Fig. 1.1.3: Suspension model as sprung mass and unsprung mass [source:

vibrationacoustics.asmedigitalcollection.org]

The suspension eventually works when the wheels hits a bump as it compresses

the suspension and the kinetic energy is stored in the spring and directly after the wheel

pass over the bump, the stored energy earlier wants to flow back and here the damper

plays it roles by dissipating the energy. Additionally, shock absorbers work in two loop

cycles which are the compression cycle and rebound cycle. During compression, the

piston in the shock absorber moves downward compressing the hydraulic fluid in the

chamber beneath the piston. Likewise, the rebound cycle takes place when the piston is

moved upward to top of pressure tube, compressing the working fluid through valves in

the chamber above the piston. Typical passenger cars or lightweight vehicles usually have

more resistance during it rebound cycle than its compression cycle.

Most of the modern shock absorbers are sensitive to velocity. Hence, it can be

concluded that the faster the suspension moves, the more resistance the shock absorber

will behave. So, this makes the shock absorber adjusted to the road conditions and

handling all of the undesired motions that can occur in a moving car, including sway,

bounce, braking and acceleration.

Air Suspension

When it comes to improve the ride, comfortability and handling of ones vehicle,

industries have tried everything including the invention of the air suspension. Air

suspension actually nearly serves as conventional shock absorber and can be described as

a type of suspension that supports the vehicles on the axles and powered by driven air

pump or compressor” (Thiwari, 2009). Instead of having some types of steel spring

including leaf, coil or bar spring arrangement, and air suspension is made up of air spring

where the compressor pumps the air into a flexible bellows or air bag made from high

textile-reinforced rubber.

  • 1.2 PROJECT SCOPES In this study, the scopes of the project basically to understand the air suspension

by performing several procedures which are:

  • 1. Front and rear suspension coil spring testing.

  • 2. Static testing and analysis.

  • 3. Generating Empirical Model of air spring.

  • 1.3 PROJECT OBJECTIVES For this study, generally there are three main objectives that are expected to be

achieved which are:

  • 1. To study the behaviors of the air suspension.

  • 2. To understand characteristics of the static condition of air spring.

  • 3. To generate an empirical model of air suspension at different initial inlet pressure.

1.4

PROJECT OUTCOMES

The study of automotive air suspension is carried out for the reason that it will

stimulates the industry to look more into development of this type of suspension. Besides,

the designated experimental procedures that later on will be explained throughout this

study might help in determining the most important variables that associates with

behavior of air suspension. In this study, the working fluid used in the air spring is simply

compressed air. It will be interesting if there is another study that used another form

working fluid or gases to perform the dampening process aside from compressed air. The

result might be different, but in term of objectives it’s remain identical which is to reduce

the vibratory motion. By referring to this study, the experimental procedures will be

useful in guiding the further study regarding air suspension. Moreover, this study is

focusing only on passive suspension system. For further research and development of air

suspension, it will be beneficial by having semi-active air suspension since the main idea,

parameter, and variables are similar to this study.

3D CAD Modeling

The 3D CAD from the project also can be modeled using any commercial CAD software.

Figure 1.4.1 illustrates the 3D parametric modeling using CATIA V5.

Fig. 1.4.1: 3D CAD modeling of air suspension In this project, the following 2D model and

Fig. 1.4.1: 3D CAD modeling of air suspension

In this project, the following 2D model and its equivalent are suppose to be created by

considering both two end plates and the rubber bellow enclose a constant mass of air as

shown in Figure 1.4.2 (Liu and Lee, 2011). F F x P V T M Equivalent
shown in Figure 1.4.2 (Liu and Lee, 2011).
F
F
x
P
V
T
M
Equivalent
Pneumatic
damper
cylinder
(a)
(b)

Fig. 1.4.2: Air spring model (a) and its equivalent model (b)

The below plate of air spring is fixed while the upper plate is eligible to move along

vertically axial direction. Force is applied download and the pressure inside the air bag

rose. The product of pressure and effective area of air spring is the spring force.

CHAPTER 2

LITERITURE REVIEW

  • 2.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of an overview concept about the automotive air suspension

used in industry. The following includes a brief explanation about the air suspension in

industry, the main components of the air suspension as well as the configuration of the air

suspension system. The information and the review are referred from journals, research

papers, books, and the information from reliable websites.

  • 2.2 AUTOMOTIVE AIR SUSPENSION Air suspension as defined by Lane, K. (2002) is “a vehicle suspension system

using compressed air in chambers between the wheel and the chassis, replacing steel

springs with a cushion of air. Other than that, air suspension offers lots of advantages in

such ways of reduced weight, adjustable carrying capacity, variable stiffness with almost

constant natural frequency, variability of ride height, reduced structurally transmitted

noise and other things (Liu, H., and Lee, J. 2011). This lead to the widely usage in many

vehicles industries such as luxury passenger cars, mini-vans and sport utility vehicles

(SUV) in line to improve needs of safety and driving comfort.

Basically, there will be two major variables that should be taken into

consideration when designing a suspension which are damper rate and spring stiffness.

Spring stiffness gives different requirement depending on the condition of the driving.

Hence, while the vehicle is accelerating, braking, change in loads or taking corner, the

stiffness of the spring should be increased so that the dynamic suspension stroke can be

reduced or ride height changes. On the contrary, during the normal riding, the stiffness of

the springs ought to be softer so that the riding will be smoother. Thus, the variable

stiffness is one of the essential properties that need to be achieved in air spring (Liu H.

and Lee J., 2011).

  • 2.2.1 Automotive Air Suspension in Industry In Automotive industry nowadays especially in Malaysia, there are still no

glimpse of air suspension applications especially for commercial passenger vehicles.

Nevertheless, in 1901 William H. Humphreys patented (#673682) a “Pneumatic Spring

for Vehicles” which consisted of a left and right air spring longitudinally channeled

nearly the length of the vehicle (refer Appendices). Since then, the revolution of the air

suspension is slowly evolved until now. Mercedes Benz has lead in this type of

suspension when Mercedes Benz equipped W112 Chassis series cars, 300SE sedans as

well as Coupes or Cabriolets with the air suspension since 1962. Later on, air suspension

for the model of W109 was improved by having a ride height adjustment feature back

then. Nowadays, the application of air suspension have been implemented in such luxury

cars including the models from Rolls Royce, Lexus, Jeep Grand Cherokee, Cadillac

(General Motors), Mercedes-Benz, Land Rover/Range Rover, SsangYong, Audi, Subaru,

Volkswagen, Lincoln and Ford, among others. Most of automotive manufacturers begin

to realize that air suspension has been offering numerous advantages regarding the ride

smoothness, safety and comfort. After the positive feedback using the passive air

suspension, some of the manufacturers put more effort into the air suspension system.

Land Rover, SsangYong and some of Audi, Volkswagen and Lexus models started to

develop the semi active height adjustable air suspension system whereas the driver can

control the desired height and suitable for riding in rough terrain.

  • 2.2.2 Air suspension system configuration The configuration of an air suspension system in a passenger vehicle can be seen

in Figure 2.2.2. In addition to the air-filled spring and damper units mentioned before, a

complete air suspension system also requires a sensor which can detect the instantaneous

height of the vehicle’s body, an electronic control unit, and a compressor unit including a

compressed air tank and valves which control the flow of air pressure in the four spring

units.

Air tank Solenoid valves Fig. 2.2.2: Passenger vehicle air spring system [source: myautomobileguide.blogspot.com]
Air tank
Solenoid
valves
Fig. 2.2.2: Passenger vehicle air spring system [source: myautomobileguide.blogspot.com]

On the other hand, additional components which are normally required to connect a

separate spring and damper set to one another are no longer needed. The damper tube can

serve as the inner pedestal or as a support for the inner support tube of the air spring, and

the upper part of the air spring can be fastened to the ring or pin joint at the end of the

damper’s piston rod. This is one of the advantages posses by air spring where damper and

spring is represented by air bellows itself thus reduced the weight.

2.2.3 Main components of the air spring

Main components of the air springs are labeled and can be seen in Figure 2.2.3.

2.2.3 Main components of the air spring Main components of the air springs are labeled and

Fig. 2.2.3: Air Spring (detailed view) [Source: Juratek.com]

The description of each part of the air spring has been summarized in Table 2.2.3.

Table 2.2.3: Detail description of air spring components

Parts

Description

Air Fitting

Provide the diaphragm with the air.

Crimping

The method of permanently sealing the diaphragm or bellows to the bead plate.

Top Plate

Connects the air spring to the vehicle chassis.

Fixing Studs

Secure the air spring to the vehicle chassis.

Bumper

Solid Rubber safety device to prevent excessive damage to the vehicle and suspension in the event of a sudden loss of pressure.

Outer Cover

An outer cover of calendared rubber (passes through a number of vertical rollers to ensure uniform thickness)

Second Ply

Fabric textile-reinforced rubber with same bias angle lay opposite to the first ply.

First Ply

One ply fabric reinforced rubber cords at specific bias angle.

Inner Layer

An inner layer of calendared rubber (passes through a number of vertical rollers to ensure uniform thickness)

Piston

Provide lower mounting arrangement for the air spring in form of tapered holes or studs. (Made of aluminum, steel or composite material)

  • 2.2.4 Types of Automotive air spring Nowadays, for the passive air suspension, there are several types of the air spring

used in most passenger vehicles. In Figure 2.2.4(a), (b), and (c), the visible difference

between each type of the air spring is solely on the shape of the air bags of the air spring.

Fig. 2.2.4 (a): Rolling Lobe air spring type [source: globalspec.com] Fig. 2.2.4 (b): Tapered sleeve air

Fig. 2.2.4 (a): Rolling Lobe air spring type [source: globalspec.com]

Fig. 2.2.4 (a): Rolling Lobe air spring type [source: globalspec.com] Fig. 2.2.4 (b): Tapered sleeve air

Fig. 2.2.4 (b): Tapered sleeve air spring type [source: etrailer.com]

Fig. 2.2.4 (c): Convoluted air spring type [source: store.gaugemagazine.com] For the convoluted air spring, in the

Fig. 2.2.4 (c): Convoluted air spring type [source: store.gaugemagazine.com]

For the convoluted air spring, in the middle of the air bellow there is a ring called

girdle hoop which is specially designed and made from Aluminum or reinforced wire,

molded into the unit between the convolutions to provide lateral stability.

  • 2.2.5 Air bags The shape of the air bags determines its characteristics. Any air bag that is placed

under extreme pressure may lose it shape. Convoluted air bags usually made of heavy-

duty reinforced rubber and sometimes have multiple convoluted chambers. Most of the

convoluted air bags typically larger than tapered sleeve air bags. It gives them more loads

handling capacity and lifting. Furthermore, due to the shape and size, typical convoluted

air spring can lift greater force at lower pressure. Since the convoluted air spring can

withstand higher load, most of this type of air spring usually found in tow trucks, motor

homes, trailers, and heavy-duty vehicles. In the meantime, Tapered sleeve type has a

smaller diameter of the air bag compared to the convoluted type. These air bags are

designed to focus on lift as well as ride control. The internal mount sleeve is covered in

by a bag, made of a flexible heavy-gauge rubber or synthetic rubber composite. The bag

is crimped into the spring mount on one end and swaged onto the opposite end, sealing

the contents inside (Lansing, A., 2013) . This type of air bag is well-suited for the

applications where the load are light and the space are limited. Most of the applications

can be found in lightweight trucks, Street rods and track cars.

  • 2.3 AIR SUSPENSION WORKING PRINCIPLES In air suspension system, some of the configuration and installation might not be

same and varies among the vehicle models depends on the manufacturers, but the

underlying principle remains identical. Baxter, E. (2012) visualized that, refer to Figure

2.2.2, during the working of the air suspension, the engine-driven air compressor

compresses and supplies the air to the air tank which stored compressed air for the future

use. In the air spring, the compressed air is supplied from the air tank to the air bags

through the pressurized air lines. Since there is a built-in pressure reservoir present, the

flow of the compressed air is equally controlled with solenoid valves. Once the air bag is

filled with the air, it compresses leads to an increase in pressure inside the air bag and

when the air is prolonged, air will come out of the bellows which make the pressure

decreases. These filled and empties mechanism actually determines the riding height of

the vehicles. To that end, since there is increasing in vibratory load, the riding height is

decreases; the stiffness increases and effective volume are decrease as well. As a result,

the effective areas of the air inside air bag increase and lead to increase in load carrying

capacity. Meanwhile, when the vibratory load is reduced, definitely the riding height is

increases, the stiffness will reduce and the effective volume will eventually increase. By

that, the effective areas are decreases and thus the load carrying capacity is also reduced

(Liu H. and Lee J., 2011). In this way, within the effective stroke, the spring height,

effective volume and load carrying capacity achieve a smooth flexible transmission

occurs with the increase or decrease of the vibratory load, together with the efficient

control of amplitude and vibratory load. In addition, through the increasing and

decreasing quantity of air-filling, the spring stiffness and load bearing capacity can be

adjusted. It can also be attached to the auxiliary air chamber to achieve self-control.

For the semi active air suspension, there is a valve called Height Control Valve

(HCV) mainly functions as kind of brain to the system where it dictate and direct how

much the air is in the air bags. Thus, it makes the air bags set the vehicle body at desired

height. Meanwhile, the ride height sensors are mounted to the frame of the vehicles to

detect the height of vehicle at instantaneous time.

  • 2.4 ARRANGEMENT OF THE AIR SPRING

For the arrangement of air spring, manufactures consider the lateral stiffness of the car. If

the arrangement allows, it should be arranged outside the frame as far as possible to

increase the center distance of the spring as well as improving the lateral stiffness of the

vehicle. Some may call

the

air

spring suspension arranged in this way as

anti-roll

suspension.

However, some buses are basically installed with the air spring in the position of the car

chassis leaf spring. In this way, whether it is a leaf spring or air spring automobiles, the

position of spring placed is unchanged. Some users call this air spring suspension as

standard air suspension (Qianchao, Y., 2004).

  • 2.5 COMPARISON BETWEEN HYRAULIC AND AIR SUSPENSION Basically for the suspension system, there are two types of riding height

adjustment configuration which are air bag systems or pneumatic systems and hydraulic

suspension systems. One of the significant differences between both hydraulic and air

suspension is air suspension use an enclosed rubber bag with the series of valves

connected together to an air compressor. It acts as both spring and damper at a time to

adjust ride quality and height. Furthermore, the related valves control the amount of air

that can be filled in each air bag to rise and lowered the car.

Meanwhile, conventional hydraulic suspensions utilize particular hydraulic fluid

and shocks instead of air bellow with pressurized air. In term of the spring stiffness,

hydraulic suspensions offer much stiffer ride compared to air suspensions since hydraulic

fluid is not as compressible as air. The process of raising and lowering are faster than air

bag. The following Table 2.5 is a summary of the differences between hydraulic

suspensions and air suspension.

Table 2.5: Comparison of hydraulic suspension and air suspension

Factors

Hydraulic Suspension

 

Air Suspension

Appearance

Appearance
Appearance

[source: redcatracing.com]

[source: arnottindustries.com]

 
  • 1. Spring used to absorb the kinetic energy from the suspension movement.

1.

Air bag functioned as both spring as well as

Function

  • 2. Shock absorber used to dissipate the energy through hydraulic fluid.

damper simultaneously.

Working Fluid

Hydraulic Fluid

 

Pressurized air

Load capacity

Limited at certain load

 

Varied with load

Stiffness

Harder

 

Varied

Source of power

None

Air compressor and air tank

System arrangement

Simple

 

Complicated

Theoretically, air suspension is said to be more comfort. So, by doing this study,

the characteristic and behavior of the air suspension can be obtained to prove the theory.

Besides, since the static test will be carried out, the variable characteristic of the air spring

as well as the stiffness can be determined. Liu H. and Lee J. (2011) found that the

polytrophic exponent value actually gives a huge effect to the spring stiffness and the

effective area is the major factor that affects the characteristic curve of the air

suspension”.

Despite numerous studies, opinions on the air suspension system and it principles,

focus on the tapered sleeve type of air spring remains limited. As such, this project has to

be conducted to study the behavior and characteristics of static condition of tapered

sleeve air spring. In the next chapter, every steps, activities and tests that have been

carried out are designed to meet the objectives for this study.

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

  • 3.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of overall activities that need to be implemented in order

to achieve the objectives of the study. The following includes a brief explanation about

the activities that are going to be done including the experiment on two typical coil

springs to get the spring stiffness. Later on, designing the jig that hold the suspension for

the test is also being done. After that, the experiments being designed with required

parameters. The static testing also later on is carried out in order to obtain required data.

Lastly, the empirical model regarding this type of air suspension is also being generated

respectively.

  • 3.2 ACTIVITY FLOW CHART

Flow chart of the activities involved is figured out in order to meet the objectives of the

study. Every activity that appears in the flow chart is an essential one so that the main

objectives can be achieved. Step by step activities are illustrated as shown in Figure 3.2.

Literature Review and development of the methodology

Literature Review and development of the methodology Design and development of the air suspension jig Jig
Design and development of the air suspension jig Jig fabrication Pre-design the setup of the static
Design and development of the
air suspension jig
Jig fabrication
Pre-design the setup of the
static experimental test

Experiments on static experiments are carried out

Data collection of experiment
Data collection of
experiment
 
Pre-design for the spring with different speed experiment as a part of suspension system
 

Pre-design for the spring with different speed experiment as a part of suspension system

 
 

Experiments on two helical compression springs are carried out

Data collection at varied speeds test
Data collection at varied
speeds test

Development of empirical model of the air suspension

Literature Review and development of the methodology Design and development of the air suspension jig Jig

End

Fig. 3.2: Flow chart of the project activities

3.3

JIG PREPARATION

As the part of this study, the jig is initially being developed and designed to

hold the air suspension down so that the suspension is constrained to move only in

vertical direction. In addition, all experiments and tests will be done using the Universal

Testing Machine (Shimadzhu 250 kN) located at Structure Testing laboratory (IIUM).

The required measurements are being taken firstly so that during the designing and

fabrication process, there would not be any mismatch-like problems. The first model of

the jig is designed using CATIA V5 based on dimension obtained before. Figure 3.3.1

represents the whole designed model. While Figure 3.3.2 represents upper part of the jig

that is mounted to the upper testing machine and Figure 3.3.3 represents the designed jig

that has been fabricated.

3.3 JIG PREPARATION As the part of this study, the jig is initially being developed and

Fig. 3.3.1: Complete designed jig

Fig. 3.3.2: 3D CAD modeling of the jig Fig. 3.3.3: Fabricated jig 25

Fig. 3.3.2: 3D CAD modeling of the jig

Fig. 3.3.2: 3D CAD modeling of the jig Fig. 3.3.3: Fabricated jig 25

Fig. 3.3.3: Fabricated jig

3.4

HELICAL COMPRESSION SPRING TESTS

As the part of the suspension, spring plays vital task in overall suspension system.

Aside from helping the vehicle’s wheel maintain the contact with the roadway, more

importantly, it protect the vehicle’s occupants from impact as well as unwanted vertical

displacement, pitch and yaw oscillations. In this study, determining the spring stiffness is

one of the essential parts. Thus, two helical springs are being taken to the structure test

laboratory for the stiffness test. Spring 1 has cross section diameter of 10.1 mm

meanwhile Spring 2 has diameter of 12.2 mm. Later on, the experiment has been

designed first. Generally, the tests are carried out with different speed of compression.

The experiment for these two springs are carried out in different speed test due to

investigate whether there will be any different in the effect of force versus displacement

graph that later on will be plotted and analyzed. By using Universal Testing Machine

(Shimadzhu 250 kN), Figure 3.4.1 and 3.4.2 show both different springs test that have

been conducted.

Fig. 3.4.1: Test for spring 1 using Universal Testing Machine Fig. 3.4.2: Test for spring 2

Fig. 3.4.1: Test for spring 1 using Universal Testing Machine

Fig. 3.4.1: Test for spring 1 using Universal Testing Machine Fig. 3.4.2: Test for spring 2

Fig. 3.4.2: Test for spring 2 using Universal Testing Machine

After the experiments were done, the force and displacement data are collected.

Since the maximum stroke has been restricted to only 60 mm, the force data collected

only from 0mm to 60mm range. The force versus displacement graph for each speed test

is plotted in the next chapter.

  • 3.5 STATIC EXPERIMENTAL TEST

    • 3.5.1 Experimental setup

The main idea of having the static experimental test is to know the static stiffness

of the air suspension. Furthermore, Tapered Sleeve type of air spring is going to be used

and tested throughout the study. Figure 3.5.1 demonstrates the schematic diagram of the

experiment, Figure 3.5.2 shows the pre-setup of components before experiment and

Figure 3.5.3 depicts the experimental setup for the static test.

After the experiments were done, the force and displacement data are collected. Since the maximum stroke

Fig. 3.5.1: Schematic Diagram of the static experiment setup

Fig. 3.5.2: Pre-setup of the components Fig. 3.5.3: Experimental setup for static test 29

Fig. 3.5.2: Pre-setup of the components

Fig. 3.5.2: Pre-setup of the components Fig. 3.5.3: Experimental setup for static test 29

Fig. 3.5.3: Experimental setup for static test

Based on the diagrams, the air suspension is placed on the damper testing machine

with the upper fixture fabricated earlier and bottom parts of the suspension is held by the

clamper. The upper part of the testing machine equipped with load cell connecting

measures the air spring force. Regulator regulates the amount of air that pass through

pipeline at certain desired pressure and the pressure gauge measures the inlet air pressure

just before the air enters the air spring. Meanwhile, 3-way manual control valve is used to

control the flow in and out of compressed air into the air spring using a lever manually.

The static test for the air suspension has been performed with initial pressure of 2, 4, 6, 8,

and 10 bar respectively. It also being set that the actuator movement speed is 0.2 mm/s in

order to meet the condition of static test. After that, the static characteristics can be

obtained and analyzed at once.

CHAPTER 4

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

  • 4.1 INTRODUCTION

After all the experiments have been carried out, the result obtained will be discussed. First

test involving two helical compression springs (coil spring) was analyzed. The force

versus displacement graph was generated from the data obtained. Then, the static test was

carried out to obtain the static stiffness of the air spring. The data collected are used to

plot force versus displacement graph and static stiffness versus displacement graph. The

analyses were discussed regarding the test.

  • 4.2 HELICAL COMPRESSION SPRING STIFFNESS After the tests for both springs have been done, the force versus displacement

graphs for each springs have been plotted with different test speeds. Figure 4.2.1, 4.2.2

and 4.2.3 shows the force versus displacement graph for spring 1 with diameter of 10.02

mm.

Force vs Displacement for 5mm/min Force(N) 450 400 y = 6.8156x - 2.116 350 300 250
Force vs Displacement for 5mm/min
Force(N)
450
400
y = 6.8156x - 2.116
350
300
250
Force
200
150
Linear (Force)
100
50
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
-50
Displacement (mm)
Fig. 4.2.1: Force versus Displacement graph (5mm/min) Force vs Displacement for 10mm/min Force(N) 450 400 y
Fig. 4.2.1: Force versus Displacement graph (5mm/min)
Force vs Displacement for 10mm/min
Force(N)
450
400
y = 6.9614x - 0.1376
350
300
250
Force N
200
150
Linear (Force N)
100
50
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
-50
Displacement (mm)

Fig. 4.2.2: Force versus Displacement graph (10mm/min)

Force vs Displacement for 20mm/min Force(N) 450 400 y = 6.9238x - 0.6238 350 300 Force
Force vs Displacement for 20mm/min
Force(N)
450
400
y = 6.9238x - 0.6238
350
300
Force N
250
200
Linear (Force N)
150
100
50
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
-50
Displacement (mm)

Fig. 4.2.3: Force versus Displacement graph (20mm/min)

Obviously, from the graph plotted for each test speed, when can see that force is almost

linear with the displacement. This shows that the spring 1 has a linear stiffness regardless

the test speed. Figure 4.2.1 shows that for the test speed of 5 mm/min, the maximum force

for the stroke of 60 mm is around 406 N. Means that, to be able to displace the spring to

60mm, the required force is 406 N. The slope from the graph directly gives the spring

constant or the stiffness which is 6.8156 N/mm. In Figure 4.2.2 and 4.2.3, the maximum

force for 60 mm stroke is around 415 N and the stiffness for 10 mm/min and 20 mm/min

are 6.9614 N/mm and 6.9238 N/mm respectively. Clearly from the result obtained, the

spring stiffness did not change much with variable test speed. Table 4.2.1 summarized the

stiffness of each test speed.

Table 4.2.1: Summary of the spring 1 result

Speed Test

Maximum Force (N)

Slope/stiffness (N/mm)

5mm/min

406.2653

6.8156

10mm/min

416.9146

6.9614

20mm/min

414.7689

6.9238

Average

412.6496

6.9003

In the meantime, Figure 4.2.4, 4.2.5 and 4.2.6 illustrates the graph of force versus

displacement for Spring 2 for each 5mm/min, 10mm/min, and 20mm/min test speed. Force vs Displacement for
displacement for Spring 2 for each 5mm/min, 10mm/min, and 20mm/min test speed.
Force vs Displacement for 5mm/min
Force (N)
500
y = 7.2831x - 23.671
400
300
200
100
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Displacement (mm)
-100

Fig. 4.2.4: Force versus Displacement graph (5mm/min)

Force vs Displacement for 10mm/min Force (N) 500 y = 7.3711x - 21.129 400 300 200
Force vs Displacement for 10mm/min
Force (N)
500
y = 7.3711x - 21.129
400
300
200
100
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Displacement (mm)
-100
Fig. 4.2.5: Force versus Displacement graph (10mm/min)
Force vs Displacement for 20mm/min Force (N) 500 y = 7.3997x - 20.961 400 300 200
Force vs Displacement for 20mm/min
Force (N)
500
y = 7.3997x - 20.961
400
300
200
100
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Displacement (mm)
-100
Fig. 4.2.6: Force versus Displacement graph (20mm/min)

For the spring 2, from the graph plotted for each test speed, when can see that

force is also almost linear with the displacement. This shows that the spring 2 also has a

linear stiffness regardless the test speed. Figure 4.2.4 shows that for the test speed of 5

mm/min, the maximum force for the stroke of 60 mm is around 432 N. Means that, to be

able to displace the spring to 60mm, the required force is 432 N. This is acceptable since

the inner and outer diameter of the Spring 2 is larger than Spring 1. The stiffness for the

spring is 7.2831 N/mm. On the other hand, in Figure 4.2.5 and 4.2.6, the maximum forces

for 60mm stroke are 438 N and 439 N respectively. Meanwhile, the stiffness for

10mm/min and 20mm/min are 7.3711 N/mm and 7.3997 N/mm respectively. The

conclusion is, the spring stiffness also did not change much with variable test speed for

the Spring 2. Summary of the stiffness for each test speed is illustrated in Table 4.2.2.

Table 4.2.2: Summary of the spring 2 result

Speed Test

Maximum Force (N)

Slope/stiffness (N/mm)

5mm/min

  • 432.0145 7.2831

 

10mm/min

  • 437.8160 7.3711

 

20mm/min

  • 438.9286 7.3997

 

Average

  • 436.2530 7.3513

 
  • 4.3 STATIC EXPRI MENTAL TEST AND ANALYSIS For static experi ment test, from the experiments were conduct ed, it is expected

that the result that can be

drawn from the static test is; the stiffness for t he air suspension

definitely varied as it tra vel in vertical direction. The force versus displ acement for static

test showed some variab bility since it is nonlinear spring. Figure 4.3.1

illustrates force

versus displacement grap h for static test.

Force vs Displacement of Static t est Force (N) 14000 12000 10000 P ini.=2bar P ini.=4bar
Force vs Displacement of Static t est
Force (N)
14000
12000
10000
P ini.=2bar
P ini.=4bar
8000
P ini.=6bar
6000
P ini.=8bar
P ini.=10bar
4000
2000
0
0
0.3 0.7
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
Displacement (mm)

Fi g. 4.3.1: Displacement-Force curves in static test

As such, the result depicts the force (N) versus displacement (mm) graph

represents the compression cycle for the air spring. Consequently, it was found that the

compression of the gas took place quite slowly. The result clearly indicates that the initial

forces for each initial pressure to compress the air spring are higher and greater than coil

springs. This is due to the preloaded pressure created inside the air spring even when the

air spring is not yet being undergone compression cycles, the initial force already there.

Firstly, for the initial inlet pressure of 2 bar, the required force started to displace

the air spring around 24.23 N to be able to displace the air spring and then it significantly

increase up until 2629.03 N for maximum force of full 40 mm displacement. Then, for the

initial pressure of 4 bar, the starting force is 106.345 N and the maximum force is

  • 4187.41 N. It is followed by initial pressure of 6 bar where the starting force to compress

the air spring is 363. 79 N and maximum force required is 6301.37 N. Meanwhile, for 8

bar of initial pressure, it is found that the initial force is 605.691 N and the maximum is

  • 8198.56 N respectively. The last initial inlet pressure tested which is the highest with 10

bar recorded 1200.342 N of starting compressive force and ended with maximum force of

10861.39 N.

In the meantime, Figure 4.3.1 also directly indicates the variability of the stiffness

characteristic of the air spring for static condition. Obviously, it can be concluded that the

forces required are non-linear to displacement. Besides, it can be seen that for the first 20

mm of displacement, the graphs denotes some degressive pattern then it gradually

changing to progressive pattern for the last 20 mm displacement. This variability

indicates how the stiffness of the air changed due to pressure inside the air bag as it resists

the force on it and act like a spring. It also shows that, the higher pressure needs higher

force so that the air spring can be able to be displaced.

4.3.1 Empirical Model of air spring

Hence, from the force-displacement graph plotted before, the right empirical model can

be extracted from the curves. For this study, the model fitting technique is used to find the

appropriate model for each initial pressure of air spring. Basically model fitting technique

is a method of “finding a function that is as close as possible to containing all the data

points. Such function is also called a regression curve.” (Vas, L., n.np). Thus, Table 4.3.1

gives an overview of the suggested empirical model of air spring for each initial inlet

pressure.

Table 4.3.1: Curve functions with coefficient of determination for regression curves

Initial inlet

Curve functions

Coefficient of

pressure (bar)

determination (R 2 )

2.0

y = 0.1395x 3 - 9.0903x 2 + 199.93x + 372.58

0.9364

4.0

y = 0.2534x 3 - 16.823x 2 + 360.99x + 652.64

0.9224

6.0

y = 0.4104x 3 - 28.025x 2 + 596.59x + 1354.6

0.8994

8.0

y = 0.5325x 3 - 37.076x 2 + 810.33x + 1534

0.9421

10.0

y = 0.5612x 3 - 36.154x 2 + 731.85x + 4086.2

0.767

For the model fitting, Microsoft Excel 2007 is used to find the respective

regression curves for each initial pressure. For simplicity, polynomial with third order

function is used as it provides enough information and suitable for the curves plotted. For

sure to get a better equation the higher order function can be implied. Moreover, there is a

variable used to monitor the validity of the model which known as coefficient of

determination denoted by R 2 . Andale (2012) defined coefficient of determination as a

percent where “It gives you an idea of how many data points fall within the results of the

line formed by the regression equation”. The R 2 values usually in range of [0, 1] which

indicate how close the data points to be correctly on the polynomial regression curve.

Plus, if R 2 of one’s model is closer to 1, it is reliable and if it is closer to 0, then the other

model should be determined. Most of the R 2 values are quite nearly to value 1 which it is

reliable for being accepted as an empirical model. As being tabulated, the best model is

regression curve of 8.0 bar inlet pressure with R 2 =0.9421; it is followed by curve of 2.0,

4.0, 6.0 bar inlet pressure. The least regression curve indicates 10.0 bar inlet pressure with

R² = 0.767. From the table, it is clearly shows that every curve gives a good indication

how the regressive goes.

  • 4.3.2 Static Stiffness of air spring Nevertheless, from the curve fitting technique, the curve function equation can be

Plus, if R of one’s model is closer to 1, it is reliable and if it

used to find the stiffness of each initial pressure of the air spring. By differentiate the

curve function F=F(x), the stiffness (= ) for the air spring can be obtained where x is

the distance travelled. Thus, Figure 4.3.2 illustrates the air spring stiffness versus

displacement graph.

Static Stiffness versus displacement 900 800 700 2bar 600 4bar 500 6bar 400 8bar 300 10bar
Static Stiffness versus displacement
900
800
700
2bar
600
4bar
500
6bar
400
8bar
300
10bar
200
100
0
0.1 0.5
1
3
5 7
9 11
13
15
17
19
21
23 25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
-100
Displacement (mm)
Air Spring Stiffness (N/mm)

Fig. 4.3.2: Static stiffness-displacement curves

Figure 4.3.2 shows the result of differentiating force with respect to displacement.

The static stiffness is calculated under different initial inlet pressure. For initial pressure

of 2 bar, the starting force needed to displace the air spring produce the stiffness around

83.672 N/mm. As the air spring traveled, the stiffness is gradually decreased before it

reached the lowest stiffness which is around 17.268 N/mm before it rapidly increased up

to 89.344 N/mm. Meanwhile for the highest initial pressure of 10 bar, the stiffness started

at 226.18 N/mm with the lowest of 19.2928 N/mm before reached 298.18 N/mm of

maximum stiffness of 40mm distance traveled.

Other than that, overall curves show the quadratic-typed of graph. The last 20 mm

displacement also shows significant increases in progressive way as it travelled. It can be

said that the air spring is getting “stiffer” which good for prevent rolling while vehicles

perform braking or cornering. Besides, the graph clearly indicates that there is a lowest

area for each pressure within the displacement range. This means that at this particular

displacement, the air spring is ‘soft’ which is good for normal maneuvering. This is

consistent with Liu H. and Lee J. (2011) which claimed that if the air spring stiffness is

low, it has lower natural frequency that can help in reducing vibration.

4.3.3 Effective Area

On one hand, the stiffness of the air spring actually changing based on the

compressed air volume inside the air bellow as well as the diameter of the air bellow

itself. This is proved by Prof. Dr. Gavriloski V., and Jovanova J. (n.p) and Liu H. and Lee

J. (2011) which reported that the changes in the stiffness present when both internal

pressure and air bag size change. Therefore, one of the factors influenced the sensitivity

of the spring stiffness is the effective area of the cross section. Effective area as defined

by Firestone Industrial Company (2003) is “the load carrying area of the air spring. Its

diameter is determined by the distance between the centers of the radius of curvature of

the air spring loop.” (p. 38).So, the effective area of the air spring can be considered as an

average value for the outer diameter of air bellow and piston diameter inside the air bag.

Figure 4.3.3 shows how the effective area is found together with the formula.

average value for the outer diameter of air bellow and piston diameter inside the air bag.

Fig. 4.3.3: Finding the effective area of air spring [source: Firestone Industrial Company]

The pressure inside the air bellow consequently affects the outer diameter of the

air bellow. Thus, the higher the pressure inside the air bellow the bigger the diameter will

be. In order to find the effective area for this air spring, the initial pressures and force

required are used to calculate the approximation of the effective area. As such, this is

supported by Firestone Industrial Company (2003) where “Conversely, dividing the

measured output force of the spring by the measured internal gauge pressure obtains the

correct effective area. In many cases, this is the only practical way to obtain it.” (p. 7).

Nevertheless for this study, due to limited fund to acquire a pressure sensor to

measure the actual pressure inside the air bag, it only can be assumed that the effective

area of air spring will be increased as it travels. Higher pressure provides bigger effective

area of the air spring. This behavior indicates that the gas inside air bellow is “the

medium which is responsible for the elasticity of the complete setup since it fulfills the

most important tasks (spring rate) its properties are predominantly important for the

behavior of the whole suspension system” (Bauer, W., 2011). This clearly suggests that as

the sensitivity of the stiffness influenced by effective area as the pressure rise, the

effective diameter will be bigger. From the findings, it also can be concluded that the

variability of the stiffness provided by the air spring gives them an ability to vary load

capacities easily by play around with the gas pressure to compliment the desirable ride.

In general, the process involves in this study is compressed volume with air flow

process whereas the pressure is changes. Basically, the condition applied when the load is

added or removed from above the air spring cover. This is different for dynamic

operation, where the pressure, volume and temperature are instantaneously changing and

undergo polytrophic process as it present the actual compression and expansion curves. In

real life situation, when the load is added or removed, the height control valve operates to

add or remove sufficient air in the air spring to maintain the set air spring overall height.

Consequently it increases or decreases the pressure inside air spring and the amount

needed to provide the required lifting force to match the downward direction force

created by the new load condition, and then equilibrium can be reached again.

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

5.1 OVERVIEW

In conclusion, the study conducted successfully achieved the objectives. Yet, in

order to deeply understand air suspension characteristics, the static and dynamic

experiments must be implemented on the air spring thoroughly so that it can be applied

on the vehicles respectively. Throughout this study, the following conclusion can be

drawn.

The traditional helical compression spring actually gives a linear force-

displacement graph which makes the stiffness is constant.

Static stiffness of the air spring ought to be varied along with the pressure and

displacement. This actually matches the theoretical statement that air spring

posses a variable stiffness which make it more comfort for riding.

The empirical model of air spring can be generated by curve fittings whilst it

suggest how close the graph to the errors.

Air volume and pressure are important factors that largely affect air spring

characteristics.

Air spring static stiffness is sensitive to the effective area of the cross section and

it increases as the pressure and displacement going up.

The bottom line for this study is that the versatility of an air spring simply provides

more advantage over a coil-type since it has the ability to change suspension setup

anytime for better ride comfortability.

  • 5.2 FUTURE WORK AND RECOMMENDATION The characteristic of the air spring definitely open a new chapter of the

automotive suspension industry. Besides, the nearest future work that can be done is the

study on the dynamic stiffness of the air spring which will be far more complicated and

could not be carried out in this study due to various limitations.

Other than that, since the stiffness of the air spring depends on pressure inside the

air bag, it is recommended to have a force adjustable for air suspension. This might be

achieved by having another control unit focusing on adjusting the air suspension to meet

the desired ride. Other than that, for this study, the 3-way manual control valve is used.

So, it would be very helpful if the experiment use any proportional or solenoid valve in

the study.

Nowadays in industry, for all four air suspensions mounted on each side of front

and rear axles, the air is supplied merely from an air tank. The pressure lines for each air

suspension are also quite long. This is actually leaded to some pressure loss along the way

to reach the air bags. It is recommended that for each one of the air suspension, they have

their own air supply. This is actually made the air suspension more accurate in

determining the height of the vehicle as well as avoiding any pressure loss.

REFERENCES

  • 1. L. Hao & L. Jaecheon. 2011. Model Development of Automotive Air Spring Based on Experimental Research. pp. 585-590.

  • 2. William H. Humphreys. 1901. Pneumatic Spring for Vehicles, Patented No. 673682.

  • 3. Lansing, A. 2013. Michigan Company. Bellows versus Sleeve Air Bags. Retrieved on 10/12/2014 from airliftcompany.com/workshop/bellows-vs-sleeve-air-bags.

  • 4. Baxter, E. 2012. "How Air Suspension Systems Work". Retrieved on 7/4/2014 from http://auto.howstuffworks.com/air-suspension-systems.htm

  • 5. Y. T. QianChao. 2004. Working Principle of Air Spring. Retrieved on 23/11/2013from

airspringworld.com/profile/working-principle.html/129861/0.

  • 6. Vas, L. (n, n.p), Math 422: Empirical Model. Retrieved on 5/6/2014 from

http://www.usciences.edu/~lvas/Math422/Empirical_models.pdf.

  • 7. Bauer, W. 2011. Hydro pneumatic Suspension systems, chapter 2: Spring and Damping Characteristics of Hydro pneumatic Suspension Systems. pp. 20-22. Retrieved on 6/6/2014 from

http://www.springer.com/978-3-642-15146-0

  • 8. S. J. Lee. 2002. Development and analysis of an air spring model. International Journal of Automotive Technology. No. 4. pp. 471-479.

9.

Heißing, B. & Ersoy, M. 2010. Chassis Handbook, chapter 3: Chassis components Fundamentals, Driving Dynamics, Components, Mechatronics, Perspective. pp. 226-264.

  • 10. M. S. M. Sani, M.M. Rahman, M.M.Noor, K. Kadirgama & M. R. M. Rejab. 2008. Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Automotive Shock Absorber System. Malaysian Science and Technology Congress, MSTC08, 16-17 Dec 2008, KLCC, Malaysia.

  • 11. Andale. 2012. Coefficient of Determination: What it is and How to Calculate it. Retrieved on 5/6/2014 from http://www.statisticshowto.com/what-is-a-coefficient-of-determination/

  • 12. Giuseppe, Q. & Massimo, S.

2001.

.Air suspension Dimensionless Analysis and Design

Structure, Vehicle System Dynamics, No. 6. pp. 443-475.

  • 13. Ass. Prof. Dr. Gavriloski, V. & Jovanova, J. (n, n.p). Dynamic behavior of an air spring element. Retrieved on 5/6/2014 from

http://www.mech-

ing.com/journal/Archive/2010/4_5/1.Mashini/75_gavriloski.mtm10.pdf

  • 14. Cunningham, R. 2012. What a Negative Spring is and why it makes the Coil-Spring Nearly Obsolete.

Retrieved on 22/5/2014 from

http://www.pinkbike.com/news/Tech-Tuesday-negative-spring-air-shocks-2012.html

  • 15. Lane, K. 2002. Automotive A-Z: Lane's Complete Dictionary of Automotive Terms. Veloce Publishing Ltd. p 22.

  • 16. Firestone Industrial Products Company. 2003. Airide Design Guide: Suspension applications. Retrieved on 5/6/2014 from http://www.firestoneip.com/site-resources/fsip/literature/pdf/AirideDG.pdf

APPENDICES

a)

William W Hum phrey first air

spring for vehicle ”

suspension patent (No. 6736 82), “Pneumatic

a) William W Hum phrey first air spring for vehicle ” suspension patent (No. 6736 82),
b) Force-displacement curve of static for 2 bar initial pressure 2 bar pressure force vs displacement
b)
Force-displacement curve of static for 2 bar initial pressure
2 bar pressure force vs displacement
Force (N)
3000
2500
y = 0.1395x 3 - 9.0903x 2 + 199.93x + 372.58
R² = 0.9364
2000
P ini.=2bar
1500
Poly. (P ini.=2bar)
1000
500
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
  • c) Force-displacement curve of static for 4 bar initial pressure

4 bar pressure force vs displacement Force(N) 5000 4500 4000 y = 0.2534x 3 - 16.823x
4 bar pressure force vs displacement
Force(N)
5000
4500
4000
y = 0.2534x 3 - 16.823x 2 + 360.99x + 652.64
R² = 0.9224
3500
3000
2500
P ini.=4bar
2000
Poly. (P ini.=4bar)
1500
1000
500
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
Displacement (mm)
  • d) Force-displacement curve of static for 6 bar initial pressure

6 bar pressure force vs displacement Force (N) 7000 6000 5000 4000 y = 0.4104x 3
6 bar pressure force vs displacement
Force (N)
7000
6000
5000
4000
y = 0.4104x 3 - 28.025x 2 + 596.59x + 1354.6
R² = 0.8994
3000
2000
P ini.=6bar
1000
Poly. (P ini.=6bar)
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
Displacement (mm)
  • e) Force-displacement curve of static for 8 bar initial pressure

8 bar pressure force vs displacement Force (N) 10000 9000 y = 0.5325x 3 - 37.076x
8 bar pressure force vs displacement
Force (N)
10000
9000
y = 0.5325x 3 - 37.076x 2 + 810.33x + 1534
R² = 0.9421
8000
7000
6000
5000
P ini.=8bar
4000
Poly. (P ini.=8bar)
3000
2000
1000
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
Displacement (mm)
  • f) Force-displacement curve of static for 10 bar initial pressure

10 bar pressure force vs displacement Force (N) 14000 12000 y = 0.5612x 3 - 36.154x
10 bar pressure force vs displacement
Force (N)
14000
12000
y = 0.5612x 3 - 36.154x 2 + 731.85x + 4086.2
R² = 0.767
10000
8000
P ini.=10bar
6000
Poly. (P ini.=10bar)
4000
2000
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
Displacement (mm)
  • g) Static stiffness-displacement curve for 2 bar

2 bar static stiffness vs displacement Stiffness (N/mm) 250 200 150 2bar 100 50 0 0
2 bar static stiffness vs displacement
Stiffness
(N/mm)
250
200
150
2bar
100
50
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
displacement (mm)
  • h) Static stiffness-displacement curve for 4 bar

Stiffness 4 bar static stiffness vs displacement (N/mm) 400 350 300 250 200 4bar 150 100
Stiffness
4 bar static stiffness vs displacement
(N/mm)
400
350
300
250
200
4bar
150
100
50
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
-50
displacement (mm)
  • i) Static stiffness-displacement curve for 6 bar

6 bar static stiffness vs displacement 700 600 500 400 300 6bar 200 100 0 0
6 bar static stiffness vs displacement
700
600
500
400
300
6bar
200
100
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
-100
  • j) Static stiffness-displacement curve for 8 bar

Stiffness 8 bar static stiffness vs displacement (N/mm) 900 800 700 600 500 400 8bar 300
Stiffness
8 bar static stiffness vs displacement
(N/mm)
900
800
700
600
500
400
8bar
300
200
100
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
-100
Displacement (mm)
  • k) Static stiffness-displacement curve for 10 bar

10 bar static stiffness vs displacement 800 700 600 500 400 10bar 300 200 100 0
10 bar static stiffness vs displacement
800
700
600
500
400
10bar
300
200
100
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
-100