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Soil is created from below by the breakup of underlying rock material and from above by the

biological actions of production and decay.


- Starts in the unconsolidated material that lies above bedrock, known as the regolith. This
regolith serves as the parent material, which is the mineral material from which a soil

Weathering the break-up of solid rock.

Weathering includes both physical changes in the solid material, which are known as
disintegration and chemical changes known as decomposition.

Form of Decomposition Carbonation and Solution-

Water often combines with CO2 to form a weak acid called CARBONIC ACID.

Disintegration occurs with and without plants and animals.

Soils- differ around the world but they are basically composed of weathered, rock, air, water,
decomposed organic material and various organisms, all working together in a complex
ecosystem capable of supporting the growth of land plants; Not all soils have all these

SOIL- is a very complex and dynamic system of many interacting factors and components that
affected by plants. Soil consists of:

1. A solid fraction: that is rock, rock fragments and minerals

2. An Organic fraction; the decayed and decaying residues of plants, microbes and soil
3. A liquid fraction, including water and dissolved minerals.
4. A soil atmosphere or soil air.

Pore Spaces the voids found between the solids.

Pore spaces vary in size and continuity and are an important physical property of soils


Parent rocks contain the nutrients that will be found in parent material and later in the
solid. Rocks are made up of consolidated material, unconsolidated material, or both.

1. IGNEOUS ROCKS - (lime, lava,magma) are formed from the hardening of various kinds
of molten rock material and are composed of minerals such as quarts and feldspar.
2. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS are generally unconsolidated and composed of rock
fragments that have been transported and deposited by wind, water or glaciers ex.
Limestone, sandstone and shale are example.
3. METAMORPHIC ROCKS- form from igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been
subjected to sufficiently high pressures and temperatures to change their structure and
composition, slate, gneiss, schist, and marble are example of this kind of rocks.


SOIL is derived from rocks, minerals and decaying organic matter.

The major processes in soil formation are: Accumulation, Transformation of the parent material.

1.) Parent Material accumulates from the breakdown of rocks by weather, this process
must occur before soil can begin to form. The parent material accumulates as an
unconsolidated mass that later differentiates into characteristic layers called horizons.

Parent Material

The formation and accumulation of material by chemical and physical weathering of

parent rocks is the first step in the development of soil.

Physical weathering is the physical breakdown of large pieces of rock into smaller and smaller
pieces. Changes in temperature greatly affect the rates of physical weathering.
Parent material
The rock from which soil is formed is called parent material. This can come
from weathered rock, volcanic ash or sediments moved and deposited by water, wind or

2.) Climate
Climate (temperature and rainfall) plays a large part in the weathering (breaking down) of parent

Temperature effects:

Rocks expand and contract as they heat up or cool, breaking them apart.

Temperature controls the rates of chemical weathering (when water interacts with minerals in
the rocks to create chemical reactions). Chemical weathering happens much faster in warm
places like Northland than it does further south.

Warmer temperatures may also mean more plant growth, soil organisms and litter

Rain effects:

Increased moisture means more plant growth.

Rainwater washes materials off slopes.

Rain dissolves minerals and leaches them deeper into the soil.

3.)Living organisms
Living things influence soil formation in many ways. Plants, microorganisms, animals and even
humans can make a difference. Once a plant community becomes established, it has a big
effect on soil development. Tree roots penetrate deeply into soils, bringing up minerals and
incorporating them into organic matter. Grasses penetrate less deeply but have increased
biological activity and more rapid nutrient cycling.

Te Koporu sand

a soil formed in a wet temperate climate under forest and characterised by a whitish-grey layer.

Earthworms and other animals tunnel through and mix the soil. They aerate the soil and allow
water to penetrate more deeply. Humans also influence soil formation

Topography refers to the lay of the land the elevation and steepness of hills. Steep slopes can
be more easily eroded, and rainfall tends to run off rather than infiltrate the soil.

Topography also influences climate

It takes a long time for soil to develop. For example, once rock is exposed in a warm, humid
climate, it may take a hundred years for mosses and lichens to take hold. They trap dust and
organic matter and break down the rock. Within a few hundred years, grasses and shrubs
become established. Roots begin to penetrate the rocks and accelerate physical and chemical
weathering. Over thousands of years, climate, organisms and topography influence how parent
materials are turned into soils.

Horizon - is a distinct layer of soil having physical and/or chemical differences resulting from
soil-forms processes as seen in a vertical cross section. HORIZONS are layers that are
approximately parallel to the surface and have distinct characteristics that are related to the
process of soil formation.

1. O Horizon the top horizon consist primarily of organic material, which serves as a
precursor for soil formation.
-Surface layer that includes leaves and twigs.
-Middle layer that include partially decomposed organic material.
-A bottom layer consist of humus which is partially decomposed plant or animal
-Consist of organic matter mixed with mineral material.
-Most material is mineral as opposed to organic.
-Also called top soil.
3. E HORIZON or eluvial
-Eluvial comes from the Latin word that means to wash out.
-The layer form which minerals are leached as water percolates through the soil.
4. B HORIZON or Illuvial
-Also known as subsoil.
-lluvial come from the Latin word meaning to wash into.
-This horizon accumulates the minerals that wash out from the eluvial horizon,
such as iron and aluminum oxides (as they accumulate these minerals often give
the illuvial layer a striking color.)
-Includes regolith or substratum.
-Consist of the parent material from which the soil formed.
-This horizon shows little or no sign of soil formation.
-This horizon usually supports little or no biological activity.
-Relatively little weathering
-Calcium or magnesium accumulates in this horizon.
-Consist of hard bedrock.
-Bedrock can consist of basalt, granite, quartzite, or other rock.
Mineral Deposits

A mineral is a pure inorganic substance that occurs naturally in the

earths crust. All of the Earths crust, except the rather small
proportion of the crust that contains organic material, is made up of
minerals. Some minerals consist of a single element such as gold,
silver, diamond (carbon), and sulphur.
1. Mineral reserves/Ores
2. Mineral Resources
A. Inferred
B. Indicated
C. Measured

Mineral Extraction Practices

Mining is extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the

earth usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposits. These
deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner.

1. Prehistoric Mining
2. Ancient Mining
3. Europe Mining
4. Philippine Context

Mining Techniques

1. Surface
2. Sub Surface