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Transcript

Since our earliest days, humankind has dreamed of soaring through the sky,
alongside the birds.
Welcome to Watch Mojo.com, and today well be taking a look at the history of
aviation.

Man has been building primitive flying apparatuses since before the Common
Era.
However, famed Italian inventor Leonardo da Vinci is credited with designing
early ancestors of the airplane based on the flight of birds, including the
parachute and an early version of the propeller.

1783 was considered a breakthrough year in aviation. For example, hot-air


balloons became popular in Europe with help from the Montgolfier brothers.
More significant advances came at the end of the Nineteenth Century when
gliders became more well-developed.

In 1848, John Stringfellow managed the first powered flight by using a steam-
powered flying machine.

Florence Hardgrave then developed a rotary engine by introducing the use of


compressed air. Also involved in the flight race was Samuel Pierpont Langley,
who attempted several piloted and unpiloted efforts.

His aerodrome was later considered the first machine capable of flight.
Just days after Langley gave up his attempts, the Wright Brothers achieved a
breakthrough.

On December 17th 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright managed the first reputable
instance of sustained flight by a heavier than air vehicle, they called the Wright
Flier.

This first flight traveled 120 feet in twelve seconds. Within five years, the
Wrights had lengthened their flight time to over an hour.

Unfortunately, shortly thereafter, their experiment resulted in the first instance


of an airplane passenger death due to a crash.

Despite this setback, flight quickly became ubiquitous, and its use increased
exponentially because of its role as a military tool.

Leading up to World War One, airplanes were mainly used for photography and
reconnaissance missions and not weapons of war.

To make them viable tools, they required major revisions. These ranged from
the creation of pusher biplanes, where the engine and propeller were located
behind the wings to tractor biplanes, which featured these devices in front of
the wing.
Finally when it was insured that the machine guns could steadily be mounted,
air warfare became a reality with the invention of fighter planes.

Soon after the onset of war, planes became devastating aerial bombers when
they began to feature two to four engines.
In the period between the world wars, many important innovations took place.

Instead of wood, planes were built of aluminum, and engines became much
more powerful as well. Airmail also became a reality as did transcontinental
flights.

Flight records were constantly broken, and the first round the world trip
occurred in 1924.

World War Two firmly established fixed-wing aircraft as a decisive factor for
military victory. By the time the smoke cleared over Europe, humanity had
developed jet and rocket propulsion as well as radar technology.

The importance of aircraft to warfare increased with the advent of the nuclear
bomb: in 1945, a minor military contractor named Boeing, became the largest
aircraft manufacturer in the world.

They developed new technologies that allowed for pressurized cabins, more
aerodynamic designs, new metals, larger sizes, and turbo-jets capable of
supersonic speed.
By 1947, the sound barrier was broken, and regular transoceanic flights
became a reality within two years.
Boeing introduced the B-52 in the 1950s. And this strategic bomber was
equipped with eight turbo-jet engines, intercontinental range, and a capacity of
half-a-million pounds.
In 1963, a small jet aircraft called the Learjet became a reality.
Six years later, Boeing developed the revolutionary 747. That wide-bodied,
turbo-fan powered, commercial airliner became the most successful model
ever created.
And it served as a foundation for countless other models.
The 1970s saw the arrival of the supersonic Concord Jet and the Airbus.
Leading up to the nineties, designers began adapting a flying wing design and
the use of composite metals. While this made conventional radar obsolete, it
was meant only for military applications.
This also spurred the creation of crafts, such as the Lockheed-Martins F-17
Stealth Fighter.
Air travel has become the fastest method of global transportation and a
major pillar of warfare. Disasters like the Hindenburg acted as cautionary tales.
But flight has advanced to the point where it is now labeled as the safest
means available.
* * * * * * *
Questions
1. People have wanted to fly like birds since the Industrial Revolution of the
1800s. True or false?
2. Which came first, hot-air balloons or airplanes?
3. Was the invention of the airplane sudden and discrete, or was it a long,
continuous, developmental process?
4. Who is credited with inventing the airplane? Were their venture and lives a
complete success?
5. The military and warfare was a major incentive to the progress and
development of airplanes. Is this right or wrong? What were some early
innovations and improvements?
6. Did aviators always strive to break records? What are some examples?
7. What was the most successful or popular airplane model? Had Boeing
always been a major airplane company?
8. Stealth technology is very important for civil (commercial) aviation. Is this
correct or incorrect? What is stealth technology?

A. Our country manufactures airplanes. Yes or no? Does it manufacture airplane


components?
B. What type of airplanes do airlines in your country operate?
C. Where do military jets (warplanes) come from?
D. Many young boys want to become pilots when they grow up. What do you
think?
E. What will happen in the future regarding aviation?

Desde nuestros primeros das, la humanidad ha soado con volar por el cielo, junto a
los pjaros.
Bienvenido a Watch Mojo.com, y hoy vamos a echar un vistazo a la historia de la
aviacin.

El hombre ha estado construyendo aparatos voladores primitivos desde antes de la era


comn.
Sin embargo, el famoso inventor italiano Leonardo da Vinci es acreditado con el diseo
de los primeros antepasados del avin basado en el vuelo de las aves, incluyendo el
paracadas y una versin temprana de la hlice.

1783 fue considerado un ao de avance en la aviacin. Por ejemplo, los globos de aire
caliente se hicieron populares en Europa con la ayuda de los hermanos Montgolfier.
Avances ms significativos se produjeron a finales del siglo XIX cuando los planeadores
se desarrollaron ms bien.

En 1848, John Stringfellow manej el primer vuelo accionado usando una mquina
voladora accionada por vapor.

Florence Hardgrave desarroll entonces un motor rotatorio introduciendo el uso de aire


comprimido. Tambin estuvo involucrado en la carrera de vuelo Samuel Pierpont
Langley, quien intent varios esfuerzos pilotos y no-coordinados.

Su aerdromo fue considerado ms tarde como la primera mquina capaz de huir.


Pocos das despus de que Langley abandonara sus intentos, los Hermanos Wright
lograron un gran avance.

El 17 de diciembre de 1903, Orville y Wilbur Wright manejaron el primer caso de vuelo


sostenido sostenido por un vehculo ms pesado que areo, que llamaron el Wright
Flier.
Este primer vuelo viaj 120 pies en doce segundos. En cinco aos, los Wrights haban
alargado su tiempo de vuelo a ms de una hora.

Desafortunadamente, poco despus, su experimento dio como resultado el primer caso


de muerte de un pasajero de avin debido a un accidente.

A pesar de este revs, el vuelo rpidamente se hizo omnipresente, y su uso aument


exponencialmente debido a su papel como herramienta militar.

Llevando a la Primera Guerra Mundial, los aviones se utilizaron principalmente para la


fotografa y misiones de reconocimiento - y no armas de guerra.

Para hacerlas herramientas viables, requirieron revisiones importantes. stos variaban


de la creacin de los biplanos del empujador, donde el motor y la hlice fueron situados
detrs de las alas a los biplanos del tractor, que ofrecieron estos dispositivos delante
del ala.

Finalmente, cuando se asegur que las ametralladoras podan montarse


constantemente, la guerra area se hizo realidad con la invencin de aviones de
combate.

Poco despus del inicio de la guerra, los aviones se convirtieron en bombarderos


areos devastadores cuando empezaron a contar con dos o cuatro motores.

n el perodo entre las guerras mundiales, muchas innovaciones importantes ocurrieron.

En lugar de madera, los aviones se construyeron de aluminio, y los motores se hicieron


mucho ms poderosos tambin. El correo areo tambin se convirti en una realidad al
igual que los vuelos transcontinentales.

Los registros de vuelo se rompieron constantemente, y la primera ronda del viaje


mundial ocurri en 1924.

La Segunda Guerra Mundial estableci firmemente aviones de ala fija como un factor
decisivo para la victoria militar. Para cuando el humo despej sobre Europa, la
humanidad haba desarrollado propulsin del jet y del cohete as como tecnologa del
radar.

La importancia de los aviones para la guerra aument con el advenimiento de la


bomba nuclear: en 1945, un contratista militar menor llamado Boeing, se convirti en
el mayor fabricante de aviones del mundo.

Desarrollaron nuevas tecnologas que permitieron cabinas presurizadas, diseos ms


aerodinmicos, nuevos metales, tamaos ms grandes y turborreactores capaces de
velocidad supersnica.
En 1947, la barrera del sonido se rompi, y los vuelos transocenicos regulares se
convirtieron en realidad dentro de dos aos.
Boeing introdujo el B-52 en los aos 50. Y este bombardero estratgico estaba
equipado con ocho motores turbo-jet, alcance intercontinental, y una capacidad de
medio milln de libras.
En 1963, un pequeo avin de reaccin llamado Learjet se convirti en una realidad.
Seis aos ms tarde, Boeing desarroll el revolucionario 747. Ese avin de pasajeros
comercial de gran cuerpo, turbo-ventilador, se convirti en el modelo ms exitoso
jams creado.
Y sirvi de base para innumerables modelos ms.
Los aos 70 vieron la llegada del avin supersnico de la concordia y del Airbus.
Llevando hasta los aos noventa, los diseadores comenzaron a adaptar un diseo de
ala voladora y el uso de metales compuestos. Si bien esto hizo que el radar
convencional fuera obsoleto, estaba destinado slo a aplicaciones militares.
Esto tambin estimul la creacin de artesanas, como el Lockheed-Martin F-17 Stealth
Fighter.
Los viajes areos se han convertido en el mtodo ms rpido de transporte global - y
un importante pilar de la guerra. Desastres como el Hindenburg actuaron como cuentos
de advertencia.
Pero el vuelo ha avanzado hasta el punto en que ahora es etiquetado como el medio
ms seguro disponible

1. La gente ha querido volar como pjaros desde la Revolucin Industrial de los aos
1800. Verdadero o falso?
2. Cul fue primero, globos de aire caliente o aviones?
3. Fue la invencin del avin sbita y discreta, o fue un largo, continuo, proceso de
desarrollo?
4. A quin se le atribuye la invencin del avin? Fue su empresa y vive un xito
completo?
5. El ejrcito y la guerra fueron un gran incentivo para el progreso y desarrollo de los
aviones. esto esta bien o mal? Cules fueron algunas de las primeras innovaciones y
mejoras?
6. Los aviadores siempre se esfuerzan por batir rcords? Cules son algunos
ejemplos?
7. Cul fue el modelo de avin ms "exitoso" o popular? Boeing siempre haba sido
una gran compaa de aviones?
8. La tecnologa furtiva es muy importante para la aviacin civil (comercial). Es
correcto o incorrecto? Qu es la tecnologa furtiva?

A. Nuestro pas fabrica aviones. Si o no? Produce componentes del avin?


B. Qu tipo de aviones operan las aerolneas en su pas?
C. De dnde provienen los aviones militares?
D. Muchos muchachos jvenes quieren convertirse en pilotos cuando crezcan. Qu
piensas?
E. Qu ocurrir en el futuro con respecto a la aviacin?