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Lateral Earth Pressures

Retaining Structures
Prof. Dr. Mustafa Aytekin
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Lateral Support
In geotechnical engineering, it is often necessary to
prevent lateral soil movements.

Tie rod
Anchor

Sheet pile

Cantilever Braced excavation Anchored sheet pile 2


retaining wall
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Lateral Support

We have to estimate the lateral soil pressures acting on


these structures, to be able to design them.

Gravity Retaining S il nailing


Soil ili
Reinforced earth wall 3
wall
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Soil Nailing

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Sheet Pile

Sheet piles marked for driving


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Sheet Pile

Sheet pile wall


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Sheet Pile

During installation Sheet pile wall

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Lateral Support

Reinforced earth walls are increasingly becoming popular.

geosynthetics

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Lateral Support
filled with
Crib walls have been used in Queensland. soil
Good drainage & allow plant growth.
Looks good. Interlocking
stretchers
and headers

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Earth Pressure at Rest


In a homogeneous natural soil deposit,
GL

v
h
X

the ratio h/
/v is a constant known as coefficient
of earth pressure at rest (K0).

Importantly, at K0 state, there are no lateral strains.


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Estimating K0

For normally consolidated clays and granular soils,


K0 = 1 sin

For overconsolidated clays,


K0,overconsolidated = K0,normally consolidated OCR0.5

From elastic analysis,



K0 Poisson s
Poissons
1 ratio

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Active/Passive Earth Pressures


- in granular soils

Wall moves
away from
f soil
il

Wall moves A
towards soil
B

smooth wall

Lets look at the soil elements A and B during the


wall movement. 12
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Active Earth Pressure


- in granular soils

v = z
Initially there is no lateral movement.
Initially, movement
v z
h = K0 v = K0 z
h
A
As the wall moves away from the soil,
v remains the same; and
h dec
decreases
eases ttill failure
a u e occurs.
occu s.

Active state
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Active Earth Pressure


- in granular soils

As the wall moves away from the soil,


Initially (K0 state)


Failure (Active state)

v
active earth
pressure
p decreasing h
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Active Earth Pressure


- in granular soils

WJM Rankine
(1820-1872)

[h]active v

[ h ' ]active K A v '


Rankines coefficient of
1 sin active earth pressure
KA tan 2 (45 / 2)
1 sin 15
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Active Earth Pressure


- in granular soils
Failure plane is at
45 + /2 to horizontal v
h
45 + /2 A

90+

[h]active v

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Active Earth Pressure


- in granular soils

As the wall moves away from the soil,

h decreases till failure occurs.


occurs

h K0 state
v z
Active
h
A state

wall movement

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Active Earth Pressure


- in cohesive soils

Follow the same steps as


for granular soils. Only
difference is that c 0.

[ h ' ]active K A v '2c K A

Everything else the same


as for granular soils.
soils
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Example

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What is the excavation depth


without a support

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[ h ' ]active K A v '2c K A

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Solved in the classroom

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Passive Earth Pressure


- in granular soils

Initially, soil is in K0 state.

As the wall moves towards the soil,


v remains the same,
same and
v
h increases till failure occurs.
h
B
Passive state

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Passive Earth Pressure


- in granular soils

As the wall moves towards the soil,



Initially (K0 state)
Failure (Active state)

passive earth
pressure

increasing h
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Passive Earth Pressure


- in granular soils


v [h]passive

[ h ' ] passive K P v '


Rankines coefficient of
1 sin passive earth pressure
KP tan 2 ( 45 / 2)
1 sin 33
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Passive Earth Pressure


- in granular soils
Failure plane is at
45 - /2 to horizontal v
45 - /2 h
A

90+

v [h]passive

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Passive Earth Pressure


- in granular soils

As the wall moves towards the soil,


h increases till failure occurs.
occurs

h Passive state
v
h
B
K0 state

wall movement

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Passive Earth Pressure


- in cohesive soils

Follow the same steps as


for granular soils. Only
difference is that c 0.

[ h ' ] passive K P v '2c K P

Everything else the same


as for granular soils.
soils
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Earth Pressure Distribution


- in granular soils
[h]active
PA and PP are the
resultant
l active
i andd
passive thrusts on
the wall

[h]passive H

0 5 KAH
PA=0.5 H2

h 0.5 KPh2
PP=0.5

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KPh KAH
h
Passive state

Active state
K0 state

Wall movement
(not to scale)
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Rankiness Earth Pressure Theory


Rankine

[ h ' ]active K A v '2c K A

[ h ' ] passive K P v '2c K P

Assumes smooth wall

Applicable only on vertical walls

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Retaining Walls - Applications

Road
Train

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Retaining Walls - Applications

highway

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Retaining Walls - Applications

High rise building


High-rise

basement wall

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Gravity Retaining Walls

cement mortar
plain
l i concrete
t or
stone masonry
cobbles

They rely on their self weight to


support the backfill
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Cantilever Retaining Walls

Reinforced;
smaller section
than gravity
walls
alls

They act like vertical cantilever,


fixed to the ground 44
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Design of Retaining Wall


- in granular soils

2 2
Block no.

3 3
1
1

toe
toe

Wi = weight of block i
Analysey the stabilityy of this rigid g bodyy with
xi = horizontal distance of centroid of block i from toe
vertical walls (Rankine theory valid) 45
Safety against sliding along the base
PP {{W } tan
soil concrete friction
soil-concrete
Wi }. angle 0.5 0.7
Fsliding
PA

to be g
greater
than 1.5

2 2
PA H
3 3 PA
1
PP 1
S h PP
toe S
R
toe
y R
y

PP= 0.5 KPhh2 PA= 0.5 KAH2


Safety against overturning about toe
PP h / 3 {Wi xi }
Foverturning
PA H/3

to be g
greater
than 2.0

2 2
PA H
3 3 PA
1
PP 1
S h PP
toe S
R
toe
y R
y
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Points to Think About

How does the key help in improving the stability


against sliding?

Shouldnt we design retaining walls to resist at-rest


(than active) earth pressures since the thrust on the
wall is greater in K0 state (K0 > KA)?

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THE END

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