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# Lateral Earth Pressures

Retaining Structures
Prof. Dr. Mustafa Aytekin

Lateral Support
In geotechnical engineering, it is often necessary to
prevent lateral soil movements.

Tie rod
Anchor

Sheet pile

retaining wall

Lateral Support

## We have to estimate the lateral soil pressures acting on

these structures, to be able to design them.

## Gravity Retaining S il nailing

Soil ili
Reinforced earth wall 3
wall

Soil Nailing

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Sheet Pile

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Sheet Pile

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Sheet Pile

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Lateral Support

## Reinforced earth walls are increasingly becoming popular.

geosynthetics

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Lateral Support
filled with
Crib walls have been used in Queensland. soil
Good drainage & allow plant growth.
Looks good. Interlocking
stretchers

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## Earth Pressure at Rest

In a homogeneous natural soil deposit,
GL

v
h
X

the ratio h/
/v is a constant known as coefficient
of earth pressure at rest (K0).

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Estimating K0

K0 = 1 sin

## For overconsolidated clays,

K0,overconsolidated = K0,normally consolidated OCR0.5

K0 Poisson s
Poissons
1 ratio

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## Active/Passive Earth Pressures

- in granular soils

Wall moves
away from
f soil
il

Wall moves A
towards soil
B

smooth wall

## Lets look at the soil elements A and B during the

wall movement. 12

## Active Earth Pressure

- in granular soils

v = z
Initially there is no lateral movement.
Initially, movement
v z
h = K0 v = K0 z
h
A
As the wall moves away from the soil,
v remains the same; and
h dec
decreases
eases ttill failure
a u e occurs.
occu s.

Active state
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## Active Earth Pressure

- in granular soils

## Initially (K0 state)

Failure (Active state)

v
active earth
pressure
p decreasing h
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## Active Earth Pressure

- in granular soils

WJM Rankine
(1820-1872)

[h]active v

## [ h ' ]active K A v '

Rankines coefficient of
1 sin active earth pressure
KA tan 2 (45 / 2)
1 sin 15

## Active Earth Pressure

- in granular soils
Failure plane is at
45 + /2 to horizontal v
h
45 + /2 A

90+

[h]active v

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## Active Earth Pressure

- in granular soils

occurs

h K0 state
v z
Active
h
A state

wall movement

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## Active Earth Pressure

- in cohesive soils

## Follow the same steps as

for granular soils. Only
difference is that c 0.

## Everything else the same

as for granular soils.
soils
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Example

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22

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## What is the excavation depth

without a support

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## Passive Earth Pressure

- in granular soils

## As the wall moves towards the soil,

v remains the same,
same and
v
h increases till failure occurs.
h
B
Passive state

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## Passive Earth Pressure

- in granular soils

## As the wall moves towards the soil,

Initially (K0 state)
Failure (Active state)

passive earth
pressure

increasing h
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## Passive Earth Pressure

- in granular soils

v [h]passive

## [ h ' ] passive K P v '

Rankines coefficient of
1 sin passive earth pressure
KP tan 2 ( 45 / 2)
1 sin 33

## Passive Earth Pressure

- in granular soils
Failure plane is at
45 - /2 to horizontal v
45 - /2 h
A

90+

v [h]passive

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## Passive Earth Pressure

- in granular soils

## As the wall moves towards the soil,

h increases till failure occurs.
occurs

h Passive state
v
h
B
K0 state

wall movement

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## Passive Earth Pressure

- in cohesive soils

## Follow the same steps as

for granular soils. Only
difference is that c 0.

## Everything else the same

as for granular soils.
soils
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## Earth Pressure Distribution

- in granular soils
[h]active
PA and PP are the
resultant
l active
i andd
passive thrusts on
the wall

[h]passive H

0 5 KAH
PA=0.5 H2

h 0.5 KPh2
PP=0.5

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KPh KAH
h
Passive state

Active state
K0 state

Wall movement
(not to scale)

Rankine

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Train

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highway

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High-rise

basement wall

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cement mortar
plain
l i concrete
t or
stone masonry
cobbles

## They rely on their self weight to

support the backfill
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Reinforced;
smaller section
than gravity
walls
alls

## They act like vertical cantilever,

fixed to the ground 44

## Design of Retaining Wall

- in granular soils

2 2
Block no.

3 3
1
1

toe
toe

Wi = weight of block i
Analysey the stabilityy of this rigid g bodyy with
xi = horizontal distance of centroid of block i from toe
vertical walls (Rankine theory valid) 45
Safety against sliding along the base
PP {{W } tan
soil concrete friction
soil-concrete
Wi }. angle 0.5 0.7
Fsliding
PA

to be g
greater
than 1.5

2 2
PA H
3 3 PA
1
PP 1
S h PP
toe S
R
toe
y R
y

## PP= 0.5 KPhh2 PA= 0.5 KAH2

PP h / 3 {Wi xi }
Foverturning
PA H/3

to be g
greater
than 2.0

2 2
PA H
3 3 PA
1
PP 1
S h PP
toe S
R
toe
y R
y

against sliding?

## Shouldnt we design retaining walls to resist at-rest

(than active) earth pressures since the thrust on the
wall is greater in K0 state (K0 > KA)?

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