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Organisational

Behaviour
Motivation Theories
MOTIVATION
-CONTENT
THEORIES
Definitions of
Motivation
Motivation takes place when people
expect that a course of action is likely
to lead to the attainment of a goal - a
valued reward that satisfies their
particular needs. (Armstrong:1997).
The willingness to exert high levels of
effort toward organisational goals,
conditioned by the efforts ability to
satisfy some individual needs.
(Robbins:1998).
Basic Motivational
Model (Mullins:1996)
Needs or result in Driving Force to achieve
expectations (behaviour or Desired Goals
action)

which
feedback provide
Fulfillment
Concept of Motivation
The underlying concept of motivation
is some driving force within
individuals by which they attempt to
achieve some goal in order to fulfil
some need or expectation.
Peoples behaviour is determined by
what motivates them. Their
performance is a product of both
ability level and motivation.
Performance = function (ability X
motivation)
McClellands
Achievement
Motivation Theory
McClelland identified different
motivational categories of people
and if you could identify which
category a person fell into it
would help establish which
patterns of motivation would lead
to effective performance and
success at work.
McClellands
Achievement
Motivation
Three motives Theory
identified by
McClelland:

Need for
Achievement
Need for Power
Need for
Affiliation
1. Need for
Achievement
The need for achievement is the desire to
consistently want challenging tasks
demanding responsibility and application.
McClelland sees this need as the most
critical for the organisations growth and
success.
This need is linked to entrepreneurial
spirit and the development of available
resources.
2. Need for Power
The need for power is directed to the
manager working for an organisation
that is concerned with group goals and
the power is exercised on behalf of
other people, this is socialised power
and should be distinguished from
personalised power which is
characterised by satisfaction from
exercising dominance over other people.
3. Need for Affiliation
This is the need for good social and
personal relations with people.
It is related to Maslow social needs
- the need to belong.
If an individual does not experience
any sense of belonging within the
organisation they will not be
motivated to perform well. .
Types of Motivation
Theories
Content Theories
Process Theories
CONTENT THEORIES OF
MOTIVATION
MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
HERTZBERG TWO FACTOR
THEORY
ALDERFERS ERG THEORY
Content Theories
These theories attempt to explain those
specific things which actually motivate
the individual at work.
These theories are concerned with
identifying peoples needs and their
relative strengths, and the goals they
pursue in order to satisfy these needs.
Content theories place emphasis on what
motivates human behaviour i.e. the
wants and needs that people are trying
to satisfy.
Maslows Hierarchy of
Needs
Basic proposition is that people are
wanting beings, they always want
more, and what they want depends on
what they already have.
Hierarchy ranges through 5 levels and
is displayed in the form of a pyramid
implying a thinning out of needs as
people progress up the hierarchy.
Ascending order implies that it is the
next unachieved level that acts as the
motivator.
HERTZBERG 2 FACTOR

THEORY
Herzbergs Dual-Factor
Theory
Herzbergs original study consisted of
interviews with 203 accountants and
engineers.
The object of the research being to
design jobs that provided job
satisfaction, thereby encouraging
higher levels of performance.
This process developed into job
enrichment.
Hygiene factors
are those whose
absence can create
job dissatisfaction:
Supervision
Company policy
Working conditions
Salary
Peer relationship
Security
Hygiene or
Maintenance Factors
(Herzberg)
These are the factors, which if absent,

cause dissatisfaction.
They are related to the job context and
concerned with the job environment.
They serve to prevent dissatisfaction.
They act as a platform upon with the
satisfaction factors can be built.
Motivators or Growth
Factors (Herzberg)
These factors, if present, serve to
motivate the individual to superior
effort and performance.
These factors are related to the job
content of the work itself.
The strength of these factors will
affect feelings of satisfaction or no
satisfaction, but not dissatisfaction.
Motivator factors increase job
satisfaction:

Achievement
Recognition
Work itself
Responsibility
Advancement
Growth
Alderfers ERG Theory
This is a modified need hierarchy
model and it condenses Maslows
five levels of need into only three
levels based on the core needs of:
Existence
Relatedness
Growth
Alderfers ERG Theory

Existence Relatedness Growth

Physiological and material needs. Social, interpersonal and friendship needs. Personal growth, development, self-respect.
Alderfers ERG Theory
Existence needs are concerned with
sustaining human existence and survival
and cover physiological and safety needs
of a material nature.
Relatedness needs are concerned with
relationships to the social environment
and cover love or belonging, affiliation
and meaningful interpersonal relations of
a safety or esteem nature.
Alderfers ERG Model
Growth needs are concerned with the
development of potential and cover
self-esteem and self-actualisation.
More than one need can be activated
at the same time - a frustration-
regression process e.g. if an individual
is continually frustrated in an attempt
to satisfy growth needs, relatedness
needs may reassume most importance.
Alderfers ERG Theory
ERG theory states that an
individual is motivated to satisfy
one or more basic sets of needs.
If a persons needs at a particular
level are blocked then attention
should be focused on the
satisfaction of needs at the other
levels.
Adams EQUITY THEORY
An employee compares her/his job's inputs-outcomes
ratio with that of referents.
If the employee perceives inequity, she/he
will act to correct the inequity:
Lower productivity
Reduced quality
Increased absenteeism
Voluntary resignation.
J. Stacey Adams, 1965
PROCESS THEORIES
EXPECTANCY THEORY
PORTER LAWLER MODEL
Process Theories
These theories attempt to identify
the relationship among the dynamic
variables which make up motivation.
They are concerned more with how
behaviours are initiated, directed and
sustained.
Process theories place emphasis on
the actual process of motivation,
looking at how the external context
drives people to behave.
Expectancy Theory
Vrooms expectancy theory(1964)
maintains that employees behave in
ways they expect will produce positive
outcomes.
The model suggest that the persons level
of effort or force (motivation) is not
simply a function of rewards.
It is a measure of the strength of a
particular outcome has for the individual.
Expectancy Theory
Vrooms expectancy theory is:
F = Sum (E * V) where,
F = Force - the motivation or the force
used to achieveit.
E = Expectancy - the possibility of

achieving a certain outcome through


certain actions.
V = Valency - the preference an individual
has for a particular outcome, the worth
placed on a particular result.
Expectancy Theory
Porter and Lawler (1968) develop
Vrooms expectancy theory by
suggesting that there are two
factors determining the effort people
put into their jobs.
The value of the reward to individuals
in so far as they satisfy their need for
security, social esteem, autonomy and
self-actualisation.
Expectancy Theory
The probability that reward depends on
effort, as perceived by individuals - in
other words their expectations of the
relationship between effort and reward.
Thus the greater the value of a set of
rewards and the higher the probability
that receiving each of these rewards
depends upon effort, the greater the
effort that will be made in a given
situation.
Porter lawler model
Porter & Lawler extended expectancy theory and stated that
satisfaction was a result rather than a cause of performance
, and that different levels of performance lead to different rewards.
They also considered the ability of the employee and explain that
effort alone sometimes does not result in outcomes, no amount of
effort will suffice if the employee does not have the ability to start with.
Expectancy models suggest that motivation, performance, and job
satisfaction all hinge on the perception that the effort involved in
certain activities will lead to desired rewards or outcomes..
There are times when receiving valued rewards can be soured,
e.g. being promoted to a senior position then findingthe stress
and strain unbearable and not being able to face the fact that
people who once were your friends are now openly hostile or
are jealous of your success.
Contemprory theories
Equity theory
Attribution theory
Adams Equity Theory
Equity theory focuses on peoples
feelings of how fairly they feel they
have been treated in comparison with
the treatment received by others.
It is based on exchange theory.
People expect certain outcomes in
exchange for certain inputs or
contributions.
Adams Equity Theory
Adams states that people will be better
motivated if they are treated equitably.
The exchange variables are:
Inputs - what the individual brings to their
employment in terms of effort, experience
and skills.
Outcomes - the range of factors the
employee receives in return for their inputs
i.e. all the financial and non-financial
rewards.
Theory X Assumptions:
People inherently dislike work
People must be coerced or controlled
to do work to achieve objectives
People prefer to be directed
Theory Y
Assumptions:
People view work as
being as natural as play
and rest
People will exercise
self-direction and
-control towards
achieving objectives they
are committed to
People learn to accept
and seek responsibility
Perception as a Process

Perception is a three
phase process of
selecting, organizing
and interpreting
information. You can
understand
interpersonal situations
better if you appreciate
how you and another
person construct
perceptions.