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EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPERIENTIAL ACTIVITIES IN SCIENCE

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Chapter 1

PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Learning is a requirement to attain better understanding of things around

us. Learning is gained in knowledge, mastery through experience or study or

comprehension (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009). After learning, learners are capable

of doing something which they could not do before learning took place (Olson,

2007). Dewey (1938) stated that acquisition of information involves learning to

think'. He said that he process of information is more than performing a task or

activity. Learning and grasping of information is not an easy task. One way to

achieve skills is that the persons must engage in science.

This is the reason what science teaching and science education research is

for - to enhance students learning (Thomas, 1999). According to Christensen

(1995), learning science can cultivate the abilities of learners to become

scientifically learned individuals. Anderson (1987) said that activities or any kind

of exercises are basic and integrated process skills that are fundamental

components and key dimension of scientific literacy. (Colvill & Pattie, 2002)

According to Gallagher (2000) there are primary objectives that must be

considered in attaining such proficiency. These are: Science must be given for all,

teaching for higher thinking, and science process or science practice application.

Knowing and applying science concepts include science skills (Sungur,


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2000). Thus, individuals must have or possess these skills that will also be

enhanced as they move forward in their learning. In addition, the K to 12

Curriculum is focused on the learners attainment of the current century abilities.

One of these is critical problem solving skills which incorporate scientific

thinking.

Scientific process skills consist of skills that every pupil could apply and

use in his/her everyday life. Thus, these skills have a great impact on ones

personality, his/ her social life, and other aspects of life of a person. These skills

can be acquired by students through science education with proper training

exercise.

Under the theory of practice, also known as constructivism, in experiential

approach, learning is achieved well when students make their own action of

reaching a conclusion and discoveries. Students learn by doing; therefore, actively

engaging and exposing learners in experience-based learning is one important key

to the construction of new meaning (Gibbs, 1988; Merriam, Caffarella, &

Baumgartner, 2007).

In the Philippines subjects like science is one of the shortcomings of

pupils. The National Achievement Tests confirm this together with Mathematics.

So far, Science is the most difficult field of study in fundamental instruction in

the Philippines. According to DepEd, data showed that the average NAT score of

public elementary school students for SY 2011 to 2012 was significantly lower

than 66.79% than the previous four years.


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The average NAT scores of public elementary students were 66.79% in SY

2011-2012, 68.15% in SY 2010-2011, 68.01% in SY 2009-2010, 65.55% in SY

2008-2009, and 64.81% in SY 2007-2008

According to Ordinario (2013) the reason for this low performance in

science of the young Filipino pupils include the lack and low esteem for a

scientific culture reflected in the deficiencies regarding the school curriculum,

the insufficient teaching learning process, the lack of instructional materials and

the lack of teachers readiness. For example, the shortage of worthy and

engaging textbooks and the unavailability of science paraphernalia have slowed

down the conduct of scientific research and experiential activities among

Filipino pupils. One of the main reasons about the unsatisfactory achievement of

pupils is our congested curriculum.

With all the background given, this research aimed to study the effect of

utilization of experiential activities as the teaching approach on the science

process skills of the students.

Statement of the Problem

This study is designed to determine the effectiveness of experiential

activities in improving students science process skills. It specifically aimed to

answer the following questions:

1. What is the achieved level of science process skills of the Grade 6 pupils

of science section before and after the use of experiential activities?


2. Is there a significant difference in the pupils science process skills before
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and after doing the experiential activities?

Statement of the Null Hypothesis

1. There is no significant difference in the pupils science process skills

before and after doing the experiential activities.

Conceptual Framework

Pre-Test
Science Instructional
Intervention
Process strategy:
Materials/
Experiential
Skills of Use of Activities in
the Experiential Enhancing
Students Activity Science Process
Skills
Post-Test

Figure 1.1 Conceptual Framework

This study aimed to determine the level of science process skills of Grade

6 pupils through experiential activity. Science process skills must be developed

among the pupils because they will help them determine facts and truths around

them. It will be their asset as they grow and develop especially in high school and

college life. One way to improve their thinking skills is to teach the learners

using experiential approach. Experiential approach is the selected method in

conducting this study because experiential learning approach involves the learners

to do something; it enhances and develops ones skills and knowledge. Moreover,

experiential learning permits the learners to explore, analyze, and ready to

comprehend things that surround him. As Lewis and Williams (1994) stated
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expose the children with lots of activities, in this way they will learn: in short

learning by doing. It is also connected to the idea of constructivism where

pupils acquire information best. Learners are given the rights and benefits to

think, to reflect, and to associate with ideas, objects, and many more. (Brooks &

Brooks, 1993).

Constructivist teaching fosters critical thinking and creates active and

motivated learners. Moreover, Kuslan and Stone stated that Inquiry approach can

also allow the learners to search for truth, and seek information. So, the

researchers will now adopt these theories and concepts in determining the science

process skills of the pupils by using experiential learning approach.

The output of the study will be the proper usage of instructional materials

and experiential activities in teaching the learners to enhance their basic science

process skills.

Significance of the Study

This study is significant to the following:

Educational Institutions. The results of this study may be used and

applied in the further development of their curriculum.

Science Teacher. This study may give support in developing the

techniques, practice, and strategies involved in the teaching-learning process.

Students. The results of this study can be a basis in the improvement of

their thinking skills.

Student Teachers. The outcomes of this study may guide them on how
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they impart information among their current pupils and their future students.

Future Researchers. This study can aid as a source for future researches

in further analysis and in-depth studies evolving on basic science process skills,

motivation, and science learning.

Scope and Delimitation

This action research focused on the effectiveness of experiential activities

in science process of the pupils.These skills include observing, comparing,

classifying, measuring, predicting and inferring. This was conducted at Solano

South Elementary School, Solano, Nueva Vizcaya on February 13 - 23, 2017 The

subjects consisted of a total of 43 pupils from the science section in Grade 6

taking Science subject.

Definition of Terms.

The following terms were used in this study and are operationally and

conceptually defined.

Constructivism refers to a method of creating meaning; it is how

individual makes sense of their experience. It is a teaching method that allows

the learners to do something and at the same time to construct new meaning.

(Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007)

Effectiveness refers to the expected result of a given activity to meet a

specific goal (Shymansky,1989). In this study, it refers to the result of the

experiential approach in teaching in terms of the science process skills of the


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learners.

Experiential Approach is a method in teaching where knowledge or

learning is developed, enhanced or improved through active exposure to hands-on

activities by the students rather than learning through books, lectures and other

traditional approaches.

Learning refers to the improvement of general academic skills and the

mastery of scientific skills (Gagne, 1967). In this study, it refers to the difference

in the pretest and posttest scores in science process skills that the pupils obtained.

Science Process Skill is the building block of critical thinking and inquiry

in science which includes observing, classifying, inferring, predicting,

communicating, and measuring. These skills can be obtained by learners through

science instruction activities (Harlen, 1999; Huppert, Lomask & Lazarorcitz,

2002). In this study, this is measured by the score obtained by the students score

in the researcher-made science process skills test.

Student-Centered refers to a wide variety of educational programs,

learning involvements, instructional methods, and academic-support tactics that

are intended to address the diverse learning needs, comforts, aims, or cultural

backgrounds of students.

Traditional Approach refers to an approach in teaching where there are

less student activities and more on the teachers lecture and demonstration.

Chapter 2
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REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents a review of related literature and studies that

provided direction to the present study.

Elementary Education

The elementary level is necessary. On the principle that learners should

be properly equipped with the proper knowledge and skills, the country should

have a good not just good but better program in the formal education (elementary

level) which is the foundation of learning. (Visitacion, 1998)

Once this is achieved, a movement toward the desired ends will be very

smooth and easy. Hence, the core of the curriculum focuses on the 5Rs (reading,

writing, arithmetic, rational thinking, and right conduct). This mass and universal

education is expected to make the Filipino productive, self-reliant, versatile, civic

minded, physically fit, and well- rounded.

The new educational system in the Philippines with the K-12 curriculum

further explained the objectives of elementary education. It aims to develop the

spiritual, moral, and physical capabilities of the child, provide him with

experience in the democratic way of life, and inculcate ideas and attitudes

necessary for an enlightened, patriotic, upright and useful citizenship.

The elementary school curriculum stresses science as a process whereby

the child learns to understand his environment and develop scientific skills

through personal experiences with materials and phenomena in his environment


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that can increase ones cognition. There are approaches that provide rich

opportunities for the child to learn by himself. These approaches are based on

constructivism, experiential learning, inquiry approach hands on learning and

other.

Critical Thinking

Many elementary pupils do not have enough thinking skills. They

comprehend, analyze, and understand in a very shallow manner. It seems they are

just like a leech that only sucks for information coming from the teacher. They

just decide without thinking the consequences they made. They need to develop

their way of thinking so that their understanding about things will be enhanced,

widened, and strengthened. Once the pupils are able to develop, they will be able

to understand, comprehend, and analyze things better.

Critical thinking is one of the vital things to be considered in the

educational system among learners. (Gelder, 2003) Critical thinking can be

described or explained in different ways. Dewey (1993), the father of critical

thinking, states that critical thinking is reflective thinking and recommends that

it must be one of the targets of education. This definition of Dewey is also seen

in the works of Robert H. Ennis (1987) where critical thinking is defined as

sensible reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do.

Deciding what to trust is a matter of determining what the facts or truths are,

figuring and assuming out what the world is like. It makes a person think in a

wider range. Seeing both sides of an issue, being open to new evidence that
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disconfirms your ideas, reasoning dispassionately, demanding that claims be

backed by evidence, deducing and inferring conclusions from available facts

solving problems, and so forth (Willlingham, 2007).

Brookfield (1987) further explained that educational systems should make

any effort to awaken, prompt, cherish and encourage the progression of thinking

critically and reflectively(p.11) In similar manner, Meyers (1986) argued that

educators can cultivate ones thinking through the different activities, task they

assign , and response they provide. Specialist of higher education contend that

critical thinking is a standard of intellectual excellence required for full and

constructive participation in academic, individual and social lives of students.

(Scriven & Paul, 2004).

Gilster (1997) defines critical thinking skill as important or essential in

our daily life since it allows us to think innovatively fresh, make judgments that

can guide the improvement of opinions, and taking actions. In the context of

Facione (1998), a critical thinker has six center thinking abilities and has seven

affective natures towards critical thinking. These are explanation, analysis,

evaluation, inference, interpretation, and self-control.

This idea is also presented in the field of education, under the theory of

Benjamin Blooms which is the Blooms Taxonomy. Thinking is hierarchical, with

comprehension at the lower level and evaluation at the highest level. The three

highest levels (analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) are often said to represent

critical thinking. (Kennedy et al., 1991)


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In recent times Paul (1998) viewed critical thinking as the capability to

internalized conclusion in the form of information and observation.

Constructivism

The current well- known word in educational system is constructivism. It

is applied in philosophy, sociology, anthropology, psychology and other

educational fields. So what does constructivism really mean? It refers to the idea

that individuals build or construct knowledge for themselves.

Constructivism is a principle on how people can acquire information best.

This means Learners are given the rights and benefit to think, to ask inquiry, to

reflect, and to associate with ideas, objects, and many more. (Brooks & Brooks,

1993). Young minds create their own particular understanding and knowledge

with respect to their experiences and reflections (Rule & Lassila, 2005).

Individuals are acknowledged to build up their own specific implications

and understandings, and this process is acknowledged to incorporate exchange

between existing learning and beliefs and new information and encountered

experiences. (Richardson 1997, 2003; Schunk, 2004)

This perspective of significance making through already constructed

learning implies that:

Learners are intellectually generative individuals (with the

capacity to pose questions, solve problems and construct theories

and knowledge) rather than empty vessels waiting to be filled.

Pupils are not empty vessels that we can pore with our knowledge,
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Knowledge is placed inside the sole that they themselves have

made actively (Bhogayata C., 2003).

Instruction should be based primarily on developing learners

thinking.

The locus of intellectual authority resides in neither the teacher nor

the resources, but in the discourse facilitated by both teachers and

learners (Maclellan and Soden 2004)

The meaning of constructivism varies in different individuals.

Constructivism can be understood as a theory of learning through dealing with

phenomenon, as they develop shared-meaning of a phenomenon via interactions

within a social context (i.e. culture). Constructivism refers to the process by

which human beings actively make sense out of the world around them. (Wiske,

1998)

Every teacher often says that teaching is not an easy or difficult tasks. In

the field of teaching, teachers act as a facilitator who guides his/her learners so

that they can generate and construct their own knowledge. Under constructivism

the learners are the makers and builders of knowledge; they also construct

knowledge through an active mental process. Teachers who are constructivist

make their learners learning more meaningful and effective because it includes

collaborative learning, hands on experiences, acquiring different approaches,

makes them develop their own learning patterns and the like. Goals of
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constructivism is to improve students reasoning strategies, to become ready in

formulating their own questions, it allows varied version of interpretation and

expressions of taking information.

Constructivists teaching foster critical thinking and create active and

motivated learners. Zemelman, Daniels and Hayde (1993) tell us that learning in

all subject areas involves inventing and constructing new ideas.

Jonassen (1991) made a design to improve learning in the classroom.

These are:

1. Cater two-fold representations of reality (Concrete Experience);

2. Concentrate on learning development, not reproduction;

3. Present valid tasks (contextualizing rather than abstracting instruction);

4. Give real-world learning fields, as opposed to pre-planned teaching

sequences;

5. Foster reflective exercise;

6. Empower context-and content dependent learning development;and

7. Support community oriented development of information through social

transaction. (Collaborative Learning)

Experiential Learning
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Direct involvement with the materials is the finest method when it comes

to developing understanding. (Blosser, 1990) Experiential learning refers to the

method of learning which directly involves the learner, by actively encouraging

them to do something in order to learn about it. In short, it is 'learning by doing'.

Lewis and Williams(1994)

In Addition, it is an idea and methodology in which teachers firmly

engage with learners in real-world experience and allow reflection to enhance,

develop ones knowledge and skills and to clear up values (Association for

Experiential Education, para. 2). Lewis and Williams (1996) point out that during

the 1980 and 1990s ,this method of learning became the focus and the core of

education. Moreover, experiential learning permits learners to explore, watch

straightforwardly and ready to comprehend what is going on. This is a fruitful

approach to instruct kinesthetic learners who learn best by example. Sometimes it

is difficult to comprehend something you have never seen or experienced. It also

motivates learner to do things for themselves, which will support them with

learning independently later on in life. By experiential instruction, students

experiences are the ways to gain their learning or lesson. They begin to form their

decisions on their own and make it necessary for less teacher support. A school

child brings his own understanding on concepts through applying, rather than

feeding them what to do and when to do things. To simplify No direct transfer of

knowledge from the instructor to the learners happens-(Spencer) In laboratory

activities, students are involved in the construction of their knowledge thats why
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it is well-thought-out to be the groundwork of most science programs (Herrington

& Nahkleh, 2003). It is where learners communicate, measure, compare and

contrast, classify, and control variables for their understanding (Dominguez,

2005).

Hands-on Teaching

Hands-on teaching has an extended and fruitful legacy in sciences and

math (Basista and Matthews; Bredderman et al.), and shows a big role in teaching

social studies, history, English and other subjects. By using hands-on training,

teachers are nurturing the 21st century skills that learners need to be effective:

creativity, critical thinking, communication, collaboration.

Hands-on activities ensure a lasting love of learning and encourage

students to discover and explore new things (Bass et al.). As expressed in the

article by Copperstein and Kocevar-Wiedinger (2004), the benefits of hands-on

activities "abstract concepts become meaningful transferable and retained

since they are attached to performance an activity". In a simple way, learners

become proud and are encouraged to continue to develop and learn when they

have the good opportunity to do the activity with their own hands.

Science Process Skills

Science process happens naturally, in human minds. We are not aware that

we use science process to discover answers in our daily queries about how things

work. But it really happens. Science process is beneficial; in any circumstances

that necessitates critical thinking. SPS consist of measuring amounts, sorting or


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classifying, concluding, guessing/predicting, experimenting, and observing

qualities (Torres, 2007). Science Process Skills are the building-blocks of critical

thinking and inquiry in science (Ostlund,1992). The purpose behind science

education is to empower people to utilize exploratory procedure skills; in other

words, to have the capacity to characterize the issues around them, to observe, to

interpret and analyze, to conclude, to sum up things, and to apply the data they

have collected or gathered with the necessary abilities. Hence, these skills have a

great impact on personal, social, and other aspects of individuals life. Science

process skills incorporate abilities that each individual could use in every

progression of his/her day- by- day life by being scientifically proficient and

expanding the quality and standard of life by understanding the nature of science.

SPS is an essential asset to bring out and use scientific evidence, to carry

out scientific exploration, and to unravel problems. These skills can be obtained

by learners through science instruction activities (Harlen, 1999; Huppert, Lomask

& Lazarorcitz, 2002)

Inquiry Approach

Inquiry is an act or an instance of searching for truth, information, or

knowledge, investigation, research, or a question or query (p. 1167). The word ,

means to ask for information to make an investigation or search, to seek

information or questioning (p. 1167).

An approach that is sometimes interchangeable to discovery, scientific

thinking, heuristic, problem-solving by various experts, is well-defined by


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Kuslan and Stone, as simply a teaching technique which is exhibited after the

investigative process of researcher. Inquiry is unplanned and self-directed

exploration. Young learner should not be hampered by traditional way of

teaching, textbook-dictated ways in confirming or discovering fresh information.

Using this approach, the teacher and his pupils should experience success and

frustrations together, as the experts in their persistent probe of unknown.

We cannot help a learner to think and to learn if we consider them a

sponge that only absorbs information, if we tell every information they need to

know, rather we must allow them and give them the freedom and opportunities to

explore things that surround them, help and make them motivated to inquire

actively and learn to discover new leanings rather than relying on a word

passively.

Science Learning

Science learning is prevalent in all schools. It is significant in all academic

institutions in the learning experience. In learning science, it is not about the

memorization of facts and contents from the science book ; it is the skills to be

improved and developed in students and also the skills and abilities in order for

them to become scientifically learned individuals (Cristensen, 1995).

Learning is enriched through communicating, interacting, and conversing

with other learners. It is where building of knowledge and additional

understanding take place (Murphy, 1997).

Related Studies
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Research shows that experiential activities increase student

performance and motivation. There is a study about the effectiveness of

experiential activities in learning science among 4th grade students which

employed mixed methods, encompassing a quantitative and qualitative

research methods to observe the efficiency of hands-on or experiential

experiments in learning science in an international school among twenty two

4th year learners. Their study is focused on the evaluation of the students

academic progress and they also focused on the learners intrinsic motivation

using hands on experiments in learning science. The findings of their research

indicated that through hands on experiments, a number of learners gained

better outcomes. It was also mentioned that there was a high level of intrinsic

motivation and participation among the learners through hands on

experiments. The researchers found that the experiential theory of Kolbs is

very effective in hands on experiments and through this theory it ensures that

the learners will able to grasp better learning. Bruners theory of instruction

should be included because it also further enhances the learners effectiveness

of learning science.

Recently, educational researchers have been demonstrating the variables

influencing pupils accomplishment and attitudes toward science and they have

been conducting numerous studies to enhance students science accomplishment

(Randler and Hulde, 2007; Taraban, Box, Myers, Pollard and Bowen, 2007;

McCarthy, 2005; Hofstein and Lunetta, 2004; Bristow, 2000; Salend, 1998)
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furthermore attitudes (Ornstein, 2006; Osborne, 2003; Hofstein, Mooz and

Rishpon, 1990) by utilizing experiential and inquiry based projects. For instance,

the research study of Randler and Hulde (2007) was connected with the impact of

hands-on project on students accomplishment about soil biology. A sum of 123

fifth and 6th grade learners contributed in the study. Result showed that students

in the hands-on group exhibited higher accomplishment than understudy in

conventional course reading- based projects. Also, Taraban et al.,(2007) studied

408 students from six secondary schools to examine and investigate the impact of

a hands-on inquiry research program on students accomplishment. The results

showed that the use of hands-on inquiry laboratory gave benefit to students to

become more active pupils, to improve knowledge, and to enhance science

process skills. University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan studied about the

Impact of Experiential Activities on Students Achievement in Science. Its main

objective is to investigate the effectivity of hands-on activities among grade 8

learners and how they performed well in science. The study was conducted

among 342 students consisting 145 male, 197 female; 169 of them were assigned

as experimental group and instructed by hands-on activities, while the 173 were

assigned as control group and instructed by the traditional method. In the data that

were analyzed, it was found that experimental group excel better. Data were

exposed to an independent samples t-test which revealed that there was a

significant mean difference between the experimental and control groups, with

effect size (0.90), indicating that the learners who were taught science using
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simulation activities achieved better on science achievement test than those who

were exposed and taught without inclusion of hands-on-activities.

A study made by Kasinath (2000) on the usefulness of inquiry method in

cultivating science process skills, ingenuity, and curiosity produced outcomes

which became a proof that ITM or Inquiry Training Method is a better approach

than conventional method.

In the study of Lee and Lee (2002) creative thinking skills of students will

increase if they are trained in science process skill with a simple creative

activities.In the study done by Lin et al., (2003) and similarly by Chiang and Tang

(1999) found the same end result when they used the V-map strategy to increase

the scientific creativity of the learners in their studies. A physics teacher in a

public secondary school in Ankara, Turkey volunteered to make use of hands-on

or experiential activities in her classes. She involved 130 9th grade students in her

study in her two classes composed of 70 learners were assigned as experimental

group and she used the experiential approach/method. In her other classes, she

made use of 60 students as a control group and instructed them using

conventional/traditional method. It was found that experiential activities were

very effective method in enhancing and increasing physics lessons.

Another study made by Stohr-Hunt (1996) is also a good means in

proving that experiential learning is a better approach than traditional method. In

his study he investigated the frequency of using hands on activities (everyday,

after a week, once a month, or never) on 8th grade learners science achievement.
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He found that when a student exposed to an experiential activity every day or

once a week, the student had a better scores in science achievement than those

students who have not experienced hands-on science. The results of this study

were also in agreement with Freedman (1997) and Turpins (2000) works in terms

of the effects of experiential instruction on science attainment and attitude

towards science.

A development project to prepare 43 high school students from the inner

city for engineering led Mckinnon to propose and teach a 2- hour per day lab

experience in the logic of science. The students also underwent remedial reading,

English and Mathematics. All of the subjects were well- motivated in the

direction of an engineering career, 28 of the 43 students reasoned with concrete

operational moved into higher levels of thought. The logic of science lab was

indeed successful in promoting formal reasoning among sample of inner city

students

Roberts (2003) conducted a study in Science to determine the changes in

critical thinking of two groups of grade 6 pupils under these patterns of

instructions: teacher- centered pattern and discovery centered pattern. The study

revealed significant changes in critical thinking skills of the pupils taught in the

discovery- centered pattern of instruction. It is also found the component skill of

Inference is the most improved critical thinking skill and the component skill of

Evaluation of Argument is the least affected critical thinking skill in the discovery

centered group.
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The same outcomes were found in Bristow (2000). He used as a subject

the grade 6 children in learning science concepts. From the results, he found out

that learners have more positive attitude towards science instruction when they

are taught using experiential method. He concluded that learner will definitely get

better scores when exposed to this than those pupils receiving an old-style

textbook instruction. The treatment lasted for 12 weeks.

In a study conducted by Bredderman to 58 graders in teaching geodesic

domes, it was found that there existed a significant difference between knowledge

with and without hands-on activities. They concluded that experiential activities

have a great impact. Young and Lee (2005) made a study on 399 fifth graders.

The study provided evidence that the students who were taught through science

kits outperformed as compared to the students taught science without using

science kits. In a study conducted by Prieto (2000) on 123 fifth and sixth graders

from a middle school, it was found that the students involved in hands-on

activities scored significantly better than those one way traffic teacher centered

experiments. Similar results were found in the study conducted by Carreon (2003)

on a sample of 611 seventh and eighth grade students enrolled in middle school

science, it was concluded that near daily implementation of hands-on activities

yield the greatest positive impact on students achievement.

Research by Tuan and Chin showed that pupils responded confidently

when they joined in a group discussions and lab activities (Tuan et al., 2003).

In the Philippines, a research made by Rabacal (2016) which is descriptive


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study determined the academic achievement on science process skills of the BS

biology students of Northern Negros State College. The findings about their

research showed that students have an average achievement on basic and

integrated science process skills. Their findings also revealed that there are no

significant differences on the academic performance of the BS Biology students

when grouped according to year level and gender. Findings also revealed that

there is a significant difference on the academic achievement between basic and

integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students. Findings revealed

that there is a significant relationship between academic achievement on the basic

and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students. Findings of this

study affirm the result of the study conducted by Chaguna and Yango, (2008). In

their study, science process skills of the pupils should have improved their skills

more. They also found that pupils excel better in measuring, classifying, and

inferring compared to experimenting, observing and communicating. In addition

age and gender do not affect the science process skills proficiency level of the

pupils.

Taboy (2008) conducted a study about experiential activities and found

that the Grade 3 pupils had mastery on basic science process skills like observing,

predicting, and inferring but low mastery on comparing, classifying, and

measuring. It was revealed that pupils science process skills varied with

individual and group activities.

Synthesis
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In the educational system there is no better method in teaching, there is

no single method that is the best for teaching all concepts in science. Hence, it

can be concluded that experiential activities is one way to cater, support, improve,

enhance their skills and further develop learners way of thinking. The quoted

literature above helped the researcher in making the present study because it

helped the researcher to appreciate learning in science better through hands on

experiments. It gave them knowledge on the factors that contribute to the success

of the learners.

The studies are similar with the present study because they studied science

process skills; however, the present study is different because this study used and

focused on experiential activity.


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Chapter 3

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

This study used the descriptive-comparative design because it described

the level of science process skills of the students. The comparative method is also

used to compare the level of science process skills before and after the

intervention activity.

Research Environment

The research was conducted at Solano South Central Elementary School, a

public school located in Brgy. Quirino, Solano, Nueva Vizcaya. The school has

both regular and science sections.

Subjects of the Study

The subjects of the study were composed of 12 male and 31 female Grade

Six pupils ages eleven to twelve under a science or star section who regularly

have their science subject during the school year 2016-2017.

Research Instruments

The following instruments were used:

Science Process Skills Test in Science 6

The test originally had 43 items and was checked by the adviser. It

was pilot tested at Solano South Central School. Revisions were made

based on the analysis done by the Research Center. The test finally
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consisted of 35 items and this served as the pretest. Items and choices

were shuffled to compose the posttest. In this test, the children chose and

encircled the correct answer of each item.

K-12 Curriculum Guide

It was used as a tool to know what specific topic should be

considered in teaching during a specific period. The curriculum guide led

the student teachers to teach the characteristics of the volcano and

earthquake, as a Subject matter.

Detailed Lesson Plan

A tool which was used by the researchers to conduct the current

study, it was used as a guide to deliver the lesson.

Instructional Materials

Materials such as model of a volcano, cola drink and others were

used to make the learners more active in understanding the lesson so that

they would experience how things work in the lesson. Activities such as

observing the eruption of a model volcano, predicting scenario (before,

during, after) an earthquake, measuring distance of a volcano, and

classifying types of clouds, measuring temperature, converting Celsius to

Fahrenheit, describing and illustrating water cycle were conducted.


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Data Gathering Procedure

The flow chart below describes the different steps undertaken in the

conduct of the study.

Figure 2.1 Flowchart in conducting the study

The first step was the construction of test questions, the original questions

in the test was 43 for pilot testing. But after the pilot testing the test questions are

submitted for item analysis, 13 items need to be revised, 22 items were retained

and 8 were rejected. The researchers modified the items and finally came up with

35 item test. The pretest was then administered to the science section.

Five days were used for experiential learning strategies. The researchers

made use of instructional models in teaching. Activities such as observing the

eruption of a model volcano, predicting scenario (before, during, after) an

earthquake, measuring distance of a volcano, and classifying types of clouds,


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measuring temperature, converting Celsius to Fahrenheit, describing and

illustrating water cycle.

The final step was the administration of the posttest.

Data Analyses

The mean scores for the pretest and posttest were described according to

the criteria set by the Department of Education (DO 8, Series 2015, dated April 1,

2015) as shown below:

Table 1

Range of Scores and the Corresponding Levels of Performance for the Science
Process Skills Test

Grade Transmuted Grade Score Level


0-59.99 0-74 0-20 Did not meet the expectation
60.00-67.99 75-79 21-23 Fairly Satisfactory
68.00-75.99 80-84 24-26 Satisfactory
76.00-83.99 85-89 27-29 Very Satisfactory
84.00-100.00 90-100 30-35 Outstanding

The following tools were utilized to analyze the gathered data:

1. Mean and standard deviation to describe the average performance of

the respondents using pretest and the posttest;


2. Paired Sample t-test to determine whether there is a significant

difference in the scores of the pupils before and after the use of

experiential activities.

Chapter 4
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PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

To answer the problems of the study, the following tables with their

interpretations are presented.

Table 2 describes the level of science process skills of the students in the

pretest and posttest.

Table 2

Level of Science Skills of Grade 6 Students in the Pretest and Posttest

Science Skills PRE TEST POST TEST


Level of Performance Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
Outstanding 0 0.0 6 14.0
Very Satisfactory 3 7.0 18 41.9
Satisfactory 15 34.9 18 41.9
Fairly Satisfactory 17 39.5 1 2.3
Did Not Meet Expectations 8 18.6 0 0.0
Total 43 100.0 43 100.0

As seen in Table 2, there were no pupils classified as outstanding in the

pretest. Most of the Grade 6 students were in the fairly satisfactory level (f=17;

39.5%). There were 15 (34.9%) who were at satisfactory level, 8 (18.6%) who did

not meet the expectations and 3 (7.0%) who are very satisfactory. Generally, it

means that the pupils still need to improve their science process skill.

This conforms to the finding of the study of Chaguna (2008) on Grade VI

pupils of Diocesan Schools of Baguio and Benguet where the level of science

process skills was average or fair. They concluded that SPS proficiency of the

learners should be developed first and undergo better tutelage for learning. As
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Rivas (1980) stated out that Filipino pupils lack mastery of the basic skills in

some core subjects such as Science, English, and Mathematics. In the view of

Pontaoe, as refered by Escano (1996), the achievements of pupils in all of the

skills were generally low. She concluded that pupils should be exposed to science

exercises such experimenting, measuring, interpreting data, and so forth that will

help in the improvement of the pupils abilities. Moreover, as Martin (2006)

pointed out, science learning basically involves mastering the process. Learners

should learn the manner on how scientists actually do science.

During the administration of pretest, the researchers observed that, the

pupils find the test questions as difficult. Some of the pupils attempted to ask their

seatmates and even the researchers. The researchers explained the directions and

they even translated some of the item in Tagalog orally for better understanding of

the test questions. The pupils also found difficulty in constructing essay. They just

used words in explaining their ideas, instead of well-constructed sentence. They

also consumed too much time in answering the test. Other pupils just left the item

blank.

Figures 4.1 and 4.2 show two samples of the pupils answers on the

pretest. It shows that the children could answer given items because they were not

able to express their idea or come up for a right term to use in answering the essay

part.
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Figure 4.1 Sample Answers of Pupil A on Items 34 and 35 during the Pretest

Figure 4.2 Sample Answers of Pupil B on Items 34 and 35 during the Pretest

The pretest indicates that they needed an effective approach to answer the

questions, so researchers conducted an intervention activity that may improve the

science process skills of the pupils.

In the post test there were 6 (14.0%) pupils who had outstanding level of

performance in the given test. One of the pupils was classified as fairly

satisfactory level (f=1; 2.3%). There were 18 (41.9%) who are at very satisfactory

level, and all of the pupils met the expectation.


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The results show that

after the intervention,

their basic science

process skill had

improved. As observed during the posttest, the pupils answered the test question

in expected time. The confidence of the pupils in answering the questions was

already evident. This result is confirmed by Jindrich (1998) that people can

retrieve and recall information better when they learn by doing.

Figure 4.3 Sample Answers of Pupil C on Items 34 and 35 during the Posttest

But in the same study made by Chaguna (2008) it negated these findings.

In their study result showed that a computed F-ratio of 0.010 is less than the

tabled F-value of 4.41 at .05 level of significance, and they concluded that there is

no significant differences in the level of science process skills even if different

teaching strategies were used . One factor that they see in their result is the

insufficient laboratory room during the teaching method. It was also noted by

Bautista (2000) in her findings that among the problems frequently encountered

by the science teachers is the need for a laboratory room. While children get

information from books or from the teacher, pupils will get real and firsthand

experiences that will increase their interest in science (Lardizabal, 1991) and

pupils will develop integrated process skills because it may require the pupils to

use some or all of the other process skills when they work in a laboratory room
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(Peters, 2006).

Table 3

Pretest and Posttest Score of the Grade 6 pupils


Mean SD QD T df Sig.
Fairly
PreTest 22.67 2.679 -10.106* 42 .000
Satisfactory
Very
Post Test 27.05 2.081
Satisfactory

Table 3 shows that the computed mean score of the pretest of the grade 6

pupils in terms of science process skills was 22.67 (SD =2.679) which is

considered Fairly Satisfactory.

The mean score for the post test was computed to be 27.05 (s=2.081)

which was categorized as Very Satisfactory. This indicates that there was an

increase in the mean scores. As shown in the table, the science process skills of

Grade 6 pupils were fairly satisfactory in the pretest. After the pretest, experiential

activities were used to identify whether there was an improvement on their

science process skills. The posttest mean score showed that the science process

skills of the pupils have been increased from fairly satisfactory to Very

Satisfactory. The paired samples test indicates that the difference in the scores of

the pupils is significant at 0.00 level wherein the posttest is significantly higher to

the pretest, t(42)=-10.106, p<.05.

This indicates that the integration of experiential activities in teaching the

lesson was effective in improving the science process skills of the pupils. The

improvement of science process skills of the pupils in Science may be due to the
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use of experiential method that the researchers made use.

The result is supported by Lewis and Williams (1994) who claimed that

there is better learning in science when children are exposed to lots of activities,

in short learning by doing. In the same context with Worth (2010) he affirmed

that learning of facts can be achieved best when learners are actively engaged in

hands-on experiments, because it inspires students to learn better. And this will

lead to the improvement of learners problem solving skills, creativity skills and

independent learning skills (Shymansky et al., 1990).

Furthermore, Carin and Bass (2001) stressed 3 factors in learning that

children may achieve through hands on experiments using Kolbs Theory. It is

where forming and sequencing the curriculum indicates and also teaching on the

entire session helps to improve pupils learning (Healy and Jenkins, 200:185)

Norman (2005) states that the results of a majority of researches have shown that

students have more interest in Science and other subjects due to being taught

using this method. Besides, hands-on experiments can create excitement among

students as they develop their interest in learning Science (Andersen and

Vandehey, 2012).

Chapter 5
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SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of experiential activities

in basic science process skills of Grade 6 pupils at Solano South Central

Elementary School. The level of performance of Grade 6 pupils in Science

process skills was determined based on their pretest and posttest scores. The data

gathered underwent statistical analyses using mean, and standard deviation and

paired samples test.

Summary of Findings

1. The pupils had a very satisfactory level of performance in Science in

their pretest and in their posttest scores. There was a significant

number of pupils who had greatly improved and achieved Very

satisfactory level of performance in science after exposure to different

activities in line with experiential method in teaching.


2. The paired samples t-test revealed a statistically significant difference

on the pretest and posttest scores of the Grade 6 students (p<.05).

Conclusions

Based on findings the following conclusions are drawn:

1. The science process skill of the Grade 6 pupils in science improved

after the intervention activities.


2. The use of experiential method as teaching strategy was effective in

improving the science process skills of the pupils.

Recommendations
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1. Teachers may use experiential method as a teaching strategy in

improving the science process skills of the pupils in Science.


2. Teachers may look for other teaching methods that may improve

greater level of SPS of elementary pupils in science and provide

learning activities and exercises that will improve these skills.


3. Future researches should study on other topics in science and perform

it at a longer longer time


a. Use other topics in science that suit the science process skill of the

learner.
b. Identify factors such as achievements, subject preferences, and

learning motivation that affect the science skills of the pupil.


c. Utilized other innovative tools for additional results and evidences,
4. Regular sections

Use regular section to further know the basic science skill of the

learner.

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Saint Marys University

Roberts, T.G. (2006). A physical examination in experiential learning theory of


agriculture educators. Journal Agricultural Education , 47 (1), 17-2.

Rabacal J. (2016) achievement on science process skills of the BS Biology


Students of Northern Negros State College of Science and Technology
http://www.apjmr.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/APJMR-
2016.4.4.02.pdf

Salend, S.J. (1998). Effective mainstreaming: Creating inclusive classrooms (3rd.


ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Scientific process skills education and scientific creativity.(n.d.).Retrieved


September 23, 2016, from
https://www.ied.edu.hk/apfslt/v9_issue1/aktamis/aktamis2.htm

Scriven, M. and Paul, R. (2004) Defining Critical Thinking: A draft statement


prepared for the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking
Instruction. [Online]
http://www.criticalthinking.org/University/defining.html

Spitzer, D. R. (1996). Motivation: The neglected factor in instructional


design. Educational Technology, 36(3), 45-49).

Stohr-Hunt, P. M. (1996). An analysis of frequency of hands-on


experience and science achievement. Journal of research in science
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Shymansky, J. A. (1989). What research says about ESS, SCIS, and


SAPA. Science and Children, 26(7), 33-35.

Shymansky J. A., Kyle, W. C., & Alport, J. M. (1983). The effects of new
science curricula on student performance. Journal of Research in
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Student, B. U. (n.d.). Inquiry based science. Retrieved from


http://www.brynmawr.edu/biology/franklin/inquirybasedscience.html

Sungur, Semra, Ceren & Omer (2001). The Contribution of Conceptual Change
Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Students Understanding of
the Human Circulatory System. School Science and Mathematics, 101
(2), 91-8.
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Saint Marys University


Taraban, R., Box, C., Myers, R., Pollard, R., & Bowen, C.W. (2007).
Effects of active-learning experiences an achievement, attitudes,
and behaviors in high school biology. Journal of Research in
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http://imaginationsoup.net/2011/01/10/what-is-a-constructivist-classroom/

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curriculum on student achievement, science process skills, and science
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Wiske, M. S. (Ed.). (1998). Teaching for understanding: Linking research
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Willingham, D.T. (2007).Critical thinking: Why is it so hard to teach? American


Educator,Summer, 8-19

Zady, M. F., Portes, P.R., & Ochs, V.D. (2003). Examining classroom
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Science Education, 87, 40-63.

Zemelman, S., Daniels, H.., & Hyde, A. (2012). Best practice: Bringing
standards to life in Americas schools(4th Ed.). Portsmouth, NH:
Heinemann.

Appendix A
PROCESS SKILLS TEST IN SCIENCE 6
(Pretest)
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Directions: Encircle the correct answer in the following questions with choices.
Write your answers in the blanks provided for items which require
explanations.

1. If the height of Mount Mayon was reduced by 20% from 2,462 meters, how
high is it now?
A. 492.40 cm
B. 1969.60 ft
C. 492.40 km
D. 1969.60 m
2. Albay, Philippines is one place that experiences earthquakes. Geologists
believe that activity like the pumping of groundwater is one main reason.
Extracting water from the underground contributes to pressure on a nearby
fault, and triggers that result to an earthquake. Which observation supports
the Geologists hypothesis?

A. Albay is one region that is included in the ring of fire.

B. The earthquake was felt many kilometers away from Albay.

C. The earthquake was followed by a number of smaller earthquakes felt


in the region around Albay.

D. Movement along the fault was greatest in areas where pumping


created the greatest pressure.

3. State one way that a volcanic eruption can affect the environment.

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. Which of the following shows a picture of a volcano that undergoes


eruption?

` A.
B. C.
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5. From the picture below, what is happening?

A. A house is currently burning from the mountains.


B. There is a tsunami, it is a recommended to be calm.
C. People are running and leaving the place because there is a volcanic
eruption.
D. People are running because there will be a heavy rain coming because
of the dark
huge clouds.

4pics 1word: For number 6-8, analyze the four pictures and give one word which
best describes them. Write the missing letters for each box.

6.

7.

8.
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9. Which of the following describes the parts of a volcano as shown in the


figure below?

A. ash cloud, side vent, lava flow, magma chamber, crater, throat, branch
pipe, conduit

B. ash cloud, side vent, crater, lava flow, throat, conduit, branch pipe, magma
chamber

C. side vent, lava flow, throat, branch pipe, ash cloud, magma chamber,
crater, conduit

D. side vent, ash cloud, crater, magma chamber, crater, conduit, lava flow,
branch pipe

For nos.10-13 describe the effects of earthquake as shown in the pictures.


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14. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes affect people in many parts of the world.
Map 1 shows the location of volcanoes. Map 2 shows the location of
earthquakes. A region called the Ring of Fire is shown on both maps.

MAP 1 MAP 2

Select the location on the map that


is least likely to experience
volcanic activity or earthquake.

15. The map at the right shows the levels of stress in the Earths crust in a
region. Four locations within the regions are identified as A, B, C, and
D. Each location is on near a fault that runs through the region.

GROUNDWATER
Give the proper order of the
EXTRACTION AND
following from lowest stress to
EARTHQUAKES
highest stress of earthquake.Levels of Stress in Earths Crust
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Highest
stress

Lowest
stress

16. The graph below represents the number of erupting volcanoes in Asia. It
shows that the highest number of eruptions of volcano occurred in 2009.
What year had the third highest number of eruption of a volcano?

A. 2001

B. 2002

C. 2004

D. 2007

17. The figure below shows a fallen electric post and a destroyed bridge. What
would be the effect of these?
A. People will still drive their car.

B. The car will produce more dark smoke.

C. Vehicles will not be able to cross the bridge.

D. None of the above

18. Clark is swimming in the sea. He noticed that the water is fast
moving towards the middle, then the sea water formed a gigantic wave, and it
is fast approaching towards him. What disaster that will most likely to
happen?
A. Clark may be put in danger; he will be drowned to death.
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B. Clark may be put in danger; a super typhoon is coming.

C. Clark will take a picture and he will post it in Facebook.

D. Clark will be disappointed because the waves will turn to a muddy river.

19. Mt Pinatubo erupted in June 15, 1991 and threw up more than four millions of
cubic meters of ash into the air. What quantity is described in terms of cubic
meters?
A. Area
B. Temperature
C. Volume
D. Distance

20. Which device is used to measure the intensity of an earthquake?

A B C D

21. Which of these is a sedimentary


rock?

A. B. C. D.
22. Volcanoes can cool temperatures around the world despite the hot
temperatures and firey destructions that volcanoes can create. Which of the
following is an effect of ash layer in the atmosphere that is released by a
volcano?
A. Increase in Lava flow
B. Increase of the world temperature
C. Lowering and cooling of the world temperature
D. Continuous shaking of the ground caused by a volcano
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23. A bulletin was issued to warn people that Mayon Volcano may erupt within
the week.
Which of the following is the most possible effect if the people ignore the
warning?
A. The people might suffer and die because anytime Mayon Volcano will
erupt.
B. The people will not suffer because they have their houses that will
protect them.
C. The people will get angry because they dont receive any food supply
from the government.
D. The people will not be harmed because they believe the exact date of an
eruption cannot be predicted.

24. The speed of a pyroclastic flow is 100 km/hr. How far would this flow travel
in 15 minutes? Show your solution.

25. When volcanoes erupt, they release volcanic ash and sulphur dioxide into the
atmosphere. The graph below shows the effect of volcanic ash on the solar
radiation that reaches Earths surface.

Why does the percentage of solar radiation change after volcanic


eruptions?

__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
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26. Aling Nenas store and all of the buildings around it experienced a tremendous
damage after a strong earthquake. This means the intensity /scale of the
earthquake was take place at
A. 3-5 B. 6-7
C. 300 D. 8-10
27. Which sequence of typhoon stages is in the correct order?
A. Tropical depression, tropical disturbance, tropical storm, super typhoon
B. Tropical disturbance, tropical depression, tropical storm, super typhoon
C. Tropical storm, tropical disturbance, tropical depression, super typhoon
D. Tropical disturbance, super typhoon, tropical storm, tropical depression
28. Identify the kind of weather shown at the picture below.
A. sunny
B. rainy
C. cloudy
D. foggy
29. What does the thermometer reading mean?
A. Its a cold day.
B. Its a warm day.
C. Its a hot day.
D. Its a foggy day.

30. Which one do you like, Summer or Rainy season? Explain.


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

31. What is the name of this type of clouds?


A. Cumulus
B. Nimbus
C. Stratus
D. Cirrus

32. Write a short description of the water cycle using the following words:
precipitation, run-off, collection, evaporation, and condensation.
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
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___________________________________________________________

33. After two weeks, a student observes that the water level in the tank below is
lower. What process in the water cycle may have caused this to happen?

A. Condensation
B. Decomposition
C. Evaporation
D. Precipitation

34. The ozone layer protects living


things on the earths surface. Give an example.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

35. ________: volcano biology: life


A. Astronomy
B. Meteorology
C. Volcanologists
D. Volcanology

Appendix B
PROCESS SKILLS TEST IN SCIENCE 6
(Post Test)
Directions: Encircle the correct answer in the following questions with choices.
Write your answers in the blanks provided for items which require
explanations.

1. If the height of Mount Mayon was reduced by 20% from 2,462 meters, how
high is it now?
A. 1969.60 ft
B. 1969.60 m
C. 492.40 cm
D. 492.40 km

2. Albay, Philippines is one place that experiences earthquakes. Geologists


believe that activity like the pumping of groundwater is one main reason.
Extracting water from the underground contributes to pressure on a nearby
fault, and triggers that result to an earthquake. Which observation supports
EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPERIENTIAL ACTIVITIES IN SCIENCE
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the Geologists hypothesis?

A. Albay is one region that is included in the ring of fire.

B. Movement along the fault was greatest in areas where pumping


created the greatest pressure.

C. The earthquake was felt many kilometers away from Albay.

D. The earthquake was followed by a number of smaller earthquakes felt


in the region around Albay.

3. State one way that a volcanic eruption can affect the environment.

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. Which of the following shows a picture of a volcano that undergoes


eruption?

`
A. B.
C.

5. From the picture below, what is happening?

A. A nimbus cloud is forming from the mountains.


B. There is a tsunami, it is a recommended to be calm.
C. People are running and leaving the place because there is a volcanic
eruption.
D. People are running because there will be a heavy rain.
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4pics 1word: For number 6-8, analyze the four pictures and give one word which
best describes them. Write the missing letters for each box.

6.

7.

8. Which of the following describes the parts of a volcano as shown in the


figure below?
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A. ash cloud, side


vent, lava flow, magma chamber, crater, throat, branch pipe, conduit

B. ash cloud, side vent, crater, lava flow, throat, conduit, branch pipe,
magma chamber

C. side vent, lava flow, throat, branch pipe, ash cloud, magma chamber,
crater, conduit

D. side vent, ash cloud, crater, magma chamber, crater, conduit, lava flow,
branch pipe

For nos. 9-11 describe the effects of earthquake as shown in the pictures.

9.
_______________________________________

_______________________________________

_______________________________________
_______________________________________

10. ______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
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11.______________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________

12. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes affect people in many parts of the world.
Map 1 shows the location of volcanoes. Map 2 shows the location of
earthquakes. A region called the Ring of Fire is shown on both maps.

MAP MAP
2 1

Select the location on the map that


is least likely to experience
volcanic activity or earthquake.

13. Mt. Pinatubo erupted in June 15, 1991 and threw up more than four millions
EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPERIENTIAL ACTIVITIES IN SCIENCE
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of cubic meters of ash into the air. What quantity is described in terms of
cubic meters?
A. Area
B. Temperature
C. Volume
D. Distance

14. The map at the right shows the levels of stress in the Earths crust in a
region. Four locations within the regions are identified as A, B, C, and D.
Each location is on near a fault that runs through the region.
GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION
AND
EARTHQUAKES
Give the proper order of the Levels of Stress in Earths Crust
following from lowest stress to
highest stress of earthquake.

Highest
stress

Lowest
stress

15. The graph below represents the number of erupting volcanoes in Asia. It
shows that the lowest number of eruptions of volcano occurred in 1998 and
2003. What year had the second highest number of eruption of a volcano?
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Saint Marys University


A. 2001

B. 2002

C. 2004

D. 2008

16. The figure below shows a fallen electric post and a destroyed bridge. What
should be the best action to be done?

A. The people should go outside and scream.

B. Vehicles will not be able to cross the bridge.

C. People must drive their car as fast as they can.

D. Be alert at any time; go outside, leave the car


if possible

17. Clark is swimming in the sea. He noticed that the water is fast
moving towards the middle, then the sea water formed a big wave, and it is
fast moving towards him. What disaster that will most likely to happen?
A. A tsunami is coming! Clark should run fast.

B. Clark may be put in danger; a super typhoon is coming.

C. Clark may be put in danger; the sea contains a big shark.

D. Clark will be disappointed because the waves will turn to a muddy river.
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18. Which device is used to measure the intensity of an earthquake?

A. B. C. D.

19. Which of these is


a sedimentary rock?

A. B. C. D.

20. Volcanoes can cool temperatures around the world despite the hot
temperatures and firey destructions that volcanoes can create. Which of the
following is an effect of ash layer in the atmosphere that is released by a
volcano?

A. Increase in Lava flow


B. Increase of the world temperature
C. Lowering and cooling of the world temperature
D. Continuous shaking of the ground caused by a volcano

21. A bulletin was issued to warn people that Mayon Volcano may erupt within
the week. Which of the following is the most possible effect if the people
ignore the warning?

A. The people might suffer and die because anytime Mayon Volcano will
erupt.
B. The people will not suffer because they have their houses that will protect
them.
C. The people will get angry because they dont receive any food supply
from the government.
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Saint Marys University


D. The people will not be harmed because they believe the exact date of an
eruption cannot be predicted.

22. An earthquake was felt by Aling Nena but other people are unconscious about
it. This means the intensity /scale of the earthquake was take place at

A. 2-3

B. 6-7

C. 300

D. 8-10

23. When volcanoes erupt, they release volcanic ash and other pollutants into the
atmosphere. The graph below shows the effect of volcanic ash on the solar
radiation that reaches Earths surface. Why does the percentage of solar
radiation change after volcanic eruptions?

24. Which sequence of typhoon


stages is in the correct order?
A. Tropical depression, tropical
disturbance, tropical storm, super
typhoon
B. Tropical disturbance, tropical depression, tropical storm, super typhoon
C. Tropical storm, tropical disturbance, tropical depression, super typhoon
D. Tropical disturbance, super typhoon, tropical storm, tropical depression
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25. Identify the kind of weather shown at the picture below.
A. cloudy
B. foggy
C. rainy
D. sunny
26. What does the thermometer reading mean?
A. Its a cold day.
B. Its a warm day.
C. Its a hot day.
D. Its a foggy day.

27. Which one do you like, Summer or Rainy season? Explain.


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

28. What is the name of this type of clouds?


A. Cumulus
B. Nimbus
C. Stratus
D. Cirrus

29. Clouds that look like lumps of cotton piled high in the sky.
A. Cumulus
B. Nimbus
C. Stratus
D. Cirrus
30. Draw the process in water cycle.

31. After two weeks, a student observes that the water level in the tank below is
lower. What process in the water cycle may have caused this to happen?
EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPERIENTIAL ACTIVITIES IN SCIENCE
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Saint Marys University


A. Decomposition
B. Evaporation
C. Transpiration
D. Run-off

32. How the ozone layer protects living


things on the earths surface. Give an example.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

33. ________: volcano biology: life


A. Astronomy
B. Meteorology
C. PAG-ASA
D. Volcanology

For nos. 34 read the sentences in each number and choose the letter which
corresponds to the best arrangement of the sentences to have a complete and well
organized paragraph.

34. Paragraph 1
1. Ryan wears his jacket.
2. It is a very cold Christmas. The cold wind enters in Jasons house.
3. Jason noticed it and he closed the window.
4. Jason went to his bedroom and takes his jacket in the cabinet.
A. 2413
B. 2314
C. 2341
D. 2143

35. Jeff heated up a left over pie in the microwave. Originally, the temperature of
the pie is 20 C. When she took it out in the microwave, the pie is now 60 C.
What is the temperature difference that the pie went through? Show your
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solution.

Appendix C
(Curriculum Guide)
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Appendix D
(Learning Plans)
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Appendix E
(Curriculum Vitae)

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Name: Art Ryan E. Abrin


Date of Birth: September 18, 1997
Religion: Roman Catholic
Civil Status: Single

Mother: Arceli E. Abrin Occupation: Teaching


Father: Arnel M. Abrin Occupation: Driving

Educational Attainment

PRIMARY EDUCATION: Maddela Central School


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SECONDARY EDUCATION: Saint Vincent School
TERTIARY EDUCATION: Saint Marys University
Course: Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education
Major in General Education
Department: School of Teacher Education and Humanities
Address: Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya

Practicum Internship
Student Teaching
(July September 2016: Saint Marys University Grade School
Department)
(September - October 2016: Solano South Central School)

Seminars Attended
4th Regional Student Teaching- Teachers Congress
Seminar sa Filipino: Mga Makabagong Istratehiya sa Pagturo ng Filipino
(September 2016)
Research Forum (March 2016)
Talakayan 2014 (Seminar on MTB-MLE)(September 2016)
2016 International Seminar-Workshop for Pre-Service and In-service
Teachers (November 2016)

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Name: Jefferyl G. Bagalayos


Date of Birth: July 16, 1996
Religion: Roman Catholic
Civil Status: Single

Mother: Elsa G. Bagalayos Occupation: OFW


Father: Rolly A. Bagalayos Occupation: Meat Vendor

Educational Attainment

PRIMARY EDUCATION: M.V. Duque Elementary School


SECONDARY EDUCATION: Tuao National High School
TERTIARY EDUCATION: Saint Marys University
Course: Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education
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Major in General Education
Department: School of Teacher Education and Humanities
Address: Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya

Practicum Internship
Student Teaching
(July September 2016: Saint Marys University Grade School
Department)
(September - October 2016: Solano South Central School)

Seminars Attended
4th Regional Student Teaching- Teachers Congress
Seminar sa Filipino: Mga Makabagong Istratehiya sa Pagturo ng Filipino
(September 2016)
Research Forum (March 2016)
Talakayan 2014 (Seminar on MTB-MLE)(September 2016)
2016 International Seminar-Workshop for Pre-Service and In-service
Teachers (November 2016)

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Name: Jhon Clark U. Hernandez


Date of Birth: December 21, 1996
Religion: Roman Catholic
Civil Status: Single

Mother: Lorena U. Hernandez


Occupation: Vendor
Father: Roberto A. Hernandez Occupation: Vendor

Educational Attainment

PRIMARY EDUCATION: Bayombong Central School


SECONDARY EDUCATION: NVG Comprehensive High School
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TERTIARY EDUCATION: Saint Marys University
Course: Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education
Major in General Education
Department: School of Teacher Education and Humanities
Address: Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya

Practicum Internship
Student Teaching
(July September 2016: Saint Marys University Grade School
Department)
(September - October 2016: Solano South Central School)

Seminars Attended
4th Regional Student Teaching- Teachers Congress
Seminar sa Filipino: Mga Makabagong Istratehiya sa Pagturo ng Filipino
(September 2016)
Research Forum (March 2016)
Talakayan 2014 (Seminar on MTB-MLE)(September 2016)
2016 International Seminar-Workshop for Pre-Service and In-service
Teachers (November 2016)

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Name: Xyron Paolo A. Magat


Date of Birth: August 17, 1997
Religion: Roman Catholic
Civil Status: Single

Mother: Janet A. Magat Occupation: Teaching


Father: Charles R. Magat Occupation: Driving

Educational Attainment
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PRIMARY EDUCATION: Balete Elementary School
SECONDARY EDUCATION: Saint Joseph School
TERTIARY EDUCATION: Saint Marys University
Course: Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education
Major in General Education
Department: School of Teacher Education and Humanities
Address: Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya

Practicum Internship
Student Teaching
(July September 2016: Saint Marys University Grade School
Department)
(September - October 2016: Solano South Central School)

Seminars Attended
4th Regional Student Teaching- Teachers Congress
Seminar sa Filipino: Mga Makabagong Istratehiya sa Pagturo ng Filipino
(September 2016)
Research Forum (March 2016)
Talakayan 2014 (Seminar on MTB-MLE)(September 2016)
2016 International Seminar-Workshop for Pre-Service and In-service
Teachers (November 2016)

Appendix F
(Data Analyses Certification)
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Appendix G
(Quantitative Data Analyses Clearance)
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Saint Marys University

Appendix H
(Plagiarism Clearance)
EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPERIENTIAL ACTIVITIES IN SCIENCE
PROCESS SKILLS
84

Saint Marys University

Appendix I
(Editing Clearance)
EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPERIENTIAL ACTIVITIES IN SCIENCE
PROCESS SKILLS
85

Saint Marys University

Appendix J
(Documentations)
EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPERIENTIAL ACTIVITIES IN SCIENCE
PROCESS SKILLS
86

Saint Marys University


EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPERIENTIAL ACTIVITIES IN SCIENCE
PROCESS SKILLS
87

Saint Marys University