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16 Reinforced Concrete Design

Design of Slabs

 Types of Slabs

 Load Paths and Framing Concepts


 One-way Slabs

 Two-way Slabs

Mongkol JIRAVACHARADET

SURANAREE INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Types of Slab

One-way slab One-way slab Two-way slab

Flat plate slab Flat slab Grid slab


Load Path / Framing Possibilities

Ln = 3.2 m

Ln = 4.4 m

Ln = 3.6 m
Ln = 8.2 m

Think well need some additional framing members???


Framing Concepts

Lets use a simple example


for our discussion

Column spacing 8 m c-c

Think about relating it to your


design project.

Plan
Framing Concepts

We can first assume that


well have major girders
running in one direction
in our one-way system
Framing Concepts

We can first assume that


well have major girders
running in one direction
in our one-way system

If we span between girders


with our slab, then we have
a load path, but if the spans
are too long
Framing Concepts

We will need to shorten up


the span with additional beams

But we need to support the


load from these new beams,
so we will need additional
supporting members
Framing Concepts

Now lets go back through with


a slightly different load path.

We again assume that well


have major girders running in
one direction in our one-way
system.

This time, lets think about


shortening up the slab span by
running beams into our girders.

Our one-way slab will transfer our load to the beams.


Two Load Path Options
Framing Concepts - Considerations
For your structure:

Look for a natural load path

Identify which column lines are best suited to having


major framing members (i.e. girders)

Assume walls are not there for structural support, but


consider that the may help you in construction (forming)
Example
Condo Floor Plan
One-way Slab


   

S
L

.0 m
1

Main reinforcement

Design of one-way slabs is like design of parallel 1m beams.


Design of One-way Slab (L > 2S)



   1

L 1m w

S
S

Minimum Thickness (ACI)

Simply One end Both ends


Cantilever
supported continuous continuous

L/20 L/24 L/28 L/10


*multiplied by 0.4 + fy/7,000 for steel other than SD40
ACI Design Provision
Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement
For structural slabs only; not intended for soil-supported slabs on grade
Ratio of reinforcement As to gross concrete area Ag : As/Ag

RB24 (fy = 2,400 ksc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0025

DB30 (fy = 3,000 ksc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0020

DB40 (fy = 4,000 ksc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0018

DB (fy > 4,000 ksc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0018 4,000 0.0014


fy
Spacing 5 t 45 cm

Main Steel (short direction):


As 6 mm

Max. Spacing 3 t 45 cm

Min. Spacing f main steel 4/3 max agg. 2.5 cm


Effect of column width
b b

A B
A B

L Moment at A:
wL2 wL b w(b / 2 )
2
w = +
2
wL wL2 12 2 2 2
12 12
b/2 wL2 wLb wb 2
b/2 = +
wL wL 12 4 8
2 2

If A and B are fiexed against rotation,

w(L b ) wL2 wLb wb 2


2
M = = +
12 12 6 12
Typical reinforcement in a one-way slab

Top bars at Top bars at


exterior beams exterior beams

Bottom bars Temperature bars


Exterior span Interior span

(a) Straight top and bottom bars

Bent bar Bent bars

Bottom bars Temperature bars


Exterior span Interior span

(b) Alternate straight and bent bars


Example: Design one-way slab as shown below to carry the live
load 500-kg/m2 fc = 210 kg/cm2, fy = 2,400 kg/cm2

0.4 + 2400/7000 = 0.74

3 @ 8 m = 24 m
G1
A A min h = 400(0.74)/24 = 12.3 cm
S1 S2 S3

USE h = 13 cm
DL = 0.132400 = 312kg/m2
4 @ 12 m = 48 m

wu = 1.4(312) + 1.7(500) = 1,286.8 kg/m2


clear span = 4 - 0.3 = 3.7 m
Mu = (1,286.8)(3.7)2/10 = 1,762 kg-m
max = 0.75b = 0.75(0.0454) = 0.0341
USE RB9 with 2 cm covering: d = 13-2-0.45 = 10.55 cm

Mu 1762 100
Rn = = = 17.6 ksc
bd 2
0.9 100 10.55 2

0.85 f c' 2 Rn
= 1 1 = 0.0077 < max OK
fy 0 .85 f '
c

As = bd = 0.0077(100)(10.55) = 8.16 cm2/m

Select RB9@0.07 (As = 9.28 cm2/m)

Temp. steel = 0.0025(100)(13) = 3.25 < 9.28 cm2/m OK

Select RB9@0.18 (As = 3.53 cm2/m)


L1 L1
4 3

Detailing of one-way slab

Temp. steel
L1
8

L1

RB9@0.18 RB9@0.07
.13 .
RB9@0.10
1.0 . 1.3 .
4.0 .

RB9@0.18 RB9@0.14
 
#$
.13 .
RB9@0.07
1.0 .  


 1.3 .
4.0 .
Design of Two-way Slab (L < 2S)

Min. Thickness:
S t 9 cm Perimeter/180 = 2(L+S)/180

Reinforcement Steel:

As 6 mm Temp. steel

Max. Spacing 3 t 45 cm

Min. Spacing main steel 4/3 max agg. 2.5 cm


Load transfer from two-way Slab
D C
Short span (BC):
45o 45o
Floor load = w kg/sq.m
S
Tributary area = S2/4 sq.m
45o 45o
A B
Load on beam = wS/4 wS/3 kg/m
L

Long span (AB): Span ratio m = S/L


2 m sq.m
2
S
Tributary area = SL/2 - S2/4 =
4 m
wS 3 m 2 kg/m
Load on beam
3 2
Moment Coefficient Method

%&'
 %&'( %&'


-Ms
%&'
 S/4

+Ms
%&'( -ML -ML S/2
+ML

%&'
 S/4
-Ms

L/4 L/2 L/4

Middle strip moment: MM = CwS2

Column strip moment: MC = 2MM/3


    
 ( C )
$% 
$%&
"# ))*+  m
1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5
 '&(
,
-('-/ )
  0.033 0.040 0.048 0.055 0.063 0.083 0.033
-/ 0 ))
  - - - - - - -
,
-'12(3) 0.025 0.030 0.036 0.041 0.047 0.062 0.025
 4 %%
5 6
67&
,
-('-/ )
  0.041 0.048 0.055 0.062 0.069 0.085 0.041
-/ 0 ))
  0.021 0.024 0.027 0.031 0.035 0.042 0.021
,
-'12(3) 0.031 0.036 0.041 0.047 0.052 0.064 0.031
 4 %%
5  6
,
-('-/ )
  0.049 0.057 0.064 0.071 0.078 0.090 0.049
-/ 0 ))
  0.025 0.028 0.032 0.036 0.039 0.045 0.025
,
-'12(3) 0.037 0.043 0.048 0.054 0.059 0.068 0.037
    
 ( C )
$% 
$%&
"# ))*+  m
1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5
 4 %%
5   6
,
-('-/ )
  0.058 0.066 0.074 0.082 0.090 0.098 0.058
-/ 0 ))
  0.029 0.033 0.037 0.041 0.045 0.049 0.029
,
-'12(3) 0.044 0.050 0.056 0.062 0.068 0.074 0.044
 4 %%
5  756
,
-('-/ )
  - - - - - - -
-/ 0 ))
  0.033 0.038 0.043 0.047 0.053 0.055 0.033
,
-'12(3) 0.050 0.057 0.064 0.072 0.080 0.083 0.050
Bar detailing in slab

  L1/3 L2/3

L1/7 L1/4 L2/4

L1 L2

Bar detailing in beam


L1/3 L2/3

L1/8 L1/8

L1 L2

   


L/5

L/5 L =   



Example: Design two-way slab as shown below to carry the live
load 300-kg/m2 fc = 240 kg/cm2, fy = 2,400 kg/cm2
4.00

3.80 0.10

0.50
0.20 0.20
Cross section

5.00 4.80
Min h = 2(400+500)/180 = 10 cm

DL = 0.10(2,400) = 240 kg/m2

wu = 1.4(240)+1.7(300) = 846 kg/m2

m = 4.00/5.00 = 0.8
Floor plan As,min = 0.0018(100)(10) = 1.8 cm2/m
Short span -M() +M -M()

Moment coeff. C 0.032 0.048 0.064

Max. M = C w S 2 = 0.064 846 4.02 = 866 kg-m/1 m width

d = 10 - 2(covering) - 0.5(half of DB10) = 7.5 cm


Mu 86, 600
Rn = = = 17.11 kg/cm 2

bd 2 0.9 100 7.52

0.85 f c 2 Rn
= 1 1 = 0.0045
fy 0.85 f c

As = 0.0045(100)(7.5) = 3.36 4 .2 > As,min


( 63
(71 8 DB10@0.20 (As=3.90 4 .2)
Long span -M() +M -M()

Moment coeff. C 0.025 0.037 0.049

Max. M = C w S 2 = 0.049 846 4.02 = 663 kg-m/1 m width

d = 10 - 2(covering) - 1.5(half of DB10) = 6.5 cm


Mu 66,300
Rn = = = 17.44 kg/cm 2

bd 2 0.9 100 7.52

0.85 f c 2 Rn
= 1 1 = 0.0046
fy 0.85 f c

As = 0.0046(100)(6.5) = 2.97 4 .2 > As,min


( 63
(71 8 DB10@0.20 (As=3.90 4 .2)
 89"8:
;   7
%
9
9(2: Vu = wuS/4 = (846)(4.0)/4

= 846 ./ .

<(88'%
9  2 Vc = 0.85(0.53) 240 (100)(7.5)
= 5234 ./ . OK
DB10@0.40
 
#$
DB10@0.20  



DB10@0.40
 
#$

0.10
0.50
0.55 0.95
1.30
0.95
0.20 3.80 0.20
 6 

DB10@0.40
 
#$
DB10@0.20  



DB10@0.40
 
#$

0.10
0.50
0.70 1.20
1.20 1.60

0.20 4.80 0.20


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