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Petroleum systems Geologic principles and geologic time Rock and minerals, rock cycle, reservoir properties Hydrocarbon origin, migration and accumulation Sedimentary environments; stratigraphic traps Plate tectonics, structural geology Structural traps Geophysical methods Importance to Schlumberger
A Petroleum System requires timely convergence of certain geologic factors and geologic events.
These Include: Seal or cap rock Reservoir rock Migration Mature source rock
Cross Section Of A Petroleum System
(Foreland Basin Example)
Geographic Extent of Petroleum System Extent of Play R Reservoir
Seal or Cap[Rock Reservoir Rock Source Rock Underburden Rock
Active Source Rock
Petroleum Reservoir (R)
Basement Rock Fold-and-Thrust Belt (arrows indicate relative fault motion)
(modified from Magoon and Dow, 1994)
Top Oil Window Top Gas Window
Sedimentary Basin Fill
Stratigraphic Extent of Petroleum System
Essential Elements of Petroleum System
Basic Geologic Principles
Uniformitarianism - “The present is the key to the past.” Original Horizonality - “Sedimentary layers are deposited in a horizontal or nearly horizontal position.” Superposition - “Younger sedimentary beds occur on top of older beds, unless they have been overturned or faulted.” Cross-Cutting Relations - “Any geologic feature that cuts another geologic feature is younger than the feature that it cuts.”
K J I H G
C E D
l Sil s ou e
F B A
1. Lithosphere 2. Asthenosphere 3. Mesosphere
EASA-123 Intro to Earthquakes
Geologic Time Chart
Billions of years ago
Millions of years ago
Millions of years ago
100 150 200 250 300
Jurassic Triassic Permian
30 Oligocene 40 50 60 Paleocene
350 400 450 500 550 600
Classification of Rocks
IGNEOUS SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC
Rock-forming Source of process material
Molten materials in deep crust and upper mantle
Weathering and erosion of rocks exposed at surface
Rocks under high temperatures and pressures in deep crust
Crystallization (Solidification of melt)
Sedimentation, burial and lithification
Recrystallization due to heat, pressure, or chemically active fluids
The Rock Cycle
M el t
Co So oling (Cr lidi ys fic a tal at iza
n i o n) ti o
And Heat ure Press rphism) tamo (Me
Heat and Pressure
We ath eri an ng, T d D ra ep nsp osi ort tion atio n,
Weat her T ransportaitng, ion And Dep ositi on
Weathering, Transportation and Deposition
Ceme ntation and Compaction
Comprise 95% of the Earth's crust. Originated from the solidification of molten material from deep inside the Earth. There are two types: •Volcanic - glassy in texture due to fast cooling. •Plutonic - slow-cooling, crystalline rocks.
Igneous Rocks and Reservoirspart of reservoirs. Igneous rocks can be
Fractured granites form reservoirs in some parts of the world. Volcanic tuffs are mixed with sand in some reservoirs.
Example: Granite Wash - Elk City, Okla., Northern Alberta,CA
2) Metamorphic rocks formed by the action of temperature and/or pressure on sedimentary or igneous rocks. Examples are
• • •
Marble - formed from limestone Hornfels - from shale or tuff Gneiss - similar to granite but formed by metamorphosis
Field Example: 1. Point Arguello - Monterey Formation is actually layers of fractured Chert and Shale. Oil is in the fractures 2. Long Beach, Calif. - Many SS producers on an Anticline above fractured Metamorphic basement rock 3. Austin, TX eastward - Lava flows of Basalt (Serpentine) from Volcanoes in ancient Gulf of Mexico
These are the most important for the oil industry as it contains most of the source rocks and cap rocks and a majority of the reservoirs. Sedimentary rocks come from the debris of older rocks and are split into two categories Clastic and Non-clastic.
Clastic rocks - formed from the materials of older rocks by the actions of erosion, transportation and deposition. Non-clastic rocks - from chemical or biological origin and then deposition.
Clastics Rock type Particle diameter Conglomerate Pebbles 2 - 64mm Sandstone Sand .06 - 2mm Siltstone Silt .004 - .06mm or 4 to 65 microns Shale Clay < .004mm or 4 microns Non-Clastics Rock type Limestone Dolomite Salt Anhydrite Gypsum Coal
Composition CaCO3 CaMg(CO3)2 NaCl CaSO4 CaSO4.2H2O Carbon
Sedimentary Rock Types
• Relative abundance
Sandstone and conglomerate ~11% Limestone and dolomite ~13% Siltstone, mud and shale ~75%
The depositional environment can be Shallow or deep water. Marine (sea) and lake or continental. This environment determines many of the reservoir characteristics
Frigg Gas Field - North Sea
Continental deposits are usually dunes. A shallow marine environment has a lot of turbulence hence varied grain sizes. It can also have carbonate and evaporite formation. A deep marine environment produces fine sediments.
The depositional characteristics of the rocks lead to some of their properties and the reservoir property.
The reservoir rock type clastic or non-clastic. The type of porosity (especially in carbonates) is determined by the environment plus subsequent events.
The structure of a reservoir can also be determined by deposition; a river, a delta, a reef etc. This can also lead to permeability and producibility of these properties are often changed by further events.
Consolidated and unconsolidate sands Porosity
Determined mainly by the packing and mixing of grains.
Determined mainly by grain size and packing, connectivity and shale content.
Fractures may be present.
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
Average Detrital Mineral Composition of Shale and Sandstone
Mineral Composition Shale (%)
Clay Minerals Quartz Feldspar Rock Fragments Carbonate Organic Matter, Hematite, and Other Minerals 60 30 4 <5 3 <3
5 65 10-15 15 <1 <1
(modified from Blatt, 1982)
Clastic rocks are sands, silts and shales. The difference is in the size of the grains.
Sedimentary muds become sedimentary rocks.
Calcareous muds become limestone. Sands become sandstone.
Grains in the matrix and the fluids reacting to create new minerals changing the matrix and porosity. Fluids can also change creating a new set of minerals. This whole process is called Diagenesis.
Clastic Sedimentary Environments
Environment Agent Of Transportation Deposition Rivers Lake currents, waves Wind Ice River + waves, tides Waves, tides Waves, tides Ocean currents, settling Sediments Sand, gravel, mud Sand, mud Sand, dust Sand, gravel, mud Sand, mud Sand, gravel Sand, mud Sand, Mud
Alluvial Lake Desert Glacial Delta Beach Shallow shelf Deep sea
Depositional Environment - Delta
Sediments are transported to the basins by rivers. A common depositional environment is the delta where the river empties into the sea. A good example of this is the Mississippi (Miocene and Oligocene sands)
Some types of deposition occur in rivers and sand bars. The river forms a channel where sands are deposited in layers. Rivers carry sediment down from the mountains which is then deposited in the river bed and on the flood plains at either side. Changes in the environment can cause these sands to be overlain with a shale, trapping the reservoir rock.
Sandstone Composition Framework Grains
Qtz Qtz Qtz Quartz
Porosity in Sandstone
Pores Provide the Volume to Contain Hydrocarbon Fluids Pore Throats Restrict Fluid Flow
Scanning Electron Micrograph Norphlet Formation, Offshore Alabama, USA
Effects of Clays on Reservoir Quality
100 1000 100 10 1 1 0.1 0.01 2 6 10 14 0.1 0.01 2 6 10 14 18
(modified from Kugler and McHugh, 1990)
Carbonates (limestone and dolomite) normally have a very irregular structure. Porosity:
Determined by the type of shells, etc. and by depositional and post-depositional events (fracturing, leaching, etc.).
Determined by deposition and post-deposition events, fractures.
Fractures can be very important in carbonate reservoirs.
Chalk is a special form of limestone (CaCO3) and is formed from the skeletons of small creatures (cocoliths). Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) is formed by the replacement of some of the calcium by a lesser volume of magnesium in limestone by magnesium. Magnesium is smaller than calcium, hence the matrix becomes smaller and more porosity is created. Evaporites such as Salt (NaCl) and Anhydrite (CaSO4) can also form in these environments.
Depositional Environment Carbonates
Carbonates are formed in shallow seas containing features such as:
• • •
Reefs. Lagoons. Shore-bars.
The environment can also involve subsequent alterations of the rock such as:
Chemical changes. Diagenesis is the chemical alteration of a rock after burial. An example is the replacement of some of the calcium atoms in limestone by magnesium to form dolomite.
Mechanical changes - fracturing in a tectonically-active region.
Hydrocarbon Generation, Migration, and Accumulation
Hydrocarbon originates from minute organisms in seas and lakes. When they die, they sink to the bottom where they form organic-rich "muds" in fine sediments. These "muds" are in a reducing environment or "kitchen", which strips oxygen from the sediments leaving hydrogen and carbon. The sediments are compacted to form organic-rich rocks with very low permeability. The hydrocarbon can migrate very slowly to nearby porous rocks, displacing the original formation water.
Hydrocarbon migration takes place in two stages: Primary migration - from the source rock to a porous rock. This is a complex process and not fully understood. It is probably limited to a few hundred metres. Secondary migration - along the porous rock to the trap. This occurs by buoyancy, capillary pressure and hydrodynamics through a continuous water-filled pore system. It can take place over large distances.
Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks
Disseminated Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks That is Insoluble in Oxidizing Acids, Bases, and Organic Solvents.
A nonfluorescent type of organic material in petroleum source rocks derived primarily from woody material. The reflectivity of vitrinite is one of the best indicators of coal rank and thermal maturity of petroleum source rock.
Reflected-Light Micrograph of Coal
Interpretation of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) (based on early oil window maturity)
Hydrocarbon Generation Potential Poor Fair Good Very Good Excellent TOC in Shale (wt. %) 0.0-0.5 0.5-1.0 1.0-2.0 2.0-5.0 >5.0 TOC in Carbonates (wt. %) 0.0-0.2 0.2-0.5 0.5-1.0 1.0-2.0 >2.0
Plate Tectonics and Structural Geology
Sedimentary Basin and Stress Fields
Fault Types Basin Geometries Rift Related Basin (Extensional Stress) Normal fault Sedimentary Fill
Foreland Basin (Compressive Stress) Thrust fault Pull-apart Basin (Lateral Stress) Wrench fault
Li b m
Anticline Syncline Modified from xxx) Youngest rock Oldest rock
m Li b
b im L
ow thr Up
Strike direction Fault scarp
row Upth n Dow
Dip angle Fault plane
Faulting (normal faults)
Kabab Canyon, Utah
Photograph by XXX
Strike Slip Fault
ke St ri
Geologic Reservoir Heterogeneity
Scales of Geological Reservoir Heterogeneity
Determined From Well Logs, Seismic Lines, Statistical Modeling, etc. 1-10 km Interwell Area
Petrographic or Scanning Electron Microscope
Hand Lens or Binocular Microscope
(modified from Weber, 1986)
Structural traps Stratigraphic traps Combination traps
Ghawar Oilfield - Saudi Arabia- Ls - 145 mi x 13 mi wide x260 ft produces 11,000 b/d total 82B bbls Gasharan Oilfield - Iran - Ls - 6000ft. Net pay total 8.5 B bbls
Structural Hydrocarbon Traps
Shale Oil Gas Trap Oil/Gas Contact Oil/Water Contact Oil Closure
(modified from Bjorlykke, 1989)
Faults occur when the rock shears due to stresses. Reservoirs often form in these fault zones. A porous and permeable layer may trap fluids due to its location alongside an impermeable fault or its juxtaposition alongside an impermeable bed. Faults are found in conjunction with other structures such as anticlines, domes and salt domes.
Drag Faults - Wyoming, most Rocky Mountains
Normal Faults - Nigeria, Hibenia (E. Canada), Vicksburg Trends (Victoria, TX)
Michigan - Belle River Mills Devonian reefs (Barriers and Atolls) Alberta CA. (Leduc & Redwater) Midland Basin &Delaware Basin of West TX - Barrier Reefs
Point Bars - Powder River Basin, WY, Clinton SS in Western Ok,
Petroleum Exploration: Geophysical Application to Petroleum Geology
Petroleum ExplorationGeophysical Methods
Gravity methods Magnetic surveys Seismic surveys
Principle of Gravity Surveys
Uncorrected Gravity +1 Gravity -1 Value (mgal) -2 -3
Corrected Gravity (Bouguer Anomaly) Meter
Clastics 2.4 gm/cm3
Salt 2.1 gm/cm3
Principle of Magnetic Surveys
Sedimentary Basin Basement
(from xxx, 19xx)
The seismic tools commonly used in the oil and gas industry are 2-D and 3-D seismic data Seismic data are used to:
– Define and map structural folds and faults – Identify stratigraphic variations and map sedimentary facies – Infer the presence of hydrocarbons
Pre-Drilling Knowledge Exploration
Structural information obtained from surface seismic data. Rough geological information can be provided by nearby wells or outcrops. Approximate depths estimated from surface seismic data.
Marine Acquisition System
Boat Sea Surface Source (Airguns) Incident waves
Cable with hydrophones
Crossline 470 (East)
Seal (unconformity) Reservoirs
Applications of Seismic Data
Make a structural model of the reservoir Delineate and map reservoir-quality rocks Establish gas/water contacts
Seismic Amplitude Map of a Horizon
3-D Seismic data define reservoirquality,channel-fill sand deposits
Modified from Brown, 1996
4-D Seismic Surveys
The “4” in 4-D seismic is time A 4-D survey means that at least two 3-D seismic surveys have been made at different times over the same field Reflection character (attributes) change through time These changes result from migration of the water contact in the reservoir
Exercises: Petroleum Geology
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Oil forms at lower temperatures than gas. T_____ F ______ The law of (original horizontality, uniformitarianism, superposition) states that, in a normal sedimentary sequence, younger layers occur on top of older layers. The largest division of geologic time is the (era, eon, period, epoch). Hydrocarbons are most abundant in (metamorphic, igneous, sedimentary) rocks. The most abundant sedimentary rock type is shale. T____ F ______ Name 3 clay minerals common in sandstone reservoirs A. _____________________ B.____________________
Clastic rocks are formed from the materials of older rocks by the actions of erosion, transportation and __________________. Clastic rocks are sedimentary. T___ F____ Name two non-clastic sedimentary rocks. A.______________ B.________________ Alluvial, desert, delta, beach and shallow shelf sediment make the best reservoirs T_______ F_______
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1. Diagenesis is the chemical alteration of a rock after burial. T___ F ___ (Magnesium, Iron, or Sulfate) must be in the formation water in order to convert limestone to dolomite. Limestone is (CaCO3 or Ca(CO3)2). Dolomite is MgCaCO3 or MgCa(CO3)2. Reef deposits are classified as (clastic, carbonate) sedimentary rocks. The source rock must contain (organic material, coal, methane). Fault and anticline traps occur only in gas wells. T___ F___ The oil water contact can be observed using seismic T___ F___ (Historical, structural, tectonic) geology addresses the occurrence and origin of smaller scale deformational features, such as folds and faults, that may be involved in hydrocarbon migration or which may form structural hydrocarbon traps. Good quality sandstone reservoirs normally contain ~ (1-10 or 25-30% silt and clay).
Well 4 3 4 3 4
Hydrocarbons reservoirs are normally in (igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary) rocks. Fluorescence of drill cuttings or core indicates (oil, gas, water) is present. Reservoir traps are (very impermeable, highly permeable). What are 2 uses of seismic data in petroleum exploration and development?
In inclined reservoir rocks, what is the significance of a “flat spot” in seismic sections? What is a 4-D seismic evaluation?