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Repeated Questions of International Law

INTERNATIONAL LAW

Explain in detail the object, purpose and basis of international law. 2001

Define International Law. Do you agree with John Austins concept International Law is
not a true law, but a positive international morality? Elaborate your answer with
appropriate arguments. 2005

What are the sources of International Law? Discuss any two of them in detail. 2005

International Law is a Law regulating the rights and duties of states and creating no
rights and imposing no duties on individuals. Do u agree with this statement? Why or
why not? Argue. 2006

John Austin says International Law is not a real Law, but a positive International
Morality. Do you agree with him? Give arguments in support of your answer. 2008

Give such a definition of International Law which could cover all the modern trends in it?
2010

"International Law is primarily concerned with the rights, duties and interests of states."
Examine this statement with reference to the place of individuals and non-state entities is
International Law. 2011

International law is a product of centuries - elaborate the statement in view of the


scientific development and codification of the law. 2013

As a law based on common consent of states, international law should have more binding
authority and less moral considerations. Discuss. Re-Exam 2013

"When all has been said it will be found that consent remains firmly the basis of
international law, and there are as many, and only as many, sources of international law as
there are ways whereby the consent of states can be expressed"? Discuss 2014

What is the relationship between Positive Law Theory, Natural Law Theory and International
Law? How these theories contributed in the evolution of International Law? (2015)

Explain the sources of International Law in the light of Article 38(1) of the Statute of
International Court of Justice. (2015)

SUBJECT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW


What does Subjects of international law mean? Discuss individuals as subjects of
International Law. Elaborate your answer with the appropriate examples. 2005

Briefly and precisely define SUBJECTS International Law. Do you agree that
INDIVIDUALS can be considered as subjects of International Law? Give appropriate
examples in this regard. 2008

What is meant by 'Subjects of International Law'? Justify Individuals as the subject of


International Law by giving appropriate examples. 2010

States continue to be the principal subjects of international legal relations but non-state
entities too exert a great deal of influence on the legal system. Examine the statement
with reference to rights and duties of international organizations under law. 2013

Explain the rules which govern how an insurgency movement can become a subject of
International Law. (2015)

NATIONALITY

Short Notes: Nationality 2000

Define nationality. What are neutral and neutralized states? 2001

Explain the various modes of acquiring and losing nationality. What is double Nationality
and Statelessness? 2002

Short Notes: Double nationality 2003, 2012

Explain the various modes of acquiring and losing NATIONALITY. What is DOUBLE
NATIONALITY and STATELESSNESS? 2007

RECOGNITION OF STATES

What do you understand by 'Recognition of States' and 'Recognition of Governments?


Explain fully the distinction between Recognition Dejure and Recognition Defacto.
2000

Short Notes: De facto recognition 2003

Describe the legal nature of recognition of states, with particular reference to difference
between defacto and Dejure recognition. 2003
What is the duty of other states in case of internal revolt in an independent state? Can
they help the rebels? Under what circumstances recognition may be accorded to the
rebels? 2006

"What is meant by RECOGNITION of STATES as a mamber of FAMILY of NATIONS?


State the different modes of such recognition. 2007

Discuss Recognition. Differentiate between de-jure and de-facto recognition. What are
the disabilities of an unrecognized state? 2008

Define Recognition. Differentiate between Defacto and Dejure Recognition. 2010

"The Subject of Recognition is one of the most difficult branches of international law, not
merely from the points of view of exposition of principles, but also intrinsically by reason
of many difficulties which arise in practice." Discuss 2011

Non-recognition of a government can be amounted to denying the recognition of the


state itself as it is the governments that do international business on behalf of the states.
Argue in affirmative this statement with particular reference to Constitutive Theory of
Recognition. 2012

Define Recognition and explain its kinds. Also point out the difference between
recognition of states and governments. 2013

What is the role of state recognition in the commencement of existence of a state? What are the
rules that govern the issues that arise out of a state ceasing to exist? (2015)

INTERNATIONAL RIVERS

Write a comprehensive note on international rivers and international canal. 2001

Describe international rivers. State the principles of law, regulating the use of water and
navigation in international rivers. 2003

HIGH SEAS

Short Notes: High Seas 2000


Discuss the extent to which a state can claim jurisdiction over the high seas in war and
peace. Is an appropriation by a state of the underwater soil allowed in International Law?
2006

Define High Seas. Explain the concept of Freedom of High Seas along-with restrictions
over it.2008

INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE

Write a detailed note on the International-court of Justice with particular reference to its
powers to exercise jurisdiction over disputant states. 2000

The jurisdiction of international court of justice depends on the consent of the parties
concerned. Discuss. 2001

How far has the United Nation succeeded in developing a comprehensive system of
Human Rights protection? Can emphasis on social justice and Human rights lead to a
stable International Order? 2009

Explain the structure and powers of the International Court of Justice and assess the
importance of the principles laid down in judicial decisions of leading cases as precedents
for states. 2013

UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION

Critically examine the powers and the voting procedure of the U.N. Security Council.
2000

How far has the United Nation succeeded in developing a comprehensive system of
Human Rights protection? Can emphasis on social justice and Human rights lead to a
stable International Order?2009

Keeping in view the objectives of the charter seeking to establish a mechanism of peace
and security how far has United Nations succeeded in confronting changes in Global
society? 2009

"The Practice of United Nations Organization Show that while the principle of Self-
Determination is agreed upon, neither the scope of its application nor the method of
decolonization has been settled." Discuss 2011
"All the major issues on voting in the Secretary Council are now satisfactorily resolved.
The real problem today is about the composition of the Security Council." Discuss 2011,
2014

Elucidate and justify: "The United Nations inspite of its imperfections, is the only
organizations that can save humanity from disaster and complete annihilation." 2011

Does the customary international law grant the right to use force to a state in response to
a terrorist attack on it? Substantiate your answer by arguing from Article 51 and
Paragraph 4 of the Article 2 of the UN Charter and other recent examples in this regard.
2012

Keeping in view the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). What can be a reform
agenda in your opinion for making the UN more effective ?2013

Keeping in view the powers of the security council what suggestions can you give for
improving its structure as a dominant body within UN.Re-Exam 2013

NEUTRALIZATION

Short Notes: Neutrality 2003

Differentiate between Neutralized and Neutral States. Discuss the rights and duties of a
neutral state. 2005

Discuss the concept of Neutralization. How is it done? Explain the Rights, Duties and
Guarantees given to a neutralized state. 2010

Define the term NEUTRALITY and explain the rights and duties of a neutral state. Re-
Exam 2013

INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES

Discuss Kashmir dispute in the light of

1. Right of self-determination 2001

2. UN Security Council resolution 2001

3. Noninterference in internal affairs 2001


4. legal status of election in Kashmir 2001

5. Simla agreement 2001

What are amicable means of settlement of international disputes? 2002

Describe various methods of peaceful and amicable settlement of international disputes.


2004

Discuss amicable means for the settlement of international disputes.2005,2008,2010

DIPLOMACY

State the various kinds and classes of diplomatic agents and mention their privileges and
immunities.2003

A Pakistani citizen working in the embassy of a foreign country in Islamabad, has


committed an offence against another Pakistani citizen. The Pakistani police want to
arrest such person. However, the ambassador is refusing to handover the accused to the
police with the plea that the accused has a diplomatic immunity. Do you agree with the
pleas of the ambassador? Why or why not?2006

Describe Importance of diplomacy in interstate relations and discuss the concept of


diplomacy and immunity?2009

Define Diplomatic Envoy. Give a short account of the functions, privileges and
immunities of the diplomatic envoys accredited to other states. 2011

"The office of the Secretary General of the United Nations is certainly the most important
and visible post in intentional multilateral diplomacy but it has been called the most
impossible job in the world because the faces complex and contradictory pressures in the
performance of his duties" Discuss 2014

IMMUNITY

State immunity has become a mere fiction which the law can do without. The principle
is gradually withering away, a process already under way and constantly gaining
momentum. Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your answer.2002
Describe Importance of diplomacy in interstate relations and discuss the concept of
diplomacy and immunity? 2009

What is the difference between immunities and privileges of diplomats? What is its place in
International Law? How it affects the functions and responsibilities of the diplomats? (2015)

COURTS AND CASES

Short Notes: Corfu Channel Case, U.K.V. Albania (1948), I.C.J. Rep. 1949. 2000, 2015

Short Notes: Chorzow Factory case, Germany V. Poland (1928) , P.C.I.J. Rep. Ser. A,
No.17 2000

Explain the rules which govern the application of International Law by Municipal Courts.
Give your answer in the light of the court practice with special reference to the British
and American Courts. 2000

Short Notes: Prize courts 2002, 2012

Enumerate the principles of International Law involved in the decision of Corfu Channel
Case. Assess the impact that decision on the growth and development of International
Law.2004

Short Notes: Scotia Case 2005

Describe the functions of a Prize Court. What law does it administer? 2006

TREATY

Define a Treaty. State how are they concluded and terminated? Explain it in the light of
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969. 2000

Coercion against a state renders a treaty invalid. Discuss main features of the principle.
Also elaborate two other methods of rendering invalid the consent of a state to be bound
by a treaty.2002

State and discuss in brief the various steps mentioned by starke in the creation of legal
obligation by a treaty. 2003

How far do you think that International Law is based on common consent of States?
Evaluate importance of customary law and treaty law as binding in this regard 2009
What are the various kinds of treaties in international law? Explain the laws about
formation, interpretation and termination of treaties. 2012

What is STATE SUCCESSION? What is the scope of treaty continuity or treaty


obligations in case of extinction of a state? Re-Exam 2013

"Treaties are known by a variety of differing names, ranging from conventions, international
agreements, pacts, general acts, and charters through to statutes, declarations and conventions.'
Discuss in the light of laws of its formation, interpretation and termination. (2015)

EXTRADITION

Short Notes: Extradition 2003, 2012

Discuss the concept of extradition. Explain main principles of extradition. Discuss also
the crimes exempted from extradition.2005

Give precise definition of Extradition. Write a comprehensive essay on extradition by


covering all its aspects.2008

STATE JURISDICTION

Discuss the term State jurisdiction with reference to

1. Maritime belt

2. Port

3. Foreigners

4. Floating island 2003

Define State jurisdiction and explain how domestic jurisdiction can be limited by and
reduced by principles of International Law?2009

INTERVENTIONS

Short Notes: Intervention 2000


The frequent Interventions have challenged the validity of some of fundamental
principles of International Law. What are those principles? Discuss in the light of
interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq by the super-powers.2004

Whatever the morality of intervention, states have no right under International Law to
intervene on the territory of other states in order to prevent alleged crimes against
humanity or to uphold human rights norms. Discuss. 2006

Explain with reference to the relevant articles of the UN Charter that whether the world
body is authorized to intervene in the domestic jurisdiction of its member states. 2012

VETO

What is veto? How, when and by whom is used? 2003

What is Veto? How, when and by whom it is used? What consequences Pakistan had to
face in the past because of its use by a former superpower? 2012

SOVEREIGN STATE

Fully explain the duties of a Sovereign State with special reference to:2004

1. Not to interfere in the domestic affairs of another state

2. To refrain from use of threat of use force against another state

Discuss various modes of Acquisition of Territorial Sovereignty by the states


acknowledged in International Law. 2010

Lord Curzon once said, Frontiers are indeed the razors edge on which hang suspended
the modern issues of war or peace, of life or death to nations. Explain in this light the
various modes of acquisition of territory by a state. 2012

HIJACKING

Short Notes: High jacking 2000


Explain how the problem of Hijacking has been dealt with under the International Law?
2004

TERRORISM

TERRORISM has become an international phenomenon - how far are you satisfied with
international legal controls of such criminal conduct.Re-Exam 2013

BLOCKADE

Short Notes: Blockade 2000

Define Blockade. What are the essentials of real and binding Blockade? What does it
terminate? Refer to leading cases 2004

PRISONERS OF WAR

How are Prisoners of war to be treated under International Law? Explain with reference
to various conventions. 2004

Short Notes: Rights of Prisoners of War 2005

LAW OF SEA

Write short notes on any three of the following in the light of convention on the law of
sea 1982 and our maritime zone act of 1976. You must discuss the nature of jurisdiction,
right and duties.

1. Internal Waters

2. Continental Shelf

3. Territorial Waters

4. Land-locked State
5. EEZ 2001

Short Notes: Territorial waters 2002

Short Notes: Continental Shelf 2005, 2012

Why is the third UN convention on the law of sea (UNCLOS-III) considered a vast
diplomatic and legal undertaking and what has made it different to the earlier efforts on
the subject ?2013

MISCELLANEOUS

Enumerates with short explanation the main principles discussed in any two of the
following cases.

1. Lotus case 2001

2. Clarence Thomas and Anita hill case 2001

3. American diplomat case 2001

What do you understand by international institutions? Discuss their status and functions
as subject of international law. 2002

Discuss the liability of the following: 2006

1. The ambassador of the Republic of Brondasia in Islamabad murders a Pakistani out of


sudden provocation.

2. The wife of the Brondasian ambassador bought cosmetics worth Rs.1000,000 from a
local departmental store, refused to pay and went away to her embassy.

3. A Pakistani friend of the Brondasian ambassador has murdered a Brondasian employee of


the embassy.

What is the duty of other states in case of internal revolt in an independent state? Can
they help the rebels? Under what circumstances recognition may be accorded to the
rebels?2006

Differentiate between Territorial and Extra-Territorial Asylum. Under which


circumstances an Embassy or Consulate can offer asylum to a fugitive/offender of the
territorial State?2008
Define International personality and discuss various entities as International Legal
person.2009

Territory is undoubtedly the basic character of a state as well as widely accepted


elaborate with reference to exclusive rights of states on Land and Air territory.2009

Give an account of the efforts of international community to protect the civilian


population from the effects of war.2010

"As the basis of the Law of Nations is the common consent of the member states of the
Family of Nations, it is evident there must exist as many sources of international law as
there are facts through which such common consent can possibly come into existence."
(Oppenheim). Discuss 2011

While customs form the major part of Internatiomal law it is conventions that make it
more authentic and applicable. Discuss. 2013

Territory is essential part of a state - examine the statement in view of modes of


acquisition and loss of state territory.Re-Exam 2013

Considering the practice of leading states how far is it true to say that international Law
and municipal law are two distinct but coordinate legal systems.Re-Exam 2013

"The case law of the international court of justice and the practice of United Nations
show that while the principle of self-determination is agreed upon, neither the scope of its
application nor the method of decolonisation has been settled" Discuss 2014

"What ever be the generally accepted rules governing the outer limit of the territorial
limit of the territorial sea this issue, and others like it, will be settled in many cases on the
basis of the principles of acquiescence and opposability". Discuss 2014

The assumption that the "genuine link" formula, invented for dealing with people, is
capable of immediate application to ships..........smacks of a disappointing naivete 2014

SHORT NOTES

Short Notes: Human Rights 2000

Short Notes: Exclusive Economic Zone 2000


Short Notes: Calvo Clause 2000

Short Notes: Kellogg Briand Pact 1928 2002

Short Notes: The Geneva Convention 1929 2002

Short Notes: Pacta Sunt Servanda 2002

Short Notes: Protectorate 2002, 2012

Short Notes: State servitude 2002

Short Notes: Monroes doctrine 2002

Short Notes: Equality of states 2002

Short Notes: Doctrine of Postliminium 2002

Short Notes: Continuous voyage 2002

Short Notes: International boundaries 2003

Short Notes: Universal Declaration of Human Rights 2012

Short Notes: The Rainbow Warrior Case

Short Notes: The Nottebohm Case.