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Klasifikasi Motor Klasifikasi

Electric Motors

Alternating Current (AC) Direct Current (DC)

Motors Motors

Synchronous Induction Separately Self Excited


Single-Phase Three-Phase Series Compound Shunt

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PCB Motor Motor Universal

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Motor Universal SCR Control (for DC Motor)

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Motor AC Induksi Motor Step (Stepper Motor)
Jenis 1: Rotor Permanen Magnet

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Motor Step (Stepper Motor) Motor Step (Stepper Motor)

Jenis 2: Variable Reluctance Jenis 3: PM-hybrid motor

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Motor Step: Unipolar

Stator Rotor

Motor Step: Bipolar Motor Step (Stepper Motor)
Cara Eksitasi 1: One-phase ON, Full Step

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One-phase On, Full Step, Torque = T, Step = 90o

Motor Step (Stepper Motor)
Cara Eksitasi 2: Two-phase ON, Full Step


Two-phase On, Full Step, Torque = 1,4T, Step = 90o Motor Step (Stepper Motor)
Cara Eksitasi 3: Half Step

Stepping Sequence
Half Step, Torque= T sd 1,4T, Step 45o

Full step sequence Half step

showing how binary sequence of
numbers can control binary control
the motor numbers

Full Stepping
Motor Step (Stepper Motor)
Urutan kontrol 1: Two-phase On, Full Step

Animation shows how coils are energized

for full steps

Motor Step (Stepper Motor) Motor Step : Rangkaian Kontrol

Urutan Kontrol 2: Half Step

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Motor Step: Torque vs Speed Contoh Pemakaian Motor Step
Film Advance


Telescope Drive Labeling Machine

Moving Positioning System Rotating Tube Cutter

Motor Step (Stepper Motor) BLDC Motor
Video 1: Kontrol Posisi
Video 2: Kontrol kecepatan (dan posisi) tanpa slip

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BLDC Motor = AC Servo BLDC Motor = AC Servo

o A BLDC motor: o BRUSH LESS DC (BLDC) / AC SERVO MOTORS are a type
the stator is a classic three-phase stator like that of an of synchronous motor. This means the magnetic field generated
induction motor by the stator and the magnetic filed generated by the rotor rotate
the rotor has permanent magnets at the same frequency.
o Motor torque, speed, position, current are controlled by a o BRUSH LESS DC (BLDC) / AC SERVO MOTORS do not
microcontroller (MCU) or digital signal controller (DSC). experience the slip' that is normally seen in induction motors.
o Supports Hall sensor (commutated), encoder, resolver, and
sensorless control functions.
o Aplication: fans, pumps, HVAC blowers and compressors,
computer disk drives and peripherals, appliances, robotics,
servo systems, traction control, sewing machines, and
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BLDC Motor = AC Servo DC Motor vs BLDC Motor

DC Motor BLDC Motor

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Essential Elements of a Typical BLDC Motor

BLDC Control
How BLDC Works

Halls Sensors sense the

position of the coils

The Decoder Circuit turns

appropriate switches on
and off

The voltage through the

specific coils turns the motor

Images courtesy of Serv o Magnetics


Quadrants of Operation
Increased Reliablilty & Efficiency

Second Quadrant First Quadrant

Longer Life
negative speed-positive torque positive speed-positive torque
reverse-braking forward-accelerating

Generating Motoring Elimination of Sparks from Commutator
II I (Speed)
Reduced Friction
Motoring III IV Generating
Faster Rate of Voltage & Current
Third Quadrant Fourth Quadrant
Positive speed - negative torque
Precision Voltage & Current Applied to
Field Coils
negative speed - negative torque
reverse-accelerating forward-braking


Applications Disadvantages
Low Power
Requires Complex Drive Circuitry
Consumer Electronics
Medical Field
Requires additional Sensors

High Power Higher Cost

Industrial Machinery
Vehicles Some designs require manual labor
Airplanes (Hand wound Stator Coils)
BLDC Motor: Torque vs Speed BLDC Motor Applications

21st Century electric motor will be BLDC / AC Servo 49 50

BLDC Motor Applications BLDC Motor Applications

Brushless DC motors
at GMRT Rayshed

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BLDC Motor (AC Servo)

Video 1: Servo Motor with Replacable Encoder
Video 2: Servo Motor Repair
Video 3: Stepper or Servo?