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Klasifikasi Motor Klasifikasi

Electric Motors

Alternating Current (AC) Direct Current (DC)


Motors Motors

Synchronous Induction Separately Self Excited


Excited

Single-Phase Three-Phase Series Compound Shunt

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PCB Motor Motor Universal

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Motor Universal SCR Control (for DC Motor)

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Motor AC Induksi Motor Step (Stepper Motor)
Jenis 1: Rotor Permanen Magnet

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Motor Step (Stepper Motor) Motor Step (Stepper Motor)


Jenis 2: Variable Reluctance Jenis 3: PM-hybrid motor

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Motor Step: Unipolar


Stator Rotor

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Motor Step: Bipolar Motor Step (Stepper Motor)
Cara Eksitasi 1: One-phase ON, Full Step

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One-phase On, Full Step, Torque = T, Step = 90o


Motor Step (Stepper Motor)
Cara Eksitasi 2: Two-phase ON, Full Step

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Two-phase On, Full Step, Torque = 1,4T, Step = 90o Motor Step (Stepper Motor)
Cara Eksitasi 3: Half Step

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Stepping Sequence
Half Step, Torque= T sd 1,4T, Step 45o

Full step sequence Half step


showing how binary sequence of
numbers can control binary control
the motor numbers

Full Stepping
Motor Step (Stepper Motor)
Urutan kontrol 1: Two-phase On, Full Step

Animation shows how coils are energized


for full steps
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Motor Step (Stepper Motor) Motor Step : Rangkaian Kontrol


Urutan Kontrol 2: Half Step

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Motor Step: Torque vs Speed Contoh Pemakaian Motor Step
Film Advance

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Telescope Drive Labeling Machine

Moving Positioning System Rotating Tube Cutter


Motor Step (Stepper Motor) BLDC Motor
Video 1: Kontrol Posisi
Video 2: Kontrol kecepatan (dan posisi) tanpa slip

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BLDC Motor = AC Servo BLDC Motor = AC Servo


o A BLDC motor: o BRUSH LESS DC (BLDC) / AC SERVO MOTORS are a type
the stator is a classic three-phase stator like that of an of synchronous motor. This means the magnetic field generated
induction motor by the stator and the magnetic filed generated by the rotor rotate
the rotor has permanent magnets at the same frequency.
o Motor torque, speed, position, current are controlled by a o BRUSH LESS DC (BLDC) / AC SERVO MOTORS do not
microcontroller (MCU) or digital signal controller (DSC). experience the slip' that is normally seen in induction motors.
o Supports Hall sensor (commutated), encoder, resolver, and
sensorless control functions.
o Aplication: fans, pumps, HVAC blowers and compressors,
computer disk drives and peripherals, appliances, robotics,
servo systems, traction control, sewing machines, and
treadmills.
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BLDC Motor = AC Servo DC Motor vs BLDC Motor

DC Motor BLDC Motor


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Essential Elements of a Typical BLDC Motor


BLDC Control
How BLDC Works

Halls Sensors sense the


position of the coils

The Decoder Circuit turns


appropriate switches on
and off

The voltage through the


specific coils turns the motor

Images courtesy of Serv o Magnetics


(http://www.serv omag.com/flash/2-pole/2pole-bldc-motor.html)

Quadrants of Operation
Advantages
Increased Reliablilty & Efficiency
(Torque)
Current

Second Quadrant First Quadrant

Longer Life
negative speed-positive torque positive speed-positive torque
reverse-braking forward-accelerating

Generating Motoring Elimination of Sparks from Commutator
Voltage
II I (Speed)
Reduced Friction
Motoring III IV Generating
Faster Rate of Voltage & Current
Third Quadrant Fourth Quadrant
Positive speed - negative torque
Precision Voltage & Current Applied to
Field Coils
negative speed - negative torque
reverse-accelerating forward-braking

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Applications Disadvantages
Low Power
Requires Complex Drive Circuitry
Consumer Electronics
Medical Field
Requires additional Sensors

High Power Higher Cost


Industrial Machinery
Vehicles Some designs require manual labor
Airplanes (Hand wound Stator Coils)
BLDC Motor: Torque vs Speed BLDC Motor Applications

21st Century electric motor will be BLDC / AC Servo 49 50

BLDC Motor Applications BLDC Motor Applications

Brushless DC motors
at GMRT Rayshed

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BLDC Motor (AC Servo)


Video 1: Servo Motor with Replacable Encoder
Video 2: Servo Motor Repair
Video 3: Stepper or Servo?

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