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UNIX/Cygwin/MinGW COMPILATION

Note:

Platform specific notes regarding specific operating systems may be found


in the Platforms.txt file. This document provides generic instructions
which work in most common cases. Additional notes regarding Cygwin &
MinGW are provided later in this file.

Type:

gzip -dc ImageMagick-6.2.2.tar.gz | tar xvf -


cd ImageMagick-6.2.2

If you do not have gzip(1), the source for the gzip package is available
as a shell archive at

ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gzip/gzip-1.2.4a.shar

or as a tar archive at

ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gzip/gzip-1.2.4a.tar

Use the 'configure' script to automatically configure, build, and install


ImageMagick. The configure script may be executed from the ImageMagick source
directory (e.g ./configure) or from a seperate build directory by specifying
the full path to configure (e.g. /src/ImageMagick-6.2.2/configure). The
advantage of using a seperate build directory is that multiple ImageMagick
builds may share the same ImageMagick source directory while allowing each
build to use a unique set of options.

If you are willing to accept configure's default options, and build from
within the source directory, type:

./configure

and watch the configure script output to verify that it finds everything
that you think it should. If it does not, then adjust your environment
so that it does.

By default,

make install

will install the package's files in `/usr/local/bin', `/usr/local/lib', etc..


You can specify an installation prefix other than `/usr/local' by giving
`configure' the option `--prefix=PATH'. This is valuable in case you don't
have privileges to install under the default paths or if you want to install
in the system directories instead.

If you are not happy with configure's choice of compiler, compilation flags,
or libraries, you can give `configure' initial values for variables by
specifying them on the configure command line, e.g.:

./configure CC=c89 CFLAGS=-O2 LIBS=-lposix

Options which should be common to packages installed under the same directory
heirarchy may be supplied via a 'config.site' file located under the
installation prefix via the path ${prefix}/share/config.site where ${prefix} is
the installation prefix. This file is used for all packages installed under
that prefix. This is an example config.site file:

# Configuration values for all packages installed under this prefix


CC=gcc
CXX=c++
CPPFLAGS='-I/usr/local/include'
LDFLAGS='-L/usr/local/lib -R/usr/local/lib'

When the 'config.site' file is being used to supply configuration options,


configure will issue a message similar to:

configure: loading site script /usr/local/share/config.site

The configure variables you should be aware of are:

CC Name of C compiler (e.g. 'cc -Xa') to use


CXX Name of C++ compiler to use (e.g. 'CC')
CFLAGS Compiler flags (e.g. '-g -O2') to compile C code
CXXFLAGS Compiler flags (e.g. '-g -O2') to compile C++ code
CPPFLAGS Include paths (-I/somedir) to look for header files
LDFLAGS Library paths (-L/somedir) to look for libraries
Systems that support the notion of a library run-path
may require an additional argument in order to find
shared libraries at run time. For example, the Solaris
linker requires an argument of the form '-R/somedir',
some Linux systems will work with '-rpath /somedir',
while some other Linux systems who's gcc does not pass
-rpath to the linker require an argument of the form
'-Wl,-rpath,/somedir'.
LIBS Extra libraries (-lsomelib) required to link

Any variable (e.g. CPPFLAGS or LDFLAGS) which requires a directory path must
specify an absolute path rather than a relative path.

Configure can usually find the X include and library files automatically, but
if it doesn't, you can use the `configure' options `--x-includes=DIR' and
`--x-libraries=DIR' to specify their locations.

The configure script provides a number of ImageMagick specific options. When


disabling an option --disable-something is equivalent to specifying
--enable-something=no and --without-something is equivalent to
--with-something=no. The configure options are as follows (execute 'configure
--help' to see all options).

Optional Features:
--enable-ccmalloc enable 'ccmalloc' memory debug support (default disabled)
--enable-prof enable 'prof' profiling support (default disabled)
--enable-gprof enable 'gprof' profiling support (default disabled)
--enable-gcov enable 'gcov' profiling support (default disabled)
--disable-installed disable building an installed ImageMagick
(default enabled)
--disable-largefile disable support for large (64 bit) file offsets

Optional Packages/Options:
--with-quantum-depth number of bits in a pixel quantum (default 8)
--with-modules enable support for dynamically loadable modules
--with-cache set pixel cache threshhold (defaults to available memory)
--without-threads disable threads support
--with-frozenpaths enable frozen delegate paths
--without-magick-plus-plus disable build/install of Magick++
--without-perl disable build/install of PerlMagick
or
--with-perl=PERL use specified Perl binary to configure PerlMagick
--with-perl-options=OPTIONS options to pass on command-line when
generating PerlMagick's Makefile from Makefile.PL
--without-bzlib disable BZLIB support
--without-dps disable Display Postscript support
--with-fpx enable FlashPIX support
--with-gslib enable Ghostscript library support
--without-jbig disable JBIG support
--without-jpeg disable JPEG support
--without-jp2 disable JPEG v2 support
--without-lcms disable LCMS support
--without-png disable PNG support
--without-tiff disable TIFF support
--without-ttf disable TrueType support
--without-wmf disable WMF support
--with-fontpath prepend to default font search path
--with-gs-font-dir directory containing Ghostscript fonts
--with-windows-font-dir directory containing MS-Windows fonts
--without-xml disable XML support
--without-zlib disable ZLIB support
--with-x use the X Window System
--with-share-path=DIR Alternate path to share directory
(default share/ImageMagick)
--with-libstdc=DIR use libstdc++ in DIR (for GNU C++)

ImageMagick options represent either features to be enabled, disabled, or


packages to be included in the build. When a feature is enabled (via
--enable-something), it enables code already present in ImageMagick. When a
package is enabled (via --with-something), the configure script will search for
it, and if is is properly installed and ready to use (headers and built
libraries are found by compiler) it will be included in the build. The
configure script is delivered with all features disabled and all packages
enabled. In general, the only reason to disable a package is if a package
exists but it is unsuitable for the build (perhaps an old version or not
compiled with the right compilation flags).

Several configure options require special note:

* --enable-shared: the shared libraries are built and support for


loading coder and process modules is enabled. Shared libraries are
preferred because they allow programs to share common code, making
the individual programs much smaller. In addition shared libraries
are required in order for PerlMagick to be dynamically loaded by an
installed PERL (otherwise an additional PERL (PerlMagick) must be
installed.

ImageMagick built with delegates (see MAGICK PLUG-INS below) can pose
additional challenges. If ImageMagick is built using static libraries (the
default without --enable-shared) then delegate libraries may be built as
either static libraries or shared libraries. However, if ImageMagick is
built using shared libraries, then all delegate libraries must also be
built as shared libraries. Static libraries usually have the extension
.a, while shared libraries typically have extensions like .so, .sa, or
.dll. Code in shared libraries normally must compiled using a special
compiler option to produce Position Independent Code (PIC). The only time
this is not necessary is if the platform compiles code as PIC by default.

PIC compilation flags differ from vendor to vendor (gcc's is


-fPIC). However, you must compile all shared library source with the
same flag (for gcc use -fPIC rather than -fpic). While static libraries
are normally created using an archive tool like 'ar', shared libraries
are built using special linker or compiler options (e.g. -shared for gcc).

Building shared libraries often requires subtantial hand-editing of


Makefiles and is only recommended for those who know what they are doing.

If --enable-shared is not specified, a new PERL interpreter (PerlMagick)


is built which is statically linked against the PerlMagick extension. This
new interpreter is installed into the same directory as the ImageMagick
utilities. If --enable-shared is specified, the PerlMagick extension is
built as a dynamically loadable object which is loaded into your current
PERL interpreter at run-time. Use of dynamically-loaded extensions is
preferable over statically linked extensions so --enable-shared should
be specified if possible (note that all libraries used with ImageMagick
must be shared libraries!).

* --disable-static: static archive libraries (with extension .a)


are not built. If you are building shared libraries, there is little
value to building static libraries. Reasons to build static libraries
include: 1) they can be easier to debug; 2) the clients do not have
external dependencies (i.e. libMagick.so); 3) building PIC versions
of the delegate libraries may take additional expertise and effort; 4)
you are unable to build shared libraries.

* --disable-installed: By default the ImageMagick build is


configured to formally install into a directory tree. This is the
most secure and reliable way to install ImageMagick. Specifying
--disable-installed configures ImageMagick so that it doesn't use
hard-coded paths and locates support files by computing an offset path
from the executable (or from the location specified by the MAGICK_HOME
environment variable. The uninstalled configuration is ideal for binary
distributions which are expected to extract and run in any location.

* --with-modules: image coders and process modules are built as


loadable modules which are installed under the directory
[prefix]/lib/ImageMagick-X.X.X/modules-QN (where 'N' equals 8, 16,
or 32 depending on the quantum depth) in the subdirectories 'coders'
and 'filters' respectively. The modules build option is only available
in conjunction with --enable-shared. If --enable-shared is not also
specified, then support for building modules is disabled. Note that
if --enable-shared is specified, the module loader is active (allowing
extending an installed ImageMagick by simply copying a module into place)
but ImageMagick itself is not built using modules.

* --with-quantum-depth: This option allows the user to specify the


number of bits to use per pixel quantum (the size of the red, green,
blue, and alpha pixel components. For example, "--with-quantum-depth=8"
builds ImageMagick using 8-bit quantums. Most computer display adaptors
use 8-bit quantums. Currently supported arguments are 8, 16, or 32. The
default is 8. This option is the most important option in determining
the overall run-time performance of ImageMagick.

The number of bits in a quantum determines how many values it may


contain. Each quantum level supports 256 times as many values as the
previous level. The following table shows the range available for
various quantum sizes.

QuantumDepth Valid Range (Decimal) Valid Range (Hex)


8 0-255 00-FF
16 0-65535 0000-FFFF
32 0-4294967295 00000000-FFFFFFFF

Larger pixel quantums cause ImageMagick to run more slowly and to


require more memory. For example, using sixteen-bit pixel quantums
causes ImageMagick to run 15% to 50% slower (and take twice as much
memory) than when it is built to support eight-bit pixel quantums.

The amount of virtual memory consumed by an image can be computed by


the equation (QuantumDepth*Rows*Columns*5)/8. This is an important
consideration when resources are limited, particularly since processing
an image may require several images to be in memory at one time. The
following table shows memory consumption values for a 1024x768 image:

QuantumDepth Virtual Memory


8 3MB
16 8MB
32 15MB

* --without-magick-plus-plus: Disable building Magick++, the C++


application programming interface to ImageMagick. A suitable C++
compiler is required in order to build Magick++. Specify the CXX
configure variable to select the C++ compiler to use (default "g++"),
and CXXFLAGS to select the desired compiler opimization and debug flags
(default "-g -O2"). Antique C++ compilers will normally be rejected by
configure tests so specifying this option should only be necessary if
Magick++ fails to compile.

* --with-frozenpaths: Normally external program names are substituted


into the delegates.xml file without full paths. Specify this option
to enable saving full paths to programs using locations determined by
configure. This is useful for environments where programs are stored
under multiple paths, and users may use different PATH settings than
the person who builds ImageMagick.

* --without-threads: By default, the ImageMagick library is compiled


with multi-thread support. If this is undesireable, then specify
--without-threads.

* --with-cache: Specify a different image pixel cache threshold


using the --with-cache option. This sets the maximum amount of heap
memory that ImageMagick is allowed to consume before switching to using
memory-mapped temporary files to store raw pixel data.

* --disable-largefile: By default, ImageMagick is compiled with


support for large (> 2GB on a 32-bit CPU) files if the operating system
supports large files. All applications which use the ImageMagick library
must then also include support for large files. By disabling support for
large files via --disable-largefile, dependent applications do not require
special compilation options for large files in order to use the library.

* --without-perl: By default, PerlMagick is conveniently compiled


and installed as part of ImageMagick's normal "configure", "make",
"make install" process.. When --without-perl is specified, you must
first install ImageMagick, change to the PerlMagick subdirectory, build,
and finally install PerlMagick. Note, PerlMagick is configured even if
--without-perl is specified. If the argument --with-perl=/path/to/perl
is supplied, then /path/to/perl will be taken as the PERL interpreter
to use. This is important in case the 'perl' executable in your PATH
is not PERL5, or is not the PERL you want to use.

* --with-perl-options: The PerlMagick module is normally installed


using the Perl interpreter's installation PREFIX, rather than
ImageMagick's. If ImageMagick's installation prefix is not the same
as PERL's PREFIX, then you may find that PerlMagick's 'make install'
step tries to install into a directory tree that you don't have write
permissions to. This is common when PERL is delivered with the operating
system or on Internet Service Provider (ISP) web servers. If you want
PerlMagick to install elsewhere, then provide a PREFIX option to PERL's
configuration step via "--with-perl-options=PREFIX=/some/place". Other
options accepted by MakeMaker are 'LIB', 'LIBPERL_A', 'LINKTYPE',
and 'OPTIMIZE'. See the ExtUtils::MakeMaker(3) manual page for more
information on configuring PERL extensions.

* --without-x: By default, ImageMagick uses the X11 delegate libraries if


they are available. When --without-x is specified, use of X11 is disabled.
The display, animate, and import sub-commands are not included. The
remaining sub-commands have reduced functionality such as no access to X11
fonts (consider using Postscript or TrueType fonts instead).

* --with-gs-font-dir: Specify the directory containing the


Ghostscript Postscript Type 1 font files (e.g. "n022003l.pfb") so
that they can be rendered using the FreeType library. If the font
files are installed using the default Ghostscript installation paths
(${prefix}/share/ghostscript/fonts), they should be discovered
automatically by configure and specifying this option is not
necessary. Specify this option if the Ghostscript fonts fail to be
located automatically, or the location needs to be overridden.

* --with-windows-font-dir: Specify the directory containing


MS-Windows-compatible fonts. This is not necessary when ImageMagick is
running under MS-Windows.

----

Building under Cygwin

ImageMagick may be built under the Windows '95-XP Cygwin Unix-emulation


environment available for free from

http://www.cygwin.com/

X11R6 for Cygwin is available from

http://xfree86.cygwin.com/

We recommended that the X11R6 package be installed since this enables


ImageMagick's X11 support (animate, display, and import sub-commands will
work) and it includes the Freetype v2 DLL required to support TrueType
and Postscript Type 1 fonts. Make sure that /usr/X11R6/bin is in your PATH
prior to running the configure program.

If you are using Cygwin version 1.3.9 or later, you can specify the configure
option '--enable-shared' to build Cygwin DLLs. This option is required if
you want to build PerlMagick under Cygwin because Cygwin does not provide the
libperl.a static library required to create a static PerlMagick. Note that
since C++ exceptions do not currently work properly when thrown from a DLL,
the Magick++ library is always built as a static library. Be sure to not
specify --disable-static if you are building the Magick++ library since that
would surely lead to problems.

----

Building under MinGW & MSYS

ImageMagick may be built using the free MinGW ("Minimalistic GNU for
Windows") package version 1.1, available from

http://www.mingw.org

which consists of a GNU-based (e.g. gcc) compilation toolset plus headers


and libraries required to build programs which are entirely based on
standard Microsoft Windows DLLs. MSYS provides a Unix-like console shell
window with sufficient functionality to run the ImageMagick configure
script and execute make.

Unlike the Cygwin build which creates programs based on a Unix-emulation


DLL, and which uses Unix-style paths to access Windows files, the MinGW
build creates native Windows console applications similar to the Visual
C++ build.

Please note that since the MinGW build is very new, some aspects of the
installation may vary from Windows user's expectations, and that only a
static build (no DLLs or modules) is currently supported.

Once MinGW & MSYS have been installed, start the MSYS console (via the
MSYS icon on the Windows desktop) and follow the Unix configure and build
instructions. Note that the default installation prefix is "/usr/local"
which installs the package into a MSYS directory. To install outside
of the MSYS directory tree, you may specify an installation prefix like
"/c/ImageMagick" which causes the package to be installed under the Windows
directory "C:\ImageMagick". The installation directory structure will look
very much like the Unix installation layout (e.g. "C:\ImageMagick\bin",
"C:\ImageMagick\lib", "C:\ImageMagick\share", etc.). Any additional
delegate libraries (e.g. libpng) will need to be built under MinGW in
order to be used.

----

Dealing with configuration failures:

While configure is designed to ease installation of ImageMagick, it often


discovers problems that would otherwise be encountered later when compiling
ImageMagick. The configure script tests for headers and libraries by
executing the compiler (CC) with the specified compilation flags (CFLAGS),
pre-processor flags (CPPFLAGS), and linker flags (LDFLAGS). Any errors are
logged to the file 'config.log'. If configure fails to discover a header
or library please review this log file to determine why, however, please
be aware that *errors in the config.log are normal* because configure
works by trying something and seeing if it fails. An error in config.log
is only a problem if the test should have passed on your system. After
taking corrective action, be sure to remove the 'config.cache' file before
running configure so that configure will re-inspect the environment rather
than using cached values.

Common causes of configure failures are: 1) a delegate header is not in the


header include path (CPPFLAGS -I option); 2) a delegate library is not in
the linker search/run path (LDFLAGS -L/-R option); 3) a delegate library
is missing a function (old version?); 4) compilation environment is faulty.

If all reasonable corrective actions have been tried and the problem appears
be due to a flaw in the configure script, please send a bug report to the
ImageMagick Defect Support Forum at
http://studio.imagemagick.org/magick/viewforum.php?f=3. All bug reports
should contain the operating system type (as reported by 'uname -a') and the
compiler/compiler-version. A copy of the configure script output and/or the
config.log file may be valuable in order to find the problem. If you send a
config.log, please also send a script of the configure output and a
description of what you expected to see (and why) so the failure you are
observing can be identified and resolved.

----

Makefile Build Targets

Once ImageMagick is configured, these standard build targets are


available from the generated Makefiles:

* Build the package

make

* Install the package

make install

* Run tests using the installed ImageMagick ('make install' must be done
first!).

make check

* Remove everything in the build directory created by 'make'.

make clean

* Remove everything in the build directory created by 'configure' and 'make'.


This is useful if you want to start over from scratch.

make distclean

* Remove all files from the system which are (or would be) installed by
'make install' using the current configuration. Note that this target is
imperfect for PerlMagick since Perl no longer supports an 'uninstall' target.
make uninstall

----

Build & Install:

Now that ImageMagick is configured, type

make

to build the package and

make install

to install it.

----

Verifying The Build:

To confirm your installation of the ImageMagick distribution was successful,


ensure that the installation directory is in your executable search path and
type:

display

The ImageMagick logo is displayed on your X11 display.

If the image colors are not correct use this command:

display -visual default

For a more serious test, you may run the ImageMagick test suite by
typing

make check

Note that due to differences between the developer's environment and


your own it is possible that some tests may be indicated as failed even
though the results are ok. Differences between the developer's environment
environment and your own may include the compiler, the CPU type, and the
library versions used. The ImageMagick developers use the current release
of all dependent libraries.