UNIX/Cygwin/MinGW COMPILATION Note: Platform specific notes regarding specific operating systems may be found in the

Platforms.txt file. This document provides generic instructions which work in most common cases. Additional notes regarding Cygwin & MinGW are provided later in this file. Type: gzip -dc ImageMagick-6.2.2.tar.gz | tar xvf cd ImageMagick-6.2.2 If you do not have gzip(1), the source for the gzip package is available as a shell archive at ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gzip/gzip-1.2.4a.shar or as a tar archive at ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gzip/gzip-1.2.4a.tar Use the 'configure' script to automatically configure, build, and install ImageMagick. The configure script may be executed from the ImageMagick source directory (e.g ./configure) or from a seperate build directory by specifying the full path to configure (e.g. /src/ImageMagick-6.2.2/configure). The advantage of using a seperate build directory is that multiple ImageMagick builds may share the same ImageMagick source directory while allowing each build to use a unique set of options. If you are willing to accept configure's default options, and build from within the source directory, type: ./configure and watch the configure script output to verify that it finds everything that you think it should. If it does not, then adjust your environment so that it does. By default, make install will install the package's files in `/usr/local/bin', `/usr/local/lib', etc.. You can specify an installation prefix other than `/usr/local' by giving `configure' the option `--prefix=PATH'. This is valuable in case you don't have privileges to install under the default paths or if you want to install in the system directories instead. If you are not happy with configure's choice of compiler, compilation flags, or libraries, you can give `configure' initial values for variables by specifying them on the configure command line, e.g.: ./configure CC=c89 CFLAGS=-O2 LIBS=-lposix Options which should be common to packages installed under the same directory heirarchy may be supplied via a 'config.site' file located under the

installation prefix via the path ${prefix}/share/config.site where ${prefix} is the installation prefix. This file is used for all packages installed under that prefix. This is an example config.site file: # Configuration values for all packages installed under this prefix CC=gcc CXX=c++ CPPFLAGS='-I/usr/local/include' LDFLAGS='-L/usr/local/lib -R/usr/local/lib' When the 'config.site' file is being used to supply configuration options, configure will issue a message similar to: configure: loading site script /usr/local/share/config.site The configure variables you should be aware of are: CC CXX CFLAGS CXXFLAGS CPPFLAGS LDFLAGS Name of C compiler (e.g. 'cc -Xa') to use Name of C++ compiler to use (e.g. 'CC') Compiler flags (e.g. '-g -O2') to compile C code Compiler flags (e.g. '-g -O2') to compile C++ code Include paths (-I/somedir) to look for header files Library paths (-L/somedir) to look for libraries Systems that support the notion of a library run-path may require an additional argument in order to find shared libraries at run time. For example, the Solaris linker requires an argument of the form '-R/somedir', some Linux systems will work with '-rpath /somedir', while some other Linux systems who's gcc does not pass -rpath to the linker require an argument of the form '-Wl,-rpath,/somedir'. Extra libraries (-lsomelib) required to link


Any variable (e.g. CPPFLAGS or LDFLAGS) which requires a directory path must specify an absolute path rather than a relative path. Configure can usually find the X include and library files automatically, but if it doesn't, you can use the `configure' options `--x-includes=DIR' and `--x-libraries=DIR' to specify their locations. The configure script provides a number of ImageMagick specific options. When disabling an option --disable-something is equivalent to specifying --enable-something=no and --without-something is equivalent to --with-something=no. The configure options are as follows (execute 'configure --help' to see all options). Optional Features: --enable-ccmalloc --enable-prof --enable-gprof --enable-gcov --disable-installed --disable-largefile enable 'ccmalloc' memory debug support (default disabled) enable 'prof' profiling support (default disabled) enable 'gprof' profiling support (default disabled) enable 'gcov' profiling support (default disabled) disable building an installed ImageMagick (default enabled) disable support for large (64 bit) file offsets

Optional Packages/Options: --with-quantum-depth number of bits in a pixel quantum (default 8) --with-modules enable support for dynamically loadable modules

--with-cache set pixel cache threshhold (defaults to available memory) --without-threads disable threads support --with-frozenpaths enable frozen delegate paths --without-magick-plus-plus disable build/install of Magick++ --without-perl disable build/install of PerlMagick or --with-perl=PERL use specified Perl binary to configure PerlMagick --with-perl-options=OPTIONS options to pass on command-line when generating PerlMagick's Makefile from Makefile.PL --without-bzlib disable BZLIB support --without-dps disable Display Postscript support --with-fpx enable FlashPIX support --with-gslib enable Ghostscript library support --without-jbig disable JBIG support --without-jpeg disable JPEG support --without-jp2 disable JPEG v2 support --without-lcms disable LCMS support --without-png disable PNG support --without-tiff disable TIFF support --without-ttf disable TrueType support --without-wmf disable WMF support --with-fontpath prepend to default font search path --with-gs-font-dir directory containing Ghostscript fonts --with-windows-font-dir directory containing MS-Windows fonts --without-xml disable XML support --without-zlib disable ZLIB support --with-x use the X Window System --with-share-path=DIR Alternate path to share directory (default share/ImageMagick) --with-libstdc=DIR use libstdc++ in DIR (for GNU C++) ImageMagick options represent either features to be enabled, disabled, or packages to be included in the build. When a feature is enabled (via --enable-something), it enables code already present in ImageMagick. When a package is enabled (via --with-something), the configure script will search for it, and if is is properly installed and ready to use (headers and built libraries are found by compiler) it will be included in the build. The configure script is delivered with all features disabled and all packages enabled. In general, the only reason to disable a package is if a package exists but it is unsuitable for the build (perhaps an old version or not compiled with the right compilation flags). Several configure options require special note: * --enable-shared: the shared libraries are built and support for loading coder and process modules is enabled. Shared libraries are preferred because they allow programs to share common code, making the individual programs much smaller. In addition shared libraries are required in order for PerlMagick to be dynamically loaded by an installed PERL (otherwise an additional PERL (PerlMagick) must be installed. ImageMagick built with delegates (see MAGICK PLUG-INS below) can pose additional challenges. If ImageMagick is built using static libraries (the default without --enable-shared) then delegate libraries may be built as either static libraries or shared libraries. However, if ImageMagick is built using shared libraries, then all delegate libraries must also be built as shared libraries. Static libraries usually have the extension

.a, while shared libraries typically have extensions like .so, .sa, or .dll. Code in shared libraries normally must compiled using a special compiler option to produce Position Independent Code (PIC). The only time this is not necessary is if the platform compiles code as PIC by default. PIC compilation flags differ from vendor to vendor (gcc's is -fPIC). However, you must compile all shared library source with the same flag (for gcc use -fPIC rather than -fpic). While static libraries are normally created using an archive tool like 'ar', shared libraries are built using special linker or compiler options (e.g. -shared for gcc). Building shared libraries often requires subtantial hand-editing of Makefiles and is only recommended for those who know what they are doing. If --enable-shared is not specified, a new PERL interpreter (PerlMagick) is built which is statically linked against the PerlMagick extension. This new interpreter is installed into the same directory as the ImageMagick utilities. If --enable-shared is specified, the PerlMagick extension is built as a dynamically loadable object which is loaded into your current PERL interpreter at run-time. Use of dynamically-loaded extensions is preferable over statically linked extensions so --enable-shared should be specified if possible (note that all libraries used with ImageMagick must be shared libraries!). * --disable-static: static archive libraries (with extension .a) are not built. If you are building shared libraries, there is little value to building static libraries. Reasons to build static libraries include: 1) they can be easier to debug; 2) the clients do not have external dependencies (i.e. libMagick.so); 3) building PIC versions of the delegate libraries may take additional expertise and effort; 4) you are unable to build shared libraries. * --disable-installed: By default the ImageMagick build is configured to formally install into a directory tree. This is the most secure and reliable way to install ImageMagick. Specifying --disable-installed configures ImageMagick so that it doesn't use hard-coded paths and locates support files by computing an offset path from the executable (or from the location specified by the MAGICK_HOME environment variable. The uninstalled configuration is ideal for binary distributions which are expected to extract and run in any location. * --with-modules: image coders and process modules are built as loadable modules which are installed under the directory [prefix]/lib/ImageMagick-X.X.X/modules-QN (where 'N' equals 8, 16, or 32 depending on the quantum depth) in the subdirectories 'coders' and 'filters' respectively. The modules build option is only available in conjunction with --enable-shared. If --enable-shared is not also specified, then support for building modules is disabled. Note that if --enable-shared is specified, the module loader is active (allowing extending an installed ImageMagick by simply copying a module into place) but ImageMagick itself is not built using modules. * --with-quantum-depth: This option allows the user to specify the number of bits to use per pixel quantum (the size of the red, green, blue, and alpha pixel components. For example, "--with-quantum-depth=8" builds ImageMagick using 8-bit quantums. Most computer display adaptors use 8-bit quantums. Currently supported arguments are 8, 16, or 32. The default is 8. This option is the most important option in determining

the overall run-time performance of ImageMagick. The number of bits in a quantum determines how many values it may contain. Each quantum level supports 256 times as many values as the previous level. The following table shows the range available for various quantum sizes. QuantumDepth 8 16 32 Valid Range (Decimal) 0-255 0-65535 0-4294967295 Valid Range (Hex) 00-FF 0000-FFFF 00000000-FFFFFFFF

Larger pixel quantums cause ImageMagick to run more slowly and to require more memory. For example, using sixteen-bit pixel quantums causes ImageMagick to run 15% to 50% slower (and take twice as much memory) than when it is built to support eight-bit pixel quantums. The amount of virtual memory consumed by an image can be computed by the equation (QuantumDepth*Rows*Columns*5)/8. This is an important consideration when resources are limited, particularly since processing an image may require several images to be in memory at one time. The following table shows memory consumption values for a 1024x768 image: QuantumDepth 8 16 32 Virtual Memory 3MB 8MB 15MB

* --without-magick-plus-plus: Disable building Magick++, the C++ application programming interface to ImageMagick. A suitable C++ compiler is required in order to build Magick++. Specify the CXX configure variable to select the C++ compiler to use (default "g++"), and CXXFLAGS to select the desired compiler opimization and debug flags (default "-g -O2"). Antique C++ compilers will normally be rejected by configure tests so specifying this option should only be necessary if Magick++ fails to compile. * --with-frozenpaths: Normally external program names are substituted into the delegates.xml file without full paths. Specify this option to enable saving full paths to programs using locations determined by configure. This is useful for environments where programs are stored under multiple paths, and users may use different PATH settings than the person who builds ImageMagick. * --without-threads: By default, the ImageMagick library is compiled with multi-thread support. If this is undesireable, then specify --without-threads. * --with-cache: Specify a different image pixel cache threshold using the --with-cache option. This sets the maximum amount of heap memory that ImageMagick is allowed to consume before switching to using memory-mapped temporary files to store raw pixel data. * --disable-largefile: By default, ImageMagick is compiled with support for large (> 2GB on a 32-bit CPU) files if the operating system supports large files. All applications which use the ImageMagick library must then also include support for large files. By disabling support for large files via --disable-largefile, dependent applications do not require

special compilation options for large files in order to use the library. * --without-perl: By default, PerlMagick is conveniently compiled and installed as part of ImageMagick's normal "configure", "make", "make install" process.. When --without-perl is specified, you must first install ImageMagick, change to the PerlMagick subdirectory, build, and finally install PerlMagick. Note, PerlMagick is configured even if --without-perl is specified. If the argument --with-perl=/path/to/perl is supplied, then /path/to/perl will be taken as the PERL interpreter to use. This is important in case the 'perl' executable in your PATH is not PERL5, or is not the PERL you want to use. * --with-perl-options: The PerlMagick module is normally installed using the Perl interpreter's installation PREFIX, rather than ImageMagick's. If ImageMagick's installation prefix is not the same as PERL's PREFIX, then you may find that PerlMagick's 'make install' step tries to install into a directory tree that you don't have write permissions to. This is common when PERL is delivered with the operating system or on Internet Service Provider (ISP) web servers. If you want PerlMagick to install elsewhere, then provide a PREFIX option to PERL's configuration step via "--with-perl-options=PREFIX=/some/place". Other options accepted by MakeMaker are 'LIB', 'LIBPERL_A', 'LINKTYPE', and 'OPTIMIZE'. See the ExtUtils::MakeMaker(3) manual page for more information on configuring PERL extensions. * --without-x: By default, ImageMagick uses the X11 delegate libraries if they are available. When --without-x is specified, use of X11 is disabled. The display, animate, and import sub-commands are not included. The remaining sub-commands have reduced functionality such as no access to X11 fonts (consider using Postscript or TrueType fonts instead). * --with-gs-font-dir: Specify the directory containing the Ghostscript Postscript Type 1 font files (e.g. "n022003l.pfb") so that they can be rendered using the FreeType library. If the font files are installed using the default Ghostscript installation paths (${prefix}/share/ghostscript/fonts), they should be discovered automatically by configure and specifying this option is not necessary. Specify this option if the Ghostscript fonts fail to be located automatically, or the location needs to be overridden. * --with-windows-font-dir: Specify the directory containing MS-Windows-compatible fonts. This is not necessary when ImageMagick is running under MS-Windows. ---Building under Cygwin ImageMagick may be built under the Windows '95-XP Cygwin Unix-emulation environment available for free from http://www.cygwin.com/ X11R6 for Cygwin is available from http://xfree86.cygwin.com/ We recommended that the X11R6 package be installed since this enables

ImageMagick's X11 support (animate, display, and import sub-commands will work) and it includes the Freetype v2 DLL required to support TrueType and Postscript Type 1 fonts. Make sure that /usr/X11R6/bin is in your PATH prior to running the configure program. If you are using Cygwin version 1.3.9 or later, you can specify the configure option '--enable-shared' to build Cygwin DLLs. This option is required if you want to build PerlMagick under Cygwin because Cygwin does not provide the libperl.a static library required to create a static PerlMagick. Note that since C++ exceptions do not currently work properly when thrown from a DLL, the Magick++ library is always built as a static library. Be sure to not specify --disable-static if you are building the Magick++ library since that would surely lead to problems. ---Building under MinGW & MSYS ImageMagick may be built using the free MinGW ("Minimalistic GNU for Windows") package version 1.1, available from http://www.mingw.org which consists of a GNU-based (e.g. gcc) compilation toolset plus headers and libraries required to build programs which are entirely based on standard Microsoft Windows DLLs. MSYS provides a Unix-like console shell window with sufficient functionality to run the ImageMagick configure script and execute make. Unlike the Cygwin build which creates programs based on a Unix-emulation DLL, and which uses Unix-style paths to access Windows files, the MinGW build creates native Windows console applications similar to the Visual C++ build. Please note that since the MinGW build is very new, some aspects of the installation may vary from Windows user's expectations, and that only a static build (no DLLs or modules) is currently supported. Once MinGW & MSYS have been installed, start the MSYS console (via the MSYS icon on the Windows desktop) and follow the Unix configure and build instructions. Note that the default installation prefix is "/usr/local" which installs the package into a MSYS directory. To install outside of the MSYS directory tree, you may specify an installation prefix like "/c/ImageMagick" which causes the package to be installed under the Windows directory "C:\ImageMagick". The installation directory structure will look very much like the Unix installation layout (e.g. "C:\ImageMagick\bin", "C:\ImageMagick\lib", "C:\ImageMagick\share", etc.). Any additional delegate libraries (e.g. libpng) will need to be built under MinGW in order to be used. ---Dealing with configuration failures: While configure is designed to ease installation of ImageMagick, it often discovers problems that would otherwise be encountered later when compiling ImageMagick. The configure script tests for headers and libraries by executing the compiler (CC) with the specified compilation flags (CFLAGS),

pre-processor flags (CPPFLAGS), and linker flags (LDFLAGS). Any errors are logged to the file 'config.log'. If configure fails to discover a header or library please review this log file to determine why, however, please be aware that *errors in the config.log are normal* because configure works by trying something and seeing if it fails. An error in config.log is only a problem if the test should have passed on your system. After taking corrective action, be sure to remove the 'config.cache' file before running configure so that configure will re-inspect the environment rather than using cached values. Common causes of configure failures are: 1) a delegate header is not in the header include path (CPPFLAGS -I option); 2) a delegate library is not in the linker search/run path (LDFLAGS -L/-R option); 3) a delegate library is missing a function (old version?); 4) compilation environment is faulty. If all reasonable corrective actions have been tried and the problem appears be due to a flaw in the configure script, please send a bug report to the ImageMagick Defect Support Forum at http://studio.imagemagick.org/magick/viewforum.php?f=3. All bug reports should contain the operating system type (as reported by 'uname -a') and the compiler/compiler-version. A copy of the configure script output and/or the config.log file may be valuable in order to find the problem. If you send a config.log, please also send a script of the configure output and a description of what you expected to see (and why) so the failure you are observing can be identified and resolved. ---Makefile Build Targets Once ImageMagick is configured, these standard build targets are available from the generated Makefiles: * Build the package make * Install the package make install * Run tests using the installed ImageMagick ('make install' must be done first!). make check * Remove everything in the build directory created by 'make'. make clean * Remove everything in the build directory created by 'configure' and 'make'. This is useful if you want to start over from scratch. make distclean * Remove all files from the system which are (or would be) installed by 'make install' using the current configuration. Note that this target is imperfect for PerlMagick since Perl no longer supports an 'uninstall' target.

make uninstall ---Build & Install: Now that ImageMagick is configured, type make to build the package and make install to install it. ---Verifying The Build: To confirm your installation of the ImageMagick distribution was successful, ensure that the installation directory is in your executable search path and type: display The ImageMagick logo is displayed on your X11 display. If the image colors are not correct use this command: display -visual default For a more serious test, you may run the ImageMagick test suite by typing make check Note that due to differences between the developer's environment and your own it is possible that some tests may be indicated as failed even though the results are ok. Differences between the developer's environment environment and your own may include the compiler, the CPU type, and the library versions used. The ImageMagick developers use the current release of all dependent libraries.