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The following contribution focuses on the global behaviour of
masonry structures subjected to wind loads. It describes the interaction
between the structural elements and their influences on
the global behaviour. Numerical models based on discrete / finite
element approach of different scales have been built for a typical
terraced house masonry building.

The following contribution focuses on the global behaviour of
masonry structures subjected to wind loads. It describes the interaction
between the structural elements and their influences on
the global behaviour. Numerical models based on discrete / finite
element approach of different scales have been built for a typical
terraced house masonry building.

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wind loads The influence of the global effect

on component response

The following contribution focuses on the global behaviour of unique behaviour is mainly caused by the high stiffness and

masonry structures subjected to wind loads. It describes the in- brittle material behaviour exhibited by masonry and the

teraction between the structural elements and their influences on deformability of the diaphragm system. While, it is com-

the global behaviour. Numerical models based on discrete / finite mon to segment the structure into components to extrapo-

element approach of different scales have been built for a typical late out component behaviour to predict overall structure

terraced house masonry building. response, such an approach may neglect important global

The models have been used to investigate the contribution of effects which can result in significant influences.

each shear wall to the overall capacity of the structure, and to Some experimental studies were performed in that di-

determine the portion of each from vertical/horizontal loads. The rection on the global response of masonry building under

results give an insight into the interaction between the deforma- horizontal actions. In Ljubljana, the global behaviour of

tion of the slab and the rocking of the shear walls. The different apartment buildings were investigated by shaking table tests

performances between the model with rigid foundation and the

of 1 : 5 scaled specimens (Tomazevic/Weiss [15]). In USA,

model with elastic foundation have been compared.

several investigations were made on the seismic perfor-

Models for strips of the building have been built with an intention

mance of masonry structures with flexible diaphragms

to deal with in-plane behaviour separated from the influences of

(Moon [13]). In Europe, comprehensive investigations were

load distribution. A comparison of the results of the strip model

carried out on earthquake resistance of masonry structures

with the results of the global model shows, that the strip model

results are in safe side. within the framework of the European Union research pro-

ject ESECMaSE (Meyer/Gonzlez [11]). True scale pseudo-

Das Verhalten von Mauerwerk unter Windlasten Der Einfluss dynamic tests have been performed on two terraced house

der Gesamteinwirkung auf die Reaktion einzelner Bauteile. Der halves with a typical central European ground plan.

folgende Beitrag konzentriert sich auf das globale Verhalten von The developing of engineering models that describes

Mauerwerksbauten unter Windlasten. Er beschreibt die Wechsel- the overall response of masonry buildings under horizon-

wirkungen zwischen den einzelnen Strukturelementen und deren tal loading has received considerable interest. tes/Lring

Einflsse auf das Gesamtverhalten. Es sind numerische Modelle fr [14] have proposed a bar model that considers the cou-

ein typisches Reihenhaus aus Mauerwerk, die auf dem Diskrete-/ pling of the bar system of the inner and outer shear walls

Finite-Elemente-Ansatz basieren, in unterschiedlichen Mastben to ensure the compatibility of deformation. The gable

erstellt worden. walls were included in the model as vertical bars. The ex-

Die Modelle dienten der Untersuchung des Beitrages jeder einzel- ternal walls develop a frame action, which discharge some

nen Wandscheibe zur Gesamtwiderstandsfhigkeit des Bauwerks of the loads coming to the inner walls. However, it was as-

sowie ihres Anteils an der Ableitung der vertikalen und horizontalen sumed generally uncracked cross sections.

Belastungen. Die Ergebnisse geben einen Einblick in die Wechsel- Elsche [4] has performed finite element analysis for

wirkung zwischen der Verformung der Deckenplatte und dem terraced house under horizontal displacements. The model

Kippen der Wandscheiben. Es wurde das unterschiedliche Ver- considers masonry walls from calcium silicate with thin

halten eines Modells mit starrem Fundament und eines Modells layer mortar. The walls assumed to have cohesion contact

mit elastischer Grndung verglichen. with the slab, so that the possible openings failures can be

Verschiedene Streifenmodelle des Gebudes dienten dazu, das simulated. The external walls has been separated without

Schub-Verhalten getrennt von den Einflssen der Lastverteilung considering contact in between, only the contact elements

beschreiben zu knnen. Ein Vergleich der Ergebnisse des Streifen-

were defined on the interfaces between the slab and the

modells mit den Ergebnissen des Gesamtmodells zeigt, dass das

wall. The results of calculation show the contribution of

Streifenmodell auf der sicheren Seite liegt.

each shear wall from the whole basement shear force.

Fehling/Strz [5] have been used a bar model with at-

1 Introduction tached rigid bodies in double-T form for modelling the

shear walls in case of rocking. Due to Fehling/Strz [5]

The response of masonry structure under wind loads has the rocking occurs by meeting a specific criterion based

unique behaviour differs significantly from the response of on normal stress, compression strength of masonry, and

other structural systems such as reinforced concrete. This the ratio of length to the height of the wall, which is quite

88 Ernst & Sohn Verlag fr Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin Mauerwerk 15 (2011), Heft 2

T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

possible in the case of the terraced house, mainly due to has been investigated in many research works ([9], [11],

the low normal forces. [1], [14] and [4]) as it helps to investigate the performance

The combined work of the shear wall with its flange of masonry building in its simplest form.

has been investigated within a research project by Zilch et Three models for the reference building with different

al. [17], [16]. Several tests on full-scale walls of T-shape accuracy levels and modelling approaches are considered:

with different execution detailing (e. g. the connection be- (1) Discrete/finite element model on unit level, (2) Discrete

tween shear wall and intersecting wall was using shear ties / finite element model on wall level, and (3) Strip model.

or interlocking) under combined loadings (static-cyclic

and pseudo-dynamic) have been performed. Concerning 2.1 Discrete/Finite element model on unit level

the load bearing capacity and the stiffness characteristics

of shear walls, the study showed a significant better behav- This model has been built with intention to get an insight

iour under combined shear loadings, compared to single into the global response of building, the interaction be-

walls. The combined work of flange and shear wall is tween the structure components, distribution of horizon-

based on whether opening is existing or not. The test tal forces, and the damage progress within the structure

showed at the cross point that no negative influence is ex- up to the point of collapse. The applied wind load has

isting if the flat steel used instead of interlocking. been linearly increased in order to explore any existing

In the present contribution, the performance of ma- potential reserves.

sonry building under wind load going to be investigated

based on understanding the response of the global system

and the interaction between its components.

building, will be considered as a reference masonry build-

ing in the present study (Fig. 1 and Table 1). This building

building

Tabelle 1. Abmessungen des typischen Mauerwerk-Reihen-

hauses

Lh 10.0 [m] Length of the house (a) (b)

Bh 5.0 [m] Width of the house Fig. 2. Discrete/finite element models of the terraced house

Bw 2.4 [m] Width of the window opening (a) on unit level in LS-DYNA (b) on wall level in ANSYS

Bs 2.0 [m] Width of the staircase (Jger et al. [9])

Ls variable [m] Depth of the staircase Bild 2. Diskrete-/Finite-Element-Modelle des Reihenhauses,

Tex 30.0 [cm] Thickness of the external walls (a) auf Steinebene in LS-DYNA, (b) auf Wandebene in ANSYS

Tin 17.5 [cm] Thickness of the internal walls (Jger et al. [9])

(a) (b)

Fig. 1. Typical terraced house, (a) the layout in ground floor showing the notation of dimensions and walls, (b) cross section

along the y axis

Bild 1. Typisches Reihenhaus, (a) Grundriss Erdgeschoss mit Benennung der Abmessungen und Wnde, (b) Schnitt entlang

der y-Achse

T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

on unit level, while tied contact with defined failure crite-

rion can be detected between the units, Fig. 2a. The prin-

ciple of modelling and material parameters can be found

in [1]. Transient calculation has been performed based on

explicit integration approach using LS-DYNA code.

This model is simpler than the pervious one, but shows ef-

ficiency for parametric study without dropping the capabil-

ity to describe the global behaviour, the rocking failure of

the walls, and the interaction and influences of different

components Fig. 2b. The model has been built in ANSYS

within a research project to develop an engineering model

for masonry shear walls (Jger et al. [9]). Each wall has

been considered as separate discrete element, which is in Fig. 3. FE-Model of the terraced house with elastic founda-

contact with the other slab/walls. Unidirectional frictional tion

contact elements have been defined on the interfaces be- Bild 3. FE-Modell des Reihenhauses mit elastischer Grn-

tween the discrete elements, so that, the shear walls con- dung

nected through frictional contact elements to the long

walls. The reason behind this is to ignore the transfer of Parametric study has been performed for the varia-

tensile forces between the adjacent walls, which might be tion of the length of the inner wall Ls =1.25, 1.50, 1.75 and

connected by flat steel anchors. The material assumed elas- 2.00 m. Another variation has been investigated by adding

tic within the discrete elements and the cracks are only an elastic foundation with elastic modulus of 300 N/mm2

possible on the interfaces between the discrete elements. in order to see if any further reserves are possible, Fig. 3.

Static calculation has been performed on this model

under different load combinations, Table 2, and different 2.3 Strip model

material combinations. The applied wind pressure on the

front wall is 0.4 KN/m2 and the suction on the opposite Strip model decouples the in-plane behaviour of the shear

side is 0.25 KN/m2. The considered material combination wall within the structure from any transversal effects. It

in this contribution is shown in Table 3. However, the re- helps to separate the influence of force distribution from

sults for some other material combination can be found in the overall behavior and it is capable to describe the inter-

(Jger et al. [9]). In Table 3 the values for the clay bricks action between the shear wall, the flange wall and the slab.

are based on the gross sectional area. The different elastic Several experimental and numerical studies has been used

modulus values were decreased following the investiga- the strip approach to explore the performance of masonry

tions of Hannawald/Brameshuber [7]. buildings under horizontal actions. Some shaking table

tests of strip specimens were executed within the frame of

Table 2. The considered load combinations ESECMaSE project [2]. The results of the tests were provided

Tabelle 2. Bercksichtigte Lastkombinationen a clear explanation for the in-plane performance of the

strip. In [1] a strip model has been built based on the ap-

1 Dead Load

proach described in section 2.1 and the results from ESEC-

2 Dead Load + Wind Load in Direction Y+

3 Dead Load + Wind Load in Direction Y MaSE project were used to check the validation of the

model. Lring [10] has performed numerical modelling of

Tabelle 3. Orthotrope Materialeigenschaften der Mauerwerkswnde im Gebude

properties Front side HLz6/LM21 Gabel HLz6/LM21 HLz12/NMIIa

E 2420 [N/mm2] 2420 [N/mm2] 5500 [N/mm2]

Ex 0.277 E [N/mm2] 0.277 E [N/mm2] 0.277 E [N/mm2]

Ey 0.550 E [N/mm2] 0.550 E [N/mm2] 0.550 E [N/mm2]

Ez 1.000 E [N/mm2] 1.000 E [N/mm2] 1.000 E [N/mm2]

Gxy 0.050 E [N/mm2] 0.050 E [N/mm2] 0.050 E [N/mm2]

Gxz 0.209 E [N/mm2] 0.209 E [N/mm2] 0.209 E [N/mm2]

Gyz 0.378 E [N/mm2] 0.378 E [N/mm2] 0.378 E [N/mm2]

nxy 0.140 0.140 0.140

nxz 0.100 0.100 0.100

nyz 0.100 0.100 0.100

Density 9.000 [kN/m3] 9.000 [kN/m3] 9.000 [kN/m3]

T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

the rocking of the shear walls. However, the simulation

shows three important events: (1) opening of the slab due

to the rocking of the shear walls, this starts at early loading

stage, (2) tensile horizontal cracking of the transversal

shear wall due to uplifting of the slab, and (3) failure of the

shear wall which affected basically by the early failure in

the adjacent transversal wall, this follows immediately the

tensile failure of the transversal wall, Fig. 5.

The progression of damage within the structure im-

poses a specific distribution of forces after each damage

stage. During the uplift of the slab, most of the vertical loads

which transmitted to the flange walls going to be transmit-

ted to the shear walls. This causes increasing the level of ver-

Fig. 4. The strip model the walls considered as discrete ele- tical stresses of the shear walls, thus, the change of the shear

ments wall capacities, and the horizontal load distributions.

Bild 4. Streifenmodell mit Bercksichtigung der Wnde als Several important behaviour aspects can be observed

diskrete Elemente in the simulation of the damage progress, which helps to

improve the capacity of the structure as whole. Significant

strips of different patterns considering the possible arrange- flange participation has been observed, the primary con-

ments of walls in masonry buildings. tribution of the observed flange participation increases

The same modeling principles in section 2.2 have the applied vertical load to the shear walls. Significant

been used for building the strip model. The considered portions of the flange walls were engaged due to the uplift

strip in this study has been chosen to include one of the associated with local shear wall rocking, as well as, the

inner shear walls of the single terraced house with effec- global rocking.

tive flange length calculated according to EC6 [3], Fig. 4.

3.2 Distribution of the horizontal loads

3 Results

3.1 Damage progress under wind load The distribution of the horizontal loads plays an impor-

tant rule in the design of the shear walls. The available ap-

The results obtained from the detailed model of section proach in engineering practice is to distribute the horizon-

2.1 can give an insight into the damage progress within the tal forces to the shear walls proportional to their stiffness.

structure. The structure has subjected to linearly increased This is right in elastic range, but due to the way that dam-

wind pressure and the damage events have been observed. age develops and the interaction between the structure

wind load up to the point of

collapse, (a) the initial failure, open-

(a) (b) ing of the slab due to the rocking

of the shear walls, (b) tensile hori-

zontal cracking of the flange wall

which caused by the uplifting of

the slab and (c) the failure of the

shear walls and collapse mecha-

nism of the structure

Bild 5. Versagensvorgang unter

Windlast bis zum Einsturz, (a) Be-

ginn des Versagens, ffnung der

Deckenplatte durch das Kippen der

Schubwnde, (b) horizontales Ver-

sagen der Querwnde, verursacht

durch das Anheben der Decke und

(c) Ausfall der Wandscheiben und

(c) Versagen des Tragwerks

T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

Fig. 6. Capacity curves for masonry stiffening walls (the capacity curves of flange walls are dashed)

Bild 6. Kapazittskurven der aussreifenden Mauerwerkswnde (die Kapazittskurven der Querwnde sind mit Strichlinien

dargestellt)

summation of the peak resistances of each single shear

wall is not realistic, as it overestimates the load bearing ca-

pacity of the structure.

Fig. 6 shows the capacity curves of the walls, which de-

fined as the relation between the base shear force and the

displacement at the second level. Each capacity curves has

its peak at specific displacement. The capacity curves in

Fig. 6, which are resulting from the interaction of all struc-

ture components, differ from the capacity curves of single

shear walls. The capacity curves of flange walls demonstrate

considerable participation to the overall structure capacity. (a)

mission of vertical loads

portant rule in the load bearing capacity against horizon-

tal actions. The traditional design methods in engineering

practice dont consider the influence of slab deformation

to determine the vertical actions on the walls, but they

based on dividing the area of the slab into influence areas

which depend on the geometrical distribution of the shear

walls, examples for that: DAfStb Heft 240 (Grasser/Thie-

len [6]), and the procedure of MINEA software described (b)

in (Mistler [12]). Fig. 7 shows the deformation of the slab

Fig. 7. The influence of the applied vertical loads on the load

and the variation of load transmission areas under differ-

transmission areas; (a) the deformation of the slab under its

ent loading conditions. Slab deformation basically de-

self-weight, (b) the deformation of the slab under self weight

pends on one hand on the applied loads and on other and uniformly distributed load on the contour of the slab

hand on the interaction with the supporting walls. This Bild 7. Einfluss aus aufgebrachten Vertikallasten auf die

confirms the importance of the contribution of vertical Lastverteilungsflche; (a) Verformung der Platte unter Eigen-

loads transmitted by the gable walls into the overall load last, (b) Verformung der Platte unter Eigenlast und gleichfr-

bearing capacity. miger Linienlast auf dem Plattenrand

T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

The simulation results under wind loads influenced In case of consistency the behaviour of the shear wall

basically by the rocking of the shear walls and deforma- is almost similar to a cantilever with backward moments

tion of the slab. Based on the wind direction and the shear and rotational springs on each level, but in case of incon-

wall distribution, the slab-wall interaction behaviour can sistency, the cantilever model is conservative and cannot

be explained by dividing the structure into specific strips, represent the quasi-hinged connection between the wall

Fig. 8a. The slab-wall interaction is basically affected by and the slab.

the existing of consistency between the rotation of the slab

and the rocking of the shear wall. In strips B1, C1, Fig. 8b 3.4 Influence of the shear wall length

the slab is almost in fully contact with the shear wall, no

opening of the slab due to the consistence rotation of the In section 3.3 it has been shown how the deformation of

slab and the rocking of the shear wall. In strips B2, C2, the slab influences the load flow through the shear walls

Fig. 8b the slab opens due to the inconsistence rotation of and thus, the appropriate design model. However, this also

the slab and the rocking of the shear wall. In strips A1, D1, influenced the most by the shear wall dimensions, i. e. the

A2, and D2 the slab deforms in consistent with the left ratio of length to the height of the wall. The less length of

shear wall but inconsistent with right one. the wall helps to get rocking behaviour and vice versa.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 8. Deformation of the slab and its influence to the transmission of vertical loads; (a) the influence of wind direction on

load transmission, (b) possible strip responses to wind load, (c) the corresponding ANSYS model results to show the response

of the strip in the global model

Bild 8. Verformung der Platte und deren Einfluss auf die Verteilung der Vertikallasten, (a) Einfluss der Windrichtung auf die

Lastverteilung, (b) mgliche Reaktion des Streifens auf die Windlast, (c) entsprechende Ergebnisse des ANSYS-Modells fr

die Reaktionen des Streifens im Gesamtmodell

T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

The model described in section 2.2 has been calcu- the rocking of the shear wall. The shape of moment dia-

lated for different lengths of the inner shear wall (1.25, gram for shear wall of length 2.00 m confirms that the can-

1.50, 1.75, and 2.00 m), the internal forces of this wall are tilever model can be well representing this case. In case of

shown in Fig. 9. The diagrams shown in Fig. 9a are corre- inconsistency, Fig. 9b, there are no big differences in the

sponding to the case of consistent rotation of the slab with shape of moment diagrams.

Fig. 9. Influence of the inner shear wall length on the moment diagram; (a) wind in positive direction of axis Y, (b) wind in

negative direction of axis Y

Bild 9. Einfluss der Lnge der inneren Wandscheibe auf die Momentenfunktion; (a) Wind greift in positiver Richtung der

Y-Achse an, (b) Wind in negativer Richtung der Y-Achse

Fig. 10. Terraced house model with elastic foundation under wind loads

Bild 10. Modell des Reihenhauses mit elastischer Grndung unter Windlasten

T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

3.5 Influence of the elastic foundation tion at the base of the wall. Therefore the moment value at

the base for elastic foundation is bigger than that for rigid

The terraced house with elastic foundation and basement foundation, and vice versa.

slab has been modelled to see if the deformation of the

basement slab has considerable influences on the global 3.6 Comparison the Strip model with the global model

behaviour.

The results of simulation show that, the deformation The results of the strip models give a clear explanation of

of the basement slab under the loads transferred from the the wall-slab interaction in the plane of the shear wall.

walls is opposite to the direction of deformation in the Fig. 12 shows the results of two strips models, one in-

floor slabs. It applies rotations on the wall base opposite cludes the inner shear wall and the other includes both ex-

to the rotation on the wall head, Fig. 10. This behaviour in- ternal shear walls.

fluences the load flow in the ground floor, with negligible The vertical/horizontal portion of forces applied on

influences to the second floor, Fig. 11. The internal forces the strip model has been calculated according to the tradi-

transmitted to each shear wall are influenced by the con- tional methods, i. e. the distribution of the horizontal

sistency and inconsistency of deformation of basement forces calculated proportional to the stiffness of the shear

slab with the rocking of shear walls. As an example, in case walls. However, the calculation results in Fig. 13 show that

of wall W1, with wind in positive direction of axis Y, the the strip model results are in safe side of the global model

basement slab deformation is inconsistent with the rota- results.

Fig. 11. Comparison the moment diagrams of the shear walls for rigid foundation and elastic foundation; (a) wind in

positive direction of axis Y, (b) wind in negative direction of axis Y

Bild 11. Vergleich der Momentenfunktionen der Wandscheiben fr starre und elastische Grndung; (a) Wind greift in positi-

ver Richtung der Y-Achse an, (b) Wind in negativer Richtung der Y-Achse

T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

Fig. 12. Strip model simulation results; (a) strip model for the inner shear wall of the terraced house, (b) strip model for the

external shear walls of the terraced house

Bild 12. Simulationsergebnisse des Streifenmodells; (a) Streifenmodell fr die innere Wandscheibe des Reihenhauses,

(b) Streifenmodell fr die ueren Wandscheiben des Reihenhauses

Fig. 13. Comparison of the internal forces and the excentricities between the strip model and global model

Bild 13. Vergleich der Schnittkrfte und Exzentrizitten zwischen Streifen- und Gesamtmodell

T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

4 Conclusion [6] Grasser, E., Thielen, G.: Hilfsmittel zur Berechnung der

Schnittgren und Formnderungen von Stahlbetontragwer-

The global behaviour of masonry terraced house subjected ken. DAfStb-Heft 240, Beuth-Verlag, Berlin, Ausgabe Juli

to wind loads has been investigated, with focus on the in- 1988.

[7] Hannawald, J.; Brameshuber, W.: Ermittlung effektiver ela-

teraction between the structure elements and their influ-

stischer Eigenschaften von Hochlochziegeln mittels numeri-

ences on the global behaviour.

scher Simulation. Mauerwerk 11 (2007) 6, S. 330334.

In general, the progression of damage has been influ- [8] Hveling, T.; Steinborn, T.; Schps, P.: Schubtragfhigkeit

enced by the rocking of the shear walls. Significant flange von Mauerwerk aus Porenbeton-Plansteinen und Porenbe-

participation has been observed. The primary contribu- ton-Planelementen. AiF-Abschlussbericht, AIF-Nr. 14642BG,

tion of the observed flange participation increases the ap- 2009.

plied vertical loads to the shear walls. The slab-wall inter- [9] Jger, W., Ortlepp, S.; Bakeer, T., Vassilev, T., Montazerolg-

action is basically affected by the existing of consistency haem, M., Richter, C., Bergander, H.: Schnittkraftermittlung

between the rotation of the slab and the rocking of the fr aussteifende Mauerwerkswnde. Forschungsbericht,

shear wall. In case of consistency the behaviour of the Technische Universitt Dresden, Fakultt Architektur, Lehr-

shear wall is almost similar to a cantilever model with stuhl Tragwerksplanung, 2010.

[10] Lring, St.: Zum Tragverhalten von Mauerwerksbauten

backward moments and rotational springs on each level,

unter Erdbebeneinwirkung. Dissertation, Universitt Dort-

but in case of inconsistency, the cantilever model is con-

mund, 2005. Schriftenreihe Tragkonstruktionen Heft 1, 2005.

servative and cannot represent the quasi-hinged connec- [11] Meyer, U.; Gonzlez, A. C.: Pseudo-dynamische Grover-

tion between the wall and the slab. The use of strip model- suche an Reihenmittelhusern. Mauerwerk 12 (2008) 4, S.

ling shows capabilities to represent the in-plan behaviour 179186.

of the slab-wall interaction with results lay in safe side of [12] Mistler, M.: Verformungsbasiertes seismisches Bemes-

the global model ones. sungskonzept fr Mauerwerksbauten. Dissertation, Rhei-

The developing of hand calculation approach that nisch-Westflische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Fakultt

considers all the described behaviours is quite challenging fr Bauingenieurwesen, Aachen 2006.

problem. However, the adoption of the strip modelling ap- [13] Moon, F. L.: Seismic Strengthening of Low-Rise Unrein-

proach through commercial software is reasonable. forced Masonry Structures with Flexible Diaphragms. PhD

Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 2004.

[14] tes, A., Lring, St.: Zur Horizontalaussteifung von Rei-

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zontaltragfhigkeit von zusammengesetzten Mauerwerks-

[3] DIN EN 1996-1-1:2006-01: Eurocode 6: Bemessung und

querschnitten. Mauerwerk 14 (2010) 5, S. 283292.

Konstruktion von Mauerwerksbauten Teil 1-1: Allgemeine

Regeln fr bewehrtes und unbewehrtes Mauerwerk; Deut-

sche Fassung EN 1996-1-1: 2005. Deutsches Institut fr Nor-

mung, Berlin, Januar 2006.

[4] Elsche, B.: Zur rechnerischen Modellierung der Beanspru-

chungen und der Tragfhigkeit von aussteifenden Mauer-

werkswnden. Dissertation, Universitt Dortmund, 2008.

Schriftenreihe Tragkonstruktionen Heft 3, 2008. Author of this contribution:

[5] Fehling, E., Strz, J.: Neuste Erkenntnisse zur Bemessung Dr.-Ing. Tammam Bakeer, Technische Universitt Dresden, Faculty of

von Mauerwerk unter Erdbebeneinwirkungen. Bauingenieur Architecture, Chair of Structural Design, D-01062 Dresden, Germany,

84 (2009) 11, S. 482490. tammam.bakeer@tu-dresden.de

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