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Tammam Bakeer DOI: 10.1002/dama.201100999

The performance of masonry buildings under


wind loads The influence of the global effect
on component response
The following contribution focuses on the global behaviour of unique behaviour is mainly caused by the high stiffness and
masonry structures subjected to wind loads. It describes the in- brittle material behaviour exhibited by masonry and the
teraction between the structural elements and their influences on deformability of the diaphragm system. While, it is com-
the global behaviour. Numerical models based on discrete / finite mon to segment the structure into components to extrapo-
element approach of different scales have been built for a typical late out component behaviour to predict overall structure
terraced house masonry building. response, such an approach may neglect important global
The models have been used to investigate the contribution of effects which can result in significant influences.
each shear wall to the overall capacity of the structure, and to Some experimental studies were performed in that di-
determine the portion of each from vertical/horizontal loads. The rection on the global response of masonry building under
results give an insight into the interaction between the deforma- horizontal actions. In Ljubljana, the global behaviour of
tion of the slab and the rocking of the shear walls. The different apartment buildings were investigated by shaking table tests
performances between the model with rigid foundation and the
of 1 : 5 scaled specimens (Tomazevic/Weiss [15]). In USA,
model with elastic foundation have been compared.
several investigations were made on the seismic perfor-
Models for strips of the building have been built with an intention
mance of masonry structures with flexible diaphragms
to deal with in-plane behaviour separated from the influences of
(Moon [13]). In Europe, comprehensive investigations were
load distribution. A comparison of the results of the strip model
carried out on earthquake resistance of masonry structures
with the results of the global model shows, that the strip model
results are in safe side. within the framework of the European Union research pro-
ject ESECMaSE (Meyer/Gonzlez [11]). True scale pseudo-
Das Verhalten von Mauerwerk unter Windlasten Der Einfluss dynamic tests have been performed on two terraced house
der Gesamteinwirkung auf die Reaktion einzelner Bauteile. Der halves with a typical central European ground plan.
folgende Beitrag konzentriert sich auf das globale Verhalten von The developing of engineering models that describes
Mauerwerksbauten unter Windlasten. Er beschreibt die Wechsel- the overall response of masonry buildings under horizon-
wirkungen zwischen den einzelnen Strukturelementen und deren tal loading has received considerable interest. tes/Lring
Einflsse auf das Gesamtverhalten. Es sind numerische Modelle fr [14] have proposed a bar model that considers the cou-
ein typisches Reihenhaus aus Mauerwerk, die auf dem Diskrete-/ pling of the bar system of the inner and outer shear walls
Finite-Elemente-Ansatz basieren, in unterschiedlichen Mastben to ensure the compatibility of deformation. The gable
erstellt worden. walls were included in the model as vertical bars. The ex-
Die Modelle dienten der Untersuchung des Beitrages jeder einzel- ternal walls develop a frame action, which discharge some
nen Wandscheibe zur Gesamtwiderstandsfhigkeit des Bauwerks of the loads coming to the inner walls. However, it was as-
sowie ihres Anteils an der Ableitung der vertikalen und horizontalen sumed generally uncracked cross sections.
Belastungen. Die Ergebnisse geben einen Einblick in die Wechsel- Elsche [4] has performed finite element analysis for
wirkung zwischen der Verformung der Deckenplatte und dem terraced house under horizontal displacements. The model
Kippen der Wandscheiben. Es wurde das unterschiedliche Ver- considers masonry walls from calcium silicate with thin
halten eines Modells mit starrem Fundament und eines Modells layer mortar. The walls assumed to have cohesion contact
mit elastischer Grndung verglichen. with the slab, so that the possible openings failures can be
Verschiedene Streifenmodelle des Gebudes dienten dazu, das simulated. The external walls has been separated without
Schub-Verhalten getrennt von den Einflssen der Lastverteilung considering contact in between, only the contact elements
beschreiben zu knnen. Ein Vergleich der Ergebnisse des Streifen-
were defined on the interfaces between the slab and the
modells mit den Ergebnissen des Gesamtmodells zeigt, dass das
wall. The results of calculation show the contribution of
Streifenmodell auf der sicheren Seite liegt.
each shear wall from the whole basement shear force.
Fehling/Strz [5] have been used a bar model with at-
1 Introduction tached rigid bodies in double-T form for modelling the
shear walls in case of rocking. Due to Fehling/Strz [5]
The response of masonry structure under wind loads has the rocking occurs by meeting a specific criterion based
unique behaviour differs significantly from the response of on normal stress, compression strength of masonry, and
other structural systems such as reinforced concrete. This the ratio of length to the height of the wall, which is quite

88 Ernst & Sohn Verlag fr Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin Mauerwerk 15 (2011), Heft 2
T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

possible in the case of the terraced house, mainly due to has been investigated in many research works ([9], [11],
the low normal forces. [1], [14] and [4]) as it helps to investigate the performance
The combined work of the shear wall with its flange of masonry building in its simplest form.
has been investigated within a research project by Zilch et Three models for the reference building with different
al. [17], [16]. Several tests on full-scale walls of T-shape accuracy levels and modelling approaches are considered:
with different execution detailing (e. g. the connection be- (1) Discrete/finite element model on unit level, (2) Discrete
tween shear wall and intersecting wall was using shear ties / finite element model on wall level, and (3) Strip model.
or interlocking) under combined loadings (static-cyclic
and pseudo-dynamic) have been performed. Concerning 2.1 Discrete/Finite element model on unit level
the load bearing capacity and the stiffness characteristics
of shear walls, the study showed a significant better behav- This model has been built with intention to get an insight
iour under combined shear loadings, compared to single into the global response of building, the interaction be-
walls. The combined work of flange and shear wall is tween the structure components, distribution of horizon-
based on whether opening is existing or not. The test tal forces, and the damage progress within the structure
showed at the cross point that no negative influence is ex- up to the point of collapse. The applied wind load has
isting if the flat steel used instead of interlocking. been linearly increased in order to explore any existing
In the present contribution, the performance of ma- potential reserves.
sonry building under wind load going to be investigated
based on understanding the response of the global system
and the interaction between its components.

2 Numerical modelling of the global response

The terraced house, a typical central European residential


building, will be considered as a reference masonry build-
ing in the present study (Fig. 1 and Table 1). This building

Table 1. Dimensions of the typical terraced house masonry


building
Tabelle 1. Abmessungen des typischen Mauerwerk-Reihen-
hauses
Lh 10.0 [m] Length of the house (a) (b)
Bh 5.0 [m] Width of the house Fig. 2. Discrete/finite element models of the terraced house
Bw 2.4 [m] Width of the window opening (a) on unit level in LS-DYNA (b) on wall level in ANSYS
Bs 2.0 [m] Width of the staircase (Jger et al. [9])
Ls variable [m] Depth of the staircase Bild 2. Diskrete-/Finite-Element-Modelle des Reihenhauses,
Tex 30.0 [cm] Thickness of the external walls (a) auf Steinebene in LS-DYNA, (b) auf Wandebene in ANSYS
Tin 17.5 [cm] Thickness of the internal walls (Jger et al. [9])

(a) (b)

Fig. 1. Typical terraced house, (a) the layout in ground floor showing the notation of dimensions and walls, (b) cross section
along the y axis
Bild 1. Typisches Reihenhaus, (a) Grundriss Erdgeschoss mit Benennung der Abmessungen und Wnde, (b) Schnitt entlang
der y-Achse

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T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

In this model, the finite element mesh is continuous


on unit level, while tied contact with defined failure crite-
rion can be detected between the units, Fig. 2a. The prin-
ciple of modelling and material parameters can be found
in [1]. Transient calculation has been performed based on
explicit integration approach using LS-DYNA code.

2.2 Discrete/Finite element model on wall level

This model is simpler than the pervious one, but shows ef-
ficiency for parametric study without dropping the capabil-
ity to describe the global behaviour, the rocking failure of
the walls, and the interaction and influences of different
components Fig. 2b. The model has been built in ANSYS
within a research project to develop an engineering model
for masonry shear walls (Jger et al. [9]). Each wall has
been considered as separate discrete element, which is in Fig. 3. FE-Model of the terraced house with elastic founda-
contact with the other slab/walls. Unidirectional frictional tion
contact elements have been defined on the interfaces be- Bild 3. FE-Modell des Reihenhauses mit elastischer Grn-
tween the discrete elements, so that, the shear walls con- dung
nected through frictional contact elements to the long
walls. The reason behind this is to ignore the transfer of Parametric study has been performed for the varia-
tensile forces between the adjacent walls, which might be tion of the length of the inner wall Ls =1.25, 1.50, 1.75 and
connected by flat steel anchors. The material assumed elas- 2.00 m. Another variation has been investigated by adding
tic within the discrete elements and the cracks are only an elastic foundation with elastic modulus of 300 N/mm2
possible on the interfaces between the discrete elements. in order to see if any further reserves are possible, Fig. 3.
Static calculation has been performed on this model
under different load combinations, Table 2, and different 2.3 Strip model
material combinations. The applied wind pressure on the
front wall is 0.4 KN/m2 and the suction on the opposite Strip model decouples the in-plane behaviour of the shear
side is 0.25 KN/m2. The considered material combination wall within the structure from any transversal effects. It
in this contribution is shown in Table 3. However, the re- helps to separate the influence of force distribution from
sults for some other material combination can be found in the overall behavior and it is capable to describe the inter-
(Jger et al. [9]). In Table 3 the values for the clay bricks action between the shear wall, the flange wall and the slab.
are based on the gross sectional area. The different elastic Several experimental and numerical studies has been used
modulus values were decreased following the investiga- the strip approach to explore the performance of masonry
tions of Hannawald/Brameshuber [7]. buildings under horizontal actions. Some shaking table
tests of strip specimens were executed within the frame of
Table 2. The considered load combinations ESECMaSE project [2]. The results of the tests were provided
Tabelle 2. Bercksichtigte Lastkombinationen a clear explanation for the in-plane performance of the
strip. In [1] a strip model has been built based on the ap-
1 Dead Load
proach described in section 2.1 and the results from ESEC-
2 Dead Load + Wind Load in Direction Y+
3 Dead Load + Wind Load in Direction Y MaSE project were used to check the validation of the
model. Lring [10] has performed numerical modelling of

Table 3. Orthotropic material properties of masonry walls of the house


Tabelle 3. Orthotrope Materialeigenschaften der Mauerwerkswnde im Gebude

Material External Walls Internal Walls


properties Front side HLz6/LM21 Gabel HLz6/LM21 HLz12/NMIIa
E 2420 [N/mm2] 2420 [N/mm2] 5500 [N/mm2]
Ex 0.277 E [N/mm2] 0.277 E [N/mm2] 0.277 E [N/mm2]
Ey 0.550 E [N/mm2] 0.550 E [N/mm2] 0.550 E [N/mm2]
Ez 1.000 E [N/mm2] 1.000 E [N/mm2] 1.000 E [N/mm2]
Gxy 0.050 E [N/mm2] 0.050 E [N/mm2] 0.050 E [N/mm2]
Gxz 0.209 E [N/mm2] 0.209 E [N/mm2] 0.209 E [N/mm2]
Gyz 0.378 E [N/mm2] 0.378 E [N/mm2] 0.378 E [N/mm2]
nxy 0.140 0.140 0.140
nxz 0.100 0.100 0.100
nyz 0.100 0.100 0.100
Density 9.000 [kN/m3] 9.000 [kN/m3] 9.000 [kN/m3]

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T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

In general, the progression of damage was influenced by


the rocking of the shear walls. However, the simulation
shows three important events: (1) opening of the slab due
to the rocking of the shear walls, this starts at early loading
stage, (2) tensile horizontal cracking of the transversal
shear wall due to uplifting of the slab, and (3) failure of the
shear wall which affected basically by the early failure in
the adjacent transversal wall, this follows immediately the
tensile failure of the transversal wall, Fig. 5.
The progression of damage within the structure im-
poses a specific distribution of forces after each damage
stage. During the uplift of the slab, most of the vertical loads
which transmitted to the flange walls going to be transmit-
ted to the shear walls. This causes increasing the level of ver-
Fig. 4. The strip model the walls considered as discrete ele- tical stresses of the shear walls, thus, the change of the shear
ments wall capacities, and the horizontal load distributions.
Bild 4. Streifenmodell mit Bercksichtigung der Wnde als Several important behaviour aspects can be observed
diskrete Elemente in the simulation of the damage progress, which helps to
improve the capacity of the structure as whole. Significant
strips of different patterns considering the possible arrange- flange participation has been observed, the primary con-
ments of walls in masonry buildings. tribution of the observed flange participation increases
The same modeling principles in section 2.2 have the applied vertical load to the shear walls. Significant
been used for building the strip model. The considered portions of the flange walls were engaged due to the uplift
strip in this study has been chosen to include one of the associated with local shear wall rocking, as well as, the
inner shear walls of the single terraced house with effec- global rocking.
tive flange length calculated according to EC6 [3], Fig. 4.
3.2 Distribution of the horizontal loads
3 Results
3.1 Damage progress under wind load The distribution of the horizontal loads plays an impor-
tant rule in the design of the shear walls. The available ap-
The results obtained from the detailed model of section proach in engineering practice is to distribute the horizon-
2.1 can give an insight into the damage progress within the tal forces to the shear walls proportional to their stiffness.
structure. The structure has subjected to linearly increased This is right in elastic range, but due to the way that dam-
wind pressure and the damage events have been observed. age develops and the interaction between the structure

Fig. 5. Damage progress under


wind load up to the point of
collapse, (a) the initial failure, open-
(a) (b) ing of the slab due to the rocking
of the shear walls, (b) tensile hori-
zontal cracking of the flange wall
which caused by the uplifting of
the slab and (c) the failure of the
shear walls and collapse mecha-
nism of the structure
Bild 5. Versagensvorgang unter
Windlast bis zum Einsturz, (a) Be-
ginn des Versagens, ffnung der
Deckenplatte durch das Kippen der
Schubwnde, (b) horizontales Ver-
sagen der Querwnde, verursacht
durch das Anheben der Decke und
(c) Ausfall der Wandscheiben und
(c) Versagen des Tragwerks

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T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

Fig. 6. Capacity curves for masonry stiffening walls (the capacity curves of flange walls are dashed)
Bild 6. Kapazittskurven der aussreifenden Mauerwerkswnde (die Kapazittskurven der Querwnde sind mit Strichlinien
dargestellt)

components, this method is not realistic. In addition, the


summation of the peak resistances of each single shear
wall is not realistic, as it overestimates the load bearing ca-
pacity of the structure.
Fig. 6 shows the capacity curves of the walls, which de-
fined as the relation between the base shear force and the
displacement at the second level. Each capacity curves has
its peak at specific displacement. The capacity curves in
Fig. 6, which are resulting from the interaction of all struc-
ture components, differ from the capacity curves of single
shear walls. The capacity curves of flange walls demonstrate
considerable participation to the overall structure capacity. (a)

3.3 Deformation of the slab and how it influences the trans-


mission of vertical loads

The vertical load transferred to the shear wall plays an im-


portant rule in the load bearing capacity against horizon-
tal actions. The traditional design methods in engineering
practice dont consider the influence of slab deformation
to determine the vertical actions on the walls, but they
based on dividing the area of the slab into influence areas
which depend on the geometrical distribution of the shear
walls, examples for that: DAfStb Heft 240 (Grasser/Thie-
len [6]), and the procedure of MINEA software described (b)
in (Mistler [12]). Fig. 7 shows the deformation of the slab
Fig. 7. The influence of the applied vertical loads on the load
and the variation of load transmission areas under differ-
transmission areas; (a) the deformation of the slab under its
ent loading conditions. Slab deformation basically de-
self-weight, (b) the deformation of the slab under self weight
pends on one hand on the applied loads and on other and uniformly distributed load on the contour of the slab
hand on the interaction with the supporting walls. This Bild 7. Einfluss aus aufgebrachten Vertikallasten auf die
confirms the importance of the contribution of vertical Lastverteilungsflche; (a) Verformung der Platte unter Eigen-
loads transmitted by the gable walls into the overall load last, (b) Verformung der Platte unter Eigenlast und gleichfr-
bearing capacity. miger Linienlast auf dem Plattenrand

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T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

The simulation results under wind loads influenced In case of consistency the behaviour of the shear wall
basically by the rocking of the shear walls and deforma- is almost similar to a cantilever with backward moments
tion of the slab. Based on the wind direction and the shear and rotational springs on each level, but in case of incon-
wall distribution, the slab-wall interaction behaviour can sistency, the cantilever model is conservative and cannot
be explained by dividing the structure into specific strips, represent the quasi-hinged connection between the wall
Fig. 8a. The slab-wall interaction is basically affected by and the slab.
the existing of consistency between the rotation of the slab
and the rocking of the shear wall. In strips B1, C1, Fig. 8b 3.4 Influence of the shear wall length
the slab is almost in fully contact with the shear wall, no
opening of the slab due to the consistence rotation of the In section 3.3 it has been shown how the deformation of
slab and the rocking of the shear wall. In strips B2, C2, the slab influences the load flow through the shear walls
Fig. 8b the slab opens due to the inconsistence rotation of and thus, the appropriate design model. However, this also
the slab and the rocking of the shear wall. In strips A1, D1, influenced the most by the shear wall dimensions, i. e. the
A2, and D2 the slab deforms in consistent with the left ratio of length to the height of the wall. The less length of
shear wall but inconsistent with right one. the wall helps to get rocking behaviour and vice versa.

(a)

(b)

(c)
Fig. 8. Deformation of the slab and its influence to the transmission of vertical loads; (a) the influence of wind direction on
load transmission, (b) possible strip responses to wind load, (c) the corresponding ANSYS model results to show the response
of the strip in the global model
Bild 8. Verformung der Platte und deren Einfluss auf die Verteilung der Vertikallasten, (a) Einfluss der Windrichtung auf die
Lastverteilung, (b) mgliche Reaktion des Streifens auf die Windlast, (c) entsprechende Ergebnisse des ANSYS-Modells fr
die Reaktionen des Streifens im Gesamtmodell

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T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

The model described in section 2.2 has been calcu- the rocking of the shear wall. The shape of moment dia-
lated for different lengths of the inner shear wall (1.25, gram for shear wall of length 2.00 m confirms that the can-
1.50, 1.75, and 2.00 m), the internal forces of this wall are tilever model can be well representing this case. In case of
shown in Fig. 9. The diagrams shown in Fig. 9a are corre- inconsistency, Fig. 9b, there are no big differences in the
sponding to the case of consistent rotation of the slab with shape of moment diagrams.

Fig. 9. Influence of the inner shear wall length on the moment diagram; (a) wind in positive direction of axis Y, (b) wind in
negative direction of axis Y
Bild 9. Einfluss der Lnge der inneren Wandscheibe auf die Momentenfunktion; (a) Wind greift in positiver Richtung der
Y-Achse an, (b) Wind in negativer Richtung der Y-Achse

Fig. 10. Terraced house model with elastic foundation under wind loads
Bild 10. Modell des Reihenhauses mit elastischer Grndung unter Windlasten

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T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

3.5 Influence of the elastic foundation tion at the base of the wall. Therefore the moment value at
the base for elastic foundation is bigger than that for rigid
The terraced house with elastic foundation and basement foundation, and vice versa.
slab has been modelled to see if the deformation of the
basement slab has considerable influences on the global 3.6 Comparison the Strip model with the global model
behaviour.
The results of simulation show that, the deformation The results of the strip models give a clear explanation of
of the basement slab under the loads transferred from the the wall-slab interaction in the plane of the shear wall.
walls is opposite to the direction of deformation in the Fig. 12 shows the results of two strips models, one in-
floor slabs. It applies rotations on the wall base opposite cludes the inner shear wall and the other includes both ex-
to the rotation on the wall head, Fig. 10. This behaviour in- ternal shear walls.
fluences the load flow in the ground floor, with negligible The vertical/horizontal portion of forces applied on
influences to the second floor, Fig. 11. The internal forces the strip model has been calculated according to the tradi-
transmitted to each shear wall are influenced by the con- tional methods, i. e. the distribution of the horizontal
sistency and inconsistency of deformation of basement forces calculated proportional to the stiffness of the shear
slab with the rocking of shear walls. As an example, in case walls. However, the calculation results in Fig. 13 show that
of wall W1, with wind in positive direction of axis Y, the the strip model results are in safe side of the global model
basement slab deformation is inconsistent with the rota- results.

Fig. 11. Comparison the moment diagrams of the shear walls for rigid foundation and elastic foundation; (a) wind in
positive direction of axis Y, (b) wind in negative direction of axis Y
Bild 11. Vergleich der Momentenfunktionen der Wandscheiben fr starre und elastische Grndung; (a) Wind greift in positi-
ver Richtung der Y-Achse an, (b) Wind in negativer Richtung der Y-Achse

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T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

Fig. 12. Strip model simulation results; (a) strip model for the inner shear wall of the terraced house, (b) strip model for the
external shear walls of the terraced house
Bild 12. Simulationsergebnisse des Streifenmodells; (a) Streifenmodell fr die innere Wandscheibe des Reihenhauses,
(b) Streifenmodell fr die ueren Wandscheiben des Reihenhauses

Fig. 13. Comparison of the internal forces and the excentricities between the strip model and global model
Bild 13. Vergleich der Schnittkrfte und Exzentrizitten zwischen Streifen- und Gesamtmodell

96 Mauerwerk 15 (2011), Heft 2


T. Bakeer The performance of masonry buildings under wind loads The influence of the global effect on component response

4 Conclusion [6] Grasser, E., Thielen, G.: Hilfsmittel zur Berechnung der
Schnittgren und Formnderungen von Stahlbetontragwer-
The global behaviour of masonry terraced house subjected ken. DAfStb-Heft 240, Beuth-Verlag, Berlin, Ausgabe Juli
to wind loads has been investigated, with focus on the in- 1988.
[7] Hannawald, J.; Brameshuber, W.: Ermittlung effektiver ela-
teraction between the structure elements and their influ-
stischer Eigenschaften von Hochlochziegeln mittels numeri-
ences on the global behaviour.
scher Simulation. Mauerwerk 11 (2007) 6, S. 330334.
In general, the progression of damage has been influ- [8] Hveling, T.; Steinborn, T.; Schps, P.: Schubtragfhigkeit
enced by the rocking of the shear walls. Significant flange von Mauerwerk aus Porenbeton-Plansteinen und Porenbe-
participation has been observed. The primary contribu- ton-Planelementen. AiF-Abschlussbericht, AIF-Nr. 14642BG,
tion of the observed flange participation increases the ap- 2009.
plied vertical loads to the shear walls. The slab-wall inter- [9] Jger, W., Ortlepp, S.; Bakeer, T., Vassilev, T., Montazerolg-
action is basically affected by the existing of consistency haem, M., Richter, C., Bergander, H.: Schnittkraftermittlung
between the rotation of the slab and the rocking of the fr aussteifende Mauerwerkswnde. Forschungsbericht,
shear wall. In case of consistency the behaviour of the Technische Universitt Dresden, Fakultt Architektur, Lehr-
shear wall is almost similar to a cantilever model with stuhl Tragwerksplanung, 2010.
[10] Lring, St.: Zum Tragverhalten von Mauerwerksbauten
backward moments and rotational springs on each level,
unter Erdbebeneinwirkung. Dissertation, Universitt Dort-
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mund, 2005. Schriftenreihe Tragkonstruktionen Heft 1, 2005.
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tion between the wall and the slab. The use of strip model- suche an Reihenmittelhusern. Mauerwerk 12 (2008) 4, S.
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of the slab-wall interaction with results lay in safe side of [12] Mistler, M.: Verformungsbasiertes seismisches Bemes-
the global model ones. sungskonzept fr Mauerwerksbauten. Dissertation, Rhei-
The developing of hand calculation approach that nisch-Westflische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Fakultt
considers all the described behaviours is quite challenging fr Bauingenieurwesen, Aachen 2006.
problem. However, the adoption of the strip modelling ap- [13] Moon, F. L.: Seismic Strengthening of Low-Rise Unrein-
proach through commercial software is reasonable. forced Masonry Structures with Flexible Diaphragms. PhD
Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 2004.
[14] tes, A., Lring, St.: Zur Horizontalaussteifung von Rei-
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