Electrical Science births In addition to the nature of substances, other puzzles of nature that also attract the attention
of medieval European scientists associated with electrical phenomena. In the beginning, two things are reviewed separately. But in a further development, it became clear that the electrical phenomena associated with the nature of the substance. Amber Stone Ancient Greece Electrical which today can hardly be removed from our everyday life, the symptoms have long been recognized by the ancient greek people since approximately 600 years BC. In particular, Thales, who started the relay baton of understanding the nature of substances, noted already know that the scrubedi amber with fur animals have the ability to attract light objects, such as bird feathers, nearby. Today we know that these symptoms indicate that tergosok amber that has electrical properties. Electrical medieval Efforts to understand the electrical phenomena in this new scientific turn in 1600 when William Gilbert (1544-1603), who worked as the personal physician of Queen Elizabeth of England, published a book called De Magnete. In the final chapter of that book he described the experiment rub amber which he did on several other materials. In sulfur, wax, resin, and glass, she found that the material also shows the nature of amber rubbed. However, the effort failed at the metal because he did not to insulate. Gilbert later member name materials that have properties of rubbing amber as electrical materials he collected an electron from the Greek meaning 'amber'. Today we know there are two kinds of electrical materials: conductors (like metals) and insulators (electrical materials Gilbert). Repelling, attraction Range of time since the publication of De magnete until the next meeting apparently donation takes about a century, roughly 130 years. The findings are quite striking is the contribution of Charles F. du Fay (1698, A French scientist, who in 1734 reported the following interesting findings: although the amber is rubbed with silk shows the electrical behavior, there is a difference between the two. Objects drawn amber light when later in the bonding of glass scrubd experiencing repulsion, vice versa. He then shows that repulsion and attraction of these symptoms are common properties of electrical materials. Du Fay later reveals that the electrical attraction of repulsion phenomena can be explained if it is considered there are two types of electric substance, which he called vitreous and resinous. The former is held among others by the glass, crystals gem stones, animal hair and wool. The latter of which is owned by the amber, the adhesive lacquer, resin, silk, paper and thread. Electric materials that have similar substance-electric flow repel, while opposites attract. Events attraction and repulsion electric materials was actually previously been observed by Otto von Guericke limited to certain electrical materials so that more will find du Fay. Franklin, electricity flows only one substance
Two-substance theory of electricity flow du Fay later revised by Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), scientist at the same time the United States celebrated statesman, in 1747. The result of reasoning concludes that "one" substance flow of electricity is enough to explain the electrical phenomena repelling and attraction. According to Franklin, when a pane of glass in a dry rub with the hand, then the number of substances flow into the hands of the electricity flowing from the glass. This resulted in the glass has excess electricity flowing substances, while deficiency in the same hand. Therefore, he called the glass has a positive and negative electricity. Franklin initially did not know about the grouping of electricity du Fay. But other scientists later realized that du Fay vitreous electricity, equivalent to "positive" and resinous electricity "negative" Franklin. Thus, in experimental electric pads, glass scrubd for example has a positive power, while amber has a negative power. Thus, observations of du Fay explicable if seen that kind of electricity repel, while not a type of attraction. So, the glass has attractive electrical amber have electricity, but refused the glass that has another power. Metals and Leyden jar Two years before the findings of Du Fay, Stephen Gray (1666-1736) of England showed that the metal can also be made to have the power (draw objects mild) through process scrub, provided electrically partitioned. This fact shows that the metal that is not partitioned by electricity can not keep electricity flowing substance that "flowed" into it because the metals to give up substance flow of electricity flowing through it. In addition, in practical terms, physical scientists have successfully grown it also creates electricity generating equipment, such as electric scouring machine, which can produce the electrical properties of rubbing with a greater capacity. It consists of one electric disc material that can be played berengkol which touched on the abrasive surface is fixed such as a hand or other electrical materials. Having in mind that acts as an electrically conductive metal, physicists are now finding ways to distribute electricity in the abrasion machine raised by electricity to other electrical material system that will act as "reservoirs" of electricity in large numbers, therefore has a greater electrical capacity. It consists of glass tubes or glass bottles inside and outside walls clad with sheets of tin. Sheets of tin on the inside of the machine is then connected to the electrical pads through a piece of metal wire. If the machine-scrubbed power plays, a number of electricity will flow onto the sheets of tin were then stored in it. Meanwhile, during charging, the exterior sustained on the table or they can be on your palms. The bottle container of electric charge was then known by the name of Leyden jar, after the name of the town where his invention: Leiden in the Netherlands. The fact that the bottle serves as a container Leiden electrical Musschenbroek revealed by Pieter van (1692-1761), Dutch physicist in Leiden, who volunteered himself as "guinea pigs". In his experiments he had accidentally brought one hand to connect the metal wire when the electrical charging of the engine power to the bottle of rubbing Leiden which is supported with the palm of his other hand. He feels it is very surprising! Hands and whole body experience incredible shock electric shock like that (maybe) we feel when touching the electricity cable which was not covered. Electric shock through this privilege reveals Musschenbroek van Leyden jar as a container of electricity. Thunderstorms and laying-Franklin's kite
The presence of electrical machinery pads and a bottle of Leiden opened new opportunities for physicists to study and reveal more puzzles to do with electricity and natural behavior. Another interesting finding was obtained by the two instruments are based on the following experiment: When a Leyden jar when filled, and a length of metal wire which tercantelkan on tin sheets outside the Leyden jar is brought near to a metal wire connected to the electrical pads machine, with the imminent interest springboard pie with a kind of electricity in coupled popping. The similarity of these events with lightning-lightning phenomena in heavy rain inspired Benjamin Franklin in 1749 guessed that the lightning-lightning events in nature is a symptom of electricity on a large scale. To prove the truth of these estimates, Franklin's kite experiment historic laying-on in 1752. At the top end of a kite she cross tie a piece of thin metal wire whose length is approximately 40 cm. At the lower end of the yarn she hung the key controller of the metal and then he liliti with silk ribbon. When heavy rains accompanied by winds and lightning bolt, Franklin raised kite. Coinciding with when the kite was struck by lightning, Franklin brought one of his fingertips on the metal key terliliti earlier. Sure enough, he felt such a powerful electric shock that is felt when touching a wire connecting the bottle Leiden. The results of this experiment to prove the truth of guessed that the event is a symptom of lightningbolt mains. Electric kite experiment Franklin was later used as the working principle of lightning protection. On top of high buildings fitted slim piece of metal connected by metal wires to the other metal rod in burrows in the ground. Coulomb Law Toward the end of the 18th century various techniques of measurement and observation of experimental physics reached a sufficient level of perfection. This advancement allows for a careful observation of the strength (or force) pull or reject the materials have electricity. Here, the physicists reveal the substance flow as a measure of electrical power, which was then called electric charge. Materials that have excess electricity flowing substance called positively charged, while the shortage is charged negate. Thus, the size of the electrical properties of a material amount of electricity can be measured from the electrical charge, while the tensile properties were measured from the decline or charge of electricity. Outstanding effort that succeeded in measuring the electrical attractive force between substances or deny this power is Charles Augustin de Coulomb experiment (1736-1806), a French physicist, in 1784. Through a number of measuring tensile force and toward digit decline among the materials have electricity, Coulomb law concludes the following tools. Large tensile force or decline between the two objects have the power proportional to the electric charge has electrical materials and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between two electric charges it. Similar electric charges repel, while no similar attraction The style is called electric force or Coulomb force and the law was later known as the Law of Coulomb.
According to this law, the greater the electrical charge of interacting materials, the greater the electrical forces acting between them. Similarly, if the minimum separation between the two more distant, weaker electric force. Electroscope, electric sensors Study of electricity through the experiment and then progressively watered with the success of A. Bennett from the UK in 1787 reported working principle of electric sensing devices creations: elektroskop. These tools serve to measure the size of the electric charge and the kind of electricity, positive or negative, electrical materials rubbing. The composition essentially consists of a slim metal rod that bounced through an insulating material that clog the neck bottles (glass tube) so that one end is protected from outside air flow. At the end of the taped two sheets of golden light that can be opened easily to the side, while on the back side which recorded a large scale placed a small corner of the opening two sheets of gold. The principle works as follows. If electrically charged objects touched on the top of the metal rod, the electrical charge will flow into the second sheet of gold. Since the second type of gold is now charged, they will repel each other resulting in both open. The size of the second open angle gold leaf, which was read on the scale, depending on the size of which touched an electric charge, as inferred from the Coulomb law. Both sheets of gold would remain open despite penyentuhnya dissociated electrical materials. This means, the electrical charge of the electric material has been transferred and accommodated in the two sheets of gold. Furthermore, if the metal rod elektroskop in touch with other electrical and materials having both pieces of gold the deflection angle decreases, then the electrically charged metal rods in contrast to the first. When the angle simpangannya increases, then the electric charge type. This is caused by the addition of opposite charge to neutralize some of the second material a second cargo of gold sheets so that decreased the amount of charge initially. Conversely, the addition of a type enlarge its cargo load. Electrical biological My friends, towards the end of the 18th century is also exposed other electrical phenomena that had not previously known. Friend know who ..? nah .. let's search This time donation instead of a physicist but an anatomist, Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), from the University of Bologna, Italy. Galvani, in this case is not intended to examine the phenomenon of electricity. Its main interest is to study the anatomy of various animals by making use of electrical equipment that has been developed adults, as the engine electrical pads. However, in 1780, he was accidentally observed that new neural killed a frog and a piece of metal wire tertusuki was "pulsed" .. wow .. on step forward nearby when an electric spark and electrical machinery pads. The same symptoms he had observed did not occur when two similar metals, one of which was inoculated on the part of frogs, and other muscles in the frog nerve, in touch with each other. Galvani concluded that the phenomenon of electricity was sourced from frog nerve. Metals in this case only serves as a source conductor, therefore, he named this type of electricity: Electrical bio.
Volta pile, the first generation battery. Intriguing findings physicist Galvani compatriot Alesandro voltaic (1745-1827) of Pavia, to understand this phenomenon further biological electricity. In 1800 he found that when our tongue is clamped by two pieces of metal from the material was not similar, then both are connected by metal wires, then the tongue will taste salty. Due to the presence of the tongue, with galvanic Volta agree that these are symptoms of biological electricity. To prove the truth of this assumption further, he repeated the earlier experiment. Role of the tongue he was replaced by a piece of wet cardboard. It turns out too salty cardboard sheets. Because in this experiment there was no biological elements. To prove the truth of this assumption further, he repeated the earlier experiment. Role of the tongue he was replaced by a piece of wet cardboard. It turns out too salty cardboard sheets. Because in this experiment there was no physiological elements involved, then denied the conclusions galvanic Volta on electricity bio for this electrical phenomenon. Through some kind of experiment, the same year, Volta succeeded in creating a pile of Volta, the embryo of the battery, which shows the electrical behavior, such as those found on electrical machinespads. This system consists of two pieces of metal heap was not similar, such as zinc and copper, which in part with the cardboard paper in wet with salt water. The order of arrangement is zinc, wet cardboard, copper, wet cardboard, corrugated iron, wet cardboard, copper, .... And ends with copper. Volta then shows that when the end of two metal wires, each of which is connected to the outer zinc and copper, is brought near, there will be a stepping-generated electricity, such as fire, electric machine-scrub. Also if the tips of two metal wires were connected into one hand and touched the wires, electric shock will be felt despite the relatively weak powers. In addition, Volta also showed that the symptoms of the same electricity can be produced by dipping a bar of zinc and copper to a solution of salt or acid. Tues electric power is often called the liquid cell to distinguish it from the pile of Volta. Together they are called cells or Galvani Volta. Comparative advantages are in electric machine-rub is that the electricity produced last longer. Electric static, dynamic, and metaphorically waterfall Electrical behavior of the resulting cells seem to differ from Galvani electrical non-metallic scouring materials. Galvani electricity can flow in a continuous metal wire that connects the two poles, whereas those derived from rubbing "stuck" in a certain area non-metallic materials. Therefore, dibedakanlah electricity generated by rubbing with electricity generated by Galvani. Electricity is called static electricity because of rubbing (silent), the electrical results Galvani cells called dynamic electricity (moving). In 1776 electricity was realized that two factors, namely large and capabilities, to be distinguished. More scientific explanation and must then be given by the German physicist, Georg Simon Ohm (17871854).
In 1827, the berkias he argues that the flow of electricity can be viewed as a waterfall. Amount of electricity or electric charge dikiaskan with "the amount of water", while the ability of electricity to drive electric charge called the "electric potential" which he parables with "high waterfall" A waterfall can be high but the amount of water that fell very slightly, it also can be low but the amount of water that falls very much. Likewise with electricity. In static electricity, first metaphorically associated with electrical materials that have high electrical potential but low total electric charge. Power or energy stored in a waterfall, which manifested in the swift flow of water, determined by "the high times and the number of waterfalls waterfall that falls". The same rule applies in the electricity: Electrical energy is determined by "the product of the electric charge and electric potential." Direct electric current When two electrically charged materials, or electric cell poles, one positive and others negative, associated with a piece of metal wire (conductor), there was a flow of electric charge. The rate of flow of electric charge is called "electric current". The higher the electrical potential difference between the two poles, the higher the electrical current flowing in the wire conductors. Vice versa. Electrical current flow direction agreed upon by the load-movement direction of positive electric charge that moves from the polar high to low potential. Therefore, each of the poles in a row is called the positive pole and negate. In the case of the composition of the pile Volta with zinc, wet cardboard, copper, ..., copper, and pieces of the positive potential is copper, while zinc potentially negative. Therefore, the direction of flow of electric current in the wire connecting the two pieces of metal from the coppers far is headed to the zinc pieces. It should be noted here that at that time predicted the charge-charge free to move in a positively charged metal wire. Apparently now known that in metals the charge-negative charge (ie electrons) are free to move, while positive froze in place. Because the electrical potential of cells produced small Galvani, to enlarge upon some of the cells connected in series Galvani. Series connection which is referred to the positive pole of one cell is connected with the negative pole of another cell. In this arrangement was similar poles of two cells combined. Given the direction of power flow Galvani cell is always fixed, ie from the positive pole toward the negative pole, the direction of the flow is called electric current.