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A RESEARCH PROJECT ON

STRESS MANAGEMENT IN BANKING
INDUSTRY

Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the
Degree Required of
Master of Business Administration

Session (2015 – 2017)

SUBMITTED TO:

MS. MANPREET KAUR

Lecturer,

SUBMITTED BY:

HARDEEP KUMAR

M.B.A 4th SEM.,

ROLL NO.-13029

REGD.NO- 1513474

RAYAT INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT

RAILMAJRA.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report on the “STRESS MANAGEMNT” is a

bonafide project work done by MR HARDEEP KUMAR , full time students of the
Department of MBA (HR) RAYAT INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT in partial
fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of MBA (Finance) of the
University of PTU during the year 2015-2017.

………………. …………………….. ……………….
Project Guide Head of the Department Principal

DECLARATION

I, HARDEEP KUMAR hereby declare that the report fulfils all the
requirements for the award of the degree in PUNJAB in Human
Resource Management and is a record of original work done by us
during the period of MARCH 2017, under the guidance and
supervision of Professors Ms. Manpreet Kaur.

…………………… ……………………..

Signature of the Faculty Guide Signature of the Candidate

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

• I offer our special thanks and prayers to God Almighty for showering
his blessings on us and bestowing us with the skills and abilities to
carry out this study.

• It gives me great pleasure to present this research on stress

management I sincerely thank to the Human Resource Department at Company where I got the Exposure of different functions of Human Resources and I got an opportunity to interact with different people from that department. TABLE OF CONTENTS S. • Finally a word of thank for the faculties of RIM. LIST OF TABLES .NO CONTENTS PG.I am also thankful to them for their constant support and guidance without research would not have been a learning experience. NO.RAILMAJRA who were always with me during my research. • I would also like to thank for the support of my batch mates & friends who were always there to help me whenever I needed.

LIST OF CHARTS 1 INTRODUCTION 8 2 INDUSTRY PROFILE 16 3 SCOPE & OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 20 4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 21 5 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 22 6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 37 7 DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONS 42 8 FINDINGS 66 9 SUGGESTIONS 67 10 CONCLUSION 69 11 BIBLIOGRAPHY 70 12 ANNEXURE 72 LIST OF TABLES & PIE CHARTS PAGE NO. 1 AGE OF RESPONDENTS 42 2 GENDER OF RESPONDENTS 43 . TITLE NO.

11 56 CONFLICTS RESPONDENTS WHOSE WORK EXCEEDS 1.5 RESPONDENTS AND FREQUENCY OF ANGER 50 1.15 50 SOCIAL CONTACT WITH COLLEAGUES .12 57 ONE'S CAPACITY RESPONDENTS CAUGHT BETWEEN FAMILY 1. 3 WORK EXPERIENCE OF RESPONDENTS 44 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF 4 RESPONDENTS 45 RESPONDENTS WITH DIFFICULTY IN 1.PAR AT 1.10 RESPONDENTS WITH BAD EATING HABITS 55 RESPONDENTS WHO OVER REACT TO 1.7 DURING ILLNESS 52 1.8 RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL ISOLATED 53 1.1 SLEEPING 46 RESPONDENTS WITH DIFFICULTY IN 1.14 THE BEGINNING OF A WORK DAY 59 RESPONDENTS WHO SHY AWAY FROM 1.2 47 CONCENTRATING 1.3 RESPONDANTS WITH FINANCIAL PROBLEMS 48 1.13 58 AND WORK PRESSURE RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL UNDER .9 RESPONDENTS WITH NO CONTROL OF LIFE 54 1.6 RESPONDENTS WITH JOB PESSIMISM 51 RESPONDENTS WITH SLOW RECOVERY 1.4 RESPONDENTS AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE 49 1.

Philosophers and scientists have been various names to this period. Stress has become the 21 century buzz word.16 61 COMMENTED UPON RESPONDENTS WITH NO TIME FOR 1. 65 MENTYALLY & PHYSICALLY INTRODUCTION 20TH century has been regarded as the period of incredible change in human history.19 FAMILY/ COLLEAGUES WITH NO SUPPORT 64 FOR THEMSELVES RESPONDENTS WHO TAKE A DAY OFF JUST 1.18 MISUNDERSTOOD/ UNAPPRECIATED BY 63 OTHERS RESPONDENTS WHO ARE COPERS FOR 1.17 THEMSELVES 62 RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL 1. RESPONDENTS WHOSE APPEARANCES ARE 1. from the high pervading corporate echelons to the bassinets of teaching infants’ nurseries we find this world liberally used. John Galbraith has called it “The Age of Future Shock” and Hari Albrecht called it “The Age of Anxiety”.20 TO RECUPERATE EMOTIONALLY. Stress is . Peter Drucker has called it “The Age of Discontinuity”.

From the view point of physical sciences. behavioral deviations in a person. Stress refers to individual’s reaction to a disturbing factor in the environment. It is an adaptive response to certain external factor or situation or what can be called environmental stimuli as reflected in an opportunity. stomach problems. industrialization and the increase scale of operations in society are some of the reasons for rising stress. starting with the birth of a child and enduring with the death of a dear one. forgetting to do things and thinking of things other than work during work hours and also leads to absenteeism which may ultimately lead to turnover. If on the other hand. . then the individual gets bored. water supply is disrupted.part of modern life. Stress is highly individualistic in nature. Urbanization. Similarly human beings can tolerate certain level of stress. power is shut down. Various events in life cause stress. For every individual there is an optimum level of stress under which he or she will perform to full capacity. strain or strong-front”. it leads to too many conflicts with the supervisor or leads to increase of errors. People experience stress as they can no longer have complete control over what happen in their lives. Some people have high levels of stress tolerance for stress and thrive very well in the face of several stressors in the environment. constraint. and psychosomatic illness. In short stress is a response to an external factor that results in physical. stress experience is above the optimum level. Every material steel. the motivational level of work reaches a low point and it results to careless mistakes. In fact. we feel frustrated and then stressed. meaning to draw tight. If the stress experience is below the optimum level. The telephone goes out of order. emotional. The word stress is derived from a Latin word “stringere”. The present world is fast changing and there are lots of pressures and demands at work. Stress is an all pervading modern phenomenon that takes a heavy toll of human life. These pressures at work lead to physical disorders. rock or wood has its own limit up to which it can withstand stress without being damaged. pressure. its stimulant as well. bad decisions and the individual may experience insomnia. It is an inevitable consequence of socio-economic complexity and to some extent. or demand the outcome of which is uncertain but important. some individuals will not perform well unless they experience a level of stress which activates and energizes then to put forth their best results. the phenomena of stress are evident in all materials when they are subjected to “force. children perform poorly at school etc.

and expanding the social support network. • Physical exercise . difference between company values and employee values. increasing physical exercise. And they are particularly prone to stress inducing anticipatory emotions such as anxiety. competitive. insecure political climate. implementing time management techniques. Some of well known time management principles include. • Individual approaches • Organizational approaches INDIVIDUAL APPROACHES An employee can take individual responsibility to reduce his/her stress level. role conflict and ambiguity. • Making daily list of activities to be accomplished • Scheduling activities according to the priorities set • Prioritizing activities by importance and urgency • Knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your job. change in social activities. and hardworking. ambitious. poor quality of supervision. They set high goals and demands of themselves and others. REMEDIES TO REDUCE STRESS There are two major approaches to reduce stress. etc. Individual strategies that have proven effective include. Job related factors are work overload. change to a different line of work. aggressive. prolonged illness in the family. Person related factors are death of spouse. Those can be divided into factors related to the organization and factors related to the person which include his experience and personality traits. eating habits.Different situations and circumstances in our personal life and in our job produce stress.. They are impatient. family problems. They are. relaxation training. • Time management Many people manage their time very poorly. or of a close friend. Personality traits are ‘Type A’ personality. time pressures.

So expand your social support network that helps you with someone to hear your problems. brisk walking. They typically proud work ships to help people quit smoking. hypnosis and bio-feedback. Certain jobs are more stressful than others. It involves two step . use of realistic goal setting. when stress levels become excessive. and increased feedback can reduce stress. Designing jobs to give employees more responsibility. because these factors give the employee greater control over work activities and lessen dependence on others. control alcohol usage. The objective is to reach in state of deep relaxation. where one feels physically relaxed. Increasingly formal organizational communication with employees reduces uncertainty by reducing role ambiguity and role conflict. Goal setting helps to reduce stress. Fifteen or twenty minutes a day of deep relaxation releases tension and provides a person with a pronounced sense of peacefulness. friends or work colleagues to talk provides an outlet. Some of the strategies that management want to consider include improved personal self section and job placement. Another remedy for reducing stress is cognitive restructuring. swimming. ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACHES Several of the factors that cause stress particularly task and role demands and organizations structure are controlled by management. As such they can be modified or changed. It also provides motivation. and riding a bi-cycle. • Social support Having families. • Relaxation training Relaxation techniques such as meditation. redesigning of jobs. more meaningful work.Practicing physical exercises like aerobics. somewhat from detached from the immediate environment. more autonomy. improved organizational communication and establishment of corporate wellness programmes. Individual with little experience or an external lower of control tend to be more proven to stress. jogging. Selection and placement decisions should take these facts into consideration. eat better and develop a regular exercise program. Wellness programs like employee counselling form on the employee’s total physical and mental condition.

Sleep starved rats have developed stress syndrome. • Yield stress. phonological use of prominence in language . Biological • Stress (biological). stress caused by employment Other • Stress (game). TYPES OF STRESSES The different types of stress are as follows: Mechanical • Stress (physics). card game • Stress (linguistics). One important remedy to reduce stress is the maintenance of good sleep. the average amount of force exerted per unit area. After the age of 35.procedures. First irrational or maladaptive thought processes that create stress are identified. the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction. The amount of sleep one requires varies from person to person and is dependent on one’s lifestyle. Generally studies shows that young adults can manage with about 7-8 hours. the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. The American National Sleep Foundation claims that a minimum of eight hours of sleep is essential for good health. The second step consists of replacing these irrational thoughts with more rational or reasonable ones. positive stress that can lead to improved long-term functioning • Workplace stress. persistent stress which can lead to illness and mental disorder • Eustress. physiological or psychological stress. Research conducted on laboratory specimen to have met with startling discoveries. some types include: • Chronic stress. • Compressive stress. For example Type A individuals may believe that they must be successful at everything they do. six hours of sleep is sufficient whereas people over 65 years may just need three or four hours.

exercise. Symptoms of chronic stress can be: • upset stomach • headache • backache • insomnia • anxiety • depression • anger In the most severe cases it can lead to panic attacks or a panic disorder. which include. adequate rest. In general. relaxation techniques. It was introduced into the theory of elasticity by Cauchy around 1822. and relaxing hobbies.STRESS IN MECHANICAL TERMS : Stress (physics) Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. healthy diet. also called engineering or nominal stress. Chronic stress is potentially damaging. in those individuals with lower levels of magnesium or those who have a magnesium . is the average stress. stress management. Chronic Stress Chronic stress is stress that lasts a long time or occurs frequently. Ensuring a healthy diet containing magnesium may help control or eliminate stress. There are a number of methods to control chronic stress. and • is the force acting over the area . Stress is a concept that is based on the concept of continuum. stress is expressed as Where. as a reaction to external applied forces and body forces. It is a measure of the intensity of the total internal forces acting within a body across imaginary internal surfaces.

Loading a structural element or a specimen will increase the compressive stress until the reach of compressive strength. etc).such as columns or truss bars -.deficiency. However in geotechnical engineering. failure will occur as yield for materials with ductile behavior (most metals. When a material is subjected to compressive stress.an increase of compressive force F leads to structural failure due to buckling at lower stress than the compressive strength. . compressive stress is represented with positive values. slender structural elements -. It has been discovered that there is a huge upsurge in the number of people who suffer from this condition. compressive stress applied to bars. columns. the authors found that stress plays a role in triggering or worsening depression and cardiovascular disease and in speeding the progression of HIV/AIDS. Compressive stress: Compressive stress is the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction (decrease of volume). usually with negative values to indicate the compaction. short- term resistance as a coping mechanism. Usually. etc. STRESS IN BIOLOGICAL TERMS: Stress is a biological term which refers to the consequences of the failure of a human or animal body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism. which can be a factor in continued chronic stress. Common stress symptoms include irritability. and exhaustion. and a whole host of other negative medical conditions caused by a magnesium deficiency. In long. In a review of the scientific literature on the relationship between stress and disease. some soils and plastics) or as rupture for brittle behavior (geometries. According to the properties of the material. cast iron. then this material is under compression. It refers to the inability of a human or animal body to respond. A very large number of these new cases suffer from insomnia. glass. leads to shortening. whether actual or imagined. It includes a state of alarm and adrenaline production. Chronic stress can also lead to a magnesium deficiency. Compressive stress has stress units (force per unit area).

stress is everywhere and definitely unavoidable. hyper stress and hypo stress. resulting in a higher heart rate. whilst positive stress can be very helpful for us.muscular tension. Athletes before a competition or perhaps a manager before a major presentation would do well with Eustress. and "stressor" to the perceived threat. a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without being explicitly confessional. This will help us to learn to cope with negative stress. GOOD STRESS V/S BAD STRESS: Stress has often been misunderstood to be negative. and what is bad. allowing them to derive the inspiration and strength that is needed. can be an adaptive response prompting the activation of internal resources to meet challenges and achieve goals. Eustress. with few people acknowledging the importance and usefulness of positive stress. The term "stress" was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals. which prepares your mind and body for the imminent challenges that it has perceived. "stress" refers to the reaction of the organism. He later broadened and popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. Negative stress can cause many physical and psychological problems. such as headaches and accelerated heart rate. In popular usage almost any event or situation between these extremes could be described as stressful. Eustress is a natural physical reaction by your body which increases blood flow to your muscles. namely eustress. hence our emphasis should be on differentiating between what is good stress. In Selye's terminology. distress. The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or biological sense. . just "stressed out". It covers a huge range of phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severe problems that might result in a real breakdown of health. for example. In our everyday lives. Stress in certain circumstances may be experienced positively. Here’s how we differentiate between them. as a catch-all for any perceived difficulties in life. There are 4 main categories of stress. It also became a euphemism. inability to concentrate and a variety of physical reactions. EUSTRESS This is a positive form of stress. and harness the power of positive stress to help us achieve more.

On the other hand. Companies should avoid having workers who experience hypo stress as this will cause productivity and mindfulness to fall. which require longer working hours than the individual can handle. It is important for you to recognize that your body needs a break. This is due to an insufficient amount of stress. or you may end up with severe and chronic physical and psychological reactions. They can be categorized into acute stress and chronic stress. If the job scope is boring and repetitive. If you suspect that you are suffering from hyper stress. Examples include highly stressful jobs. and usually occurs when there are deviations from the norm. and know that it is a negative form of stress. but does not last for long. hypo stress occurs when a person has nothing to do with his time and feels constantly bored and unmotivated. HYPO STRESS Lastly. chronic stress persists over a long period of time. Acute stress is intense. This occurs when the mind and body is unable to cope with changes. the proverbial straws that broke the camel’s back. HYPER STRESS This is another form of negative stress that occurs when the individual is unable to cope with the workload. At that time . hence some stress is inevitable and helpful to us. INDUSTRY PROFILE HISTORY OF BANKING Modern Western economic and financial history is usually traced back to the coffee houses of London. it would be a good idea to implement some form of job rotation so that there is always something new to learn. Trigger events for distress can be a change in job scope or routine that the person is unable to handle or cope with. you are likely to have sudden emotional breakdowns over insignificant issues. The London Royal Exchange was established in 1565.DISTRESS We are familiar with this word.

and in the late 17th century. 9.First joint-stock company. wiping out a third of the money supply in the United States.moneychangers were already called bankers. London. After the siege of Antwerp trade moved to Amsterdam. the Dutch East India Company founded. In 1609 the Amsterdamsche Wisselbank (Amsterdam Exchange Bank) was founded which made Amsterdam the financial centre of the world until the Industrial Revolution. • 1720 .The South Sea Bubble and John Law's Mississippi Scheme. Individuals could participate in the lucrative East India trade by purchasing bills of credit from these banks. and at the bottom were the pawn shops or "Lombard"'s. • 1930-33 In the wake of the Wall Street Crash of 1929. and also because of the many wars that led to cargo seizures and loss of ships. .Washington Mutual collapses. Some European cities today have a Lombard street where the pawn shop was located. though the term "bank" usually referred to their offices. • 2008 . Banking offices were usually located near centers of trade.The "Big Bang" (deregulation of London financial markets) served as a catalyst to reaffirm London's position as a global centre of world banking.000 banks close. but the price they received for commodities was dependent on the ships returning (which often didn't happen on time) and on the cargo they carried (which often wasn't according to plan). • 1986 . • 1781 . MAJOR EVENTS IN BANKING HISTORY • 1602 . which caused a European financial crisis and forced many bankers out of business. There was also a hierarchical order among professionals. and did not carry the meaning it does today. the largest centers for commerce were the ports of Amsterdam. The commodities market was very volatile for this reason.The Bank of North America was found by the Continental Congress. and Hamburg. It was the largest bank failure in history. at the top were the bankers who did business with heads of state. next were the city exchanges.

Reserve Bank of India was vested with extensive powers for the supervision of banking in india as the Central Banking Authority. Bank of India. To streamline the functioning and activities of commercial banks. 1949 which was later changed to Banking Regulation Act 1949 as per amending Act of 1965 (Act No. There were approximately 1100 banks. Bank of Bombay (1840) and Bank of Madras (1843) as independent units and called it Presidency Banks. the Government of India came up with The Banking Companies Act. Punjab National Bank Ltd. From 1786 till today. As an aftermath deposit mobilisation was slow. During those days public has lesser confidence in the banks.HISTORY OF BANKING IN INDIA The first bank in India. 23 of 1965). funds were largely given to tra HYPERLINK . Moreover. though conservative. Central Bank of India. Between 1906 and 1913. Reserve Bank of India came in 1935. Indian Bank. Bank of Baroda. Canara Bank. Phase I The General Bank of India was set up in the year 1786. Abreast of it the savings bank facility provided by the Postal department was comparatively safer. During the first phase the growth was very slow and banks also experienced periodic failures between 1913 and 1948. These three banks were amalgamated in 1920 and Imperial Bank of India was established which started as private shareholders banks. and Bank of Mysore were set up. • New phase of Indian Banking System with the advent of Indian Financial & Banking Sector Reforms after 1991. The East India Company established Bank of Bengal (1809). They are as mentioned below: • Early phase from 1786 to 1969 of Indian Banks • Nationalisation of Indian Banks and up to 1991 prior to Indian banking sector Reforms. In 1865 Allahabad Bank was established and first time exclusively by Indians. mostly Europeans shareholders. mostly small. Next came Bank of Hindustan and Bengal Bank. the journey of Indian Banking System can be segregated into three distinct phases. was established in 1786. was set up in 1894 with headquarters at Lahore.

• 1975 : Creation of regional rural banks. • 1959 : Nationalisation of SBI subsidiaries. • 1969 : Nationalisation of 14 major banks. 1969. it nationalised Imperial Bank of India with extensive banking facilities on a large scale specially in rural and semi-urban areas. Phase II Government took major steps in this Indian Banking Sector Reform after independence. • 1955 : Nationalisation of State Bank of India. • 1961 : Insurance cover extended to deposits. the branches of the public sector bank India rose to approximately 800% in deposits and advances took a huge jump by 11.indiamart. This step brought 80% of the banking segment in India under Government ownership. The following are the steps taken by the Government of India to Regulate Banking Institutions in the Country: • 1949 : Enactment of Banking Regulation Act. Mrs. It was the effort of the then Prime Minister of India. In 1955.html"ders.000%."http://finance. Banking in the sunshine of Government ownership gave the public implicit faith and . 14 major commercial banks in the country was nationalised. Indira Gandhi. Seven banks forming subsidiary of State Bank of India was nationalised in 1960 on 19th July. After the nationalisation of banks. It formed State Bank of india to act as the principal agent of RBI and to handle banking transactions of the Union and State Governments all over the country. • 1980 : Nationalisation of seven banks with deposits over 200 crore.com/investment_in_india/banking_in_india. major process of nationalisation was carried out. • 1971 : Creation of credit guarantee corporation. Second phase of nationalisation Indian Banking Sector Reform was carried out in 1980 with seven more banks.

Time is given more importance than money. The financial system of India has shown a great deal of resilience. Phase III This phase has introduced many more products and facilities in the banking sector in its reforms measure. the capital account is not yet fully convertible. Efforts are being put to give a satisfactory service to customers. This is all due to a flexible exchange rate regime. It is sheltered from any crisis triggered by any external macroeconomics shock as other East Asian Countries suffered. The country is flooded with foreign banks and their ATM stations. and banks and their customers have limited foreign exchange exposure. under the chairmanship of M Narasimham. The entire system became more convenient and swift. a committee was set up by his name which worked for the liberalisation of banking practices.immense confidence about the sustainability of these institutions. Phone banking and net banking is introduced. In 1991. the foreign reserves are high. .

This study will help organizations know what causes stress and how to reduce the same in employees since it is a well known fact that a healthy and sound employee is a productive employee. Secondary objective: • To identify the factors causing stress among the employees. SCOPE & SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The world today is fast changing and every individual faces a lot of pressure and demand at work.Recession. These pressures at work lead to mental and physical disorders. Stress refers to an individual’s response to a disturbing factor in the environment and the consequences of such a reaction. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Primary objective: • To undergo an in-depth study about the existence of stress among the employees of the BANKING INDUSTRY Post . • To identify the coping strategies to manage stress. • To study about the effects of stress on employees in BANKING INDUSTRY. • To find out the level of stress among the employees of different age groups. .

• The responses of the employees cannot be accurate as the problem of language and understanding arises. REVIEW OF LITERATURE . it cannot be denied that there are certain limitations. vigilance and scrupulousness taken by the investigator to make the study objective. So the scope of sample findings was less. • The questionnaires were filled be 30 employees working in various bank. • The questionnaire was filled by 30 employees of different designations. investigator could not select a sufficiently large sample for the study. (These problems are not in all cases. So the point of view of employees differs as per their designations. • The employees from whom the questionnaires are filled are in a heavy workload so some of the questionnaires filled by the employees who are in stress cannot be called reasonable.) • As the study was done within a limited time. • The employees were reluctant to give correct information. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY In spite of the precautions.

A review on the previous studies on stress among the employees is necessary to
know the areas already covered. This will help to find our new areas uncovered and to
study them in depth. The earlier studies made on stress among the employees are briefly
reviewed here.

The research study of Jamal. M* finds that job stressors were significantly related
to employees’ psychosomatic problems, job satisfaction, unproductive time at the job,
and absenteeism. Type A behaviour was found to be an important moderator of the stress
outcome relationship.

Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. His view in 1956
was that “stress is not necessarily something bad – it all depends on how you take it. The
stress of exhilarating, creative successful work is beneficial, while that of failure,
humiliation or infection is detrimental.” Selye believed that the biochemical effects of
stress would be experienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive or
negative.

The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly attributed to Richard S
Lazarus) is that stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives
that “demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to
mobilize.” In short, it's what we feel when we think we've lost control of events.
Brief. A. P. and J. M. Atieh*, argues that it is not safe to assume that job
conditions that have an adverse impact on affective reactions to the job will also have a
negative impact on overall subjective well-being.

Fienmann views stress as a psychological response state of negative effect
characterized by a persistent and a high level of experienced anxiety or tension.

* Jamal M. “Job stress-prone Type A behaviour, personal and organizational
consequences”, Canadian Journal Administration Sciences, 1985. pp 360-74.

* A. P and J. M. Atieh, “Studying job stress: Are we making mountains out of molehills?”
Journal of occupational behavior, 1987 pp115-26.

Hans Seyle, the endocrinologist, whose research on General Adaptation

Syndrome (GAS), for the first time, revealed how human beings adapt themselves to
emotional strives and strains in their lives. According to him emotional stress occurs in
three important stages. 1. Alarm reaction stage 2. Resistance stage 3. Exhaustion stage.

Alarm reaction is caused by physical or psychological stressors. Resistances are
brought about by ACTH hormone of the body. Exhaustion follows when ACTH dwindles
as a result of continual stress. (ACTH-Aprinocorticotropic)

According to Stephen .P. Robbins*, stress related headaches are the leading cause
of loss of work time in U. S. industry.

Cooper and Marshall* visualize stress as characteristics of both the focal
individual and his environment. They designate the internal and external consultive
forces as ‘pressures’ or ‘stressors’ and the resulting stalk of the organism on stress.

Recent research into the interaction between the mind and body show that we may
place our body on stress ‘alert’ quite unconsciously, because of our psychological and
emotional attitudes to stress. Anticipatory emotions like impatience, anxiety, and anger
can produce the same nerve impulses and chemical reactions as being faced with a
concrete challenge. So when faced with a stressful situation, we must either use up the
energy created by the body to challenge or learn how to “turn off”, the response using a
conscious relaxation technique.

*Stephen Robbins, “Organizational Behavior”, Prentice Hall, U.K, 1989 pp 499-501.
*Cooper. C. L. and Marshall. J, “Understanding Executive Stress”, The McMillan Press
Ltd, 1978 p 4.

WHAT IS STRESS?

Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity,
demand or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is
perceived to be both uncertain and important. This is a complicated definition.

Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. Although stress is typically discussed in a
negative context, it also has a positive value. It’s an opportunity when it offers potential
gain. Consider for example, the superior performance that an athlete or stage performer
gives in “clutch” situations. Such individuals often use stress positively to rise to the
occasion and perform at or near their maximum. Similarly, many professionals see the
pressures of heavy workloads and deadlines as positive challenges that enhance the
quality of their work and the satisfaction the get from their job.

But it is different in the case of bank employees. The bank employees are the people who
also have to achieve the certain target and so for the non achievement of target the
employees remain stressed and tensed. The employees who have the simple table work
also have to face the problem of stress. Due to recession the banking sector is also facing
the problem of employee cut-offs and so the work load of the existing employees
increases and the feel stressed.

Stress refers to the strain from the conflict between our external environment and us,
leading to emotional and physical pressure. In our fast paced world, it is impossible to
live without stress, whether you are a student or a working adult. There is both positive
and negative stress, depending on each individual’s unique perception of the tension
between the two forces. Not all stress is bad. For example, positive stress, also known as
eustress, can help an individual to function at optimal effectiveness and efficiency.

Hence, it is evident that some form of positive stress can add more color and vibrancy to
our lives. The presence of a deadline, for example, can push us to make the most of our
time and produce greater efficiency. It is important to keep this in mind, as stress
management refers to using stress to our advantage, and not on eradicating the presence
of stress in our lives.

On the other hand, negative stress can result in mental and physical strain. The individual
will experience symptoms such as tensions, headaches, irritability and in extreme cases,
heart palpitations. Hence, whilst some stress may be seen as a motivating force, it is
important to manage stress levels so that it does not have an adverse impact on your
health and relationships.

Performance stressors are triggered when an individual is placed in a situation where he feels a need to excel. and even more varied methods and techniques of dealing with stress and turning it to our advantages. the individuals may suffer from performance rigidity as a result of their reduced search . headaches and an inability to focus. Friedman and Mann suggest that when under conditions of stress. and make decisions based on oversimplifying assumptions. as well as how to identify if you are performing at your optimal stress level (OSL) or if you are experiencing negative stress.Part of managing your stress levels include learning about how stress can affect you emotionally and physically. individuals may fail to consider the full range of alternatives available. This knowledge will help you to identify when you need to take a break. Physical symptoms take the form of heart palpitations. Furthermore. such as an economic downturn. to name a few. Peripheral stimuli are likely to be the first to be screened out or ignored. Threat stressors are usually when the current situation poses a dangerous threat. or a prized possession. What causes stress? There are many different causes of stress. we must learn to tell when we have crossed the line from positive to negative stress. or giving a speech. In order to do so. Competition at work and an increased workload can also cause greater levels of stress. ignore long-term consequences. Thus. How do you identify if you are suffering from excessive stress? Psychological symptoms commonly experienced include insomnia. Common lifestyle stressors include performance. AND COGNITION Stress can affect an individual’s decision making process and ability to make effective judgments. excessive sweating and stomachaches. For example. PERCEPTION. individuals experience “perceptual narrowing” — meaning that they pay attention to fewer perceptual cues or stimuli that could contribute to their behaviour or decision. threat. It is also your first step towards developing techniques to managing your stress levels. and bereavement stressors. This could be during performance appraisals. there are various stressors. breathlessness. bereavement stressors occur when there is a sense of loss such as the death of a loved one. Lastly. Decision making models proposed by Janis and Mann support this hypothesis and suggest that under stress. lunch with the boss. or emotional frictions. STRESS AND DECISIONMAKING. Modern day stresses can take the form of monetary needs. individuals may make decisions based on incomplete information. Easterbrook proposes a “cue utilization model” and argues that when exposed to stressors. or perhaps seek professional help. and that which causes stress is also known as a stressor. or from an accident.

g. today. "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some of the body's important built-in response systems. The knotted nerves. Stress can be looked at as a form of “task overload” (e. Unfortunately. can induce risky body-mind disorders. either quick or constant. In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors. Larsen finds that. Stress can also contribute to performance decrements by slowing cognition and individual information processing. are fairly manageable and treatable. tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness. Moreover. Some hormones released during the 'fight or flight' situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats. Immediate disorders such as dizzy spells. As a relaxation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis. Sleep-deprived (stressed) individuals in his study were more likely to obey orders without thinking and to ignore cues that implied the presence of something unusual. sleeplessness. be it our anxiety. We find that individuals under time pressure tend to focus their attention only on a few salient cues. Observe the decision making processes of individuals under time pressure. They may also affect our immune.behaviour and reliance on fewer perceptual cues to make decisions. like other types of stressors. life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. Research on decision making under stress supports these theoretical models. we don't get relaxing and soothing situations without . STRESS MANAGEMENT Stress management is the need of the hour. if not escapable. and restore the energy level. Stress. sleep deprivation can reduce an individual’s ability to reason. tension. and to make effective decisions. However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation. which are inter-linked with stress. mind-body exhaustion or our erring attitudes. Like "stress reactions". asking an individual to perform more than one task under a time constraint) and it is seen that the addition of multiple required tasks reduces the quality of individual performance and increases the magnitude of the performance decrement as compared with the case in which the individual has only one task to perform. to analyze complex situations. we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those.. cardiovascular and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions. nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health problems. anxiety attacks.

tight muscles or various body aches that something is wrong. even if we are under the influence of a stressful condition and our body reacts to it internally as well as externally. when we encounter them voluntarily. including extreme heat or lighting. Although stressors can be • physical (biological or chemical demands on the body) or • cognitive (threat of death. RECOGNIZING A STRESSOR It is important to recognize whether you are under stress or out of it. stressors can come in a variety of forms.asking. But. resources. they are always external and produce similar physiological responses within the body. These physiological effects. dilated pupils and increased heart rate. It is important to remain attentive to such symptoms and to learn to cope with the situations. dizzy spells. WORKPLACE STRESS Workplace stress is the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities. we fail to realize that we are reacting under stress. Many times. we tend to respond positively under stress. or needs of the . stress may mount when one is coerced into undertaking some work against one's will. We cope better with stressful situation. DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRESSORS As mentioned previously. To be relaxed we have to strive to create such situations. lack of sleep. we wilt at the face of unknown and imagined threats. more often than not. when we are compelled into such situations against our will or knowledge. The body constantly tries to tell us through symptoms such as rapid palpitation. can include increased blood pressure. The description of stressors and their impact on behaviour is an open-ended task. This also happens when the causes of stress are there long enough for us to get habituated to them. In cases of relocation. For instance. risk of injury or death. adventurous sports or having a baby. personal assault) in form. and current research considers an increasing number of events and conditions to be stressors. promotion or layoff. defined as a stress response. or time pressure.

concentration and memory problems). Health and Healthcare Utilization Problems at work are more strongly associated with health complaints than are any other life stressor-more so than even financial problems or family problems. tension. Workers who report experiencing stress at work also show excessive health care utilization. Many studies suggest that psychologically demanding jobs that allow employees little control over the work process increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. anxiety. High levels of stress are associated with substantial increases in health service utilization. maladaptive behaviors (e. Job stress is also associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately to compromised health.g. differences in individual . One-quarter of employees view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives.g. About one-third of workers report high levels of stress. Stress is a prevalent and costly problem in today's workplace. Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions. an increase of more than $1. it is widely believed that job stress increases the risk for development of back and upper- extremity musculoskeletal disorders. In a 1998 study of 46. etc. fatigue.).000 workers. Additionally.700 per person annually. dissatisfaction. depression. Evidence also suggests that stress is the major cause of turnover in organizations. Three-quarters of employees believe the worker has more on-the- job stress than a generation ago. On the basis of research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and many other organizations. these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury.. periods of disability due to job stress tend to be much longer than disability periods for other occupational injuries and illnesses. post-traumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e.g.worker. and cognitive impairment (e. substance abuse). including psychological disorders (e.. The differing viewpoints suggest different ways to prevent stress at work. Views differ on the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of job stress.. health care costs were nearly 50% greater for workers reporting high levels of stress in comparison to “low risk” workers. for workers reporting high levels of both stress and depression. such as cardiovascular disease. aggression.g. CAUSES OF WORKPLACE STRESS Job stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. In turn.. According to one school of thought. The increment rose to nearly 150%.

According to the Department of Labor. including conditions recognized as risk factors for job stress. PREVENTION A combination of organizational change and stress management is often the most useful . particularly couples with young children. Although the importance of individual differences cannot be ignored. and disturbed relationships with family. and for job redesign as a primary prevention strategy. Similarly. friends and girlfriends or boyfriends are examples of stress-related problems. A substantial percentage of Americans work very long hours. the percentage of workers reporting that they worked at high speeds at least one- fourth of their working time was 48%. SIGNS OF WORKPLACE STRESS Mood and sleep disturbances. However. Personal interview surveys of working conditions. In 1990. Results showed a trend across these periods suggestive of increasing work intensity. and 2000. what is stressful for one person may not be a problem for someone else. Such evidence argues for a greater emphasis on working conditions as the key source of job stress. 50% of workers reported they work against tight deadlines at least one-fourth of their working time in 1990. there has been an upward trend in hours worked among employed women. an increase in extended work weeks (>40 hours) by men. more than 26% of men and more than 11% of women worked 50 hours per week or more in 2000. upset stomach and headache. evidence is rapidly accumulating to suggest that stress plays an important role in several types of chronic health problems-especially cardiovascular disease. musculoskeletal disorders. were conducted in Member States of the European Union in 1990. 1995. and a considerable increase in combined working hours among working couples. increasing to 56% in 1995 and 60 % in 2000. increasing to 54% in 1995 and to 56% in 2000. The effects of job stress on chronic diseases are more difficult to see because chronic diseases take a long time to develop and can be influenced by many factors other than stress. Nonetheless. and psychological disorders.characteristics such as personality and coping skills are most important in predicting whether certain job conditions will result in stress-in other words. These figures represent a considerable increase over the previous three decades. This viewpoint leads to prevention strategies that focus on workers and ways to help them cope with demanding job conditions. By one estimate. especially for women. scientific evidence suggests that certain working conditions are stressful to most people. no change was noted in the period 1995–2000 (data not collected in 1990) in the percentage of workers reporting sufficient time to complete tasks.

leading to greater job insecurity on the part of those who remain. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company conducted several studies on the effects of stress prevention programs in hospital settings. In contrast. Program activities included (1) employee and management education on job stress.g. the stresses faced at work have also increased. • Improve communications-reduce uncertainty about career development and future employment prospects. stimulation. (e.approach for preventing stress at work. • Clearly define workers' roles and responsibilities. the frequency of medication errors declined by 50% after prevention activities was implemented in a 700-bed hospital. and (3) establishment of employee assistance programs. In a second study. • Provide opportunities for social interaction among workers. • Design jobs to provide meaning. COPING WITH STRESS AT WORK PLACE With the rapid advancement of technology. there was a 70% reduction in malpractice claims in 22 hospitals that implemented stress prevention activities. • Discrimination inside the workplace. there was no reduction in claims in a matched group of 22 hospitals that did not implement stress prevention activities. • Give workers opportunities to participate in decisions and actions affecting their jobs. Undoubtedly. hence the term “Monday Blues”. nationality and language ) St. . • Establish work schedules that are compatible with demands and responsibilities outside the job. In one study. (2) changes in hospital policies and procedures to reduce organizational sources of stress. How to Change the Organization to Prevent Job Stress • Ensure that the workload is in line with workers' capabilities and resources. occupational stress is one of the most commonly cited stressors faced by people all over the world. Many people dread going to work. What is the reason for this? There is partly the fear from being retrenched in bad times. and opportunities for workers to use their skills.

Step 2: Identify the Cause You need to be able to analyze the situation and identify what is causing the rise in stress. and use it to help you work better. These stressors can be external and internal. Whilst it . However. Keep a diary or a list of events that have caused you to feel strong negative emotions. Some companies organize parties and make their employees feel valued at work. such as excessive sweating or heart palpitations. External stressors refer to things beyond your control. If left unacknowledged. too much stress can result in negative impacts such as reduced effectiveness and efficiency. If you experience any of these reactions. it is up to you to make sure that you can cope with stress at your workplace. Internal stressors refer to your own thinking and attitude. Often. This will help you to identify the causes of your stress. the problem will only snowball. such as the environment or your colleagues at work. leading to disastrous consequences to your health and overall wellbeing. or the onset of headaches. You can identify if you are feeling stressed by checking if you have any physical or psychological reactions. This is important. we only start reacting to stress when a combination of stressors working together exceeds our ability to cope. Here are 3 simple steps to help you with coping with stress in the workplace. as being able to identify signs of being stressed can help you to take steps to ensure that your overall quality of life does not drop. Hence. identify if you are feeling any overwhelming negative emotions. More and more people are feeling isolated and disrespected at work. not all companies have such measures in place. and if you are constantly worried. Step 1: Raising Awareness Help yourself to identify when you are facing rising levels of stress. These are measures to motivate employees and help them to feel secure at their jobs. Whilst some stress is good for motivation and increasing efficiency. or that are likely stressors. and this has led to greater occupational stress. and some have not gotten it quite right.Stress refers to the pressure and reactions to our environment which results in psychological and physical reactions. irritability or the need to escape. translating into greater productivity. tipping the scales from positive to negative. Many companies have taken to consulting experts and professionals on ways to increase connectedness and motivation of their employees.

If it is an internal stressor. remove yourself from it. and work unreasonably long hours to stay on top of our workload. The risks here are that we become exhausted. you need to fully understand what is expected of you. Alternatively.is not always possible to eradicate them. These are not instantaneous solutions. such as taking time off. This helps you get the greatest return from the work you do. we can change the way that we cope with it. stop your thought process until you are able to deal with it logically. Job Analysis is the first step in doing this. it is oftentimes something that is easy to overlook. by focusing on the things that are important for job success and reducing the time we spend on low priority tasks. This can be through different methods. By understanding the priorities in your job. We can choose to ignore this. and you need to condition your mind and practice them so that you can implement it when you are feeling stressed. you need to calm your mind and body so as to stave off the reactions and cope with it in a positive way. you can try implementing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing. and keep your workload under control. Job Analysis is a key technique for managing job overload – an important source of stress. in the hurly-burly of a new. you can focus on these activities and minimize work on other tasks as much as possible. Go outside and take a walk to calm down. and what constitutes success within it. Job analysis: We have all experienced that appalling sense of having far too much work to do and too little time to do it in. While this may seem obvious. The first of the action-oriented skills that we look at is Job Analysis. fast-moving. . If a situation is triggering your stress and you are unable to calm down. Step 3: Coping with Stress In order to deal with the situation that is causing you stress. Each of these can lead to intense stress. To do an excellent job. REDUCING STRESS 1. The key to making these 3 steps work for you is to practice them. The alternative is to work more intelligently. high-pressure role. that we have so much to do that we do a poor quality job and that we neglect other areas of our life.

Unfortunately. Rational & positive thinking: You are thinking negatively when you fear the future. Since we barely realize that they were there. Then let them go. you should be able to see the most common and the most damaging thoughts. with their significance having barely been noticed. Negative thinking damages confidence. • Worry about how the audience (especially important people in it like your boss) or the press may react to you. just let them run their course while you watch them. criticize yourself for errors. Do not suppress any thoughts. negative thoughts tend to flit into our consciousness. Instead. Here are some typical negative thoughts you might experience when preparing to give a major presentation: • Fear about the quality of your performance or of problems that may interfere with it. do their damage and flit back out again. and write them down on our free worksheet as they occur. we do not challenge them properly. which means that they can be completely incorrect and wrong. Tackle these as a priority using the techniques below. or expect failure. harms performance and paralyzes mental skills. Thought Awareness is the process by which you observe your thoughts and become aware of what is going through your head. One approach to it is to observe your "stream of consciousness" as you think about the thing you're trying to achieve which is stressful. It helps you to cut through clutter and distraction to get to the heart of what you need to do.Job Analysis is a useful technique for getting a firm grip on what really is important in your job so that you are able to perform excellently. or . 2. When you analyze your diary at the end of the period. doubt your abilities. put yourself down. • Dwelling on the negative consequences of a poor performance. Another more general approach to Thought Awareness comes with logging stress in your Stress Diary.

you should be able to see quickly whether the thoughts are wrong or whether they have some substance to them. the following challenges could be made to the negative thoughts we identified earlier: • Feelings of inadequacy: Have you trained yourself as well as you reasonably should have? Do you have the experience and resources you need to make the presentation? Have you planned. the best thing to do is ignore their comments and rise above them. However. • Self-criticism over a less-than-perfect rehearsal. take appropriate action. as you cannot manage thoughts that you are unaware of. and you do the best you can. then you should be satisfied. and have you taken steps to reduce the likelihood of them happening or their impact if they do? What will you do if they occur? And what do you need others to do for you? • Worry about other people's reactions: If you have prepared well. Where there is some substance. If people are not fair. What evidence is there for and against the thought? Would your colleagues and mentors agree or disagree with it? Looking at the examples. then fair people are likely to respond well. Ask yourself whether the thought is reasonable. you've done as much as you can to give a good performance. make sure that your negative thoughts are genuinely important to achieving your goals. If you perform as well as you reasonably can. Thought awareness is the first step in the process of managing negative thoughts. then remind yourself that the purpose of the practice is to identify areas for improvement. Rational Thinking The next step in dealing with negative thinking is to challenge the negative thoughts that you identified using the Thought Awareness technique. • Worries about performance during rehearsal: If some of your practice was less than perfect. . • Problems with issues outside your control: Have you identified the risks of these things happening. Look at every thought you wrote down and challenge it rationally. so that these can be sorted out before the performance. • When you challenge negative thoughts rationally. prepared and rehearsed enough? If you have done all of these.

positive thoughts and affirmations to counter any remaining negativity. I am very well placed to react flexibly to events. By basing your affirmations on the clear. you should already be feeling more positive. LAUGHTER During stress. This has put me in a position where I can deliver a great performance. I am going to perform well and enjoy the event. which are converted to cortical in the blood stream." Make sure that identifying these opportunities and focusing on them is part of your positive thinking. positive affirmations might be: • Problems during practice: "I have learned from my rehearsals. It can also be useful to look at the situation and see if there are any useful opportunities that are offered by it. Positive Thinking & Opportunity Seeking By now. I will rise above any unfair criticism in a mature and professional way." • Worries about performance: "I have prepared well and rehearsed thoroughly. and don't just reflect a lack of experience. These have an immunosuppressive effect. which everyone has to go through at some stage. Dr. you can use them to undo the damage that negative thinking may have done to your self-confidence. rational assessments of facts that you made using Rational Thinking." • Worry about other people's reaction: "Fair people will react well to a good performance. Continuing the examples above. Lee Berk and fellow . 3. I am well positioned to give an excellent performance. the adrenal gland releases corticosteroids." • Problems issues outside your control: "I have thought through everything that might reasonably happen and have planned how I can handle all likely contingencies. The final step is to prepare rational.

disease-fighting proteins called Gamma-interferon and disease-destroying antibodies called B-cells. • Laughter cleanses the lungs and body tissues of accumulated stale air as it empties more air than it takes in. relaxation and fluent blood circulation in body. • Laughter triggers the release of endorphins—body's natural painkillers.researcher Dr. • Produces a general sense of well-being. cortical. Laughter also increases the number of T cells that have suppresser receptors. It is beneficial for patients suffering from emphysema and other respiratory ailments. Research . • It increases muscle flexion. associated with stress response). and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. •It provides good cardiac conditioning especially for those who are unable to perform physical exercise. and growth hormone. • Boosts immune function by raising levels of infection-fighting T-cells. •Reduces stress hormones (studies shows. laughter induces reduction of at least four of neuroendocrine hormones—epinephrine. Stanley Tan at Loma Linda University School of Medicine have produced carefully controlled studies showing that the experience of laughter lowers serum cortical levels. The primary purpose for applied research is discovering. dopac. What Laughter Can Do Against Stress And Its Effects? •Laughter lowers blood pressure and reduces hypertension. interpreting. increases the amount and activity of T lymphocytes—the natural killer cells. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter.

RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. In this approach. analysis and interpretations. This approach enables a researcher to explore new areas of investigation. sampling methods. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. and happen to be original in character through field survey. survey. DATA SOURCES There are two types of data collection namely primary data collection and secondary data collection. • Findings are made and necessary suggestions and recommendations are given. a problem is described by the researcher by using questionnaire or schedule. The research methodology in the present study deals with research design. Here the data . data collection methods. which is collected for the first time and fresh in nature. • Data is collected from the employees in the BANKING INDUSTRY. SECONDARY DATA The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and have been passed through statistical process. DATA COLLECTION METHOD The data collection method used in this research is questionnaire method. PRIMARY DATA The primary data is defined as the data.can use the scientific method. but need not do so. • A well structured questionnaire is framed. APPROACHES TO RESEARCH Descriptive approach is one of the most popular approaches these days.

In non probability sampling. These include convenience sampling. location. The advantage of probability sampling is that sampling error can be calculated. When inferring to the population. each member of the population has a known non-zero probability of being selected. SAMPLE SIZE The sample size chosen for this study is 30 as instructed by the department since it is a MINI RESEARCH PROJECT. and stratified sampling. members are selected from the population in some nonrandom manner. Sampling error is the degree to which a sample might differ from the population. RESEARCH TOOL A structured questionnaire has been prepared to get the relevant information from the respondents. Convenience sampling . systematic sampling. In non probability sampling. Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide practice.) of an observable entity enumerated to distinguish objects or individuals. SAMPLE UNIT The employees of the BANKING INDUSTRY are the sample unit in the survey. the sampling methods used are Random sampling. In this research. results are reported plus or minus the sampling error. In probability samples. The questionnaire consists of a variety of questions presented to the respondents for their despondence. Probability methods include random sampling. judgment sampling. SAMPLING METHOD Sampling methods are classified as either probability or non probability. SAMPLING Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern. especially for the purposes of statistical inference. Each observation measures one or more properties (weight. Survey weights often need to be applied to the data to adjust for the sample design. etc.are systematically recorded from the respondents. quota sampling. the degree to which the sample differs from the population remains unknown. and snowball sampling.

Percentages are used in making comparison between two or more series of data. While this technique can dramatically lower search costs. Percentage is used to describe relative terms the distribution of two or more series of data.and Snowball sampling • Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. • Judgment sampling is a common non-probability method. It may be extremely difficult or cost prohibitive to locate respondents in these situations. of Respondents . When using this method. even though the population includes all cities. so the pool of available subjects becomes biased. a researcher may decide to draw the entire sample from one "representative" city. For example. • Snowball sampling is a special non-probability method used when the desired sample characteristic is rare. it comes at the expense of introducing bias because the technique itself reduces the likelihood that the sample will represent a good cross section from the population. Snowball sampling relies on referrals from initial subjects to generate additional subjects. STATISTICAL METHODS USED • Percentage analysis • Pie diagrams PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS: Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio. No. The researcher selects the sample based on judgment. Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected. When there are very large populations. it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population. This is usually an extension of convenience sampling. the researcher must be confident that the chosen sample is truly representative of the entire population.

X 100 Total Respondents .Percentage of Respondents = -----------------------.

AGE PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS TABLE 1 AGE . DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE 1.

GENDER PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS TABLE 2 GENDER Frequency Percent Valid MALE 15 50.0 Total 30 100. 3.0 INFERENCE: Maximum respondents were in the age group of 30 – 35. Frequency Percent Valid 25 – 30 6 20.0 FEMALE 15 50.7 > 10 YEARS 4 13.0 5 .3 . 2.0 INFERENCE: There are equal number of male & female respondents.WORK EXPERIENCE OF RESPONDENTS TABLE 3 EXPERIENCE Frequency Percent Valid < 5 YEARS 9 30.7 35 – 40 10 33.0 30 – 35 14 46.10 YEARS 17 56.3 Total 30 100.

0 INFERENCE: More than 50% of the respondents had a work experience of about 5 – 10 years.3 OFTEN 5 16.7 .1 RESPONDENTS WITH DIFFICULTY IN SLEEPING Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT AL 8 26.0 INFERENCE: 70% of the respondents are PG qualified with an MBA or equivalent degree.0 PG 9 30. Total 30 100. Do you suffer with difficulty in sleeping? TABLE 1. Q1.7 SOMETIMES 7 23.0 Total 30 100. 4.7 RARELY 8 26.7 VERY OFTEN 2 6.EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS TABLE 4 QUALIFICATION Frequency Percent Valid UG 21 70.

2 RESPONDENTS WITH DIFFICULTY IN CONCENTRATING Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT ALL 5 16. it can be said that mostly the employees have no trouble in concentrating at work.3% sometimes and only a small group of 13. it is understood that 26.7% of the employees have absolutely no difficulty in concentrating.3 RESPONDANTS WITH FINANCIAL PROBLEMS . Q2.7% of them rarely have a problem .3% find it difficult to concentrate at work.23.7% of the employees rarely have any trouble in sleeping . Do you find it difficult to concentrate? TABLE1. Total 30 100.3 OFTEN 4 13.7% face the problem very often and 6.33.16.36. Q3. Therefore.0 INFERENCE: It is clear that 16. it is observed that for most parts.3% find it difficult sometimes . Do financial problems get you down? TABLE 1.7 SOMETIMES 10 33.0 INFERENCE: From the above table.the employees do not have any problems with sleeping.7 RARELY 11 36.7% of the employees find extreme difficulty in sleeping.3 Total 30 100. Therefore.

7% of them felt that very often it caused them problems. 40% of the employees feel that financial problems put them down sometimes.3 RARELY 3 10. 23.0 INFERENCE: The table shows that. Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT ALL 10 33.7 VERY OFTEN 7 23.0 SOMETIMES 5 16.7 Total 30 100.3 Total 30 100. Q4.7 OFTEN 8 26. 30% felt that it did not affect them at all and 26. It shows that most employees give into excessive alcoholism or some other forms of self medication most times to reduce stress Q5.0 INFERENCE: This table indicates that 26. nicotine or other substances? Table 1.0 OFTEN 8 26.3 SOMETIMES 12 40.7% of the employees ‘‘self medicate’’ quite often. Do you get angry quickly? . Therefore.4 RESPONDENTS AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT ALL 7 23. Do you find yourself 'self-medicating' with additional alcohol. it is identified that financial trouble does put down people sometimes.3% resort to alcoholism etc very frequently to relieve stress while 23.3% of them do not resort to substance abuse at all .

3 SOMETIMES 12 40.TABLE 1. Therefore. the rate of job pessimism or negative thinking about one’s job is very low. Therefore.5 RESPONDENTS AND FREQUENCY OF ANGER Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT ALL 10 33.3 Total 30 100. Also 26. .0 INFERENCE: 40% of the employees claim that they sometimes get angry often while 33. it is inferred that most of the employees are relatively calm and get angry only sometimes. Q6.3 SOMETIMES 7 23.3% feel that they do not get angry very often.0 VERY OFTEN 8 26.3.6 RESPONDENTS WITH JOB PESSIMISM Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT AL 10 33.0 INFERENCE: The table clearly shows that the employees have no negative thoughts about their job since 40% of them feel that it happens only rarely and 33.3 RARELY 13 43.7 Total 30 100.7% of them say that they get very angry most of the time.% say that it never happens. Do you find you are prone to negative thinking about your job? TABLE 1.

8 RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL ISOLATED Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT ALL 14 46. .0 INFERENCE: This table shows that majority of the people do not feel isolated or lonely. 46.7 SOMETIMES 8 26.7 RARELY 10 33.7 RESPONDENTS WITH SLOW RECOVERY DURING ILLNESS Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT ALL 11 36. It is inferred that most of the employees get back to their feet pretty soon after an illness and do not stay in bed for excessive periods of time.0 Total 30 100.3 SOMETIMES 6 20.Q7. with no-one to talk to? TABLE 1.7% of them say that sometimes a long slow recovery period is taken. it is seen that most of the employees (36.7%) recuperate pretty quickly from an illness while only 26.7 RARELY 11 36.7 Total 30 100. Q8. When you have been ill with relatively minor illnesses.0 INFERENCE: From the table.7% of them do not feel any isolation while 33.it is seen that most of the employees have someone to talk to and relate with and are not isolated or alone.3% say it happens rarely. Do you feel you are isolated. Therfore. does it take you a long time to recover? Table 1.

Do you 'snack' instead of eating 'wholesome' meals? TABLE 1.10 RESPONDENTS WITH BAD EATING HABITS Frequency Percent Valid SOMETIMES 9 30.0 Total 30 100.9 RESPONDENTS WITH NO CONTROL OF LIFE Frequency Percent Valid RARELY 12 40.Q9.0 OFTEN 6 20.0 Total 30 100.0 INFERENCE: This table shows that most of the employees have control of their lives and are in the driving seat of their own lives while only 20% felt that they are being controlled by others and not themselves. Q11.0 OFTEN 12 40.11 . When conflict arises at work or at home.0 VERY OFTEN 9 30.time constraints and job demands. Q10.0 SOMETIMES 12 40. Do you feel out of control and as if you're not in the driving seat of your life and health? TABLE1.0 INFERENCE: The values in the table clearly indicate that all the employees indulge in snacking rather than in consumption of wholesome nutritious meals due heavy work pressure . do you tend to over-react? TABLE 1.

7 OFTEN 12 40. Do you feel caught between the pressures of responsibility for family and work life? . RESPONDENTS WHO OVER REACT TO CONFLICTS Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT ALL 9 30. Q12.7 SOMETIMES 11 36. Q13. Only 26. In most cases.7 Total 30 100.7 Total 30 100. Do you feel that there is more work to do than you realistically have the capacity to do? TABLE 1.12 RESPONDENTS WHOSE WORK EXCEEDS ONE'S CAPACITY Frequency Percent Valid RARELY 2 6.0 RARELY 13 43. Only a small group (6.3 SOMETIMES 8 26.7% of them tend to over react in some situations. their workload exceeds their capacity.0 : INFERENCE: The table shows that most of the employees feel that their job demands and requires more than what they are actually capable of doing.0 VERY OFTEN 5 16.7%) felt that it was not so.0 INFERENCE: It is seen that most people do not over react to conflicts either at home or at work.

PAR AT THE BEGINNING OF A WORK DAY Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT ALL 4 13. Do you feel under – par at the beginning of the day? TABLE 1.3 SOMETIMES 8 26.3 RARELY 16 53.0 RARELY 5 16.7 OFTEN 1 3.0 INFERENCE: The table clearly shows that 53.14 RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL UNDER .TABLE 1. Q14.0 VERY OFTEN 2 6. Q15.3 Total 30 100.7 SOMETIMES 14 46.7% felt that it happened very rarely.7 OFTEN 6 20.0 INFERENCE: From the table it is seen that 46.7 Total 30 100.7% of the employees feel that sometimes they are trapped between the pressures of home and work .20% feel caught often and 16.3% of the employees rarely feel under-par even at the beginning of a working day and only a handful of employees (3. Do you shy away from social contact with colleagues and .13 RESPONDENTS CAUGHT BETWEEN FAMILY AND WORK PRESSURE Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT ALL 3 10.3%) actually feel under- par on working days.3 VERY OFTEN 1 3.

0 RARELY 9 30.0 Total 30 100.0 INFERENCE: From the table and the pie chart.friends? TABLE 1.0 SOMETIMES 1 3. Do you claim you have no time for hobbies and interests? . it is clearly understood that most of the employees are well dressed and maintain a certain level of grooming and therefore are not commented upon for shabby appearances by their colleagues.16 RESPONDENTS WHOSE APPEARANCES ARE COMMENTED UPON Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT ALL 16 53.0 SOMETIMES 3 10. Do other people comment on your not taking care of your appearance? TABLE 1. Q17.0 INFERENCE : It clearly shows that majority of the employees are actively sociable and do not shy away from social contact especially with colleagues.15 RESPONDENTS WHO SHY AWAY FROM SOCIAL CONTACT WITH COLLEAGUES Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT ALL 18 60.3 OFTEN 1 3.3 RARELY 12 40.3 Total 30 100. Q16.

7 RARELY 7 23.3 RARELY 1 3.3 VERY OFTEN 7 23. Q19.17 RESPONDENTS WITH NO TIME FOR THEMSELVES Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT ALL 1 3. Only 20% feel that at certain times they are misunderstood. with no option for seeking support for yourself? TABLE 1. most of the employees are satisfied and not misunderstood or unappreciated by their colleagues or family members.3 Total 30 100.0 INFERENCE: The pie chart and table values clearly indicate that most of the employees are so busy and caught up with work pressure that they barely have any time for themselves.TABLE 1.3 SOMETIMES 11 36.19 .7 OFTEN 10 33. friends or family members? TABLE 1. They have almost no time for their hobbies and self interests.0 Total 30 100. Do you feel misunderstood or unappreciated by your colleagues.3 SOMETIMES 6 20. Q18.0 INFERENCE: Here again.18 RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL MISUNDERSTOOD/ UNAPPRECIATED BY OTHERS Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT AL 17 56. Do you feel you have to be the 'coper' for the family or for colleagues.

just to keep your 'head above water' emotionally. RESPONDENTS WHO ARE COPERS FOR FAMILY/ COLLEAGUES WITH NO SUPPORT FOR THEMSELVES Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT ALL 1 3. not because you feel ill but overwhelmed. mentally and physically? TABLE 1.3 RARELY 12 40.0 OFTEN 10 33.0 OFTEN 5 16.0 SOMETIMES 12 40.0 INFERENCE: Here there are 2 strong groups. Would you take a sick day.3 SOMETIMES 12 40.one group(40%) feel that very rarely do they have to be copers for everyone else with no support for themselves while the other group also of 40% feel that sometimes they have no one to seek support from.0 INFERENCE: The chart and table indicate that many employees call in a sick day at work not because they are really sick but because they are too overwhelmed and need time to recuperate .20 RESPONDENTS WHO TAKE A DAY OFF JUST TO RECUPERATE EMOTIONALLY. Q20.3 VERY OFTEN 1 3. MENTYALLY & PHYSICALLY Frequency Percent Valid NOT AT ALL 6 20.7 Total 30 100.3 Total 30 100.0 RARELY 1 3.

• Employees’ are satisfied with the working conditions. FINDINGS • Most of the respondents have many years of long association with the organisation • Most of the employees feel that they have no time for themselves and their personal lives because of work overload. • The respondents face a moderate level of stress SUGGESTIONS • The employees must give importance to time management techniques there by .physically. • Role overload is the major cause of stress. • The respondents are sociable and have no problems interacting with their colleagues.mentally and emotionally.

they can complete their work within the specified time. • Many tasks can be delegated to subordinates without losing effectiveness so that we can reduce the overload of work. • Introduce Flexi time • Organisations must introduce recreational zones within the premises for the employees to unwind. The opinion of the employees were as follows: • “Just smile away” An employee. • Engaging the bored employee in aerobic exercise. because there is a strong relation between the level of stress and level of employees. EAP includes counseling employees who seek assistance on how to deal with alcohol and drug abuse. Also the employee must practice meditation and yoga regularly. • Counseling the employees when they face problems. who are undergoing stress. because it stimulates the brain and the body. dealing with marital and other family problems. handling conflicts at the work place. The response of employees from major banks in the city was marvellous as they gave their valuable opinion about reducing stress as a result of the last question included in the questionnaire. working in the banking industry. managing personal finances. because counseling is the discussion of a problem that usually has emotional content with an employee in order to help the employee cope better.Watching TV or listening good music. the suggestion is to start the unwinding process during the work day and enter the home in a relaxed and peaceful mind. the topic becomes one of the most important part of the project as it consists of the opinion of the employees who work in the banks. So considering this factor. EMPLOYEES’ SUGGESTION TO REDUCE STRESS This project consists of the information about the employees.HDFC Bank • “Believe in God” An employee. .HDFC Bank • “Just believe in yourself and just do what your heart wants” An employee- HDFC Bank • -“Talking to family member “. • Adopt the work to home transition strategy.Bank of Baroda .Going for a walk or long drive” An employee. • The organization must introduce Employee Assistance Programmes (EAPs) and stress control workshops accordingly to the level of employees. and coping with health problems. It means instead of carrying the pressures of the work to home.

ICICI Bank • “Listen music and spend time with family” An employee. • “Respect yourself and give time to yourself” An employee.” An employee. by not providing individuals with the autonomy to do their work as they would like. Positive attitude is only that reduces stress and achieves success. So get positive attitude about work.CitiBank • “We should do such activities from which we get happiness and also make others happy. Study the scriptures. and more importantly. All are manifested of the supreme GOD” An employee- Deutsche Bank CONCLUSION Stress in the work place has become the black plague of the present century. and forget the stress” An employee. Find and spend time for prayer.ICICI Bank • “Play and watch cricket” An employee. See oneness in all. Much of the stress at work is caused not only by work overload and time pressure but also by lack of rewards and praise. . about life. Pass your time with your close friends and relatives. lot of positive attitude.Deutsche Bank • “Get adjusted with others.CitiBank • “Working in environment welfares. Most of the people frustrate due to lack of positivity and stress level climbs up due to that.

“Job stress-prone Type A behaviour. Organization must begin to manage people at work differently. Because it is said that.improve physical work environment. P and J. pp 360-74. “Studying job stress: Are we making mountains out of . personal and organizational consequences”.the organizational revenue increases and there is employee retention as well. If we enhance the psychological well being and health of the employees. M.. • A. treat them with respect and value their contribution. Atieh. 1985. “A Healthy Employee is a Productive Employee” BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS • Jamal M. Canadian Journal Administration Sciences.

wikipedia. 1998. • PaulHersey.org/mental/stress_signs.Himalaya Publishing House WEBSITES • http://www.studygs. L. Blanchard.helpguide. Robbins. Johnson –“Organizational Behavior”. J.indiamart.htm • http://stress. • Cooper. • Stephen P. and Marshall. 1987 pp115-26.net/stress. “Understanding Executive Stress”. 1999.com/Mind/psychology/stress/stress. Dewey E. “Organizational Behavior”.htm • www.K.com • www. Prentice Hall. Aswathappa. • K. The McMillan Press Ltd.lifepositive. U . Kenneth H.htm • http://www.org/mental/stress_management_relief_coping.asp • http://helpguide. Ltd. 1978 p 4.finance.com/ • http://www. C. “Organizational Behavior”. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. molehills?” Journal of occupational behavior.com .about.

QUESTIONNAIRE NAME: AGE: GENDER: QUALIFICATION: 1 Do you suffer with difficulty in sleeping? a. Often e. Very Often 2 Do you find it difficult to concentrate? . Sometimes d. Not at all b. Rarely c.

a. Often e. Not at all b. Often e. Often e. Not at all b. Sometimes d. Rarely c. Very Often . Often e. with no one to talk to? a. does it take you 7 to recover? a. Sometimes d. Sometimes d. Often e. Sometimes d. Often e. Very Often \ 5 Do you get angry quickly? a. Rarely c. Not at all b. Rarely c. Very Often 8 Do you feel you are isolated. Very Often 3 Do financial problems get you down? a. Not at all b. Sometimes d. Very Often 4 Do you find yourself 'self-medicating' with additional alcoho or other substances? a. Sometimes d. Not at all b. Not at all b. Not at all b. Often e. Rarely c. Rarely c. Rarely c. Very Often When you have been ill with relatively minor illnesses. Sometimes d. Rarely c. Very Often 6 Do you find you are prone to negative thinking about your job? a.

Often e. Very Often Do you feel that there is more work to do than you realistically have th 12 do? a. Often e. Rarely c. Often e. do you tend to over-react? a. Sometimes d. Very Often 13 Do you feel caught between the pressures of responsibility for family an a. Often e. Sometimes d. Not at all b. Not at all b. Not at all b. Sometimes d. Sometimes d. Rarely c. Very Often 11 When conflict arises at work or at home. Rarely c. Not at all b. Sometimes d. Very Often 10 Do you snack instead of eating “wholesome meals”? a. Rarely c. Do you feel out of control. Often e. Very Often 15 Do you shy away from social contact with colleagues and friends? . as if you are not in the driving seat of your li 9 health? a. Rarely c. Very Often 14 Do you feel 'under par' even at the beginning of a working day? a. Not at all b. Rarely c. Often e. Not at all b. Sometimes d.

Rarely c. Very Often 17 Do you claim you have no time for hobbies and interests? a. Often e. Sometimes d. Often e. Rarely c. Not at all b. Often e. Rarely c. Very Often Do you feel misunderstood or unappreciated by your colleagues. Sometimes d. Very Often 21 Kindly give us your suggestions. Not at all b. Often e. Not at all b. to manage stress _____________ . Rarely c. friend 18 members? a. Not at all b. mentally & physically? a. Very Often Do you feel you have to be the “coper” for your family or colleagues wi 19 for seeking support for yourself? a. Sometimes d. ju 20 your “head above water” emotionally. Rarely c. Often e. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Very Often Would you take a sick day not because you feel ill but overwhelmed. Often e. if any. Sometimes d. Very Often 16 Do other people comment on your not taking care of your appearance? a. Not at all b. a. Not at all b. Sometimes d.