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Introduction

Findings

Treating Text as Data:


Letters of Recommendation
in Elite University Admissions

Jonathan D. Schwarz, PhD


Postdoctoral Research Associate
Department of Sociology
University of Notre Dame

April 11, 2017

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 1/ 14


Introduction Admission Metrics
Findings Data

Biased Quantitative Metrics

Social class bias in standardized tests (Freedle 2003)


Racial bias in standardized testing (Jencks 1998)

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 2/ 14


Introduction Admission Metrics
Findings Data

Insufficient Quantitative Metrics

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 3/ 14


Introduction Admission Metrics
Findings Data

Growth Concentrated at the Top

Stanford Class of 2019:


Applicants:
60% have GPA >4.0
80% of ranked students are in the top 10%
Nearly 20% have perfect 800 on SAT reasoning test
Acceptance rate: <4.7%
When quantitative metrics are insufficient for winnowing the
applicant pool:
1 what is the role of qualitative data and
2 are there biases in qualitative input?

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 4/ 14


Introduction Admission Metrics
Findings Data

Letters of Recommendation

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 5/ 14


Introduction Admission Metrics
Findings Data

Interviews

Hour-long semi-structured interviews


4% Sample of admissions officers at universities that admit
fewer than 12% of applicants
Institutions represented:
Brown University
California Institute of Technology
University of Chicago
Cornell University
Dartmouth College
Harvard University
Johns Hopkins University
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Stanford University
Yale University

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 6/ 14


Introduction Admission Metrics
Findings Data

Letters of Recommendation

20,000 Letters of Recommendation


Sex, race/ethnicity, achievement indicator, high school
identifier

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 7/ 14


Introduction Admission Metrics
Findings Data

National Center for Educational Statistics

High School Characteristics


Free & Reduced Price Lunch Eligibility
Student-teacher ratio
Racial/Ethnic composition student body
School type
Traditional Public
Charter Public
Public Magnet
Private Catholic
Private Other Religious
Private Non-Religious
Other

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 8/ 14


Introduction Topic Modeling
Findings Implications

Combining & Maximizing Data

Qualitative coding of interview transcripts


What makes a letter of recommendation good in the sense
that it is useful in your review?
Text mining letters of recommendations
Structural topic models of recommendation content

Topic=Achievement+Sex+Race/Ethnicity+Rec.Sex+Rec.Subject+SchoolType

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 9/ 14


Introduction Topic Modeling
Findings Implications

Topic Prevalence
Work Ethic
Statement of Recommendation
Projecting Success
Resilience
Narrative
Personal Qualities
Superlative
ECA (Generic)
Relationship Genesis
Rating
Classroom Observation
Course Rigor
Critical Thinking
English
ECA (Specific)
Group Work
Comprehension
Uniqueness
Athletics
Intellectual Curiosity
Science
Enrichment Program
Family Context
Social Science
Computer Science/Programming
RecWords
Mathematics
Problem Solving
Arts
Foreign Language

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

Expected Topic Proportions

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 10/ 14


Introduction Topic Modeling
Findings Implications

Combining Interviews & Text Analysis


Narrative
Superlative
ClassroomObservations
PersonalQualities
FamilyContext
IntellectualCuriosity
Relationship
ProblemSolving
LearningStyle
Group/Poject
WorkEthic
Comprehension
Resilience
Ranking
CourseContent FamilyContext
NoDifference
ProjectingSuccess TraditionalPublic
PersonalQualities
Narrative
Private(NonReligious)
Coursework
ExtracurricularActivities

5 0 5 10 HighestUtility 15
LowestUtility

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 11/ 14


Introduction Topic Modeling
Findings Implications

Importance of Findings

Systematic inequality in qualitative admissions data


Recommendations from more privileged high schools provide
information that is more useful to admissions officers at elite
universities
Recommendations from less privileged schools tend to reiterate
information that is available elsewhere in the application
Further loss of one off (Hoxby & Avery 2012) students
Informational Inequality

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 12/ 14


Introduction Topic Modeling
Findings Implications

Actionable Solutions

1 Change the processes 2 Change the input


Recognize and account for Democratize information
systematic differences in
letter content in application
review and selection

Teacher Name
Teacher Name
October 15, 2016 Math/Science Department
High School
City, State 12345
Phone: (555) 555-5555
E-mail: teacher@school.edu
Dear Members of the Search Committee:
It is a real pleasure to write this letter of recommendation in support of [female student]. I
have known her [for 5 years] as a student in the Molecular and Cellular Biology elective course
I teach at the [science & technology magnet school]. She is presently enrolled in my Microbes
and Disease course. In my classes I establish an atmosphere of collegiality and collaboration. I
value students ability to demonstrate their understanding of the concepts in an academic forum.
We debate the science and construct models consistent with data. Students must participate in t
heir learning and express their understanding to do well. In class [female student] has been an
eager participant where her strong academic capacity is obvious. Everything about her tells me
that she is passionate in her work and diligently applies herself to the pursuit of an education.
Furthermore, she is simple a joy to work with.
[female student] has been a full participant in the class discussions. It is obvious that before
[female student] comes to class she has worked on the lessons diligently. She is comfortable
with the give and take of debate where she brings an appropriate mix of humor and seriousness.
Despite her effort not every topic comes easily to [female student]. In particular, the more
intricate details of signal transduction pathways stand out as a difficult area for her. To her credit
though, [female student] never lets difficult concepts dampen her enthusiasm. [female student]
comes to see me regularly out of class for discussions. Through these discussions it has become
clear to me that [female student] is grasping major ideas. Her attitude remains positive as she
looks to learn all that she can. She seems to love learning. Her eagerness to participate and
her tenacity in learning will bring her benefits. She is a joy to have in class where her drive to
understand seems contagious.
I have to think back quite a few years before I remember a student who enjoys working for
her education as much as [female student]. [female students] love of learning becomes most
evident when she is in the laboratory. She relished lab experiences in Molecular and Cellular
Biology and continues to do so now in Microbes and Disease. She is engaged in doing science
Jonathan D. Schwarz
that she considers valuable. I try to leave the students in the lab to their own initiative, giving Text as Data 13/ 14
Introduction
Findings

Thank You!

Jonathan D. Schwarz, PhD

jschwar1@nd.edu

Slides available at:


www.jonschwarz.org/cc ira

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 14/ 14


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Pre-Processing Letters

1 Convert PDFs to plain-text using OCR


2 Isolate body using NLP and by hand
3 Code letter-writer sex
4 Strip identifying words/numbers
5 Isolate operative wordsstrip proper nouns, particles,
prepositions
6 Strip capitalization and punctuation
7 Stem words

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 1/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Structural Topic Modeling

Cluster models with controls for applicant achievement, sex,


ethnicity, sex of letter-writer, letter-writer subject
Topic = systematic co-occurrence of words
Topics qualitatively validated
Visually graph topic prevalence

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 2/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Topic Directory

Narrative
Exceptionality Group Work
Classroom Observations Work Ethic
Personal Qualities Comprehension
Family Context Resilience/Legacy
Intellectual Curiosity Rating
Writer/Applicant Course Content
Relationship Projecting Success
Problem Solving Course Rigor
Learning Style/Critical Extra Curricular Activities
Thinking

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 3/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Comp.Sci/
Related Topics Programming
Science

Arts
Uniqueness
Superlative
Intellectual
Curiosity English
Narrative RecWords

Relationship Family Social


Context Science

Foreign
Language
Group/Project
Work
Rank/
Score Resilience/
Critical
Legacy
Thinking
Course
Rigor Mathematics
Personal
Comprehension
Statement Qualities
Problem
of Rec. Solving
Work
Ethic
Projecting Classroom
Success Observation
Enrichment
Program
ECAs
(General) ECAs
(Specific)

Athletics

Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 4/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Narrative

like time
think someth

notic
right one
back see thing come
fun probabl

don better lot


room

even figur

take mightrealli
ask
big

easi
talk sometimday
away someon will
Traditional Public

need
read give
stop find much around isn side
good Charter

knew happi Private

know
everyon
actual let rest didn Other

seem bit kid


tri
anoth Religious (other)

happen next word Magnet

though smart saw still can use surpris


everyth got Catholic
felt

walk told call wasn done els sit


make said
wait
wonder doesn

getjust
realiz

great 0.040 0.045 0.050 0.055 0.060


putsay
keep

littl
hand
amaz
definit part
love
book point looksure
feel tell
way
want
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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 5/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Exceptionality

say
can teach
brilliant encount honest enough seen
taught

one
wherev
fact
trust speak

everi leav
natur whatev
teacher type

fantast
close
farexceed
yet given see
even Charter
Traditional Public

rare across mani
let

quit doubt reason


Private
truli less
imagin

though miss
consid
almost
anoth
surpass
know certain
seem strongest incred
capabl
Other
singl

perfect matter traithold driven Religious (other)


anyth anyon
will
possibl attempt
brightest best choos lucki heart
howev fail joy
brillianc
extrem
Magnet
fortun

everyon
never
much

person like someon Catholic


modest

make find
expect gift
alon mark
without humbl come carri
entir
give ever noth
absolut
must kind simpli
immedi instead 0.038 0.040 0.042 0.044 0.046 0.048 0.050

student
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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 6/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Classroom Observations

answer
learn make
import
way
forward
idea
deeper care appreci
coverobvious
discuss
classroom
point
enjoy
opinion
bring

probe
differ push
pose

think wonder
area

thorough
peopl give clear
connect
around classmat topic Traditional Public

materi
joy leader
curious insight one find frequent made
Charter
constant
also Private
know
outsid allow read confid

often grow
rather
easi higher

clarifi natur truli challeng teach Other


desir

level deep will thing mind can


notic lead put set Religious (other)
inquisit benefit
contribut inform matter depth realli
student see
provok clarif
Magnet

question
add
whether Catholic
whole
great
mani
listen 0.040 0.045 0.050 0.055
assess

ask
better
class thought
quiet understood
just

beyond come
look
understand

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 7/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Personal Qualities

charact
intellig futur except
confid wish other possess
person

strength
compassinquisit
wonder watch qualiti will
valu
student
ideal
fortun
man bright
round

deserv
gift

everi Traditional Public


outstand

humor know
woman pois exemplifi impress faculti Charter
ladi ethic extraordinari
opportun age
fine well role men carepolit privileg Private
moraltrue
natur

Other
integr matur make
area
amaz
thrive utmost compassion
promis manner sincer teach
grow
Religious (other)

superior candid Magnet


eager

obvious finest energet toward


dilig
admirsens beyond
teacher genuin kind
give delight demeanor model alik truli known
Catholic

respect potenti
certain
pleasur accomplish
encount
0.025 0.030 0.035 0.040 0.045 0.050
talent
leader enthusiasm incred excel
peer great highest
enthusiast

academ

young
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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 8/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Family Context

support move
way money women educ
friend peopl decis compass
teenag
teacher

trip
campus
time determin ladi countri

parent love home older


live

immigr
brother admir know children Traditional Public
around speak grow faith woman
father
differ
other

spirit dream emot Charter

new look proud take personuse Private

will age rais heart valu


much
given

colleg Other
greatface event
travel boy Religious (other)
place

visit made build share


help Magnet
goal

young feel mile girlopportun forward


younger focus
make

Catholic
sister

famili life
find hous
strength
recent
care
give part 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020
divers
back posit
cultur come mother child import respons

communiti experi inspir

learn mani world confid

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 9/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Intellectual Curiosity

passion
convers approach
engag
thinker world
differ deepli
new intellectu idea
divers comment

genuin open risk stimul

rang
element
thrive flexibl
love growth
depth
breadth

share
fulli

Traditional Public
found

pursu
brought togeth
sens

theori challeng eager


long Charter
wide particular
investig
natur
enrich

issu

sophist allow
focus form face term way Private
intens delv
origin
innov
anim joy
view outsid
Other
solid
vari connect relat signific spark intrigu scientif develop
bring embrac creat discoveri led appreci fascin energi Religious (other)

interest
chang Magnet
common
reflect Catholic
discov especi

atmospher
explor
subject

generat number
0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030
enthusiasm
enjoyexcit broad studi
appar

creativperspect
inspir
delight curious real
curios meaning

learn

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 10/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Writer/Applicant Relationship

came took
grade begin
part

though previous
quarter everi put rest sophomor
anoth finish

struggl night becam grown watch Traditional Public


alreadi although immedi much
Charter
first

sincimpress
follow kept
period fall
ninth becom earli effort Private
met schedul
began
foursenior
two end progress second
still due long take spring
Other
month made
junior

time Religious (other)


continu

entir spend shi


join

togeth fact
last
soon sign
went knew move Magnet
realiz

half
turn

decid usual known hour gave


Catholic
spent
least

evenmention ago one


now
quiet studi finalespeci tenth
quit
three week
next latin arriv howev
start

grader
freshman day 0.025 0.030 0.035 0.040 0.045 0.050 0.055
class sever

year
later

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 11/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Problem Solving

problem

previous
answer creativ
made complex
determin show mistak conceptu
attempt partner follow
idea hand enjoy error give basic accur solut Traditional Public
complic

homework

taught abstract
Charter
approach

togeth
think box explain tacklwayattent
part final
solver object challeng
work Private
often

given
seem

uniqu without explan usual can detail Other


satisfi immedi one strategiparticular
logicclear process tri
similar effici Religious (other)
graph suggest sever focus figur routin recent
solid
word intuit difficulti use
next varioustechniqu Magnet
deriv term board
time correct methodanoth mind Catholic

solv
test

sometim lectur
altern equateleg
formula
real

calcul student find


point new
step volunt 0.030 0.035 0.040 0.045
reason differ

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 12/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Critical Thinking/Learning Style

keen impress written


academ strength
construct multipl
strong
prove
engag
signific
peer growth
analyt
superb intellect enabl
organ
abil
communiti depth coupl
distinguish
exemplari

natur
complex
Traditional Public

disciplin
attent command
observ consider Charter
superior
enhanc

consist valu
environ dilig illustr equal
given verbal thinker
Private

demonstr
student logic Other
develop perform regard excel
upon

producdiscuss Religious (other)


possess
except


recogn
think
wituniqu exceed
serv matur capac reflect product Magnet

creativ classmat Catholic


instruct

moreov
socialmodel approach willing
comment reason
exhibit reserv sens
clear intellectu articul
capabl
evid
display

0.030 0.035 0.040


combin

confid
qualiti among opinion talent
valuabl well thought
contribut contributor detail

critic insight
aspect

thorough

skill
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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 13/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Group Work

experi
knowledg present
process

particip led examplconfid leam

independ
relationship possibl
gain small masteri understand
initi capabl
providrequir integr
support

varieti guid

observ
learner progress
thorough

patienc student manner Traditional Public

develop skill
content resourc set addit readili Charter
review Private
accur form
util

complet comprehens Other


relev respons
abl

particular recogn assign advantag


specif express Religious (other)

detailpart extend
comfort

daili
work applic task expect benefit Magnet
evalu area allow
communic
demonstr larg analyz
use
practic
produc appli
direct base oralassess
draw incorpor
Catholic

fulli role ensur extensresult


improvstudi follow conclus environ given
0.025 0.030 0.035

inform opportun effect within


collabor focus learn
group project
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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 14/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Work Ethic

sure
know prepar confid
time alway
one encourag
excel
best readi
matter
stay
given
student
meticul person
group
well ethic type
pay everyth
homework
great
hardwork
attent
lot dilig improv
take habit
will respect
Traditional Public
conscienti

worker

effort
strong

succeed job care Charter


toward

teacher
extrem
reliabl serious
matur make posit hard good Private
everi

task mine enjoy


assign also
show

prompt

full
spend subjectalong bright
come put focus get
Other
give

difficulti
exampl help intellig want hand
Religious (other)
nice

other
shown wonder attitud need done keep count interest
order

work
assist made Magnet
deal

afraid
perform
hardest
Catholic

found
around
grade
0.050 0.055 0.060 0.065

class
fellow
whenev
complet

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 15/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Comprehension

difficult
student
situat

teacher

understand
abil grasp
cooper mani eager
get fellow

knowledg persist
also
occas
toward
encourag real observ time readili exampl Traditional Public
regular want
struggl friend
learn will beyond retain
scope excel innat
willing enjoy
Charter
Private

abl
extra

adapt loui adjust classmat tutor


accept

thorough memor lesson bright Other


need goe although frequent
seekgood
can Religious (other)
natur
peer relat challeng
behind tri amount
outgo respect patient ahead take
interact
extrem Magnet

eas job

easili appli
discourag especi
subjectlike
Catholic
aid appropri
comprehend put make repeatlittl
explain leader
cheer
share typemaster mistak abstract
well
quick other help
0.032 0.034 0.036 0.038 0.040 0.042 0.044

new pick
understood

concept
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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 16/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Resilience/Legacy

interact respect
humor intellect
overcom disappoint
howev
advers challeng speak

person
observ
social warm along
issu
deal

take seen move


back
convers
sens
beyond think turn pressur instead
demeanor

rather
except setback even mistak
awar resili Traditional Public
failur

complain
comfortmatur Charter

adult
shi

quit way handl polit


like frustrat harder
can friend face Private
alway
appear normal cope Other
believ
tri
posit

seem get good come time risk wit Religious (other)

will
yet expect calm Magnet
attitud afraid
fail area kind manner exampl pleasant Catholic
everyon

quiet
teacher origin
background

0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08


never experi
mani

rememb
stride
doesn

situat smile better intelligaccept


easi stress outsid difficulti

well peer
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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 17/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Rating

student two taken taught


highest
receiv
sat

academ
career

brightest teach standard

top
class
junior grade took
just
graduat
level section
twenti five Traditional Public
among
competit perform final

year earn
nine qualifi semest Charter
finish
place three also quizz last Private
alreadi gift extrem
exam
approxim Other
four
score Religious (other)
ten

past
state

elit
compet

give major perfect seven


compar

number six consist higher name thirti hundr rate Magnet


attend mani best subject
enter counti pass list overal talent Catholic

high
straight
univers
second credit
near
test
current
total
along percent
outstand eight
sophomor amaz given
possibl

0.040 0.045 0.050 0.055 0.060


rank except
accomplish one averag surpris

teacher senior

school achiev

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 18/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Uniqueness

speakinnat
world
pursuit bring

willhuman stand
intellectu beyond
tremend
appreci peopl accomplish scholar
classroom
offer passion wit
around sens whether
true experi
profound

whose approach
spirit
inde

perhap mere desir moment refresh

deep
sake describ Traditional Public
rather hand
can reveal natur direct greatest Charter
reward matter Private
howev commit

seek
mean

encourag consid uniqu


exampl much
action
forc extraordinari
better doubt
Other

Religious (other)
certain
possibl

subject shine simpli within Magnet


find

yet life
might opportun impact Catholic
age
express career belief

make see self


purpos
awar 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030
intellect recogn
presenc today hope word
disciplin
transcript

import
intens
mind other
communiti becom drive
open

remark knowledg
humil

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 19/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

English

write
writer interpret discuss
read
languag

reader
structur
novel charact
page show improv written author way

literatur
humor
creativ clear often
articul book Traditional Public
seminar note
work analyt rhetor poem final stori british Charter

detailinsight
made assign use express nuanc Private
sophist

includ
voic point
analyz one craft Other
close care
draft
semest
text
also paper
word
complex focus respons
class Magnet
Religious (other)

american human mean support


narrat piec thought
short suggest examin term
theme sincer creat thesi reflect last student prose listen
Catholic
poetri

english
research
particular

comment
eye fiction
origin 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03
idea revis
reveal logic
analysi style literari critic
shakespear
argument junior wrote
essay composit

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 20/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Mathematics

honor talent ahead


graph
definit
math
topic
strongsemest
statist
take current
linear enthusiastenjoy senior
analysi
complet
theta

contest studi major proof


spring examin algebraformula Traditional Public
geometri

pace two teach theori


interest applic school american
recommend
strongest teacher Charter
invit sophomor took differenti junior Private
number

also
multivari model amc trigonometri
last pre precalculus class Other
subject function Religious (other)
program

term background vector


tutor

sequenc member cover


seri

taught regular fall


alpha learn acceler theorem theoret Magnet
homework

probabl excel
integr includ present limit discret eager
materi love student
calc mathematician Catholic
equat non grader independ competit
scorerunivers particip three
sinc year

calculus 0.030 0.035 0.040 0.045 0.050

mathemat
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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 21/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Science

physic
laboratori session
conduct
outstand molecular
field experiment student
partner
techniqu research
interest
analysi
unit
genet teach
paper
lectur independ general
two
hand foundtest
lab
undergradu data environment reaction year collect
appli set potenti written
demonstr
chemistri Charter
Traditional Public

excel observ read Private


quantum aptitud well sever studi
current materi junior principl cellshow one pace topic
term Other
applic complet
includ organ relat work astronomi chemic last Religious (other)
pursu measur olympiad enthusiast
mechanequip model understand major perform
motiv

assist also physiolog Magnet


report
biolog taught
investig addit electr concept
strong procedur result cover
Catholic
honor

scienc
subject
base
scientist 0.040 0.045 0.050 0.055
experi quantit
magnet
scientif class

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 22/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Comp. Sci. & Programming

technolog engin
compet
student
scienc
build
electron mechan complet part counti

design
java control
competit oper
Traditional Public
network

profession manag product


mentor world
machin

implementcurrent basic
two involv targetuni place Charter
aerospac
space innov member compani
beyond tech applic web interest Private
technic function past lead code major
sever
model
three
fair Other
first

system introduct websit


propos
game

uniqu
enter
drive

scientist construct built


busi Religious (other)
bridg high
develop nasacar academi learn select
new

won field Magnet


includ
softwar
magnet
creativ
base
also programm
video job will architectur
paper
use creat
intel
data
research Catholic

program robot
tool stem
skill electr

0.025 0.030 0.035 0.040 0.045 0.050

work
comput
project
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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 23/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Social Science

argument
defendvarious
opinionpresent primari
excel event
classroom
american statepaper
speech importtheori
particip

view econom
effect
particular topic
research assess
essay
histor

major case polit Traditional Public


analysi inform
also make one
abl
discuss term made Charter
trial

two argu final deal write


examin

enthusiast addit placement support Private


centuri social psycholog sourc
project
civil year studi current elect Other
constitut right war geographi thesi base
side assign human Religious (other)

histori
issu

global
polici relat Magnet
includ
contemporari
Catholic

govern document world
mock

clear role
cultur preparthroughout
teach read america analyz written 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020
creat
class debat
european

fact exampl
taught
student point
unit
perspect
interpret

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 24/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Arts

perform
newspap

crew
enjoy

guitar accomplish chorus


one number ensembl instrument

music
give
love
sinc practic

part lesson
Traditional Public
manag act
set jazz rock recent Charter

orchestra four drumstaffchoir sing everi


piano year
solo energi wind
along train
song star
perfect
Private
gift

depart player
video pianist Other
role voic

yearbook three week


major
musician trumpetproduct campus
light

teacher audit time Religious (other)


will

classic theater
lead select violin theatr drama Magnet
disciplin
note
artist

symphoni editor hall danc piec compos Catholic


new game sound
rehears director
festiv art
also spring chief
string

band
past

chair
0.010 0.015 0.020
big

section
concert
stage entertain enthusiast
march
talent play
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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 25/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Foreign Language

three italian
includ
grammat

profici russian student

spanish
draw
word

read
well

foreign oral
german
june thc linguist
chines ork target creativ express remark fluenci Traditional Public
excel two
convers fluent ell ith mandarin
speak Charter
new

master
skit ofth chinatiie ing vocabulari
nativ

four Private
also
teach

die teacher forest


tlie

translat japanes yet


area
speaker structur ear eli lie spoken enthusiast
appreci
Other
japan classmat immers
sol aspect continu sinc level ver studi year Religious (other)

french
ihe
sin franc greek short listen
lii

iii
honor
avid

particip
ill
place art english
host
grammarcom
Magnet
Catholic


class tie artist film
learn

languag exchang paint


0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015

cultur

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 26/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Projecting Success

high
demonstr
depend

endeavor
achiev qualiti
leadership
driven

level perform excel goal


determin

academ
characterist
will interact
abilother work
respons believ beyond
pride
necessari meet cooper extrem consist strive
accept higher asset attribut
degre import peer allow proven career
posit student challeng Private
Charter
Traditional Public

Other
focus growth seekreach effort welcom standard
put

dedic educ drive teacher time trait matur


daili becom leader
well
apart basi
pursu persist
maniexhibit
throughout
Religious (other)
Magnet

success set maintain willing


lead Catholic
attitud
strong

accomplish environ
person confid
persever 0.035 0.040 0.045 0.050 0.055
motiv
learn ethic
disciplin

classroom shown
tremend

life
individu whatev self
skill

within
opportun
desir continu display commit
succeed

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 27/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Course Rigor

take
cours
challeng
rigor
handl
thrive
placement
prep

offer complet
curriculum

Traditional Public
confid
found

although
choic

mark
academ indic Charter

level
tradit

post interest
averag
coursework well enrol Private
certain

examin avail expect


solid

bright higher
clear

next thus heavi


acceler either
eam alreadi
intens full
master
select
matur difficult throughout
Other

continu high preparatori sophomor
base numberinstructor
easi
independ Religious (other)
beyond success offic disciplin includ class Magnet
semest fall
choos studi
extens difficulti
will area load perform
excel typic order
addit reason pace despit
prepar Catholic
junior
demandreadisecondari
serious note
capabl requir year
point grade current focus
motiv honor 0.034 0.036 0.038 0.040 0.042 0.044 0.046 0.048
environ

advanc student
colleg

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 28/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

ECA (Specific)

member
nationclub
receiv
help also
senior

societi current
dedic
church
alpha
outstand
involv
council
event
advisor
award commit
librari
govern children
tutor hour Charter
Traditional Public

presid organ
counti
repres associ includ model
gpa elementari
Private

leadership semi fundrais


school

youth academ Other


recogn

numer environment roll food


Religious (other)
rank


accomplish

contribut
placement

achiev
distinct hospit
list peer merit
addit

found
various

key mani advanc name Magnet


nhs membership
america excel princip finalist committe
assist select
number won board recipi recognit Catholic
theta

confer
leader

sponsor commend chapter


student offic mentor sever

servic local elect


vice particip
induct fellow
english scholar
scholarship
0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.035

honor
treasur
serv

volunt communiti

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 29/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Athletics

team
player
volleybal

scienc captain
season region
heldtwo part contest
finish pastscout championship
classroom nation
speech

help
four
lacross
track Traditional Public
state

star sophomor
tenni

won
eagl

younger match Charter


inspir

leader best tournament train


golf

junior area
eventled repres last Private
teammatswim
olympiad

play
first

role bowl
senior medal footbal chess girl make join Other
cross

runner basebal lead


individu place three practic Religious (other)
boy

leagu
qualifi

accomplish winner
award

sinc like athletgame everi


run known Magnet
compet decathlon
basketbal district champion
academ leadership Catholic
hockey
member soccer win field
success
sport
yearcountri competitor quiz
freshman
0.025 0.030 0.035 0.040
coach varsiti also
competit

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 30/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

ECA (Generic)

particip
program
maintain
manicurrent
commit
pleasur
assetoutsid
pursuit
staff
strongextra
year
chosen

school
take
leader

outgo
role extracurricular
busi

round skill
schedul
student assist
known
freshmen
curricular well manag advisor
Traditional Public
valuabl

Charter

timealso member
various
sinc

Private
conscienti

posit will senior devot load hold


two

job bodi know four averag honor varieti Other


area rigorattend life juniorfutur volunt extrem three
record ladi hill challeng excel taken Religious (other)
juggl faculti part
sport
addit communiti freshman includ
Magnet
classroom

handl
still

grade act dedic


past career academ sever pre west Catholic
organ

respons

high involv throughout


besid

numer 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.035 0.040


overal balanc gpa

activ

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 31/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Statement of Recommendation

recommend
concern
write admiss
madam impress
proud

enthusiast
consid

univers program pleas


valuabl futur career
can

doubt
person great
feel
excel Traditional Public
without
thank

may
high
institut
undergradu

offic need Charter


email

mail
opportun
provid
regard past well appli
Private
contribut
sir phone support honor Other
assist teach benefit freshman field
therefor choos quit class viastand committeasset
proven capabl hesit year candid org last
Religious (other)
concem

hope Magnet
known targetuni schoolfree mine
Catholic
request


inform admitt campus
reserv educ
like

strong
qualif believ
teacher

tremend
dear addit bodiaccept consider former
0.045 0.050 0.055 0.060 0.065
call happi behalf applic question

sincer contact will


director
know

studentletter
pleasur

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 32/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

Enrichment Program

opportun

academi
diploma
field north
studi
scienc
summer
avail
past colleg give enjoy art futur american health
high

professor addit baccalaur Traditional Public


florida will

coursework district
career texa graduat school local work counti
current Charter
human help
medicin

governor rigor missionprestigi south recent Private


busi

special weight takenarea transcript


two

california goal academ develop experi Other


intern

san
fair record
center camp pursueduc spent children
degre
Religious (other)
magnet carolina Magnet
select accomplish
hospit

volunt spend
interest

particip counselor doctor six week Catholic


chosen home curriculum campus gpa tutor
take
attend research depart also
hour guidanc
internship medic
state passion univers 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.035 0.040

program sinc
four

math

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 33/ 34


Content Analysis Details
Topics

RecWords

high
increas

challeng
describ leader
serv order hour senior

school Traditional Public

Charter
attend

Private
convent

can
plan place elect student invit condit
schedul

despit ran step duti session manag Other


lead staff set
across

public make must faculti


abl

will surround full


pass within social provid opportun creat return Religious (other)
request ultim allow
becom middl run take new
chang citi encourag sever
Magnet
met

meet follow Catholic


find

due
old town found practic improv
locat
break support part chose
regular

offic need
privat limit weekend although environ
educ
offer

push upontwo charg standard academ


exampl

targetuni option
transfer away close 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.035
local time head
administr small
teacher

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Jonathan D. Schwarz Text as Data 34/ 34