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PYC2605/202/1/2016

Tutorial letter 202/1/2016

HIV/Aids care and counselling


PYC2605

Semester 1

Department of Psychology

Feedback on Assignment 02.


1 INTRODUCTION

Dear Student,

We hope that you are enjoying your module in HIV/Aids care and counselling. If you find the
course helpful, please tell your friends and colleagues about it. Remember, it is possible for
students to enrol only for this one module for non-degree purposes, if they wish to do so.
The only prerequisite for the course is matric (Standard 10/Grade 12). It may also interest
you to know that almost 6 000 students enrol for the HIV/Aids care and counselling course
(PYC2605) per year!

The main purpose of this tutorial letter is to give feedback on Assignment 02. However,
before we do so, lets address some other issues first.

Assignment issues

In the previous semester, many students did not get examination admission because (a)
their assignments were never received by Unisa; (b) the assignments reached Unisa after
the closing date; and (c) the assignments were submitted in the wrong semester. Please
note that it is your own responsibility to make sure that Unisa has received and marked your
assignments. Please check myUnisa regularly to see if your assignment has been received
and marked. If you check the system regularly and it seems that your assignment was not
received or marked, please direct your enquiries to the Students Assessment and
Assignment Department. Please do not contact your lecturers to find out what happened to
your assignments. Your multiple choice assignments go directly to the Assignment section to
be marked by computer. Unfortunately, lecturers do not see your multiple choice
assignments at all.

Please note that you have to submit both Assignments 01 and 02 to gain examination
admission. Together the two assignments contribute 20% to your final year mark.

Please take careful note of your assignment closing dates. In each semester there are
two compulsory multiple choice assignments each with a specific closing date and
unique number.

Make sure that you know exactly if you are registered for the first or for the second
semester. Use the assignment closing date and unique number of that specific semester
ONLY on your mark reading sheet. If you are registered for the 2nd semester, please do not
submit your assignments for the 1st semester closing dates or use the 1st semester unique
numbers. Your assignment will NOT be registered on the system and it will get lost.

Electronic Learning Units and Open Electronic Resources

Do you enjoy the online module? We surely had a lot of fun compiling it! Some students find
the online approach a bit daunting but keep in mind that the purpose of the online module is
only to guide you through the prescribed book and to challenge you to think differently about
HIV and Aids and to motivate you to do things in your communities. There will be neither
examination questions directly on the content of the electronic learning units, nor on the
open educational resources (e.g. videos and webpages).

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The examination questions are based on your prescribed book only, and Tutorial Letter
101/2016 (Section 7.1 Syllabus: What to study for the exam) indicates what to study in your
prescribed book.

Declaration Letters

As discussed in Tutorial Letter 101/2016, you will automatically receive a Declaration Letter
after successful completion of this module. Please note that we cannot re-issue this Letter of
Declaration if you do not receive it the first time or lose it. Please make sure that you receive
your Declaration Letter by following three simple steps:

(a) Make sure that Unisa has your most recent postal address. We will send your
Declaration Letter to the address that you registered with Unisa. If your address
changed, please notify Unisa (not the Psychology Department) to change your address
on the student system (fill in the form at the back of my Studies @ Unisa and send it
to The Registrar (Academic), PO Box 392, UNISA 0003). You can also change your
details by logging into myUnisa.
(b) Please make sure that all outstanding fees are paid. If your study fees are in arrears,
Unisa will unfortunately not release your exam results, and we will not be able to issue
the Declaration Letter either.
(c) Return all your library books that are outstanding. Unisa will not release your exam
results if you still have library books in your possession.

Note: We do NOT print or issue the letters of declaration in our offices in the Department of
Psychology.

Please do not visit us on campus to issue the letters because we are not able to do so.

The examination paper

Tutorial Letter 102 contains a practice examination paper to familiarise you with what to
expect in the examinations. Please make use of the opportunity to see if you can complete it
(without your prescribed book) within the two hours allowed for the paper. DO NOT send
your answers to Unisa to be marked. You will find the answers at the back of the tutorial
letter for you to mark your own paper. Old examination papers for this module are available
on myUnisa.

Feedback on Assignment 02

The purpose of this assignment was to help you to assess where you are in terms of your
HIV and Aids reading and comprehension skills, knowledge and attitudes at this early stage
of your studies. Use your assignment mark and our feedback to sensitise you to possible
problems in your learning.Table 1 gives a summary of the correct answers to Assignment 02.

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Table 1. Correct answers to Assignment 02.

Question Assignment 2 Question Assignment 2


correct answer correct answer
1 1 11 4
2 3 12 4
3 4 13 3
4 4 14 1
5 4 15 3
6 2 16 3
7 4 17 3
8 2 18 1
9 3 19 3
10 4 20 2

Students generally did very well in Assignment 02. I will now discuss each one of the
questions in more detail.

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Question based on Chapter 9

QUESTION 1
June is a sex worker and she is HIV positive. Is it dangerous for her to have sex with men
who are also HIV infected?

(1) Yes, because she can be reinfected with another strain of the virus.
(2) No, because she is already HIV infected herself.
(3) Yes, because her CD4+T count is very low due to the virus in her blood.
(4) No, because many sex workers in Africa have developed immunity to HIV infection.

Feedback on Question 1

The correct answer is 1. Although June is already HIV infected a reinfections can lead to an
increase of the viral load in her blood, a further decrease in her CD4+T count, and further
weakening of her immune system. Sex workers in Africa do not develop immunity to HIV
infection.
Read p.177 in your prescribed book for more information.

Questions based on Chapter 11

QUESTION 2
According to the traditional African worldview, ancestors form a very important and intrinsic
part of the daily lives of traditional Africans. Ancestors are seen as

(1) vindictive spirits with only one purpose: to punish their people with illness and death if
they misbehave.
(2) supreme beings who have withdrawn themselves from human beings.
(3) benevolent spirits who preserve the honour and the traditions of the tribe.
(4) good but powerless beings who cannot protect their people against evil and destructive
forces.

Feedback on Question 2

The correct answer is 3. Answer 1 is incorrect as ancestors are not vindictive, but benevolent
spirits. Answer 2 is incorrect as it refers to some traditional religious systems view of God.
Answer 4 is incorrect as ancestors do have the power to protect their people.
Read pp.217-218 in your prescribed book for more information.

QUESTION 3
According to Mbiti, traditional African beliefs are based on principles such as

(1) independence
(2) the interest of the individual
(3) union with ones own rational being
(4) the survival of the community

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Feedback on Question 3

The correct answer is 4. Answers 1, 2, and 3 are incorrect as they apply to a western world
view.
Read p.227 in your prescribed book for more information.

Questions based on Chapter 12

QUESTION 4
One day, in one of their counselling sessions, Mary says to Thandiwe: 'Thandiwe, I feel as if
I must give my permission before you make any contributions to our discussions, and maybe
we should talk about it.' Mary used the advanced communication skill of (a) ____, which is a
useful skill when (b) ____.

(1) (a) information sharing;


(b) a session is directionless and no progress is being made
(2) (a) advanced empathy;
(b) diversity between the counsellor and client gets in the way of counselling
(3) (a) self-disclosure;
(b) trust between counsellor and client seems to be a problem
(4) (a) immediacy;
(b) dependency seems to interfere with the helping process

Feedback on Question 4

The correct answer is 4. Mary felt that Thandiwe waited for her permission before she
contributed to the conversation (a reflection on their relationship) and communicated it in the
sessions when it was happening. Answers 1, 2 and 3 were incorrect as information sharing,
advanced empathy and self-disclosure did not occur.
Read pp.256-257 in your prescribed book for more information.

QUESTION 5
You counselled your HIV positive client, Pete, on the importance of disclosing his HIV status
to his wife. Pete, however, refuses to tell his wife that he is HIV positive because he does not
feel ready to do so yet. By allowing Pete to make his own decision to not tell his wife that he
is HIV positive at this stage, according to the person-centred approach, you demonstrate
which of the following aspects of respect?

(1) The realisation that the principle of unconditional positive regard is not possible in
practice.
(2) A willingness to give up your values in order to put Petes values first.
(3) The ability to deny to Pete the fact that his decision upsets you.
(4) The willingness to understand Petes decision, even though you do not agree with it.

Feedback on Question 5

The correct answer is 4. You have demonstrated unconditional positive regard. Showing
respect in this way does not imply that you have given up your own values but you have
respected your clients rights and refrained from judgement (Answers 1,2 and 3 incorrect).
You were though willing to understand Petes decision and demonstrated a belief that he is
competent to make his own decisions about his life.
Read pp.236-237 in your prescribed book for more information.

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QUESTION 6
During the counselling session, your client shares with you the reasons why he thinks it is
necessary for him to take an HIV test. However, he says that, at the same time, these are
the very same reasons why he does not want to go for the test. According to Egan, in which
one of the following responses would you, as the counsellor, be demonstrating basic
empathy?

(1) I so understand your confusion. I felt the same way when I had to go for my test.
(2) You feel unsure about whether or not to take the test because you are frightened about
what the results may be?
(3) I understand that you feel afraid, but don't you think it would be better to get it over and
done with? Then at least you would know for sure.
(4) The confusion you are experiencing about whether or not to take the test is to be
expected and is a natural part of the process.

Feedback on Question 6

The correct answer is 2. You have stated in your own words your understanding of what your
client hinted at or tried to say. You have focussed on the feel that was communicated and a
possible reason for experiencing that feeling. Basic empathy is not about conveying that you
know how they feel (can you know how your clients feel?) and advise giving (Answers 1 and
3). Answer 4 does not demonstrate and understanding of you clients problem but is an
attempt to place the experience in perspective.
Read p.251 in your prescribed book for more information.

Questions based on Chapter 13

QUESTION 7
Pre-HIV test counselling is compulsory in South Africa. What do you say to a client who says
the following to you: 'I dont want to be counselled. Just do the test and get it over with.'

(1) The law of the land is above all and unfortunately I may not test you without counselling
you first. I promise I will do my job as well as possible, but you will have to bear with
me.
(2) I understand your hesitation, but I can get into serious trouble if I test you without pre-
test counselling. Please make my job easier, otherwise I will have to refuse to test you
and I really dont want to do that!
(3) I will test you, but please sign this form to indicate your aggression and your refusal to
be counselled. Please roll up your sleeve so that I can draw the blood.
(4) I sense that you have reservations about counselling. Did you have a bad counselling
experience in the past? Can we perhaps talk about it for a while before I do the test?

Feedback on Question 7

The correct answer is 4.This is an opportunity to build a relationship with your client. Instead
of either persuading the client to be counselled or to just continue with the testing you can
start to explore the reasons why the client does not want to be counselled. This could create
the opportunity to explain the reasons for pre-test counselling which may lead to the client
giving consent for the pre-test counselling to continue.
Read p.270 in your prescribed book for more information.

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QUESTION 8
A male university lecturer, aged 31, consults a counsellor for pre-test counselling. The
lecturer has been in a monogamous relationship for two years. Prior to this he had two male
partners and they did not always use condoms. He has been feeling very tired lately and is
worried that he may be HIV positive. The counsellors reaction is as follows: 'This was a very
stupid thing to do, but it is not too late if you start practising safer sex now. Tiredness is,
anyway, not necessarily a symptom of HIV infection.' Is this a good or a bad response, and
why?

(1) It is a good response, because the counsellor puts the lecturer at ease about his
symptoms and she gives him good advice about practising safer sex.
(2) It is a bad response, because the counsellor passes judgement on his behaviour and
she does not take his symptoms seriously.
(3) It is a good response, because the counsellor shows empathy by acknowledging the
lecturer's feeling that he knows he did a stupid thing.
(4) It is a bad response, because the counsellor should concentrate on his positive
behaviour by acknowledging the fact that he is currently in a monogamous relationship.

Feedback on Question 8

The correct answer is 2. Answer 1 indicates that she does not take his symptoms seriously
while Answer 4 is a form of judgement. Answer 3 is incorrect as the counsellor did not
acknowledge the clients feelings.
Read p.270b on reasons for testing in your prescribed book for more information.

Questions based on Chapter 14

QUESTION 9
For a parent to disclose his or her HIV positive status to a child is a very difficult thing to do.
How would you, as a counsellor, facilitate the process of disclosure?

(a) Help the parent to deal with his or her feelings of guilt and shame first.
(b) Explain to the parent that disclosure is not a once-off experience. Tell the child only
what he or she needs to know and build on that as the need comes up.
(c) Allow children to participate in grieving and discuss the situation with the child this
leaves the child with less unfinished business to manage after the parent's death.
(d) Plan for the childs future, but do not share the plans of who is going to take care of the
child after the parents death with the child, since this will lead to the child experiencing
untimely grief and depression.

The correct answer is:

(1) (b) and (d)


(2) (a) and (d)
(3) (a), (b) and (c)
(4) (a), (b), (c) and (d)

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Feedback on Question 9

The correct answer is 3. Option (d) is incorrect as the future caretaker forms an integral part
of the childs future should the parent die. The child might want to know who this caretaker is
going to be.
Read p.301 in your prescribed book for more information.

QUESTION 10
During the post-test counselling session, you have to share with your client the news that he
is HIV positive. Your client is devastated at the result and, during the session, you become
convinced that he is a definite suicide risk. You decide that the situation calls for a crisis
intervention. Which one of the following statements below describes a correct crisis
intervention?

(1) The actual issue is the crisis situation itself, rather than your clients emotional reaction
to it. You therefore directly tackle any false beliefs or fears your client may have about
a positive diagnosis.
(2) You regard the situation as being very serious and recommend to your client that he
continues seeing you for counselling on an ongoing basis.
(3) You give your client the space to be his own source of support and assistance so that
you do not disempower him.
(4) You take charge of the session, and provide your client with advice and direction in an
empathic manner, since he is in no state to think clearly himself.

Feedback on Question 10

The correct answer is 4. Answer 1 is incorrect as the crisis itself is not the actual issue but
the clients emotional reaction. Answer 2 is incorrect as a crisis intervention is a brief
process; not ongoing. Answer 3 is incorrect as an crisis intervention should be active and
direct and should provide immediate relief.
Read p.297 in your prescribed book for more information.

Questions based on Chapter 15

QUESTION 11
Typical manifestations of normal grief behaviour may include some of the following
behaviours, feelings, physical sensations and cognitions:

(1) Sleep and appetite disturbances, dreams of the deceased, crying, sadness, anxiety,
loneliness, helplessness.
(2) Hollowness in the stomach, tightness in the chest, weakness of muscles, disbelief,
confusion, pre-occupation.
(3) Avoidance patterns, yearning, anger, dry throat, over sensitivity, sense of
depersonalisation, hallucination.
(4) All of the above.

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Feedback on Question 11

The correct answer is 4. All the examples above form part of typical manifestations of normal
grief.
Read p.324 in your prescribed book for more information.

QUESTION 12
One of the techniques used to facilitate the bereavement process is cognitive restructuring.
The assumption/s behind cognitive restructuring is/are that

(a) our emotions and feelings are influenced by what we think about.
(b) we should get rid of negative or destructive thoughts.
(c) we should adopt healthier and life-affirming thoughts.

The correct answer is:

(1) (a)
(2) (b)
(3) (b) and (c)
(4) (a), (b) and (c)

Feedback on Question 12

The correct answer is 4. All the statements form part of the assumptions behind cognitive
restructuring.
Read p.323 in your prescribed book for more information.

Questions based on Chapter 19

QUESTION 13
In which one or more of the following situations would you advise a health care worker to
adhere to universal blood and body fluid precautions?

(a) Mary is dressing the open wound of an HIV positive patient.


(b) John, a dentist assistant, is cleaning the mouth of a patient after draining an abscess
that formed in the patients mouth.
(c) Puleng is a nurse in a Tuberculosis hospital where she handles the sputum of patients
who often cough up blood.
(d) Juan is giving an HIV positive patient with malaria (who has a fever and is sweating
profusely) a sponge bath to try and get his temperature down.

The correct answer is:

(1) Mary and Juan, because both their patients are HIV positive.
(2) Mary, because she is exposed to the blood of an HIV positive person.
(3) Mary, John and Puleng, because they are exposed to body fluids requiring universal
precautions, regardless if the patient is HIV positive or not.
(4) Juan, because HIV positive patients with malaria are ten times more likely to transmit
the HI virus due to the very high viral load in the blood of HIV positive people with
malaria.

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Feedback on Question 13

The correct answer is 3. Situations a, b and c involve body fluids (blood and wound
secretions) for which universal precautions should be applied. Answer 4 is incorrect as
universal precautions do not have to be applied when only sweat is involved.
Read p.368 in your prescribed book for more information.

Questions based on Chapter 21

QUESTION 14
Occupational stress and burnout are very serious issues in the health care professions.
Employers and organisations should offer their employees professional supervision and
mentoring to assist them to cope with their work. There are, however, important differences
between the terms mentoring and supervision. A good mentor should

(a) be in a hierarchical managerial position in the organisation where the caregiver works.
(b) also evaluate the quality of the work of the caregiver on a regular basis.
(c) be involved in a supportive and equal relationship with the caregiver.
(d) help caregivers to re-evaluate their expectations and performance goals.

The correct answer is:

(1) (c) and (d)


(2) (a) and (b)
(3) (a), (b) and (c)
(4) (a), (b), (c) and (d)

Feedback on Question 14

The correct answer is 1. Options (a) and (b) refer to supervisors.


Read p.433 in your prescribed book for more information.

Question based on Chapter 22

QUESTION 15
Prison A refuses to provide medical treatment for inmates who are HIV positive, while Prison
B refuses to provide information on HIV and to distribute condoms. Which basic human
rights applying to all citizens are infringed upon by Prison A and Prison B?

(1) Prison A: the right not to be unfairly discriminated against; Prison B: the right to bodily,
psychological and educational integrity
(2) Prison A: the right of access to healthcare services; Prison B: the right to information
and safer sex
(3) Prison A: the right to bodily and psychological integrity; Prison B: the right not to be
unfairly discriminated against
(4) Prison A: the right to healthcare and support services; Prison B: the right to bodily and
psychological integrity

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Feedback on Question 15

The correct answer is 3. Medical treatment contributes to bodily integrity and the refusal of
information on HIV and to distribute condoms are unfair discrimination. Answer 1 is incorrect
due to the reference to educational integrity, Answer 2 is incorrect as safer sex is not a basic
human right, and Answer 4 is incorrect as support services is not a basic human right.
Read p.441 in your prescribed book for more information.

SECTION B: GUIDANCE TRACK

Questions based on Chapter 10

QUESTION 16
Teachers who work with children in the intermediate school phase (Grades 4 to 6) should
take their cognitive developmental skills into account when they devise Aids educational
programmes. The main purpose of Aids education in this school phase should be to:

(a) develop their ability to think scientifically and to establish a good knowledge of HIV and
Aids prevention.
(b) rectify misconceptions about HIV and Aids.
(c) prevent the formation of prejudice.
(d) help the children to identify concrete causes of HIV and Aids.

The correct answer is:

(1) (a) and (d)


(2) (b), (c) and (d)
(3) (b) and (c)
(4) (b) and (d)

Feedback on Question 16

The correct answer is 3. Option (a) is relevant to the adolescent years and Option (d) to
children in the foundation phase.
Read p.200 in your prescribed book for more information.

QUESTION 17
Adolescents are often very self-absorbed or egocentric. Adolescent egocentricity manifests
in two ways, namely (a) imaginary audience and (b) personal fable. Which one of the
following adolescents illustrates the imaginary audience form of egocentrism?

(1) Susan is so afraid of Aids that she thinks of nothing else and she imagines that she has
all the symptoms of Aids.
(2) Peter believes that he and his problems are so unique that nobody else could have the
same experiences.
(3) Tulani is so self-conscious that he believes that he is the focus of everyone elses
attention.
(4) Tseko is so self-centered that he gossips or tells fables about other children in his
school who - in his opinion - have Aids.

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Feedback on Question 17

The correct answer is 3. Answers 1 and 4 are neither illustrating imaginary audiences nor
personal fables. Answer 2 illustrates a personal fable.
Read p.203 in your prescribed book for more information.

QUESTION 18
Should the fact that people do not immediately die from HIV and Aids, be explained to
children in the foundation school phase (Grade 1 to Grade 3)?

(1) Yes, but reasons or explanations for this will be above their capacity of understanding
and should therefore not be given.
(2) No, it should not be explained to children in this phase because they are unable to
comprehend the reasons for it.
(3) No, it should not be explained to children in this phase because it will make them even
more scared of the HI virus.
(4) Yes, but they should also be given a better understanding of how the virus works
because it will make other aspects of the disease more comprehensible to them.

Feedback on Question 18

The correct answer is 1. Children in the foundation phase should know that infected people
will not die immediately as it will help to address the fear of aids and to modify their thinking
about Aids. They are though unable to conceptualise the inside of the body and they are
concrete thinkers which imply that an explanation of causes and intermediary factors will not
benefit them.
Read p.191 and p.195 in your prescribed book for more information.

QUESTION 19
Teachers who work with children in the foundation or junior primary school phase (Grade 1
to Grade 3) should include the following aspects in their Aids education and life skills
programmes:

(1) Give a lecture about the dangers of drug use and specify the dangers of ecstasy and
marijuana.
(2) Address the childrens fears about Aids and warn them to be careful because children
of their age can contract Aids.
(3) Teach children general safety consciousness, such as wearing safety belts and why
they should not play with fire.
(4) Encourage the children to feel positive about their own bodies, but make it very clear
that sex is something to be ashamed of and something that belongs to adults.

Feedback on Question 19

The correct answer is 3. Children should know how to be safe and healthy as people who
care about their health will be less likely to practice high-risk sexual activities. Answer 1 is
incorrect as the dangers of drugs should be discussed in terms of concrete experiences.
Answer 2 is incorrect as they should know that Aids is not easily contracted. Answer 4 is
incorrect as it presents sex in a negative light.
Read pp.194-195 in your prescribed book for more information.

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QUESTION 20
One of the most important developmental tasks of adolescents is to develop a personal
value system. In order to develop such a system they have to

(1) learn to accept the rules of society without challenging them.


(2) question existing values and decide which values are acceptable to them.
(3) achieve the ability to think in abstract terms and therefore be able to align their views
with those of society.
(4) accept rules even though these rules may not seem especially useful to them.

Feedback on Question 20

The correct answer is 2. A personal value system should not be aligned to the rules of
society. It should be based on questioning values and identifying those values acceptable to
you.
Read p.204 in your prescribed book for more information.

SECTION C: CARE TRACK

Question based on Chapter 17

QUESTION 16
Home-based care is often the best way to look after someone with Aids. Which one of the
following, however, highlight(s) the potential problems associated with home-based care?

(1) Patients are often very poor and they cannot afford to pay the home-based caregivers
for their services.
(2) Owing to all the unknown home-based caregivers in the home, the patient has no
privacy, and the one thing that is important for the Aids patient, is isolation.
(3) Families often do not want home-based caregivers in their homes because of stigma,
ignorance and superstition.
(4) Many home-based caregivers are afraid of looking after Aids patients because of a lack
of knowledge and fear that they might become infected themselves, and they only do it
for the money.

Feedback on Question 16

The correct answer is 3. Answer 1 is incorrect as it is usually less expensive if you take the
cost of hospitalisation and transport into account. Answer 2 is incorrect as isolation is a
possible drawback of home-based care. Answer 4 is incorrect as it is a rough generalisation
that home-based caregivers only do it for the money.
Read p-.345-346 in your prescribed book for more information.

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QUESTION 17
Aids makes demands on the local community and society at large that cannot be met by
hospitals alone. How would you develop a home-based care programme in a rural
community in KwaZulu-Natal?

(1) Compile a community profile to establish the extent of HIV infection in the community.
(2) Make sure that you exclude community leaders from your preliminary profiling of the
community, because research has shown that politics hinders health programme
development.
(3) Put together a multidisciplinary team consisting of professional caregivers and
community volunteers to offer a comprehensive care service to patients with Aids.
(4) Appoint volunteer workers to take over the tasks of the primary caregivers, who are
usually the mothers and grandmothers, because they are usually not trained to care for
Aids patients and might unintentionally do more harm than good.

Feedback on Question 17

The correct answer is 3. Answer 1 is incorrect as the profile should indicate the needs,
resources and networks in the community. Answer 2 is incorrect as community leaders
should be included in the process. Answer 4 is incorrect as the needs and resources of the
community should be taken into account when developing a home-based care programme.
Primary caregivers could for instance be resources in need of training.
Read p.350 in your prescribed book for more information.

QUESTION 18
Volunteers play a very important role in home-based-care programmes. Which of the
following statements are true in terms of the selection of volunteers?

(1) Volunteers should be selected and used in a community where they fit best in terms of
their personalities, qualities, expertise and interest.
(2) Volunteers should be used where they are needed. We are coping with a crisis and
there is no time to place volunteers in terms of their personalities, qualities, expertise
and interest.
(3) There should be no selection procedure for volunteers. Health care professionals and
communities should be thankful for all the help they can get, and they should therefore
not be choosy.
(4) The only prerequisite for a volunteer worker is that he or she should be able to read
and write.

Feedback on Question 18

The correct answer is 1. To prevent problems when using volunteer workers in care
programmes (see p.348 for potential problems) careful selection of volunteers should be
done (Answer 3 incorrect) to see where they best fit in (Answer 2 incorrect) according to their
unique attributes. The ability to read and write is an example of what should be looked at
among various factors (Answer 4 incorrect).
Read pp.348-350 in your prescribed book for more information.

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Question based on Chapter 19

QUESTION 19
Health care workers should wear safety glasses or face shields when they (a) ____. It is
therefore advisable to wear protective glasses during procedures such as (b) ____.

(1) (a) perform procedures where there is potential contact with blood; (b) drawing blood or
starting an intravenous line
(2) (a) come into contact with instruments or other material that could have been used on
an HIV positive person; (b) cleaning instruments or handling dressings
(3) (a) perform procedures where there is a potential threat of blood or body fluid splashing
into their eyes; (b) dental procedures or childbirth
(4) (a) perform general patient care; (b) giving an injection or measuring blood pressure

Feedback on Question 19

The correct answer is 3. Safety glasses should be used where there is a real danger of
getting blood or body fluids in your eyes. Exposure to fine, invisible mist does not require eye
protection as it cannot cause the transmission of blood-borne diseases.
Read p.373 in your prescribed book for more information.

Question based on Chapter 19

QUESTION 20
The purpose of palliative care is to

(1) alleviate a patients suffering by terminating all medical treatment to bring death and
thus relief to the patient as soon as possible.
(2) provide relief from pain and other distressing symptoms, without hastening or
postponing death.
(3) take care of the physical needs of the patient, because the patient is too sick to care
about psychological or spiritual needs.
(4) do anything in ones power to preserve life and therefore to try new anti-retroviral
medications and other therapies to try and save the patients life.

Feedback on Question 20

The correct answer is 2. Death should neither be hastened nor postponed (Answers 1 and 4
incorrect) while the physical, psychological and spiritual needs of the patient should be taken
care of (Answer 3 incorrect).
Read p.416 in your prescribed book for more information.

We hope that you have learned more than theory in this assignment and that you are
stimulated to read more about new developments in the HIV and Aids field. Best wishes with
all the work ahead, and make the best of it!
Your lecturers in HIV/Aids care and counselling.

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