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CVL 400
Hydrology and Water Resources
Lecture 12
Hydrologic Modelling & Course Review

Types of Models

A taxonomy of hydrological models (after Chow et al., 1988) 2

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Model Selection Criteria


Purpose of modelling Accuracy of results
Available time needed
Available computer Support available
resources Data required
Available funding Data availability
Available expertise Past uses of the model
Specific identification of Past successes of the
results desired model in court

UDS Model Example


USEPA SWMM

What is SWMM?

SWMM is a distributed, dynamic rainfall-runoff


simulation model used for single event or long-term
(continuous) simulation of runoff quantity and quality
from primarily urban areas.

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Process Models in SWMM

SWMM calculations depression storage

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Typical Applications of SWMM

Design and sizing of drainage system components


including detention facilities
Flood plain mapping of natural channel systems
Control of combined and sanitary sewer overflows
Generating non-point source pollutant loadings for
wasteload allocation studies
Evaluating BMPs and LIDs for sustainability goals

SWMM Visual Objects

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Representation of Drainage Areas

Geographic Data Model

Conceptual Model a set of concepts that describe a


subject and allow reasoning about it
Mathematical Model a conceptual model expressed in
symbols and equations
Data Model a conceptual model expressed in a data
structure (Logical data model, physical data model)
Geographic Data Model a data model expressed in a
GIS database

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Data Model based on Inventory of data layers

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Example Arc Hydro


Components

Drainage System Hydro Network Flow

Time

Time Series

Hydrography Channel System 12

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Example Arc Hydro


Framework Input Data
Waterbody
Watersheds

Streams

Hydro Points

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Other commonly applied models in Ontario

Groundwater
o FEFLOW
o MODFLOW

Streamflow generation
o HSPF-F
o GAWSER
o SWAT

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Software for the Simulation of Precipitation and/or


Estimation of Runoff (MTO)
ANNIE PC IHACRES (Identification of unit
DCUH Hydrographs And Component flows from
ESFFAN (Engsoft Flood Frequency Analysis ) Rainfall, Evaporation and Streamflow data)
ESLOFFAN (Engsoft Low Flow Frequency PCSWMM 2000
Analysis ) PLOTHYD version 1.3 for Windows
FO601 with Retard Rational Method Hydrology
FREQ SCSHYDRO
HEC-1 SMADA for Windows
HEC1Time STATS
HEC-FFA (Floodflow Frequency Analysis) Streamflow Toolkit 2.0
HEC-HMS ( Hydrological Modelling System) STORMS 2000
HFAM ( Hydrocomp Forecast and Analysis SWMHYMO version 4.02
Modeling ) TOC
HSPF TR-20
HYDAT CD-ROM 1998-1.05.8 TR-55, Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds
HYDSTAT version 2.0
Hydraflow Hydrographs version 6 Unit Hydrograph Method
HYSIM ( Hydrological Simulation Model) Visual OTTHYMO version 2.0
MIDUSS Version 2 ( Microcomputer Interactive WMS ( Watershed Modeling System )
Design of Urban Stormwater Systems)
MLRP (Multiple linear Regression program)

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Software for the Analysis / Design of Storm Sewers and


Culverts (MTO)
CAP ( Culvert Analysis HydroCulv version 1.2
Program ) NETWORX
CEPIPE Manning's Calculator
CIA version 2.0.1
CulvertMaster PIPECAP
FlowMaster version 6 Steady State Hydraulics -
GWN-STORM HYDR
HY8 StormCAD
HYDRA version 6 Storm Sewers
Hydraflow Storm Sewers The RIMS Program
Hydraulics Utility Programs
HydroCalc Hydraulics for
Windows

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Software for Detention Storage Design (MTO)


The BASINOPT Program MODRET
version 2.70 PONDPOPT
BAS (Basin Analysis PondPack version 7 for
System) Windows
CEPIPE QHM
Filter Drain Watershed Modelling
Hydraflow Hydrographs
version 6
HydroRout version 1.0

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Software for Channel Routing Analysis (MTO)


AquaDyn PCSWMM 2000
BRANCH (The Branch-Network Dynamic RIPRAP Design System
Flow Model) ROUTE
BSDMS (The Bridge Scour Data SECTION
Management System) SMS (Surface-water Modelling System)
CHAN StormShed
CGAP (Channel Geometry Analysis Surface Profile Calculator for Windows
Program )
FLEXLIN SWMM4.4 (Storm Water Management
Model)
FLOWPROF The CHANNEL Program version 2.02
FlowMaster version 6 UNET
HEC-2 WaterWorks
HEC-6 Water Surface Profiles
HEC-RAS (The River Analysis System ) WSPG
H&H Utility Suite WSPRO (Water-Surface Profiles)
HIVEL2D
HydroChan version 1.0
ICPR (Interconnected Channel and Pond
Routing Model)

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April 17th Final Exam


Time: 3pm arrive early
Location
o Sections 5 9: TRS 2-166
o Sections 1 4: TRS 3-176

Format
o Formula sheets (single, double-sided, letter sized, hand-
written)
o multiple choice, true/false
o numerical questions, short answers

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April 17th Final Exam

Review
o Lecture slides and classroom solved examples
o Relevant textbook sections
o Tutorial problems
o Suggested textbook problems
Consultation hours
o Wednesday (Apr 13) 10-12
o Thursday (Apr 14) between 10am and 4pm
o Monday (Apr 18) between 1pm and 4pm

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April 17th Final Exam


Test of key concepts taught
L7 Measurements and monitoring
o A number of concepts discussed
Why, where, how?
Precipitation
Streamflow
Evaporation and Transpiration
Remote Sensing
Monitoring networks
o Discharge measurement (tutorial)
o LSRCA video

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April 17th Final Exam


L8 Urban hydrology
o Effects of urbanization on runoff quantity and quality
o Rational method for calculation of peak flows Q KCiA
Time of concentration > i from IDF curves/equations
o TR-55 method
Chapter 2 Estimating Runoff
Chapter 3 Time of Concentration and Travel Time
Chapter 4 Graphical Peak Discharge Method

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April 17th Final Exam


L9 Design of urban drainage systems
o Sewer design
Runoff (peak) flows Rational Method
Q = KCiA (K = 1 for Imperial units - cfs, in/hr, ac)
(K = 2.78 for SI units L/s, mm/hr, ha)
Also need the time of concentration to determine the appropriate i
Pipe design Mannings formula for circular channels
Velocity
k 2 3 12 A
V Rh S , Rh
n P
Flow rate
k 2 1
Q ARh 3 S 2
n
k=1 (SI), 1.49 (Imp)

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April 17th Final Exam


L9 Design of urban drainage systems
o Detention facilities design
Modified Rational Method

Modified Puls Method (Lecture 6)

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April 17th Final Exam


L9 Design of urban drainage systems
o Low Impact Development (LID)
Non-structural practices
Rainwater Harvesting
Green Roof
Downspout Disconnection
Soakaways, Infiltration Trenches
and Chambers
Bioretention Cells
Vegetated Filter Strip
Permeable Pavement
Enhanced Grass Swale
Dry Swale
Perforated Pipe Systems
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April 17th Final Exam


L10 & L11 Groundwater hydrology and wells
o Key concepts (porosity, void ratio, piezometric head, etc.)
o Darcys Law
dh p
Q KA , Piezometric head h z C
dx

o Specific discharge (q)


o Hydraulic conductivity (K) (standard, field)
o Hydraulic gradient and applications
o Wells radial flow
Unconfined
Confined
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The End

Thank you and good luck on your exams

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