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VISIONIAS

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ANSWERS & EXPLANATION


GENERAL STUIDES (P) TEST 2122 (2017)

Q 1.D

Statement 1 is correct. The revolutionaries failed in their stated objective of leading a mass-base struggle
or failed even to establish contact with the masses. The politics of the revolutionary nationalists had
severe limitations. It could not mobilize the masses. In fact, it had no base among the people. They
believed in individual heroism.
Statement 2 is correct. Government's strong action gradually decimated the revolutionary ranks. With
the death of Chandrashekar Azad on 27 February 1931 in an encounter with the police in a public park at
Allahabad, the revolutionary movement in northern India came to a virtual end. Surya Sen's martyrdom
marked the virtual collapse of revolutionary terrorism in Bengal.
Statement 3 is correct. The different revolutionary groups had different objectives and they worked in
isolated groups with no central leadership.

Q 2.C

GANDHI-IRWIN PACT On January 25, 1931 Gandhi and all other members of the CWC were released
unconditionally. The CWC authorised Gandhi to initiate discussions with the viceroy. As a result of these
discussions, a pact was signed between the viceroy, representing the British Indian Government, and Gandhi,
representing the Indian people, in Delhi on February 14, 1931. This Delhi Pact, also known as the Gandhi-
Irwin Pact, placed the Congress on an equal footing with the Government. Irwin on behalf of the Government
agreed on immediate release of all political prisoners not convicted of violence;

remission of all fines not yet collected;


return of all lands not yet sold to third parties;
lenient treatment to those government servants who had resigned;
right to make salt in coastal villages for personal consumption (not for sale);
right to peaceful and non-aggressive picketing; and
withdrawal of emergency ordinances.

The viceroy, however, turned down two of Gandhi's demands- (i) public inquiry into police excesses, and (ii)
commutation of Bhagat Singh and his comrades' death sentence to life sentence.

Gandhi on behalf of the Congress agreed:

to suspend the civil disobedience movement, and


to participate in the next RTC on the constitutional question around the three lynch-pins of federation,
Indian responsibility, and reservations and safeguards which may be necessary for India's interests
(covering such areas as defence, external affairs, position of minorities, financial credit of India and
discharge of other obligations).

Q 3.B

During NCM 1920 Congress volunteer corps emerged as the parallel police.
Talks between Gandhi and Reading, the viceroy, broke down in May 1921 as the Government wanted
Gandhi to urge the Ali brothers to remove those portions from speeches which suggested violence. Gandhi
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realised that the Government was trying to drive a wedge between him and the Khilafat leaders and
refused to fall into the trap. In December, the Government came down heavily on the protestors.
Volunteer corps were declared illegal, public meetings were banned, the press was gagged and most of the
leaders barring Gandhi were arrested. Hence 1 and 3 are correct.
Parallel Government were present during CDM 1930 - Sholapur QIM 1942 - Ballia, Tamluk, Satara.
1879- Poona by Vasudev Balvant Phadke. Hence 2 is incorrect.

Q 4.D

Post surat split, the British formulated a three pronged policy to contain both moderates and extremists at
once using Repression-Conciliation-Suppression.
The Extremists were to be Repressed in the first phase mildly to scare off the moderates, then the
moderates were to be placated by promising some concession. Once, the moderates dissociate themselves
with the extremists , the extremists were to be suppressed with the might of the state
To some extent the policy succeeded in causing a rift between the moderates and the extermists

Q 5.A

Hali system refers to hereditary bonded labour performed by kalipraj community for upper caste
landowners in Bardoli district.
Post non-cooperation movement congress workers did intense constructive work for their upliftment in
the region.

Q 6.A

Statement 1 is correct. Swarajists advocated the revival of the constitutional method of struggle and
participation in the elections to the Central Legislative Assembly to be held in 1934. Led this time by Dr.
M.A. Ansari, Asaf Ali, Satyamurthy, Bhulabhai Desai and B.C. Roy, the new Swarajists argued that in a
period of political apathy and depression, when the Congress was no longer in a position to sustain a mass
movement, it was necessary to utilize elections and work in the legislative councils to keep up the political
interest and morale of the people.
Statement 2 is not correct. However, this did not amount, they said, to having faith in the capacity of
constitutional politics to achieve freedom. It only meant opening up another political front which would
help build up the Congress, organizationally extend its influence, and prepare the people for the next mass
struggle.
Statement 3 is not correct. There were sharp differences between Nehru and the leftists on the one side
and proponents of council-entry on the other. To Nehru, the withdrawal of the Civil Disobedience
Movement and council-entry or the recourse to constructive programmes represented a 'spiritual defeat'
and a surrender of ideals.

Q 7.B

A significant feature of the Quit India Movement was the emergence of what came to be known as
parallel governments in some parts of the country. The first one was proclaimed in Ballia, in East U P, in
August 1942 under the leadership of Chittu Pande, who called himself a Gandhian.
In Tamluk in the Midnapur district of Bengal, the Jatiya Sarkar came into existence on 17 December,
1942 and lasted till September 1944. The Jatiya Sarkar undertook cyclone relief work, gave grants to
schools and organized an armed Vidyut Vahini. It also set up arbitration courts and distributed the surplus
paddy of the well to-do to the poor. Being located in a relatively remote area, it could continue its
activities with comparative ease.

Q 8.C

The Pledge of Independence Declaration of Purna Swaraj was read at Lahore Congress on January 26,
1930.
The "Indian Declaration of Independence" of 26 December 1929 boldly stated: "We believe that it is the
inalienable right of the Indian people, as of any other people, to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of
their toil and have the necessities of life, so that they may have full opportunities of growth. We believe
also that if any government deprives people of these rights and oppresses them; the people have a further
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right to alter it or to abolish it. The British Government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of
their freedom but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, and has ruined India economically,
politically, culturally and spiritually. We believe therefore, that India must severe the British connection
and attain Purna Swaraj or complete independence."
The Congress declared 26 January 1930 as 'Independence Day', when the Declaration of Independence
was officially promulgated.
Q 9.D
Indian Mirror was an english paper founded by Debendranath Tagore, at Calcutta in 1862.
Swadesamitran was a Tamil language newspaper that was published from the then Madras city from
1882 to 1985. One of the earliest Tamil newspapers and the longest in print, Swadesamitran was founded
by Indian nationalist G. Subramania Iyer four years after he had started The Hindu.
Sudharak - GK Gokhale
Q 10.D
Tebhaga movement saw involvement of women at high level. It saw widespread autonomous action of the
"proletariat and semi proletariat women:, belonging to dalit and tribal communities. Through their own
initiative they formed Nari Bahinis or women's brigades and resisted the colonial police with whatever
weapon they could lay their hands on.
The Government of India Act of 1935 were granted reservation in 41 seats in the provincial legislatures as
well as limited reservation in central legislature.
Women's Indian Association was started by enlightened European and Indian ladies, the most important
being Margaret Cousins and Annie Besant.
The Rani of Jhansi Regiment was the Women's Regiment of the Indian National Army, the armed force
formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in Southeast Asia with the aim of overthrowing the British Raj in
colonial India , with Japanese assistance. It was one of the very few all-female combat regiments of the
Second World War on any side. Led by Captain Lakshmi Swaminathan (better known as Lakshmi
Sehgal), the unit was raised in July 1943 with volunteers from the expatriate Indian population in South
East Asia The unit was named the Rani of Jhansi Regiment after Lakshmi Bai, Rani of Jhansi
Q 11.D
Lala Lajpat Rai was one of the leaders of the Anti Simon Commission agitation.During the agitation Lala
Lajpat Rai received severe blows on his chest in October 1928 which proved fatal and he died on
November 17, 1928.
Servants of the People Society was founded by Lala Lajpat Rai in 1921 at Lahore, which was inaugurated
by Mahatma Gandhi.
Lala Lajpat Rai was a devotee of Arya Samaj and was editor of Arya Gazette, which he set up during his
student time. He was actively associated with the management of the Punjab National Bank in its early
years.
Q 12.D
In October 2016, a bilateral agreement for cooperation in the development of a network of integrated
infrastructure irradiation centres was signed between the Indian Agricultural Association, Hindustan Agro Co-
Op Ltd (HACL) and United Innovation Corporation (UIC), a subsidiary of ROSATOM State Atomic Energy
Corporation of Russia, on the sidelines of the BRICS Business Forum in Delhi.
The chemical fumigants used for the control of insect pests, and microbial decontamination of food
commodities are being phased out on account of their harmful effects on human health and environment.
Radiation processing / Agro-irradiation is a physical process in which food and agricultural commodities are
exposed to controlled doses of radiant energy to achieve desirable effects such as inhibition of sprouting and
ripening, and destroying insect pests, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Gamma rays from
radioisotope cobalt-60 and electron beams or X-rays from machine based radiation sources can be used for
processing food commodities.
Major technological benefits that can be achieved by radiation processing of food and agricultural
commodities include:
Disinfestation of insect pests in stored products
Disinfestation of quarantine pests to overcome international trade barriers
Delay in ripening and senescence in fruits and vegetables
Inhibition of sprouting in tubers, bulbs and rhizomes
Destruction of microbes responsible for food spoilage
Elimination of parasites and pathogens of public health importance in food

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Q 13.A

Pair 1 is matched correctly: Sachindra Nath Sanyal was a well known Indian freedom fighter and one
of the most significant Indian revolutionaries. He was the founder of the revolutionary organisation
Hindustan Republican Association (HRA), which was established to conduct protest and opposition
against the rule of the British Empire in India. Sachindra Nath Sanyal was detained for the Kakori train
robbery and eventually he was sentenced to life after the trial. He was imprisoned in the Cellular Jail in
the Andamans. During his imprisonment, he wrote the renowned book Bandi Jiwan, meaning A Life of
Captivity.
Pair 2 is not matched correctly: Philosophy of Bomb was written by Bhagwati Chandra Vohra.
Bhagwati Charan Vohra was associated with Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. Praful Chaki
was a Bengali revolutionary associated with Jugantar group of revolutionaries who was involved in the
Muzaffarnagar conspiracy case along with Khudiram Bose.
Pair 3 is not matched correctly: On the Path to Liberation was written by Bhagat Singh. He also wrote
Why I am Atheist.

Q 14.B

Emissions gap is the difference between the emissions levels in 2020 necessary to meet climate targets
and the levels expected that year if countries fulfill their promises to cut greenhouse gases. It is published
by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
The emissions gap reveals how much more needs to be done by countries in order to meet the target of
keeping global warming levels below the 2C safe limit as agreed in the Paris climate accord last year.

Q 15.C

Statement 1 is not correct. Gandhi evolved the technique of satyagraha during his stay in South Africa. It
was based on truth and non violence. Its basic tenets are:

A satyagrahi was not to submit to what he considered as wrong, but was to always remain truthful, non-
violent and fearless.
He should be ready to accept suffering in his struggle against the evil doer. This suffering was to be a part
of his love for truth.
Even while carrying out his struggle against the evil doer, a true satyagrahi would love the evil-doer;
hatred would be alien to his nature.
A true satyagrahi would never bow before the evil, whatever the consequence.
Only the brave and strong could practise satyagraha, which was not for the weak and cowards. Even
violence was preferred to cowardice. Thought was never to be separated from practice.

Statement 2 is correct. Gandhiji was requested by Rajkumar Shukla to look into the problems of the indigo
planters, of Champaran in Bihar. The European planters had been forcing peasants to grow indigo on 3/20 of
the total land (called tinkathia system). When Gandhiji reached Champaran to probe into the matter, the
authorities ordered him to leave the area at once. Gandhiji defied the order and preferred to face the
punishment. This passive resistance or civil disobedience of an unjust order was a novel method at that time.

Statement 3 is correct. Gandhiji was joined by Rajendra Prasad, Mazhar-ul-haq, Mahadeo Desai, Narhari
Parekh, J. B. Kriplani in the movement.

Q 16.D

Three broad phases can be distinguished in the Quit India Movement:

predominantly urban phase;


countrywide movements, which saw the installation of a number of local 'national governments (Tamluk,
Satara, Talcher and Ballia) ; and
Terrorist activities by educated youth.

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Significance:

The Quit India Movement marked a new high in terms of popular participation in the national movement and
the youth were in the forefront of the struggle. Women especially college and school girls, played a very
important role. Aruna Asaf Ali and Sucheta Kripalani were two major women organizers of the underground,
and Usha Mehta an important member of the small group that ran the Congress Radio.

Peasants of all strata were the heart of the movement especially in East U.P. and Bihar, Midnapur in Bengal,
Satara in Maharashtra, Andhra, Gujarat and Kerala. A significant feature of the pattern of peasant activity
was its total concentration on attacking symbols of British authority and a total lack of any incidents of anti-
zamindar violence. Thus it was not a non-violent movement.

Q 17.D

Swadeshi movement was initiated against the partition of Bengal in 1905. It was led by extremist of
Indian National Congress and had support of the moderates as well.
It led to boycott of British goods like liverpool salt, Manchester cloth etc. The protest against british
goods led to dropping of british textile y five to fifteen times.
However, the most important aspect of the movement was focus on self reliance or atma-shakti which led
to development of indigenous industries and nationalistic institutes like Bengal National College
founded by Aurobindo Ghosh, Bengal Technical Institute, National council of Education. Funds
were also raised to send students Japan for advanced learning.

Q 18.D

Rajagopalachari formula was an effort towards the Congress-League co-operation in constitutional


reforms. In 1944 when it became clear that Allied would win, Indian nationalists decided to put pressure
on the British. But at that time there was a deadlock between Congress and the Muslim League. The CR
plan tried to resolve this deadlock. (statement 1 is not correct)
The plan was also endorsed by Gandhi. (statement 2 is correct)
After the end of the war, the entire population of Muslim majority areas in the North-West and North-East
India were to decide by a plebiscite, whether or not to form a separate sovereign state. In case of
acceptance of partition, agreement was to be made jointly for safeguarding defence, commerce,
communications, etc. (statement 3 is correct). Jinnah wanted only the Muslims of North-West and North-
East to vote in the plebiscite and not the entire population. He also opposed the idea of a common centre.

Q 19.C

Statement 1 is incorrect. Congress had gradually developed a foreign policy based on opposition to the
spread of imperialism. So, it strongly advocated for independence of other Asian and African countries.
Statement 2 is correct. The Congress had always opposed the use of the Indian army and of India's
resources to serve British interests in Africa and Asia. The congress considered it a burden on Indian
exchequer to further colonial aims.
Statement 3 is incorrect. It condemned fascism which had arisen in Italy, Germany and Japan as the
most extreme form of imperialism and racialism and gave full support to the people of Ethiopia, Spain,
Czechoslovakia, and China in their fight against aggression by the fascist powers.

Q 20.C

Statement 1 is not correct: At its Nagpur session (December, 1920) the Congress approved and ratified the
policy of non violent non cooperation towards the unjust government. At Lahore session (1929), Congress
adopted Poorna Swaraj resolution.

Statement 2 is correct: The Indian National congress outlined a seven-item programme of non-cooperation.

Surrender of titles and honorary offices.


Refusal to attend government official and non-official functions.
Boycott of government and government-aided schools and colleges.
Boycott of British courts.
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Refusal of all classes to offer themselves for service in Mesopotamia.
Boycott of elections to provincial and central assembly.
Boycott of British goods.

Statement 3 is correct: At Chauri Chaura on 5 February 1922, the police stationed there fired at a group of
demonstrators. The demonstrators retaliated by burning down the police station, which caused the death of
twenty-two policemen. Gandhiji had all through the movement emphasized on peace and non-violence. After
this incident he called off the movement.

Q 21.C

Statement 1 is correct. Stubble burning refers to the burning of agricultural residue. It adds to the
atmosphere, greenhouse gases that cause global warming, besides pollutants such as carbon monoxide,
ammonia, nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide and a high quality of PM2.5 that severely affect human
health. It not only pollutes the air but also deprives the land of useful nutrients. It is not exclusive to
shifting cultivation. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
Stubble burning in the northern States significantly contributes to the poor air quality in large parts of the
Indo-Gangetic Basin, with local and cascading impacts felt from Punjab all the way to West Bengal. It is
one of the most significant reasons for increasing pollution in the NCR region in winters that has become
a regular menace. Therefore statement 3 is correct.

Q 22.D

Statement 1 is correct. The Khilafat movement was an agitation by Indian Muslims, allied with Indian
nationalists, to pressure the British government to preserve the authority of the Ottoman Sultan as Caliph
of Islam after World War I. The leadership included the Ali brothers Muhammad-Ali (1878-1931) and
Shaukat Ali (1873-1938) newspaper editors from Delhi; their spiritual guide Maulana Abdul Bari (1878-
1926) of Firangi Mahal, Lucknow; Abul Kalam Azad (1888-1958); and Maulana Mahmud ul-Hasan
(1851-1920), head of the madrasa at Deoband, in northern India.
Statement 2 is correct. The Khilafat agitation brought urban Muslims into the nationalist movement and
contributed to a sense of national unity as there was a predominant element of anti-imperialism in both the
National and Khilafat Movement.
Statement 3 is correct. Comrade, Zamindar, Al Hilal amd Hamdard reflected the concerns of the
educated Muslims during the Khilafat agitation. The helped in maintaing the anti- British and pan-Islamic
sentiments. The Comrade was a weekly English-language newspaper that was published and edited by
Maulana Mohammad Ali between 1911 and 1914. The Al-Hilal (The Crescent) was a weekly Urdu
language newspaper established by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.

Q 23.A

It was during Bardoli Satyagraha that an internal intelligence wing was created to gather information
about future moves of government, and to shadow fellow peasansts who were indecisive in not paying
their dues.
The leadership of the movement was undertaken by Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, who divided the taluq into
thirteen workers camps or chhavanis each under the charge of an experienced leader.
The movement was launched against the irrational revised revenue assessment of the land by the
government in the bardoli region.

Q 24.B

During the second world war, as the war situation worsened, President Roosevelt of the USA and
President Chiang Kai-Shek of China as also the Labour Party leaders of Britain put pressure on Churchill
to seek the active cooperation of Indians in the War. To secure this cooperation the British Government
sent to India in March 1942 a mission headed by a Cabinet minister Stafford Cripps, a left wing Labourite
who had earlier actively supported the Indian national movement.

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Q 25.C

Statement 1 is incorrect. There was no such debate in 1945 election. The debate between Swarajists and
no-changers was a characteristic of 1920s and 1930s elections.
Statement 2 is correct. The INA question was the main issue highlighted from the Congress platform in
meetings held all over the country - in fact, very often it was difficult to distinguish between an INA and
an election meeting.
Statement 3 is incorrect. The Muslim league performed better compared to the elections of 1937. It
gained 86.6% of the muslim votes and got majority in Bengal and Sindh. Compared to 1937 elections, the
League clearly established itself as the dominant party among Muslims.

Q 26.B

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic,
and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders
of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. These countries, except for
Uzbekistan had been members of the Shanghai Five, founded in 1996; after the inclusion of Uzbekistan
in 2001, the members renamed the organisation. On July 10, 2015, the SCO decided to
admit India and Pakistan as full members.India and Pakistan signed the memorandum of obligations on 24
June 2016 at Tashkent, thereby starting the formal process of joining the SCO as full members. The
acceptance process will take some months, by which they are expected to become full members by the
next meeting at Astana in 2017.
The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) came
into being in 1997 through the Bangkok Declaration. It comprises of seven Member States lying in the
littoral and adjacent areas of the Bay of Bengal. Five deriving from South Asia, including Bangladesh,
Bhutan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Two from Southeast Asia, including Myanmar and Thailand.In
October 2016, BIMSTEC summit was convened in Goa, India.
WTO was born out of negotiations, and everything the WTO does is the result of negotiations. The bulk
of the WTOs current work comes from the 1986-94 negotiations called the Uruguay Round and earlier
negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO is currently the
host to new negotiations, under the Doha Development Agenda launched in 2001.
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental
organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia. Its member states include Afghanistan,
Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, the Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The idea of co-operation in
South Asia was discussed in at least three conferences: the Asian Relations Conference held in New
Delhi on April 1947; the Baguio Conference in the Philippines on May 1950; and the Colombo Powers
Conference held in Sri Lanka in April 1954. SAARC was founded in Dhaka in 1985. Its secretariat is
based in Kathmandu. The organization promotes development of economic and regional integration.

Q 27.A

RUSTOM-II (TAPAS 201), a multi-mission UAV developed by DRDO with the aim of carrying out the
Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) roles for the three Armed Forces with an endurance
of 24 hours. It is a Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAV.
The UAV can also be used as an unmanned armed combat vehicle on the lines of the USs Predator
drone. The test flight took place from Aeronautical Test Range(ATR), Chitradurga, 250 km from
Bangalore, which is a newly developed flight test range for the testing of UAVs and manned aircraft.
It is capable to carry different combinations of payloads like Medium Range Electro Optic (MREO), Long
Range Electro Optic (LREO), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Electronic Intelligence (ELINT),
Communication Intelligence (COMINT) and Situational Awareness Payloads (SAP) to perform missions
during day and night.
The making of TAPAS is an example of the Make-in-India initiative as many critical systems such as
airframe, landing gear, and flight control and avionics sub-systems are being developed in India with the
collaboration of private industries.

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Q 28.D

The main proposals of the Wavell Plan were - With the exception of the governor-general and the
commander-in-chief, all members of the executive council were to be Indians. Caste Hindus and Muslims
were to have equal representation. Hence both statements 1 and 2 are correct.
Statement 3 is correct: To discuss the provisions of the Wavell Plan, 21 Indian political leaders were
invited to the Shimla conference. The leaders included Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Mohammad Ali
Jinnah.

Q 29.C

The Congress decided to contest the elections under the Act of 1935, with the declared aim of showing
how unpopular the Act was. The Act didnt have any provision for Prime Minister. The provisions of
Nehru report could not have been implemented through formation of provincial governments, for which
election was conducted.

Q 30.C

Muzzafarpur Conspiracy- Attempt on Kingsford, Judge of Muzaffarpur by Prafful Chaki & Khudi Ram
Bose in 1908
Alipore Conspiracy Case- Aurobindo Ghosh arrested
Delhi Conspiracy Case (1911)- Sanchin Sanyal and Rash Behari Bose were accused of attempting to
assassinate Lord Hardinge
Kanpur Conspiracy Case (1924)- British government started the case against four communists-Muzaffar
Ahmed, S.A.Dange, Shaukat Usmani and Nalni Gupta. The government alleged that the Communists
wanted to deprive the British King of the sovereignty of British India.
Kakori Conspiracy Case- On August 9, 1925, ten revolutionaries held up the train from Saharanpur to
Lucknow at Kakori and looted its official railway cash. Asfaqullah Khan, Rumprasad Bismil and Roshan
Lehri were hanged.
Lahore Conspiracy Case- Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Raj Guru assassinated Saunders, a police official, at
Lahore to avenge Lala Lajpat Rais death. (December 1928)
Meerut Conspiracy Case (1929)- Bhagat Singh & Batukeswar Dutt were asked to throw a bomb in the
Central Legislative Assembly on April 8th 1929 against the passage of Public Safety Bill & Trade
Disputes Bill.

Q 31.D

Among the principle sources from which the Government of India Act, 1935 drew its material were:

Indian Statutory Commission Report (popularly known as Simon Commission report),


The report of the All Parties Conference (the Nehru Report),
White paper issued after the discussions at the three round table conferences in 1933, which gave details
of the working basis of the new constitution of India i.e. dyarchy at the Centre and responsible
government.
The Joint select committee report and
The Lothian report, which determined the electoral provisions of the act.

Q 32.D

ZED Scheme aims to rate and handhold all MSMEs to deliver top quality products using clean
technology. It will have sector-specific parameters for each industry.
The slogan of Zero Defect, Zero Effect (ZED) was first mentioned by PM Narendra Modi in his
Independence Day speech in 2014. It was given for producing high quality manufacturing products with a
minimal negative impact on environment.
The scheme will also be cornerstone of the Central Governments flagship Make in India programme,
which is aimed at turning India into a global manufacturing hub, generating jobs, boosting growth and
increase incomes. Further, it will promote development and implementation of clean technology products.

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Q 33.B

Both Moderates and Extremists Indian nationalist leaders, including Lokamanya Tilak, decided to support
the war effort of the Government. The leaders' hope was that a grateful Britain would repay Indias
loyalty with economic and political concessions enabling India to take a long step towards self-
government.

Q 34.D

The Finance Ministry has set up a Public Debt Management Cell (PDMC). It is an interim arrangement
and will be upgraded to a statutory Public Debt Management Agency (PDMA) in about two years.
Its main purpose is to allow separation of debt management functions from RBI to PDMA in a gradual
and seamless manner, without causing market disruptions. It will only have advisory functions to avoid
conflict with statutory functions of the RBI. Also, It will plan government borrowings as well as manage
its liabilities.

Q 35.C

Statement 1 is correct: Delhi Manifesto - On November 2, 1929, a conference of prominent national


leaders issued a Delhi Manifesto which demanded that the purpose of the Round Table Conference
(RTC) should be to - formulate a scheme for implementation of the dominion status (thus acting as a
constituent assembly) and the basic principle of dominion status should be immediately accepted; - that
the Congress should have majority representation at the conference; - amnesty and a general policy of
conciliation.
Statement 2 is correct: Viceroy Irwin rejected these demands on December 23, 1929, which led to the
demand of Purna swaraj in Lahore session of INC.

Q 36.C

Statement 1 is not correct. It was related to a dispute between the workers and the Gujarati millowners
regarding the withdrawal of the plague-bonus, which was being given to dissuade workers from leaving
the city in face of mounting plague-related deaths. This withdrawal came at a time when the workers were
already facing hard times from the unusual high prices caused by World War I.
Statement 2 is correct. Gandhiji asked the workers to go on a strike and demand a 35% increase in
wages. Gandhiji advised the workers to remain non-violent while on strike. He undertook a fast unto death
to strengthen the resolve of workers. The fast also had the effect of putting pressure on mill owners
who finally agreed to give the workers a 35% increase in wages. It was the first instance of a hunger-
strike by Gandhiji in India.
Statement 3 is correct. This movement went a long way in mobilizing and organising the working
classes in Ahemdabad, paving the way for foundation of the Textile Labour Association in February,
1920.

Q 37.D

Statement 1 is correct: The idea of establishing a Penal Settlement in these islands was germinated in the
minds of the British Rulers in 1857, to deal effectively with those who revolted against their paramount
power during Indias First War of Independence. A committee of experts consisting of Dr. F. J.
Mouat, Dr. G. R. Play fair and Lt. J.S. Heatcote visited the islands for a survey on 8th December 1857
and submitted a report to the Government of India on 15th January 1858 and the Union Jack was hoisted
on 22nd January 1858 by Capt. H.Man the Executive Engineer, who was deputed to take formal
possession of the islands.
Statement 2 is correct: Group of revolutionaries involved in Alipore Bomb case, Nasik Conspiracy Case,
Lahore Conspiracy Case, Chittagong Armoury Raid case, Inter-Provincial Conspiracy Case, Gaya
Conspiracy Case etc were brought to the Cellular Jail with long terms of imprisonment.
Statement 3 is correct: Savarkar's revolutionary activities began while studying in India and England,
where he was associated with the India House and founded student societies including Abhinav Bharat
Society and the Free India Society, as well as publications espousing the cause of complete Indian
independence by revolutionary means. Savarkar published The Indian War of Independence about the

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Indian rebellion of 1857 that was banned by British authorities. He was arrested in 1910 for his
connections with the revolutionary group India House.

Q 38.C

WHO has recency recommended a tax on sugary drinks to increase the retail price by 20 per cent or
more. A tax on sugary beverages raising their price would result in a proportionate reduction in their
consumption that would advance the fight against obesity, which has more than doubled since 1980.
About half a billion adults were obese in 2014, roughly 11 percent of men and 15 percent of
women. Excess calories contribute to overweight and obesity as they can be readily converted to body fat
and stored within various tissues.

Q 39.D

Marxist and Socialist Ideas inspired many socialist and communist groups to come into existence and
resulted in the rise of a left wing, within the Congress, represented by Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash
Bose. These young nationalists, inspired by the Soviet Revolution and dissatisfied with Gandhian ideas
and political programme, began advocating radical solutions for economic, political and social ills of the
country;
These younger nationalists
- were critical both of Swarajists and No-changers
- advocated a more consistent anti-imperialist line in the form of a slogan for purna swarajya (complete
independence).
- were influenced by awareness, though still vague, of international currents
- stressed the need to combine nationalism and anti-imperialism with social justice and simultaneously
raised the question of internal class oppression by capitalists and landlords.
Hence all the statements are correct.

Q 40.A

The Congress had organised a National Conference on Education in 1937 in Wardha. In the light of the
resolutions passed there, Zakir Hussain Committee formulated a detailed national scheme for basic
education. The main principle behind this scheme was 'learning through activity'. Hence, statement 1 is
correct.
It was based on Gandhiji's ideas published in a series of articles in the weekly 'Harijan'. Gandhiji thought
that western education had created a gulf between the educated few and the masses and had also made the
educated elite ineffective. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
Following Wardha conference, a committee under Dr. Zakir Hussain was appointed to formulate the
scheme of the basic education. The aim of the basic education was to develop the qualities of the ideal
citizenship and more aspect should be give to the Indian culture than the literacy. Also, - There was no
place for English in the curriculum. There was no place for religious education in this scheme. The
scheme centred around manual productive work which might cover the remuneration of the teachers. It
envisaged a seven year course through the mother tongue of the students.
There was not much development on the ideas of basic education laid down by Wardha scheme because
of the start of the Second World War and the resignation of Congress ministries in 1939. Hence,
statement 3 is not correct.

Q 41.D

The recommendations of the Nehru Report were not acceptable to Jinnah. He proposed certain amendments in
the Nehru Report at the All Parties Conference held at Calcutta in 1928 but his demands were not accepted.
Jinnah in 1929 gave fourteen points which were to become the basis of all future propaganda of the Muslim
League.

The demands included:

Federal Constitution with residual powers to provinces.


Provincial autonomy.

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No constitutional amendment by the centre without the concurrence of the states constituting the Indian
federation.
All legislatures and elected bodies to have adequate representation of Muslims in every province without
reducing a majority of Muslims in a province to a minority or equality.
Adequate representation to Muslims in the services and in self governing bodies.
One-third Muslim representation in the Central Legislature.
In any cabinet at the centre or in the provinces, onethird to be Muslims.
Separate electorates.
No bill or resolution in any legislature to be passed if three-fourths of a minority community consider
such a bill or resolution to be against their interests.
Any territorial redistribution not to affect the Muslim majority in Punjab, Bengal and NWFP.
Separation of Sindh from Bombay.
Constitutional reforms in the NWFP and Baluchistan.
Full religious freedom to all communities.
Protection of Muslim rights in religion, culture, education and language.

Q 42.D

Just when the nationalists were expecting post-War constitutional concessions, the Government came out
with the repressive Rowlatt Act which the nationalists took as an insult. Gandhi called for a nationwide
protest in February 1919. But soon, having seen the constitutional protest fail, Gandhi organised a
Satyagraha Sabha and roped in younger members of Home Rule Leagues and the Pan Islamists.
(Statement 1 and 2 correct). The forms of protest finally chosen included observance of a nationwide
hartal (strike) accompanied by fasting and prayer, and civil disobedience against specific laws, and
courting arrest and imprisonment. (Statement 3 correct). Hence all the statements are correct.

Q 43.C

The Deccan Riots of 1875 targeted conditions of debt peonage (kamiuti) to moneylenders. The sole
purpose of the rioters was to obtain and destroy the bonds, decrees, and other documents in the possession
of the moneylenders. The Deccan peasants mainly directed their revolt to the excesses of the
Marwari and the Gujarat moneylenders. (Hence, statement 1 is not correct).
The Deccan riot was the upshot of a number of adverse circumstances. The excessive government land
revenue, slump in the international cotton prices at the end of the American Civil War etc made the
economic condition of the Deccan peasants extremely miserable. They were immersed in enormous debts.
The greedy Marwari and the Gujarat moneylenders adept in the art of manipulation drew unjust tax and
money from the peasants. The peasants being illiterate unknowingly signed the bond without having a
proper knowledge of what is there in the bond. The civil courts invariably gave verdicts in favor of the
exorbitant moneylenders.
Initially the movement was peaceful with peasants resorting to social boycott of outside moneylenders.
Later the movement turned into riots and the peasants attacked moneylender houses and shops. The
peasant uprising spread to most of the Taluks of the Ahmednagar district.The Government of India put the
Police assisted by the military into action in order to put an end to the revolt. By June 1875 nearly a
thousand peasants were arrested and the uprising was completely suppressed.
Finally the Government of India appointed the Deccan Riots Commission to investigate into the
causes of the uprising. (Hence, statement 2 is not correct)
The Agriculturists Relief Act of 1879 passed several measures for the betterment of the Deccan
peasants. The Act put restrictions on the alienation of the peasants land and imposed some restrictions on
the Civil Procedure Code. As a result the Peasant could not be arrested and sent to the civil debtors jail
owing to the failure of paying debts. (Hence, statement 3 is correct).

Q 44.A

Statement 1 is correct. Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps are places where chemical-rich fluids emanate
from the seafloor, often providing the energy to sustain lush communities of life in some very harsh
environments. Hence statement 2 is not correct.

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Recently, US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA's) Deepwater Exploration
discovered 500 new deep-sea vents of methane all along the USs western seaboard. This brings the
count to 1,000 known vents.
Worldwide, scientists are trying to see if rising ocean temperatures cause more leaks. Methane naturally
escapes from the sea floor in many places around the world and can stoke global warming if it reaches the
atmosphere.

Q 45.D

Seaweed farming is the practice of cultivating and harvesting seaweed. The main food species grown by
seaweed aquaculture include Gelidium, Pterocladia, Porphyra, Laminaria etc. Recently, the Central Marine
Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) has transferred seaweed cultivation technology to the Andaman
administration. In India the Gulf of Mannar, Gulf of Kutch, Andaman islands are the important areas for
seaweed culture.

Seaweed farming has the following unique advantages:

It is widely perceived as one of the most environmentally benign types of aquaculture activity, as it does
not require additional feed or fertilisers.
Seaweed cultivation also filters undesired nutrients and improves the marine environment and reduce
eutrophication.
Indirectly, seaweed farming has reduced over-fishing in many regions, providing coastal communities
with an alternative livelihood.
It has been actively promoted by government in many developing countries where communities have
reduced access to alternative livelihoods or are involved in destructive fishing methods like dynamite
fishing. In some places, women have become economically active for the first time.
Seaweed is also used in landscaping or to combat beach erosion.

Q 46.B

The Congress, for the first time at its Nagpur Session in 1920, enunciated its policy towards the peoples-
movement in the Princely States. It called upon the Princes to grant full responsible government in their
States. Hence statement 1 is correct. However, it was pointed out that though the people belonging to the
States could enroll themselves as members of the Congress, they could not initiate political activity in the
State in the name of the Congress. They could carry on political activity in their individual capacity as
members of the local Praja Mandals. Hence statement 3 is correct.
This policy of non-intervention in princely states by Congress continued till 1938. Hence statement 2 is
incorrect.

Q 47.A

Gandhiji and the dominant congress leadership felt that there did not exist in the country an atmosphere
for an immediate struggle. Neither the masses were ready nor was the Congress organizationally in a
position to launch a struggle. It was, therefore, necessary to carry on intense political work among the
people, to prepare them for struggle.
Subhash Bose believed the masses were fully ready for action and were only waiting for a call from the
leadership. He advocated for immediate mass Satyagraha. He even proposed a parallel congress to
organise an immediate struggle if the congress leadership was not willing to go along with them.
Nehru considered the allied powers as imperialists. But in his opinion, an early struggle would have
undermined the fight against Fascism. So he finally went along with Gandhiji and the congress majority.

Q 48.D

In December 1922, Chittaranjan Das, Narasimha Chintaman Kelkar and Motilal Nehru formed the
Congress-Khilafat Swarajaya Party with Das as the president and Nehru as one of the secretaries. Other
prominent leaders included Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Subhas Chandra Bose, Vithalbhai Patel and
other Congress leaders who were becoming dissatisfied with the Congress. Vithalbhai Patel was the first
Indian Speaker of Central Legislative Assembly from 1925 to 1930.

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The Swarajists sought more representation in the Congress offices, and an end to the mandatory
requirement for Congressmen to spin khadi cloth and do social service as a prerequisite for office.

Q 49.B

Yamanaka genes are the four essential genes that can reprogramme the cells in our body and can be used
to regenerate old cells or grow new organs. Collectively known as OSKM (for the initials of the genes,
Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Myc), these Yamanaka genes are named after Japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka.
Recently, scientists have found a stress factor, a pro-inflammatory molecule called interleukin-6 (IL6)
that may be responsible for reducing the efficiency of the Yamanaka genes. With this finding the
Yamanaka genes may finally result in practical therapy.

Q 50.A

M.K. Gandhi issued a manifesto in March 1920, announcing his doctrine of non-violent Non-Cooperation
Movement. He was the main force behind the movement and urged the people to adopt swadeshi
principles and habits including hand spinning, weaving and work for removal of untouchability. Subhash
Chandra Bose supported the movement and resigned from the civil service. He was appointed as the
principal of the National College in Calcutta. Subhash Bose in Calcutta played a major role in uniting the
Hindus and Muslims.

Q 51.B

The International North-South Transport Corridor is the ship, rail, and road route for moving freight
between India, Russia, Iran, Europe and Central Asia. The route primarily involves moving freight from
India, Iran, Azerbaijan and Russia via ship, rail and road.

Q 52.D

Statement 1 is not correct. Since the Congress had conceded a unified India, their other points were to be
met. Thus, independence for princely states was ruled out by the Mountbatten plan. The princely states
would either join India or Pakistan.
Statement 2 is not correct. The Legislative Assemblies of Bengal and the Punjab (excluding the
European members) were to meet each in two parts, one representing the Muslim majority districts and
the other the rest of the provinces. The Muslim Majority districts were specified in the statement. Each
part was to decide by a simple majority whether the province was to be partitioned or not. If either party
favored, partition was to be effected accordingly. Referendum was to be held in the N.W.F. Province to
decide whether that province would like to join Pakistan or India. The Legislative Assembly of Sind had
to decide at a special meeting whether Sind as a whole should join the Constituent Assembly at Delhi or a
new Constituent Assembly of areas which did not join it. The Muslim majority area of Sylhet in Assam
had to decide by referendum whether the district in question would like to remain a part of Assam or join
East Bengal which would constitute a part of Pakistan.

Q 53.B

It is a new awareness campaign for Swacch Bharat. Ministry of Urban Development will launch an
Asli Tarakki (Real development) campaign in the six cities of the National Capital Region with
450 select youth with communication skills and leadership qualities as lead motivators to promote
awareness about the need for sanitation.

Q 54.D

According to the Mountbatten Plan there would be complete transfer of power to the two new dominions India
and Pakistan and the Governor General appointed by the British king on advice of the Cabinet of the
concerned Dominion would govern till the new Constitutions were framed.

Though the nationalists deplored the partition of India; the All-India Congress Committee finally accepted the
Mountbatten Plan for the following reasons:

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The whole country was engulfed with large-scale communal riots over the partition of India. The
Congress was convinced that the only solution to the communal problem lay in the partition of India into
India and Pakistan.
The experience of working with the Muslim league had convinced the Congress that the League had
joined the Interim Government to obstruct and not to cooperate and that having a joint administration with
the League was not feasible.
The Congress also understood that the only alternative to partition was a Federation with a weak centre. A
smaller India with a strong central authority was better than a bigger State with a weak Centre.
The Congress got ready for partition as it would lead to immediate independence from the British because
any further continuation of British rule would mean a greater calamity for India as the British were
instigating the rulers of the Indian States to remain independent.
The Congress leaders felt that further delay in the transfer of power could find India in the midst of a Civil
War.
The leaders felt that partition would evolve India as a truly secular and democratic polity as it would get
rid of the Constitution of separate electorates and other undemocratic procedures.

Q 55.D

Abhinav Bharat Society (Young India Society) was a secret society founded by Vinayak Damodar
Savarkar and his brother Ganesh Damodar Savarkar in 1903. Initially founded at Nasik as Mitra Mela, the
society grew to include several hundred revolutionaries and political activists with branches in various
parts of India, extending to London after Savarkar went to study law. It carried out a few assassinations of
British officials, after which the Savarkar brothers were convicted and imprisoned. The society was
formally disbanded in 1952.
Anushilan Samiti was an armed anti-British organisation in Bengal and the principal secret revolutionary
organisation operating in the region in the opening years of the 20th century. Its activities included
making of bombs, arms training and assassination of British officials and Indians who they viewed as
"traitors".
HSRA was involved in the assasination of John Saunders, a British official.

Q 56.B

Statement 1 is correct: The British government was frightened by the spread of socialist and communist
ideas. The Bill proposed to acquire the power to deport 'undesirable' and 'subversive' foreigners.
Statement 2 is correct: The Swarajists passed a series of adjournment motions and defeated the
Government on the Public Safety Bill in 1928.
Statement 3 is not correct: The Bill was not supported by Indian capitalist class. Even the two
spokesmen of the capitalist class, Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G.D. Birla, firmly opposed the Bill.

Q 57.B

Statement 1 is not correct: Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan known as Badshah Khan, Sarhadi Gandhi
and Frontier Gandhi was a Pashtun leader and ardent follower of Mahtma Gandhi and was known for his
non-violent opposition to British Rule. He started the Khudai Khidmatgar movement (Servants of God).
Khudai Khidmatgar movement was a non-violent freedom struggle against the British Empire by the
Pashtuns or Pathans of the North-West Frontier Province led by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. The Khudai
Khidmatgar was founded on a belief in the power of Gandhis notion of Satyagraha, The volunteers of
Khudai Khidmatgar movement were also known as Surkho Posh or Red shirts and it was
initially a social reform organization focusing on education and the elimination of blood feuds from
Afghan society but turned more political later.
Statement 2 is correct: He started the first Pushto political monthly Pukhtoon. It aimed at teaching the
Pakhtoons industry, economy and self reliance by inculcating in them self respect and fear of God that
banished all other fears.
Statement 3 is not correct: He was the leader of Civil Disobedience movement in Peshawar. In April
1930, Abdul Ghaffar Khan was arrested for organising the Civil Disobedience movement .

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Q 58.A

The Logistics Efficiency Enhancement Program (LEEP) and Vehicle Fleet Modernization Program
(VMP) to improve Indias logistics efficiency is under consideration in Ministry of Road Transport and
Highways (MoRTH) (Statement 1 is correct). LEEP aims to enhance the freight transportation in India
through improving cost, time, tracking and transferability of consignments through infrastructure,
procedural and Information Technology (IT) interventions. (Statement 2 is incorrect).
The programme has been undertaken under Bharat Pariyojana bu NHAI. In order to drastically reduce the
time taken for conducting surveys, it has been decided to use latest technologies such as LiDAR, Satellite
mapping and Ground Penetration Radar.

Q 59.D

All the statements are correct.


The tana Bhagat movement emerged among the Mundas and Oraons of Chottanagpur region of Bihar
(1912-14) under the leadership of tribal mendicants known as Bhagat. It is after them that the movement
is known as Tana Bhagat. There were numerous Tana Bhagat movements which began initially as
Sanskritization movements to revive the original religion of the Oraons.
In the Tana Bhagat movement an attempt was made to emulate the way of life of the Hindu higher castes.
The tribals tried to raise the status of its members in the eyes of the surrounding Hindu society and was
characterized by a large scale incorporation of Hindu belief-practices into its ideology.
After the launching of the Non- cooperation movement, the Gandhian nationalists took interest in starting
constructive work among the tribals which led to the linking of these movements with the local grievances
and ultimately to the national movement.
Initially these movements grew up with the appeal of Tana Bhagat asking their followers to give up meat
and liquor. In the second stage the movement was transformed into a powerful movement for internal
reforms and over throw of the British. In 1920 the Tana Bhagats came under the fever of nationalism
when they took part in the freedom struggle by picketing against liquor shops, holding demonstrations,
staging Satyagrahas etc. It was during this phase that the nationalist symbols like honouring the poster of
Bharatmata bearing the Gandhian cap, honouring the Congress flag etc, became matters of religions faith
for the followers of the Tana Bhagat movement. It was a unique movement where tribals participated
directly to the flow of national movement and the anti-British sentiments were expressed by the tribal
through various methods and symbols.

Q 60.D

Government of India Act 1919 was passed by British Parliament to further expand the participation of
Indians in the Government of India. Since the act embodied reforms as recommended by a report of
Edwin Montagu {Secretary of State for India} and Lord Chelmsford {Viceroy and Governor General}, it
is also called as Montague-Chelmsford Reforms or simply Mont-Ford Reforms.
With regard to civil services reforms, the act provided for the establishment of a Public Service
Commission in India for the first time. It recommended holding of simultaneous examination in India and
England. It also recommended that 1/3rd of recruitments be made in India itself - to be raised annually by
1.5%.
Lee Commission (1923): Its main recommendations are i. Recommended political control over
provincial civil services in the transferred field of dyarchy. ii. All services were to be classified. iii. A
public service commission was to be established for recruitment to central and quasi-judicial services. iv.
Association of Indians was to be increased cadre-wise. v. Better pay package and service conditions were
to be created.
The Government of India Act, 1935 recommended the establishment of a Federal Public Service
Commission and Provincial Public Service Commission under their spheres . But the positions of control
and authority remained in British hands and the process of Indianisation of the civil service didnot put
effective political power in Indian hands since the Indian bureaucrats acted as the agents of colonial rule.

Q 61.A

The Muddiman Committee to review the 1919 Act was the result of Swarajists endeavour. To meet the
demand of the Indian Leaders and in view of the resolution adopted by Swaraj Party in early 1920s, the
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British Government had set up a committee under Sir Alexander Muddiman (Muddiman Committee),
along with 4 Indian members, to go into the provisions of the Government of India Act 1919 and examine
the functioning of dyarchy.
Hartog Committee (1929) was set up to report on development of education.
The Butler Committee (1927) was set up to examine the nature of relationship between the states and
Government.

Q 62.B
In 1906, the session at Calcutta was presided by Dada Bhai Naoroji. The moderates chose Dada Bhai
Naoroji to preside the Congress. Dada Bhai Naoroji, the Grand Oldman of India was respected by the
moderates and extremists alike.

Q 63.C

After Gandhi's arrest (March 1922), there was disintegration, disorganisation and demoralisation among
nationalist ranks. A debate started among Congressmen on what to do during the transition period one
group led by C.R. Das, Motilal Nehru and Ajmal Khan wanted an end to the boycott of legislative
councils so that the nationalists could enter them to expose the basic weaknesses of these assemblies and
use these councils as an arena of political struggle to arouse popular enthusiasm Those advocating entry
into legislative councils came to be known as the Swarajists, while the other school of thought led
by Vallabhbhai Patel, Rajendra Prasad, C. Rajagopalachari and M.A. Ansari came to be known as
the 'No-changers'. The 'No-changers' opposed council entry, advocated, concentration on constructive
work, and continuation of boycott and noncooperation, and quiet preparation for resumption of the
suspended civil disobedience programme.

Q 64.D

Recently the Rajasthan government has initiated the formulation of a long-term plan to save the Great
Indian Bustard (GIB) from extinction in collaboration with the Wildlife Institute of India (WII). It will
take into consideration important measures like controlling the population of stray dogs and implementing
recovery actions programmes in collaboration with different stakeholders.
Statement 1 is correct. Historically, the great Indian bustard was distributed throughout Western India,
spanning 11 states, as well as parts of Pakistan. Its stronghold was once the Thar desert in the north-west
and the Deccan plateau of the peninsula. Today, its population is confined mostly to Rajasthan and
Gujarat. Small population occur in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Bustards generally
favour flat open landscapes with minimal visual obstruction and disturbance, therefore adapt well in
grasslands.
Statement 2 is correct. It is classified as critically endangered by IUCN Red list in 2013. The reasons are
depleting habitat, i.e. grasslands especially due to development of infrastructure intrusions.
Statement 3 is correct. The GIB is the state bird of Rajasthan.

Q 65.A

A high-altitude research station in Himalaya called HIMANSH has been established by the National
Centre for Antartic and Ocean Research, under the Ministry of Earth Sciences at 13,500 ft (4000m) in a
remote region in Himalayas. The centre has been established as a part of Indian governments
initiative to study and quantify the Himalayan glacier responses towards the climate change.

Q 66.A

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of communicable diseases that prevail in tropical
and subtropical conditions in 149 countries and affect more than one billion people, costing developing
economies billions of dollars every year. They mainly affect populations living in poverty, without
adequate sanitation and in close contact with infectious vectors and domestic animals and livestock.
Some prominent examples of NTDs include-Buruli ulcer, Chagas disease, Dengue and Chikungunya,
Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease), Leishmaniasis, Leprosy (Hansen's disease), Lymphatic
filariasis,Rabies, Soil-transmitted helminthiases (Kala-Azar), Yaws (Endemic treponematoses) etc.
(Cancer is not a neglected tropical disease).

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On 28 May 2016, the 69th World Health Assembly approved a resolution recognizing mycetoma as a
neglected tropical disease.
The resolution also provides for a systematic, technically-driven process for evaluation and potential
inclusion of additional diseases among the neglected tropical diseases.
This is in recognition of the fact that there are still many tropical, poverty-related diseases or conditions
that remain neglected and for which advocacy, awareness and research are required to develop better
diagnostic methods, treatments and control strategies.

Q 67.D

Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and humanism - The centre of Tagores philosophy was
man of god. Tagore opposed imperialism and supported Indian nationalists.
He urged the masses to avoid victimology and instead seek self-help and education, and he saw the
presence of British administration as a "political symptom of our social disease". He maintained that, even
for those at the extremes of poverty, "there can be no question of blind revolution"; preferable to it was a
"steady and purposeful education". He was educationally a revolutionary and strongly believed that there
should be a system of education suited to India. It should be the system in which the cultures of east and
the west should unite and where there should be a platform for understanding each other. In the words of
G. Ramchandran, Gurudev never accepted that the object of education was simply the accumulation of
knowledge.
Rabindranath Tagore was not a member of the Indian National Congress, thus he never presided any
session. The INC Madras Session of 1898 was presided over by Ananda Mohan Bose.

Q 68.C

Bengalee, Hitabadi, and Sanjibani are journals and newspapers through which leaders launched press
campaign against partition of Bengal.

Q 69.D

The Quit India Movement was not supported by the Communists, Muslim League and the Hindu
Mahasabha
The communists believed that it would virtually damage the labour movement . Labour Unions under
Communist influence had apparently decided against participation in the movement, there were large-
scale strikes in mills at Kanpur, Jamshedpur and Ahmadabad. When Russia joined the war on behalf of
the Allies, the communists began to demand the withdrawal of the movement and pleaded all support to
the government in its war effort.
The Muslim League considered the movement as the attempt of the Congress to turn out the British
forcefully as a result of which Muslims would be enslaved by the Hindus. Even the depressed class leader
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar described the movement as irresponsible and an act of madness.
Hindu Mahasabha (HM) was always suspicious of Indian National Congress (INC). They accused INC of
being a pro-Muslim organization, and said they always keep 'Muslim interests' ahead of 'Hindu interests'.
So it opposed the Quit India Movement primarily because it was launched by INC, an organization Hindu
Mahasabha was hardly at good terms with. Especially in the 1930s, the HM distanced itself more from the
INC because, in addition to being 'pro-Muslim', INC was also getting inclined towards communism and
socialism.
Also, the threat of Japanese invasion was looming large. The Japanese were slowly capturing colonies in
the South-East Asia, and the frightening stories of inhuman treatment they were subjecting on the people
of those captured colonies were reaching India. HM knew that the Britishers are the only force that could
save India from falling into the hands of a scarily fascist Japan. By taking a pro-British stance, HM also
betrayed Subhash Chandra Bose's INA.
VD Savarkar went on a nationwide tour encouraging Hindu youth to join army in large numbers. During
the QIM, the British and the HM were allies.
Forming a government was also a chance for Hindu Mahasabha to deepen their roots in India. In 1939,
when Britishers declared India's engagement in WWll without even consulting Indian people, INC
ministries resigned in protest. Sensing an opportunity, both Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha formed
coalition governments. It was also seen as an opportunity to strengthen their mass base, and as a result,
weaken INC's mass base.
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Q 70.D

Sagarmala aims to deliver impact through over 150 projects and initiatives in four broad areas. To
modernize Indias port infrastructure, 5 to 6 new ports have been proposed to be built. Additionally over
40 port-capacity enhancement projects will be taken up. Besides increasing capacity, these projects will
result in a more modern port infrastructure through the mechanization of berths and deepening of drafts to
accommodate larger vessels.
The second focus area is port connectivity, where over 80 projects are being planned. These include
connectivity infrastructure projects like a heavy-haul rail corridor to evacuate large volumes of coal
in Odisha, freight-friendly expressways to enable efficient movement of containers on key routes, and the
development of strategic inland waterways.
The third set of projects aims to tap into the potential of port-led industrialization to boost industrial and
export growth along the coastline. This will be realized through 14 Coastal Economic Zones (CEZs) along
the coastline, each of which will house a number of industrial clusters. The clusters will have industries
from the energy, bulk materials as well as discrete manufacturing segments, all of which will be able to
use high-quality infrastructure which is fully-integrated with the corresponding ports.
Finally, the potential of coastal communities will be harnessed by focused skill-development to support
port-led industrialization. The set of initiatives under this head also includes developing opportunities for
fishermen and other coastal communities as well as development of the numerous islands along Indias
coastline.

Q 71.A

Bande Mataram a poem known for sublimity of thought dedicated to the glory of mother nation was
composed by late Shri. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee on November 07, 1876 at the Kantal Pada village of
Bengal.
During the period of Swadeshi movement, 'Bande Mataram' became people's song not only in Bengal but
also the entire nation. Its soul-stirring words reverberated the streets, schools and every part and portion of
India.

Q 72.B

Statement 1 is correct. A new feature of the CDM was a massive business support. They participated, at
least during the initial period, in two very fruitful ways: they provided finance and supported the boycott
movement, particularly that of foreign cloth. The other most important feature of the CDM was large-
scale womens participation. At almost every stop during the Dandi march, women flocked in
thousands to hear Gandhi, and once the movement was launched, they were fully incorporated into it.
They participated in the picketing of shops dealing in foreign cloth and liquor, and at places processions
participated by one to two thousand women astonished the whole country and bewildered the authorities.
Statement 2 is not correct. It did not remain a purely peaceful movement. In Chittagong, Surya Sens
Revolt group carried out raid on two armouries and declared the establishment of a provisional
government. In Sholapur, the people took to burning liquor shops and other symbols of government
authority such as railway stations, police stations, municipal buildings, law courts etc.
Statement 3 is correct. It was successful in reducing government revenues and imports from Britain.
imports of cloth from Britain had fallen by half; other imports like cigarettes had suffered a similar fate.
Government income from liquor excise and land revenue had been affected.

Q 73.B

The 8th BRICS Summit was convened at Goa in October 2016. BRICS have agreed to set up an
independent rating agency based on market-oriented principles in order to further strengthen the global
governance architecture. This is critical for transforming the global financial architecture to one based on
the principles of fairness and equity. The BRICS countries have already set up New Development Bank
(NDB), which became operational last year, to meet funding requirements of the members.

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Q 74.D

August offer 1940:

To get Indian cooperation in the war effort, the viceroy announced the August Offer (August 1940) which
proposed:

dominion status as the objective for India.


setting up of a constituent assembly after the war.
The number of the Indians in the Viceroys Executive council will be increased.
A war advisory Council would be set up.

Nehru said, "Dominion status concept is dead as a door nail." Gandhi said that the declaration had widened
the gulf between the nationalists and the British rulers.

Communal award 1932:

The Award allotted to each minority a number of seats in the legislatures to be elected on the basis of a
separate electorate that is Muslims would be elected only by Muslims and Sikhs only by Sikhs, and so on.
Muslims, Sikhs and Christians had already been treated as minorities. The Award declared the Depressed
Classes also to be a minority community entitled to separate electorate and thus separated them from the rest
of the Hindus. The Muslims were evidently satisfied with the Award.

Cripps mission 1942:

The main proposals of the mission were as follows.

An Indian Union with a dominion status would be set up.


After the end of the war, a constituent assembly would be convened to frame a new constitution. Members
of this assembly would be partly elected by the provincial assemblies through proportional representation
and partly nominated by the princes.
The British Government would accept the new constitution subject to two conditions: (i) any province not
willing to join the Union could have a separate constitution and form a separate Union, and (ii) the new
constitution making body and the British Government would negotiate a treaty to effect the transfer of
power and to safeguard racial and religious minorities.

Q 75.C

Statement 1 is correct. Mass civil disobedience, if it was prolonged, would unleash forces which could
turn the movement revolutionary in a social sense and this could threaten capitalism itself.
Statement 2 is incorrect. Indian capitalist class was powerful enough to take up mass movement. In this
context present statement is not correct, Indian capitalist class was taking constitutional form of agitation.
Statement 3 is correct. Continuing of mass civil disobedience was not good for the business, it hampers
their day to day business activities.

Q 76.D

All the statements are correct.

Literally, Benami means "without name". The Benami transactions are those transactions in which the real
beneficiary is not the person in whose name the transaction (particularly purchase of property) has been
done. The real owner is hidden and this defrauds public revenue.

The Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Amendment Act came into force on November 1, 2016. The key
features of the Act are:

The Act defines benami transactions, prohibits them and further provides that violation of the PBPT Act is
punishable with imprisonment up to 7 years and fine.
It prohibits recovery of the property held benami from benamidar by the real owner.
Properties held benami are liable for confiscation by the Government without payment of compensation.
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An appellate mechanism has been provided under the PBPT Act in the form of Adjudicating Authority
and Appellate Tribunal established by the Central Government.
Appeals against the adjudicating authoritys decision can be taken to the Appellate Tribunal at New
Delhi.

This tribunal will be established by the Central Government and will be consisting of one chairperson and two
other members of which one shall be Judicial member and other shall be an administrative member.

The chairperson can also constitute the benches of appellate tribunal. The person to be appointed as
Chairperson to the Appellate Tribunal must be a sitting or retired judge of a High Court.

A judicial member must have been a member of Indian Legal Service and have held the post of additional
secretary or equivalent in that service.

The administrative member must have been a member of Indian Revenue Service and have held the post of
Chief Commissioner of Income Tax or equivalent post.

Q 77.B

Even though Cripps announced that the aim of British policy in India was the earliest possible
realization of self- government in India, the Draft Declaration he brought with him was
disappointing. The Declaration promised India Dominion Status. (statement 1 is correct)
It provided for a constitution-making body after the War whose members would be elected by the
provincial assemblies and nominated by the rulers in case of the princely states. (statement 2 is not
correct, statement 3 is correct).
The Pakistan demand was accommodated by the provision that any province which was not prepared to
accept the new constitution would have the right to sign a separate agreement with Britain regarding its
future status.

Q 78.D

Referendums are instruments of direct democracy where citizens get to directly vote on specific and
important issues rather than for representatives who will make a choice on their behalf on those issues. In
June 2016 Britain exited the European Union after the Brexit referendum. In October 2016, a referendum
called by the Colombian government to ratify the accord with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of
Colombia (FARC) resulted in a "No" vote. Last year, in a referendum on Scottish's stay in UK, Scotland
voted to remain with Britain in a close verdict.

Q 79.A

Yoshinori Ohsumi, a Japanese cell biologist was awarded the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
for "his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy". It is a fundamental process for degrading and
recycling cellular components. This discovery of the mechanism of autophagy will aid in the fight against
diseases such as cancer, Parkinsons disease and Alzheimer's.

Q 80.C

Since the early 1920s, efforts were being made by various capitalists like G.D. Birla and Purshottamdas
Thakurdas to establish a national level organization of Indian commercial, industrial and financial
interests (as opposed to the already relatively more organized European interests in India) to be able to
effectively lobby with the colonial government. This effort culminated in the formation of the Federation
of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) in 1927, with a large and rapidly increasing
representation from all parts of India. The FICCI was soon recognized by the British government as
well as the Indian public in general, as representing the dominant opinion as well as the overall
consensus within the Indian capitalist class. ( Statement 3 is correct)
The leaders of the capitalist class also clearly saw the role of the FICCI as being that of national
guardians of trade, commerce and industry, performing in the economic sphere in colonial India the
functions of a national government. The FICCI was, however, not to remain merely a sort of trade
union organization of the capitalist class fighting for its own economic demands and those of the

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nation. The leaders of the capitalist class now clearly saw the necessity of, and felt strong enough
for, the class to effectively intervene in politics. As Sir Purshottamdas, President of FICCI, declared at
its second annual session in 1928: We can no more separate our politics from our economics. Further
involvement of the class in politics meant doing so on the side of Indian nationalism. Indian commerce
and industry are intimately associated with and are, indeed, an integral part of the national movement -
growing with its growth and strengthening with its strength. ( Statement 1 is not correct).
FICCI did not participate in the first round table conference because in their opinion unless the
Round Table Conference was attended by Mahatma Gandhi. ( Statement 2 is not correct)

Q 81.C
Lala Lajpat Rai never presided any of the Congress session.
Sarojini Naidu was the first Indian woman President to chair the Indian National Congress at Kanpur
Session of 1925. She played a leading role in the Civil Disobedience Movement and was sent to jail along
with Gandhi and other leaders.
The Indian National Congress held its thirty-ninth session at Belgaum on the 26th & 27th Dec. 1924.
Gandhiji was the president of the Congress only on one occasion and the session was held in Belgaum.

Q 82.A

Statement 1 is correct. The Government of India Act 1919 had introduced the system of diarchy to govern
the provinces of British India. However, the Indian public clamoured for revision of the difficult diarchy form
of government, and the Government of India Act 1919 itself stated that a commission would be appointed
after 10 years to investigate the progress of the governance scheme and suggest new steps for reform. The
Indian Statutory Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parliament they had been dispatched
to India in 1927 to study constitutional reform in that colony. It was commonly referred to as the Simon
Commission after its chairman, Sir John Simon. Simon Commission recommended the replacement of diarchy
with responsible government in the provinces, which was done in 1935.

Provisions of the Commission:

There should be a constitutional reconstruction.


It would be a federal constitution.
The provinces should be given full autonomy including law.
The governor should have discretionary power to relate to internal security and administrative powers to
protect the different communities.
The number of members of provincial legislative council should be increased.
Governor-general should have complete power to appoint the members of the cabinet.
The government of India should have complete control over the high court.

Statement 2 is not correct. At the annual session of the Congress in Madras in December 1927, a resolution
was passed which advocated the boycott of the Simon Commission at every stage and in every form.
Other factions of the politicians also joined the suit. However, in Muslim league, there was a split of thought.
Jinnah was for boycotting the commission; but Muhammad Shafi was for support for the Government.
Liberals of the Hindu Mahasabha also supported the boycott. Justics Party in Madras and the Unionists in
Punjab decided not to boycott the Commission.

Statement 3 is not correct: Rabindranath Tagore Tagore renounced his Knighthood in protest for Jalianwalla
Bagh mass killing.

Q 83.B

Poona Pact: In order to save the life of Gandhi who was on relentless fast post communal award of
Ramsay McDonald, political leaders Madan Mohan Malviya, M.C. Rajah and B.R. Ambedkar got
together and succeeded in hammering out an agreement, known as the Poona Pact, according to which the
idea of separate electorates for the Depressed Classes was abandoned but the seats reserved for them in
the provincial legislatures were increased from seventy-one in the Award to 147 and in the Central
Legislature to eighteen per cent of the total.

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By the end of 1930(post first Round Table Conference), the British had realized that without conciliating
the Congress, no political settlement was possible.
Gandhi-Irwin Pact: Gandhiji negotiated with the Viceroy Lord Irwin in Delhi. And finally an agreement
was signed on 5 March 1931, popularly known as the Gandhi-Irwin Pact or Delhi Pact.
Lucknow pact of 1916 also known Congress-League Pact was to reunite Congress was after the Surat
split of 1907,and it brought about an agreement between the Congress and the League.

Q 84.C

Statement 1 is correct. On Baisakhi day, a large, crowd of people mostly from neighbouring villages,
unaware of the prohibitory orders in the city, had gathered in the small park of Jallianwala bagh to protest
against the arrest of their leaders, Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satyapal.
Statement 2 is not correct. The House of Lords of the British Parliament endorsed General Dyer's action
and the British public showed solidarity with General Dyer by helping 'The Morning Post' collect 30,000
pounds for him.
Statement 3 is correct. The priests of Golden Temple at Amritsar honoured General Dyer, responsible
for the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre, with a saropa (robe of honor) and declared him to be a Sikh.

Q 85.C

Statement 1 is incorrect, failure of cripps mission led to popular discontent of leaders of nationalist
struggle.infact the round table conferences held before civil disobedience movement.
Statement 2 is correct. Due to world war-II, there were food shortages and crisis in the form of price
hike as resources were devoted for war.
Statement 3 is correct. British evacuation from Malaya and Burma exposed the myth of white superiority
infront of japanesse agression.

Q 86.D

Statement 1 is not correct: It was formed with Acharya Narendra Deva as President and Jay Prakash
Narayan as General Secretary in 1934.
Statement 2 is not correct: The Congress Socialist Party was not a rival political organisation to the
Congress but was launched to work within the Congress, to strengthen it, mould and shape its policies. Its
constitution defined that the members were all required to be members of the Indian National Congress.
Statement 3 is not correct: It disagreed with the Congress offer of conditional help for British war
efforts as it maintained that the war was a conflict between partners of imperialism for repartition of the
world.

Q 87.B

Attlees Announcement:

On 20 February 1947, the British Prime Minister Clement Attlee made an important announcement. The main
points outlined in the statement were

A deadline of 30 June 1948 was fixed for the transfer of power to Indians
A partition of the country which the Cabinet Mission had completely rejected and as proposed by Cripps
mission
Mountbatten was to replace Wavell as the Viceroy.

Plan Balkan - This plan envisaged the transfer of power to separate provinces (or to a confederation, if
formed before the transfer), with Punjab and Bengal given the option to vote for partition of their provinces.
The various units thus formed along with the princely states (rendered independent by lapse of paramountcy)
would have the option of joining India or Pakistan or remaining separate. The plan was quickly abandoned
after Nehru reacted violently to it.

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Q 88.D

Constructive Work by No-Changers involved:

Ashrams sprang up where young, men and women worked, among tribals and lower castes (especially in
Kheda and Bardoli areas of Gujarat), and popularised charkha and khadi.
National schools and colleges were set up where students were trained in a non-colonial ideological
framework.
Significant work was done for Hindu-Muslim unity, removing untouchability, boycott of foreign cloth and
liquor, and for flood relief.
The constructive workers served as the backbone of civil disobedience as active organisers.

Q 89.B

Statement 1 is not correct. Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
(CCAMLR) was established by a separate international convention in 1982 (not under CBD) with the
objective of conserving Antarctic marine life. India is also a member of this commission. Hence
statements 2 and 3 are correct.
It was in news due to establishment of the world's largest marine park in Antarctica. It is the first marine
park created in international waters. It will be set aside as a no-take "general protection zone", where no
fishing will be allowed. The agreement was facing opposition from China and Russia, which have fishing
industries in the region.

Q 90.C

Lord Willingdon served as a Viceroy and Governor General of India from 1931 to 1936.
The important events of this period include Second and Third Round Table Conferences, relaunching of
Civil Disobedience Movement, Communal Award by Ramsay MacDonald (1932), Poona Pact (1932),
Government of India Act 1935, and Separation of Burma from India.
The All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS), also known as the Akhil Bharatiya Kisan Sabha and All India
Peasants Union, was an Indian political association of the peasants front of the former undivided
Communist Party of India (CPI). The All India Kisan Sabha was one of the Indian Organisations during
Freedom Struggle and peasant movement that was founded by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati in the year
1936.
The Congress Socialist Party was founded by radical and young Congressmen who during their long
terms of imprisonment in the Civil Disobedience Movement came into contact with Marxist ideas. They
had their reservation about Gandhis constructive programme. In April 1934, at Banaras, Sampurnananda
published a pamphlet in which he stressed the need for the formation of an All India Socialist Party as a
wing of the Congress.The Congress Socialists belonged to the westernized middle class. They were
influenced by the ideas of Marx, Gandhi and the Social Democracy of the West. They practised Marxian
Socialism, Congress Nationalism and liberal democracy of the West.

Q 91.B

The World Economic Forum (WEF) publishes the Global Gender Gap Report. In the 2016, report India
has substantially improved its rank in the Global Gender Gap index- moving from 108th to 87th position
within a year.The WEF measures the gender gap index of the countries by taking four factors into
account-economy, health, education and political representation.
United Nations Development Programme(UNDP) works in nearly 170 countries and territories, helping to
achieve the eradication of poverty, and the reduction of inequalities and exclusion. It focuses on helping
countries build and share solutions in three main areas:
Sustainable development
Democratic governance and peacebuilding
Climate and disaster resilience

In all their activities, they encourage the protection of human rights and the empowerment of women,
minorities and the poorest and most vulnerable.

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The annual Human Development Report, commissioned by UNDP, focuses the global debate on key
development issues, providing new measurement tools, innovative analysis and often controversial policy
proposals.
The Gender Inequality Index (GII) is an index for measurement of gender disparity that was introduced
in the 2010 Human Development Report 20th anniversary edition by the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP). According to the UNDP, this index is a composite measure which captures the loss
of achievement within a country due to gender inequality. It uses three dimensions to do so: reproductive
health, empowerment, and labor market participation.
The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) was developed in 2010 by the Oxford Poverty &
Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme and uses
different factors to determine poverty beyond income-based lists. It replaced the previous Human Poverty
Index. The global MPI is released annually by OPHI and the results published on its website.

The index uses the same three dimensions as the Human Development Index: health, education, and standard
of living. These are measured using ten indicators.

Dimension Indicators
Child Mortality
Health
Nutrition
Years of schooling
Education
School attendance
Cooking fuel
Toilet
Water
Living Standards
Electricity
Floor
Assets

Each dimension and each indicator within a dimension is equally weighted.

Q 92.D

Bhulabhai Desai, leader of the Congress Party in the Central Legislative Assembly, and Liaqat Ali Khan,
deputy leader of the Muslim League in that Assembly came up with the draft proposal for the formation of an
interim government at the centre. It proposed:

an equal number of persons nominated by the Congress and the League in the central legislature.
20% reserved seats for minorities.

No settlement could be reached between the Congress and the League on these lines, but the fact that a sort of
parity between the Congress and the League was decided upon, which had far-reaching consequences.

Q 93.D

Option (d) is incorrect.


On 19 February, 1945 the Secretary of State, Lord Pethick Lawrence, announced that a three member
Cabinet Mission consisting of himself, Sir Stafford Cripps , and A.V. Alexander would be sent to
negotiate with the Indian leaders the terms for the transfer of power to Indians. The Mission failed to
reach an agreement with the Indian leaders. As the Congress and the Muslim League could not reach an
agreement, the Mission announced its own plan on 16 May 1946.
Main Recommendations: (i) Rejection of Demand for Pakistan, in turn, it recommended, Union of
India with the Provinces with an option to join/come out of groups. (ii) It recommended a Constituent
Assembly that was to be elected by the Provincial Legislative Assemblies (iii) It suggested the setting up
of an Interim Government.
The Congress accepted the plan on 24 June 1946 though it objected to the provisions of grouping. The
Muslim League initially rejected it as its demands for a sovereign state of Pakistan was rejected and did
not join the Constituent Assembly; but it joined the Interim Government. The Hindu Mahasabha objected
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to the compulsory grouping of states. CPI objected to the composition and powers of the Constituent
Assembly.

Q 94.B

Statement 1 is not correct: It was in Champaran satyagraha where Mahatama Gandhi was nominated as
a member of the government appointed committe (Champaran Agragarian committee) to look into the
matter.
Statement 2 is correct:The Kheda peasant struggle is also known as no-tax peasant struggle. It was a
satyagraha launched in March 1919 under the leadership of Gandhiji, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Indulal
Yajnik, N.M. Joshi, Shankerlal Pareekh and several others. The peasants of Kheda signed a petition in
leadership of Sardar Patel and called for tax to be scrapped.
Statement 3 is not correct: Gujarat Sabha was not founded by Mahatama Gandhi. It was established in
1884 at Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Most of its membership were Gujarati lawyers and civic leaders, including
men like Vallabhbhai Patel, Narhari Parikh, Ravi Shankar Vyas and Mohanlal Pandya, who would
become famous freedom fighters and political leaders. Indian leader Mohandas Gandhi served as its
president from 1918 to 1919. The Sabha would play a pivotal role in organizing the peasant rebellion in
Kheda in 1918-19. It merged into the Indian National Congress in 1920 - becoming the Gujarat Pradesh
Congress Committee.

Q 95.C

China recently launched a 712-km quantum communication line, stated to be the worlds longest
secure telecommunications network. It boasts of ultra-high security making it impossible to wiretap,
intercept or crack the information transmitted through them.
The technology allows one to distribute sequence of random bit sequence of photons whose randomness
and secrecy are guaranteed by the laws of quantum physics. These sequences can then be used as secret
keys with conventional cryptography techniques to guarantee the confidentiality of data transmissions.

Q 96.D

Statement 1 is correct. The gradual industrialisation of India did not only bring the Indian capitalists into
the foreground of public life, it also created an industrial working class. The growth of tea plantations in
northeastern and southern India and the beginning of an infant iron and steel industry since the early
nineteenth century, the commencement of railway construction from the middle of the nineteenth century,
mining in eastern India from the same period, and the spectacular growth of two industries, the jute and
the cotton industry since the time of World War One saw the formation of an industrial working class in
the organised sector in India. In addition to these, there were workers in the so-called 'informal sectors',
such as those who worked as casual labourers in docks and markets or as domestic servants.
In face of low wages, improper working conditions and often subhuman living environment, that there
started unrest among the working classes which was manifested in the form of strikes such as Ahmedabad
Strike (1918,1923), Jamshedpur Strike (1920,1922,1928,1948) etc. It was through these moments of
confrontations that trade unions were actually born.
Statement 2 is correct. All the sections of the society had to face economic hardships in the post World
War I period. Workers and artisans faced unemployment and bore the brunt of high prices. Peasantry was
faced with high taxation and poverty. These hardships coupled with high expectations of political gains
from the government created a charged atmosphere in the country.
Statement 3 is correct. The Bolshevik Party of workers overthrew the Czarist regime and founded the
first socialist state, the Soviet Union, under the leadership of V.I. Lenin. The October Revolution brought
home the message that immense power lay with the people and the masses were capable of challenging
the mightiest of tyrants provided they were organised, united and determined. The young nationalists
inspired by the Soviet Union were dissatisfied with the Gandhian ideas and political programme and
wanted radical solutions for economic, political and social ills of the country. This led to the rise of the
left movement in the country where stress was laid on the need to combine nationalism and anti-
imperialism with social justice and simultaneously raised the question of internal class oppression by
capitalists and landlords.

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Q 97.A

Internal Carbon price is an internationally recognised business tool that enables companies to create
resources which are invested in low carbon technologies, which help reduce future emissions and lower
operating costs. In October 2016, Mahindra & Mahindra became first Indian firm to announce an internal
Carbon Price of $10 per ton of carbon emitted.

Q 98.C

Option (c) is the correct answer.


Tripuri session of congress 1939: It was held in Tripuri, a small village in the District Jabalpur
of Madhya Pradesh (Central Province), presided by Subhash Chandra Bose.
The internal strife in the Congress reached the climax at the Tripuri session. Bose in his presidential
address at Tripuri advocated programme of immediately giving the British Government a six-month
ultimatum to grant the national demand for independence and of launching a mass civil disobedience
movement if it failed to do so. Gandhi too believed that another round for mass struggle was necessary to
win freedom but said the time was not yet ripe for an ultimatum because neither the Congress nor the
masses were yet ready for struggle. This internal strife forced Bose to resign from the presidentship and
Rajendra Prasad was elected in his place. Subsequently, in May, Bose and his followers formed
the Forward Bloc as a new party within the Congress and when on 9 July he gave a call for an all-India
protest against an AICC resolution, the Working Committee took disciplinary action against him,
removing him from the presidentship of the Bengal Provincial Congress Committee and debarring him
from holding any Congress office for three years.
A kisan manifesto was issued by the Kisan Congress and the influence of this manifesto was seen in the
agrarian programme adopted by the Indian National Congress at its Faizpur session in Maharashtra in
December 1936. The second session of the Kisan Congress presided over by N.G. Ranga was held along
with the Indian National Congress session at Faizpur. The Faizpur Agrarian Programme reiterated the
demand made at Karachi for substantial reduction in both rent and revenue.Hence option (b) is
incorrect.
The official Congress unequivocally condemned the Nazi attack on Poland as well as Nazism and
Fascism, and declared that India could not be party to a war which was ostensibly being fought for
democratic freedom while that freedom was being denied to her and adopted a resolution at a meeting
of the Congress Working Committee held at Wardha. Hence option (d) is incorrect.

Q 99.D
Statement 1 is correct. During the swadeshi movement, a section of Muslims supported the partition
scheme from the very beginning. The Government was very eager to enlist the support of the Muslims
against the Hindus. This policy was initiated by Lord Curzon when the visited East Bengal in 1904. He
induced Nawab Salimulla of Dacca to declare himself in favour of the Partition.
Nawab Salimulla became the leader of the Muhammadan opposition to the anti-partition and Swadeshi
movement. Inflammatory anti-Hindu pamphlets were distributed patronized by the government officials
that resulted in the outbreak of many communal riots, the most serious of which were those at Comilla
and Jamalpur
Statement 2 is correct. Under Morley-Minto reforms, Muslim voters (and later Sikhs and others) were
put in separate constituencies from which only Muslims could stand as candidates and for which only
Muslims could vote. Separate electorates turned elections and legislative councils into arenas for
communal conflicts. Since the voters were exclusively the followers of one religion, the candidates did
not have to appeal to voters belonging to other religions. They could, therefore, make blatantly communal
appeals.
Statement 3 is correct. The Lucknow Pact contributed to the rise of communalism in India owing to the
following provisions:
The weightage to Muslim minority was recognized, the result was that this left the way open to the
future resurgence of communalism in Indian politics.
Muslim member's strength in legislature was laid down province by province, thus one of the most
dangerous pacifist policies of congress not only recognized communal representation but also
recognized communal privileges.
Any legislature could not work if 3/4th member of any religion opposed it, its consequence was
introduction of communal veto in legislature.
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Q 100.D

The Vedaranyam March or Vedaranyam Satyagraha was organised to protest the salt tax imposed by
the British Raj in India. The march took place in April 1930. The march was led by C. Rajagopalachari.
Payyanur Salt Satyagraha: On April 21, 1930, the volunteers under the leadership of K. Kelappan, the
Kerala Gandhi, collected salty sand with coconut shells in gunny bags and distilled it and sold small
packets in the evening.
Dharsana Salt Satyagraha: On May 21, 1930, Sarojini Naidu, Imam Sahib and Manilal led a raid on
Dharsana Salt works to protest against british salt tax.

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