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URBAN DESIGN

AND TOWNSCAPE
Gordon Cullen Tribute
Practice Profiles of Colin Buchanan, ECD,
PRP and WML International
Plus Design in the Countryside
UDQ Issue 52 OCTOBER 1994 ISBN 0266-6480
UDG News

Silvertown in London's Docklands. The


experts representing the seven schemes
AUTUMN PROGRAMME 1994 included Lucien Kroll, masterplanner for the
Wed 16 November Prof Doreen Massey Ecolonia project in Holland and Barbara
"Lefebvre & the History of Space" Able from the practice Joachim Eble, who
are involved in permaculture in Germany.
The UDG events are held on Wednesdays Other leading roles were played by Margrit
at the London Exchange, 77 Cowcross and Declan Kennedy from Germany,
Street, London EC1 at 6.00 pm for 6.30 Marilyn Mehlmann from Sweden and
pm. Tickets are available at the door - 2 Robert Fowles from Cardiff School of
members, 3 non-members and 1 for Architecture.
students/concessions. The two days of presentations, working
groups and late night discussions led to
Other Events positive conclusions for "Building for
Thur 17 November Tomorrow".
Joint RTPI/RIBA Conference supported The Workshop's final conclusion stemmed
by UDG from an accord struck between
"Spirit of Abercrombie" opening address will be delivered by the Rt. representatives of the 'people and process'
To be held at the RIBA. Details Hon. John Gummer MP, Secretary of State movement and representatives of the more
described separately on this page. for the Environment. Professor Sir Peter technical, product related approach: - where
Fri 18 November Shepheard, CBE, FRTPI, PPILA, PPRIBA, participatory and ecological processes are
Joint RTPI/UDG Conference HonFAIA - Dean Emeritus, Graduate School initiated from the outset, with respect for
"Design, Crime and Vandalism" of Fine Arts University of Pennsylvania, will contributions from all participants,
Details from Linda Cox 071 636 9107. present the keynote address. Sir Peter was frameworks for physical, social and
one of the original members of the economic and ecological change can be
There is a 'Landscape Matters' exhibition Abercrombie design team. He will give agreed and initiated by consensus. Lucien
at the Building Centre which continues valuable insight into the influences that led to Kroll, architect and urban designer,
until 11 November. Associated with the the design and production of the plan, as well Belgium, expressed this in the following
exhibition arranged by the London as his vision with hindsight for the next fifty way: "The people possess the knowledge
Chapter of the Landscape Institute are the years. Other speakers include Professor how to live, to dwell, to organise cities. I
always try to understand it, to translate it
following lectures: Peter Hall of the Bartlett (formerly Professor
of Planning at the University of California) and to build it poetically and go deeper,
more completely into that civilised
31 October and Architect Cedric Price of the
landscape. Architecture can help."
Kansai Airport Architectural Association. Paul Finch, AJ
Alistair Guthrie Ove Arup Partnership editor and Planning in London co-editor is John Thompson summarised the findings
7 November the conference chairman. The cost of this full of the Workshop to the Eco-Cuitat (Eco-
Hampton Court Garden Restoration day conference including lunch is 35 per City) Conference in Barcelona: - "If the
Jan Woudstra and Marylla Hunt delegate. A date not to be missed. Further technical and human sides of ecology remain
9 November information from RIBA London Regional separate they can easily be side-lined - but
Thames Landscape Initiative Director: Meta van der Steege on 071 580 fused together, they can and will become the
Dr J Gardiner of the NRA 5533. most powerful movement for beneficial
All lectures are at the Building Centre change".
beginning at 7pm. BUILDING FOR TOMORROW Copies of the Report of the Barcelona
An international Workshop held in Workshop, Building For Tomorrow, are
THE SPIRIT OF ABERCROMBIE' - Barcelona in April brought together obtainable from Sue Hargreaves at Hunt
PLANNING & DESIGN CONFERENCE participants from thirteen different European Thompson Associates, price: 9.50.
The RIBA - London Region and the RTPI - countries to see how the lessons from seven
London Branch are organizing the fourth experimental settlements involving ecology SOURCE BOOK
annual planning and design conference at the and community planning could be brought Members should have received their copy
RIBA on Thursday 17th November 1994 and from the fringe into the mainstream. of the 1994 Source Book. Additional copies
have invited the Urban Design Group to be The organisers of the event, the European are available at 5 for members and 8 for
associated with the event. The conference Academy of the Urban Environment in Berlin non-members.
entitled 'The Spirit of Abercrombie' will invited Hunt Thompson Associates to
commemorate fifty years of the ' 1944 London facilitate and report on the process, having QUARTERLY PRODUCTION
Plan' produced by architect/planner Sir previously worked together on a study of the Any people interested in helping to
Patrick Abercrombie, and with a view to October district in Moscow and at the produce the Quarterly, i.e. editing and doing
projecting the wisdom forward to 2044. The Community Planning Weekend at West layouts, are asked to contact the editor.
UDQ Issue 52 October 1994

URBAN DESIGN GROUP


CHAIRMAN
CONTENTS
Jon Rowland Tel: 071 6370181
COVER Porto Santo International Competition Entry 1975
ENQUIRIES and CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Gordon Cullen, David Gosling
140A The Broadway, Didcot, Oxon 0X11 8RJ.
Tel: 0235 815907 Fax: 0235 819606. NEWS 2 Forthcoming Programme
RIBA RTPI UDG Conference
PATRONS
Alan Baxter EVENTS 4 Zaha Hadid Annual Urban Design Group Lecture given in June
Honor Chapman
Sir Philip Dowson and Urban Design Tomorrow Panel Discussion held in October
Terry Farrell VIEWPOINT 5 RURAL DESIGN AND URBAN DESIGN: THE MISSING LINK
Peter Hall
Simon Jenkins Jeff Bishop of BDOR argues the need to move beyond the term urban to consider
Jane Priestman application of design principles in the rural situation.
John Worthington
REGIONAL 8 GLASGOW AND ITS TOWNS
UDG REGIONAL ACTIVITIES Hildebrand Frey describes a series of seminars in Glasgow concerning the role of
REGIONAL CONVENORS urban design in the regeneration of the city.
Scotland Mike Galloway 041-429-8956
INTERNATIONAL 10 N I M E S - DESIGN LED PLANNING
North Alan Simpson 091-281-6981
Yorks/Humber Tony Dennis 0904-613161 Chris Couch analyses what has happened in Nimes as part of the French
North West Stephen Gleave 061-491-0972 approach to their development plan system.
East Midlands Merideth Evans 0533 549922
West Midlands John Peverley 021-235-4188 BOOK REVIEWS 12 Reviews by Neil Parkyn, Philip Cave, Francesca Morrison, Tim Catchpole, Peter
South Wales Gordon Lewis 0222-231401 Howard and Helena Webster.
South West Andy Gibbins 0272-222964
East Anglia Alan Stones 0245-437642 ISSUE TOPIC 15 INTRODUCTION
South East Roger Evans 0869-350096 GORDON CULLEN The topic was originally intended to celebrate Gordon Cullen's 80th birthday which
occurred in August. Sadly he died during that month and so the issue becomes
URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY one of a tribute. David Rock with whom Cullen worked on the Ware study, Vivat
EDITORIAL BOARD
Derek Abbott Ware, remembers his unique contributions.
John Billingham TOWNSCAPE AS A PHILOSOPHY OF URBAN DESIGN
Kelvin Campbell
Roger Evans William M Whistler and David Reed produced this text as an Exchange
Tony Lloyd-Jones Bibliography for the Council of Planning Libraries in the 1970s on Townscape.
Bob Jarvis
Tim Catchpole
TOWNSCAPE REVISITED
Marion Roberts Bob Jarvis, topic editor for the Cullen articles, rereads 'Townscape', compares it
JudithRyser with other literature and concludes that it emerges enhanced.
Alan Simpson
EDITOR 23 WORKING WITH CULLEN
John Billingham David Gosling describes his association with Cullen on Maryculter, on competitions
TOPIC EDITOR
Bob Jarvis and lastly on proposals for the Isle of Dogs.
BOOK REVIEWS 28 PROJECTS 1981-1991
Tim Catchpole, 56 Gilpin Ave, London SW14 8QY
David Price worked with Cullen since 1981 and formed the Price and Cullen
LAYOUT
John Billingham Partnership in 1985. He refers to work in Scotland and in London.
DTP KEVIN LYNCH LECTURE 31 ENGLISH POST WAR PLANNING: A GOLDEN AGE?
Kingston Type, Oxford
PRINTING Sir Peter Shepheard gave this years lecture in July, reported by Tony Lloyd-Jones
Constable Printing PRACTICE PROFILES 32 COLIN BUCHANAN & PARTNERS
COPYRIGHT
Urban Design Group 34 ECD ARCHITECTS AND PLANNERS
ISBN 0266 6480
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 36 PRP ARCHITECTS
The topic for this issue was originally suggested by 38 WML INTERNATIONAL
John Scott Davies
MATERIAL FOR PUBLICATION PRACTICE AND
This should be addressed to: The Editor, 26 Park EDUCATION INDEX 40
Road, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 1DS. Tel: 0235
526094. ENDPIECE 43 STUDY VISIT 1994
SUBSCRIPTIONS Alan Stones reports on the tour to the Harz Region of Germany.
The Quarterly is free to Urban Design Group
Members (Subscription 25.00 with students 14).
The Urban Design Group is not responsible for
views expressed or statements made by individuals
FORTHCOMING ISSUES 53 URBAN COMPONENTS Topic Editors Jon Rowland and Kelvin Campbell
writing in this journal. 54 SMALL TOWNS Topic Editor Alan Simpson

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Events

another innovative landscape around the proposals in a London Borough which did
magnificent Fire Station at Vitra. Again a not happen because the two committees
structured, geometric and artificial scheme, involved failed to agree; he instanced this as
Zaha Hadid well suited to its purpose, the almost a lack of vision and compared it to Europe,
Remember those sweltering evenings in choreographed rituals of fire drill. The more specifically France, where the strong
June? It was on such an evening on June scheme also sets the pattern for future mayor system showed direct results; in the
29th that Zaha Hadid spoke to an buildings which "will grow like furniture in a USA, apart from the mayors the Chambers
undeservedly small audience about her large room". of Commerce got directly involved to make
approach to urban design on the occasion of The slides were excellent. How sad that, things happen.
the second Annual Urban Design Group as yet, there is no example of her work to The cultural aspect was also raised and
Lecture. visit in Great Britain. Since she spoke, her Andrew Warner described the sitution in
Describing her early experiences of success in the Cardiff Bay Competition has Leicester Square where Haagen Daas
London, as an architecture student, she gave been announced so that omission will soon be wanted outdoor seating and it took about a
a personal and perceptive account of the rectified. year to get approval to eight seats; there
physical changes caused by its growth from a were servicing factors to consider but it was
series of villages to a great metropolis. This Elizabeth Young the attitude that was negative. By
led her to a question "How do you create a comparison Barcelona approached the
civic and public zone to meet today's needs?" company to persuade them to put seats
outside their site. Nevertheless it can
Urban Design Tomorrow
Not, she suggested by leaving an important
space such as Trafalgar Square "like a happen here as shown by the Edinburgh
pretend Italian piazza, imprisoned by traffic The third discussion evening in the series Festival licence extensions and
and surrounded by pigeons". Her project for 'What is a City' was held in September, the Manchester's encouragement of outdoor
Grand Buildings illustrated her preoccupation first being concerned with the concept of the drinking.
with "layering and programming" public city, the second how it might evolve and this
space. Rather than accepting a single street evening devoted to ways in which urban STRATEGIC ISSUES
level she created a number of interlocking design is relevant to the future of the city. Is urban design pursuing superficial issues
levels to encourage a richness and diversity Chris Glaister continued in his role as whilst strategic issues are not being faced?
of public activities. Where traditionally there Chairman and the panel included Andrew The view was put forward that urban design
would have been solids defining the spaces Warner, a chartered surveyor dealing with should permeate the whole structure of
she created voids, new spaces, and links to planning issues, John Montgomery, a planner environmental decisions - we should not
surrounding areas. Her live projects at this and an economist, and Robert Holden, a push ourselves into a narrow area but ensure
time, both in Tokyo and Germany were on landscape architect involved in practice and that an urban design approach was involved
"weird" extremely narrow sites where all her teaching. at all scales. There were examples where
ingenuity in programming and layering were that had happened such as New York under
needed to achieve amazingly vital results. RELEVANCE Mayor Lindsay where the Urban Design
These were followed by two harbour The first question put to the panel was section sought to maximise public policy
studies in Hamburg and Cologne which led to 'how relevant is urban design, as at presently benefits from development - some decisions
her most recent project, the harbourside practised, to planning issues?' were proved wrong but it was a positive
Media Complex in Dusseldorf. Here she has Andrew Warner felt that developers were approach to the urban design process; San
created a "new urbanity, not an edge or less rapacious today and more were prepared Francisco and Portland were also examples
marginal scheme". On the street facade the to put money into design issues. Robert of this and so was Birmingham.
buildings continue the rhythm and scale of a Holden's view was that unless we get global
traditional narrow warehouse alley. On the economics and the transport situation right MECHANISMS
harbour side the scheme explodes and we are merely tinkering with the system with Could the mechanisms of the present
fragments into four dramatic glazed fingers, urban design. John Montgomery was worried system be improved? We needed to create a
four office blocks clutching a "black box", a about many approaches to urban design, feeling of ownership of the city by the public
broadcasting room, between them. The which appeared to be tidying up and seeking which meant improving the dialogue
layering of the building is continued in the to create order whereas surely the object between the public and the planners. In
surrounding landscape. But for Zaha Hadid should be to encourage people and their Spain, for example, planning proposals are
landscape is not something which "gentrifies activities - creating places where things can exhibited in three dimensional form. The
the space through shrubbery". She creates a happen; he referred to the area outside the French education system seemed to
new geology, breaking the earth's crust and Lyric Theatre in Hammersmith where introduce a better appreciation of culture.
leading pedestrians through the fissures into agreement had been reached with Training of Planning Committee members
her own geometrically structured rocky surrounding owners to recreate a proper would help and we needed to get local
water's edge. public realm but this had been stymied by authorities to work in an integrated way, not
The same concern about the treatment of local authority bureaucrats. as separate compartments of highway
spaces around her buildings has produced Robert Holden described improvement engineers and separated disciplines.

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Rural Design and Urban Design
The Missing Link? VIEW
POINT

In this paper, Jeff Bishop of BDOR in


Bristol argues the need to move beyond a
narrow construct of 'urban' to consider
the applicability of the principles and
methods of urban design to the shaping
and management of rural areas. He
suggests that there are lessons to be
learned in both directions, and that
making such a move will help to bring
urban design closer into line with
developing thinking on further themes -
notably sustainable development.

'Imagine an urban countryside, a highly traditional urban visions. In fact, the results
varied but humanised landscape. It is neither showed more consistency with developing
urban nor rural in the old sense, since houses, notions of perceptions of rural landscapes
workplaces and places of assembly are set than with those from the then well-
among trees, farms and streams.' established urban tradition.
This description was chosen - quite This is nowhere clearer than in Walter
deliberately - by Kevin Lynch to underpin his Bor's comment on changes in Milton Keynes
slightly tongue-in-cheek 'Place Utopia' which planning that had made it into (in his term)
formed the worked example chapter of Good "an enormous patchwork". He, of course,
City Form} The choice of a wider landscape followed the old urban (and intensely male)
for this Utopia was one result of his unease at tradition by assuming that a "patchwork" is
the way in which many of his ideas, from intrinsically bad. It certainly was a
those in The Image of the City2 onwards, had "patchwork", but the results showed that it
been colonialised by urban enthusiasts to give could be highly valued, and extremely
them increasing justification for arguing the effective. There were anomalies; in particular
distinctiveness and superiority of urban form. from the apparent lack of 'congruence'
Lynch was concerned that the broader between form and patterns of use and
perspective on people and places, on movement that Lynch's work argued to be so
meaning, legibility, identity and order, that he important. The Milton Keynes results
and others - notably McHarg 3 and Appleyard 4 showed highly urban patterns of movement
- had begun to develop was being weakened. co-existing quite happily with images of a
He saw assumptions being developed that mainly rural pattern of settlements.
only clearly urban form can given meaning Residents conceived the whole place as
and order, and hence that urban designers are villages set in a landscape, each with its own
the only true guardians and shapers of the by-pass and all just down the road from one
broad-scale physical fabric. He wished to of Europe's largest covered shopping centres
reassert the relevance of his approach to any (known as 'the city'!).
landscape or territory, even to 'Managing the
Sense of a Region'. 5 OLD IDEAS RESURFACING?
In this, there are parallels with my own With Kevin Lynch's sad death during an
work on Milton Keynes in the late 1970s,6 exchange of ideas about all this, and shifts in
where the results of the study of resident my work pattern, these ideas lay deep down
perceptions of the new "city" challenged in my mind for some years. They came
professional constructs. This work showed flooding back around three years ago when
clearly that it is possible to structure a large- we were approached by staff at the
scale place to give order and coherence, to Countryside Commission to discuss emerging
balance local with overall identity, and all in issues around the theme of the "Design of
a manner which does not demand recourse to Buildings and Settlements in the

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


LOCAL DIVERSITY Landscape Assessment Settlement Pattern Building Design
MATRIX

Physical Influences Geology, overall form, hydrology, slope, climate, Settlement location, re: landform, water table and Materials, micro-climatic response, ground
natural and semi-natural vegetation, ecology supply, shelter/exposure, aspect, habitats conditions, habitats

Spaces and Enclosure Openness, distance or enclosure, vistas and Scale, topography, enclosure, openness, Public and private spaces, division, enclosure,
views, horizons, skylines, sub-divisions, change boundaries, sequences, consistency, connections, constriction
over seasons public and private space

Forms and Patterns Managed vegetation, effects of tress, hedges, Pattern of field and farm development, legibility, Volumes and massing, consistency and variety,
boundaries, agriculture, buildings, distinctive tree and boundary patterns orientation, number of storeys, height,
areas, legibility, impact on the landform, boundaries
proportion of cover features

Characteristics Tone, colour, light and shade, variation over Tone, colour, light and shade, variation over Tone, colour, light and shade, shelter, security,
time, seasonal change, texture, contrast, variety, time, seasonal change, texture, contrast, variety, boundaiy details, roofs, walls, openings, eaves,
consistency, management, strategic landmarks consistency, management, local landmarks verges, ridges, planting, condition, distinctive
features

Circulation Orientation, general pattern of roads, rail, paths Pattern of roads and paths through and across Circulation in and around buildings, through,
and watercourses visual effects of moving settlement, signage, lighting, verges, condition, between and across spaces, access to buildings,
through, views opened, and closed, density of surveillance, safety, density of traffic condition, surveillance, safety, public and private
traffic, permeability access

Change Deforestation, plantation, intensified agriculture, New villages, agglomeration, abandonment, Redundancy and reuse, design guidance,
minerals extraction, trunk roads, reservoirs, infilling, suburbanisation, by-passes, * extensions', coach lamps and gnomes, signage,
landfill, strategic planning infrastructure, public utilities, local plans standardisation, development control

Values Meanings, attitudes perceptions and symbols at national, regional, local and personal levels in terms of: environmental, historic, social and cultural
factors

Countryside" 8 (as the eventual work came to design - to celebrate and enhance local especially in a way which could assist
be titled). The issues emerged following distinctiveness. designers and planners.
general reaction to a Commission policy Though we still hesitate about its use in As a matter of principle, we were keen to
paper on "Planning for a Greener practice, we developed a "Local Diversity avoid what we have always considered to be
Countryside". 9 Matrix" - shown above - which enabled us to the trap of design guides. From experience
This latter paper attracted almost as many give coherent attention to the many aspects of working with development control
comments on the design of buildings and which shape local diversity and planners, with designers and with developers,
settlements as on all other issues put distinctiveness. In this matrix, we linked we have become convinced that any design
together. This was encouraging (and had to together the different physical scales of guide is only as good as the weakest link in
be acted upon), yet the topic of design, landscape, settlements and buildings to a the chain - and this is just as likely to be an
architecture, even aesthetics caused worrying range of factors covering the original, architect as a plansmith or a developer's
ripples in an organisation with no background underlying shaping forces of geology and technician. Moving forward from narrow
in this area and a fear of the secret garden climate, through the resulting patterns of prescription - especially in the context of
which we professionals have constructed for 'figure' and 'ground' in how we read places, celebrating diversity - demanded an approach
our territory. So far has this construct of a to local idiosyncratic features, and on to the which would place the onus firmly on
secret garden imbued even other influence of movement and change over time. designers to put in the work to demonstrate in
professionals that the best the Commission Finally we added one further, indispensable their designs a full understanding and
hoped for, at that stage, was some sort of factor - values. This covers the established, appreciation of the nature of specific sites
(and changing), meanings and values given to and their context.
generic design guide. They had no idea that
engaging with design would overlap the area and its settlements and buildings by This general approach places our work
remarkably with almost all their other policy local communities. firmly in the territory explored by John
areas; in particular with developing research, However, our work with the Countryside Punter in his study for the Department of the
policy and practice on landscape appraisal Commission was not intended to be Environment on design policies in local
and assessment. We took it further with theoretical. The aim was to provide the plans. 10 The (hopefully) forthcoming guide to
them; into aspects of links between design Commission with modes of intervention in good practice will argue the centrality of
and access, recreation, countryside planning, development and design processes appraisal-based policies, setting a descriptive
management and community participation. which would help to deliver a higher quality and analytical framework against which
They became especially excited by two of building design in rural areas, and hence future design proposals can be tested. Our
emerging themes, both of which are also reinforce their remit for a beautiful and own developing methods introduce appraisal
central (if in varying form) to urban design. accessible countryside. Having developed, at two levels, and also introduce some
The first theme was the need to look beyond through the matrix, what we considered to be innovative and already fairly controversial
a good working basis whereby one could ways of generating and using that appraisal.
individual buildings and design detail to the
nature and form of settlements and their assess the contribution that any new building
relationship with their landscape. The might make to reinforcing local EMERGING METHODS
second theme was the need to hunt out, distinctiveness, it was then essential to We have recently tested the two main
critically describe and then - through new describe how this could be achieved - and methods for the Countryside Commission,

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


VIEW
POINT

working with another consultancy (SGS Interestingly, much of the field work testing urban neighbourhoods. It would be great pity
Environment, their landscape group in the matrix and the overall approaches in real- for the overall advancement of urban design
particular) and Cotswold District Council. life situations led us to tackle issues which, in as a key, but currently undervalued, process
The results have recently been presented to another setting, would be regarded as classic were we to gain some interest from the dyed-
the Commissioners, where they were urban design. In one village, the issues of in-the-wool-urbanists only after the methods
received extremely positively - as they were permeability and the privatisation of public found their way into urban practice.
in a series of regional seminars for the space were central. In another, the district- Our recent work suggests that UK urban
majority of local planning authorities across wide appraisal paid particular attention to design urgently needs to consider its
England. (They are not yet, however, public, legibility. In one of the Cotswold studies, the relevance to all parts of the country; we
so all comments which follow are mine local authority found itself getting close to believe the principle for doing so is clearly
alone.) The methods are: "understanding and manipulating the established. Our 'nose' tells us that urban
developer's goals through the planning design practice - in general - would be
COUNTRYSIDE DESIGN SUMMARIES machinery to achieve quality in the public enhanced by this move, and that rural areas
Produced mainly at district level and by realm" (a minimally adapted UDG Agenda would benefit from it. We feel that there is
planning authorities, these are area-wide principle). also much to learn about the balance between
appraisals of landscape, settlements and There can be no doubt that we were (UDG the general advancement or urban design
buildings in different zones of the district, Agenda again) addressing questions of practice (part of that being empowerment and
offering broad guidance not on how to helping users to achieve their aspirations, and capacity-building) and the actual doing of
respond (as per a design guide) but on what a operating as promoters and enablers. In fact, urban design projects. Finally, we have a
design should respond to. the latter techniques were probably more fear that urban design will become beached if
critical, and raise questions about the balance it fails to look more broadly, in particular
VILLAGE DESIGN STATEMENTS between drawing-based work in urban design when facing the growing momentum of
Produced mainly by village communities, and that of process management, facilitation, sustainable developments arguments.
in association with planning authorities, as a and consensus-building. The work drew us Hopefully, the pages of the next UDQ or two
more specific appraisal in terms of the into appraisals of relationships, balance and could contain some responses to, perhaps
generic framework, these offer very explicit structure at a level well beyond that of even elaboration of, these arguments.
guidance about the setting to which any individual buildings, while also alerting us to
design must respond - but still stay clear of aspects of landscape structure and character. REFERENCES
prescribing what the response might be. If anything, the latter has implications beyond 1. Lynch, K (1981), Good City Form
We can now be much clearer about the urban design and into landscape assessment, (Cambridge, MA, MIT Press).
eventual status of these outputs. The suggesting that this rapidly growing area of 2. Lynch, K (1960), The Image of the City
Countryside Design Summaries will be professional expertise urgently needs some (Cambridge, MA, MIT Press).
incorporated into district-wide local plans in input from more instrumental, designerly 3. McHarg, I (1969), Design with Nature
all three of the areas used for testing. The thinking. (New York, Doubleday).
four Village Design Statements will all be When looking back, we find parallels 4. Appleyard, D (1976), Planning a
securing status as Supplementary Planning between our approaches and those outlined in Pluralist City (Cambridge, MA, MIT
Guidance. In fact, the VDS for Cottenham UDQ by John Punter in his paper on research Press).
(in South Cambridgeshire) has already been in the USA." In that paper he suggested that 5. Lynch, K (1976), Managing the Sense of
approved - the first time ever that an entirely "very few cities consider the ecological, a Region (Cambridge, MA, MIT Press).
community-written document has been natural resource and conservation aspects of 6. Bishop, J (1986), Milton Keynes: Best of
incorporated fully into the planning system. landscape and build it in as a crucial Both Worlds? (SAUS, University of
In all four villages, the community groups are contextual factor in design", and also Bristol).
continuing their work and are now moving on highlighted the lack of attention in UK 7. Bor, W (1981), Reported in Architects
to consider appropriate development briefs. practice to sustainable development and Journal, 15 April.
In one of the four, this has led to an increased social equity. Our work reinforces this. 8. Countryside Commission (1993), Design
housing allocation, increased land values and in the Countryside (Cheltenham, Coun-
potentially better layout and design. WHERE NOW? tryside Commission).
All this leads us, inevitably, to the 9. Countryside Commission (1989),
IMPLICATIONS conclusion that the time is long overdue Planning for a Greener Countryside
Each method is rooted in a desire to bring (even if the substitute words fail us) to put (Cheltenham Countryside Commission).
often conflicting parties together to link aside redundant distinctions between urban 10. Punter, J, (forthcoming), Guide to Good
general policy to detailed local practice, to design and rural design - at least in the way Practice for Design Policies in Local
provide a 'common language' for all, to the latter has been construed in our own work Plans (London, HMSO, Department of
create a shared awareness of value, and to for the Countryside Commission. We are the Environment).
widen the decision-making base. In general, now actively exploring (with clear support 11. Punter, J, (1992), Design Control in the
the matrix described above provides the from 'high places') the applications of the United States (Urban Design Quarterly,
'common language'. approaches both to Conservation Areas and to Issue 44, pp. 5-10).

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Glasgow and its Towns

The seminars - supported by Glasgow their own sake but in reaction to a very wide
District Council, Glasgow Development set of social, economic, environmental and
Hildebrand Frey, Director of the Urban Agency, Strathclyde Regional Council, functional issues and criteria.
Studies Unit at the University of Scottish Homes, The Glasgow Institute of Thirdly, many here in Glasgow disapprove
Strathclyde, summarises the major issues Architects, and the Department of of urban design because it has frequently
and conclusions reached at a series of Architecture and Building Science - came been in the past, and is still perceived today,
seminars held in Glasgow this year. about as the result of the perceived lack of to be rigid and all-prescribing
Between the end of February and mid development strategies and specifically urban masterplanning, hindering if not strangling
March 1994 the Urban Design Studies Unit design in Glasgow's regeneration process. rather than enhancing urban development; the
at the University of Strathclyde organised Support was considerable, perhaps depressing results of comprehensive
four seminars about the role of urban indicative of the importance attributed to the development in the 50s and 60s are an
design in the regeneration of Glasgow. discussions. Next to local speakers - Frank eloquent reminder. The seminars argued and
The seminars did not, and were not Walker, Thomas Markus, John Punter and demonstrated that good urban design
intended to, break new ground; but there myself from the University of Strathclyde and frameworks are primarily concerned with the
was discussion with a little difference. Mark Baines from the Mackintosh School of 'hard' areas of the city, the long-lasting and
First, the seminars were not events at Art - interesting speakers could thus be image-giving public spaces, buildings and
which the 'converted' talk to each other invited: David Mackay (MBM, Barcelona); monuments. Grey or 'soft' areas of the
but meetings at which sceptical but open- Giinter Schlusche (Berlin/IBA); Ulrich private realm have to be flexible, adaptable
minded professionals of all the city's Loening (University of Edinburgh, Centre for to changing socio-economic conditions and
agencies, departments, associations and Human Ecology); Richard MacCormac needs, and should remain largely unregulated
groups actively involved in the (MacCormac Jamieson & Prichard, London); except for the overall massing and height of
regeneration of the city came together to Anthony Costello (Ball State University development in order to prevent any
listen to arguments and comparisons and Muncie, USA); Paul Stouten (RIW-Housing interference with the public realm's structure,
discuss issues and problems of their Research Institute at the Delft University of form and image.
concern. Technology); Lucien Kroll (Atelier A fourth important objective of the
What is also remarkable is that the series d'Urbanisme, d'Architecture et seminars was to show how urban design 'fits
was initiated not by the University but the d'lnformatique, Brussels). But major in' and why the spatial structure and physical
City of Glasgow's Town Clerks Office in contributions were also made by many form of the city is so important. Examples
collaboration with planners and architects delegates in form of questions, comments or demonstrated that an improved image of a
involved in the regeneration of the even short papers. city or urban area generates not only directly
Gorbals. a social, spatial and formal gain but also
MAJOR ISSUES indirectly an economic benefit, though the
But what was it all about? First, there are latter cannot be predicted with any accuracy.
many here in Glasgow who believe that they It was furthermore shown how social,
actually do design the city and have economic, environmental and functional
strategies. In response to their claim it was needs, demands and problems perceived by
relatively easy to demonstrate that in the citizens lead, ideally and necessarily in a
Glasgow we design individual parts of the participatory process, to the generation of
city but, with a few notable exceptions, action programmes. They in turn result in the
ignore the need to generate a design physical changes of the city. The impact of
framework for the integration of all these these changes must be realistically predicted
parts into good towns and a good city. before they are carried out and requires to be
Secondly, many still believe that urban monitored after changes have taken places.
design is primarily and solely concerned with Examples of urban regeneration projects in
formal and aesthetic issues, the cosmetic Glasgow clearly illustrated the lack of impact
treatment of preconceived projects in the city, analysis which causes many if not all of their
and therefore largely irrelevant in the process benefits to be lost again in a very short time.
of tackling the city's 'real' social, economic
and structural problems. The seminars THE LESSONS FOR GLASGOW
demonstrated with the help of examples At the end of the seminars some very clear
particularly from Barcelona and Berlin that recommendations emerged with direct
Above: City Structure. Hatched section good urban design, rather than following relevance for urban regeneration in Glasgow.
shows central and southern areas with development projects as an after-thought, sets As the discussion embraced the city at large
coherent urban structure. Dotted section the rules for the physical as well as rather than specific parts, details or issues,
shows areas of comprehensive programmatic integration of development these recommendations are fairly general and
redevelopment during 1950s and 1960s. projects, influences the city's 'performance' need to be worked out in detail at seminars
and shapes its very form and structure not for and workshops to follow, but a first small

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Glasgow's fragmented structure today
compared with ideas for a city of linked
towns, plans for a more sustainable city. REGIONAL

step towards a regeneration strategy was


made.
It was agreed that Glasgow's regeneration
had to achieve all of the following goals: a
sustainable city and city region; an
economically thriving and a socially balanced
city; and a structurally, spatially and formally
legible and imageable city. To achieve these
goals demands the co-ordination of all action
and the prediction and assessment of the
environmental, economical, social, spatial
and formal impact, of all regeneration
projects in the city.
To achieve a sustainable city, Glasgow has
to consolidate its development clusters to
become real towns with mixed use and all
major facilities and amenities of a town. If
not all clusters can become effective towns, a
clear and rather painful decision is required
which clusters should be reinforced and
which others may have to return to a more
rural role. The large areas of open land
between the towns should be used for
industries and food production; large-scale
research and commercial units; recreation
and sports; recycling of waste; public and
private transport.
To achieve an economically viable city,
inward investment should be attracted not
least through the enhancement of the city
image as consequence of high quality design
of the public realm.
To achieve a socially balanced city
requires, next to educational, job creation and
social programmes, the consolidation and
repair of the spatial structure and form of
deprived areas, high quality design of the
public realm of these districts, a much larger
variety of different house types and forms of river Clyde area; the reinforcement of the general and all-embracing. Many are now
tenure attracting a population of mixed social major spatial links between towns; the concerned that the momentum gained is not
and income levels; and high quality generation of an integrated transport strategy lost. An essential next step is the
landscaping of open spaces. in which the pedestrian, cyclist and public organisation of further seminars and
To achieve a legible and imageable city the transport have priority. workshops, each with a very clear focus. Of
public sector must take responsibility for the The design of the towns' major public particular importance is the generation of
development of the public realm and must act places should involve: the conservation of the operational plans to implement step by step
upon it. This requires urban design to historical substance including its image- the regeneration objectives and programmes
become an integrated part of the planning giving skyline; the design of the towns' gates of Glasgow and its towns.
system and public funds to be made available and arrival points; the high quality design of One immediate practical outcome of the
for the improvement of the public realm. the major squares and streets; a plan for the discussions is the inclusion of Professor
The role of urban design is to develop a pattern of uses in these major public spaces; Punter and myself from the University of
three dimensional framework for the city's design rules for surfaces enclosing major Strathclyde in the working group responsible
form and structure, based on the historical public spaces; and a comprehensive for the development of a comprehensive
growth pattern of Glasgow, consolidating the landscaping strategy for the public spaces. regeneration strategy for the Gorbals. This
city as agglomeration of linked towns. The seems to me a significant first stage of a new
framework should include: the introduction of POSTSCRIPT approach to the management of urban
a comprehensive plan for the nature and use No doubt, the seminars were only a starting regeneration in Glasgow.
of open spaces between towns, especially the point and discussions were perhaps too

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Nimes
Design Led Planning

level but vitally important to the more controlled; and to provide a link
implementation of physical planning ideas is between a series of new urban projects.
Chris Couch, Professor of Urban Planning the preparation of the Plan d'Occupation des Urbanising the first stretch of the road is
at Liverpool John Moores University, Sols (POS): the legally binding land use and currently at the design stage but three
describes measures being taken in Nimes development plan. Preparation has been projects have been built. In the west lies the
to exploit its artistic and cultural heritage. divided into three phases. Phase One, 'ville active' project: a retail and business
completed in July 1991, dealt with La Plaine zone that tries to cater for the spatial
According to Jean Bousquet, Mayor of Sud de Nimes to try to bring some order and requirements of edge-of-town commerce
Nimes, architecture and urban design are protection to the rural area of development while providing a strong design framework
important to him because they provide the pressure between the motorway and the and integration with housing and social
physical framework for living: "we are airport. The second phase covered the city facilities. Nearby is the Stade des Costieres:
surrounded by architecture, it's like a second centre and the Garrigues (the area of low, dry a new indoor sports hall and 20,000 seat
set of clothes for everyone... the quality of hills and small-holdings to the north) and was outdoor stadium for football, rugby, etc.
our architecture is indicative of the strength the subject of a public inquiry in April 1993.
of our culture". Within the context of this plan virtually all THE AXE NIMES-CAMPAGNE NORD-SUD
Of Roman origin with a well preserved the medieval core has become a pedestrian This was the concept of the Norman Foster
medieval centre, Nimes is a city of around zone and a secteur sauvegarde (conservation team. To the west of the medieval city centre
150,000 people in western Provence. While area). The final phase will deal with the the 19th century inhabitants had built a great
known for its strong artistic heritage the city suburban area south of the city centre and formal boulevard running south from the
had, until recently, a slightly depressed air, north of the motorway: the development zone. Jardin de la Fontaine for over two kilometres
overshadowed economically and culturally by The process of preparation and the content through the city. Foster's idea was to provide
its neighbours, Montpellier to the west and of the POS are only remarkable because they a symbolic link between the gardens (the
Avignon to the east. are informed by the second, higher level of heart of the city) and the southern horizon.
Such is the power of French local planning. This plan, known as the Plan Thus he proposed extending the axis through
authorities and the office of the mayor in d'Ordonnancement (literally, a plan for the 8 kilometres gradually transforming its
particular, that Nimes has become in the general arrangement of buildings) has no function and character from urban street to
early 1990s, one of the main focusses of legal status but for the planners of Nimes it suburban avenue and finally to country road.
attention in French urban design and provides the strategic framework for physical
planning. Driven by the enthusiasm of Jean planning. What the plan does is to establish DIAGONALE VERTE
Bousquet and his belief in cultural and the key physical characteristics, constraints Perhaps the most immediately appreciated
design led regeneration, the town has become and opportunities within the agglomeration by the people of Nimes will be the Diagonale
very 'a la mode'. It has been transformed, at and to set out a small number of critical Verte. This series of public open spaces, both
least temporarily, into a mecca for visiting urban design proposals for specific parts of hard paved areas and soft green areas, is to
planners and architects and is enjoying the city. This is not a set of criteria but a run north-west to south-east through the city
something of an economic renaissance. This series of proposals. It is not comprehensive. linking the Garrigues in the north with the
has been achieved, or at least strongly If fully implemented, the proposals represent agricultural plain to the south. Beginning at
influenced, by a combination of coordinated major changes to the physical environment of the Jardin de la Fontaine it too has been the
environmental planning policies and the the city with improvements to both visual location for a series of urban projects.
development of a series of high quality appearance and legibility.
'flagship' building projects. The Plan d'Ordonnancement has three
Local government in France is very main proposals. They relate to:
fragmented, with many urban areas divided - the boulevard peripherique sud;
between a number of communes, each with - the axe Nimes-Campagne nord-sud;
its own planning powers. Thus, historically, - the Diagonale Verte
the planning of Nimes had fallen between the
Departement de Gard, the Ville de Nimes THE BOULEVARD PERIPHERIQUE SUD
and a number of surrounding communes. Built as a ring road in the post-war period
One of the first steps towards good planning the peripherique sud cuts an ugly swathe
was to bring the whole urban area within the through the southern suburbs of the city. The
jurisdiction of one planning authority and in concept is to 'urbanise' this whole suburban The Canal de la Fontaine (shown above)
1988 the local authorities agreed to set up the zone through increasing densities and links the gardens with the city centre. In a
Agence d'Urbanisme et de Developpement 'civilizing' environmental works. The most recent project the city have cleaned up the
de la Region Nimoise with the task of important proposal is to change the character canal, rebuilt and widened the pedestrian
preparing and implementing a coordinated of the ring road to create an urban boulevard promenade alongside, planted semi-mature
plan for the whole agglomeration. where buildings are to be brought closer to trees and replaced the old street furniture.
The 'new' planning of Nimes has the road to enclose the environment; where Traffic movement has been restricted and
proceeded on two levels. The more prosaic traffic speeds are to be reduced and its flow adjoining buildings, which were run down,

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


INTER-
NATIONAL

are beginning to be renovated. Just to the Measures introduced include: quality, as evidenced by the poverty of
south lies the Place d'Assas. Dug up to retaining a building mass and density in thinking behind the British Enterprise Zones
construct an underground car park in the late keeping with the rest of the city centre; for example, in Nimes well considered
1980s, it was rebuilt in 1993 to provide a retaining the domestic urban scale and physical improvements are leading to
home for a number of large outdoor character of the streets and facades; economic benefits. The Carre d'Art and the
sculptures. Unusually and successfully, the refurbishing those buildings of architec- refurbishment of its surroundings have
artists were involved in the design of the tural merit or which form key elements in brought more tourists and more spending to
square from the beginning allowing the the townscape, while permitting the the area; pedestrianisation and environmental
artifacts to be shown to best advantage while demolition and replacement of others; improvements in the medieval city have
being integrated into the fabric of the city. removing the 'parasitic' constructions encouraged a return of people and economic
Around the corner from the Place d'Assas (e.g. workshops) that have appeared in activities; the whole exercise of the Plan
is Foster's new Carre d'Art. Opened in 1993 the inner courtyards of blocks and d'Ordonnancement and the architectural
it is the most important centre for refurbishing as semi-private spaces, projects has had a powerfully beneficial but
contemporary art in France after the repaving and refurnishing the streets. unquantifiable effect on the image of Nimes
Pompidou Centre in Paris. Not only is it a and its ability to 'sell itself in the
superb example of modern architecture investment markets of the world.
successfully inserted into the fabric of an old To be useful, strategies to enhance the
city but its construction has provided an townscape of a city need not be
opportunity to rebuild the adjoining Place de comprehensive criteria-type policies, along
la Comedie so as to calm traffic and improve the lines of the fatuous 'good design will be
the pedestrian environment around the art encouraged' so often found in British Local
gallery and the adjacent Roman Maison Plans but can take the form of specific
Carre, where the number of visitors has more proposals for sections of the city in order to
than quadrupled since completion of the provide a clear physical framework and
works. It is a classic example of how structure, i.e. to improve the legibility of the
investment in one building can provide a The 'diagonal' runs through the Esplanade city; and to offer examples of good urban
catalyst for the regeneration of a whole area Charles de Gaulle: again combining the need design that others may follow.
(shown above). to provide underground car parking with the In Nimes not only are good modern
To the south the 'diagonal' route continues opportunity to refurbish the surface area. buildings inserted into historic areas without
along the tree-lined Boulevard Victor Hugo to The policy of the city is not simply to limit visual detriment, but they enhance the
the Arenes where the city have roofed over the use of the car in the city centre but to townscape and economy. Indeed, one of the
the roman arena to provide a summer and encourage the use of bus services with more general points about French urban design is
winter venue for concerts and cultural events frequent services on realigned routes. the willingness of architects to propose and
of all kinds. This is a bold example of Passing along the Avenue Feucheres and planners and local authorities to accept bold,
conservation combined with economic use under the main railway station the final innovative and visually exciting solutions to
and provision of a new facility. There is stretch of the diagonal verte follows the line design problems in historic areas. There
nothing precious about building preservation of a small stream, le Petit Vistre, out into the seems to be a confidence about urban design
here. The attitude appears to be: it is part of countryside. in France, both on the side of designers and
our heritage, we respect it but we will use it, on the side of the commissioners and
not just look at it. CONCLUSIONS controllers of development that is generally
To the east of the Carre d'Art lies the In Nimes it is possible to observe a number lacking in this country.
medieval core of the city centre. Formerly of features of interest to British planners and The final point is that few British local
run down with many vacant buildings, the urban designers. It demonstrates the ability authorities have attempted to produce
city has taken a powerful stand, effectively of the French local authority, with its anything like the Plan d'Ordonnancement.
banning cars from the centre for most of the decentralised planning powers, local identity Few British Development Plans can offer any
day, repaving the entire area to indicate the and civic pride, to develop its own solutions strategic urban design concepts to guide and
pedestrian's dominance, replacing street to planning problems. In the case of Nimes, lead the future development of their towns
furniture and signage. Combined with steady the city has chosen a strategy for economic and cities, let alone using design strategies to
investment in building refurbishment and development based around exploitation of its being economic and social benefits. Urban
conversion the effect has been to upgrade the artistic and cultural heritage and design in Britain has become too detached
urban fabric and bring inhabitants and environmental improvement. At the same from the planning process for this to happen.
economic life back to the inner city (as shown time, high standards of architecture and Yet in Nimes, as in many other continental
in the next column). The objectives have urban design are being pursued for their own cities, plans have been prepared that indicate
been to retain or recapture the best parts of sake: because the physical fabric of the city is what the city will look like in the future, why
its historic identity while making the area the people's second set of clothes. it will look like that and what the benefits
functionally more useful in the context of the Far from there being a choice between will be: a rationally argued urban design
late 20th century city. economic development and environmental strategy leading the planning process.

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Reviews of books on
Los Angeles, Japan,
Skyscrapers and
Urban Change
substitute for analytical thought and there is a a foretaste of paradise, city of hope or despair.
pinched and preachy feel to the running text. Whatever the popular wisdom, it is certainly a
UNDERSTANDING URBAN DESIGN How has this come about, since the city which inspires writers, academics and
An Introduction to the Processes of Urban publication is clearly well intentioned by its serious commentators to take a holistic view.
Change, David W Chapman and Peter J authors? It has nothing to do with the poor From Reyner Banham's 1971 "Los Angeles -
Larkham, Faculty of the Built illustrations, since the redoubtable Kevin The Architecture of Four Ecologies" to Mike
Environment, University of Central Lynch himself certainly could not draw in any Davis' 1992 "City of Quartz" and Stephen
England, Birmingham, 1994. 10.00 conventional graphic sense. However, Brook's 1992 "LA Lore", writers have taken
One of the very real problems in being both Lynch's back-of-the-envelope sketches were on the whole spectrum of the development of
talented and tenacious is that you leave in always brimming with intent and purpose; it Los Angeles from its history and geography,
your wake a legacy of lesser talents who was possible to see a concept, or a record of to its demography and sociology, plus all its
seem forever destined to pick up the themes the qualities of a place he visited, shine quirks and idiosyncrasies to build up their
and techniques which you laid down for the through the child-like graphics. picture of the city and their scenario for its
first time. In theory, there should be no Certainly the text contains some useful future.
problem here, since most of us have followed vignettes which could be culled by urban Now Charles Jencks has come under the
in the hallowed footsteps of one urban design students as a shortcut to taking the spell of Los Angeles and has written a book
designer or another, reading their books, source books down from the library shelf. about an architecture which he sees as
visiting their built projects and meeting Perhaps Urban Design has now become such embodying both the spirit of the city and the
together over an evening to share what one an orthodoxy that it can support a whole tier hope for its future. Jencks is definitely of the
hopes are insights into their life's work. of lesser rate commentaries aimed at school of boosters (see Mike Davis, pp 24-
Things begin to go badly wrong, however, informing a secondary market of Town 30). He enthusiastically draws from a wide
when the disciples begin to lose the message Councillors, specialists from other collection of data - population studies (over
in their enthusiasm to be labelled with the professions and interested members of the 100 different ethnic groups, 40 different
master. public at large. lifestyle clusters, 86 languages spoken in
Since the untimely death of Francis If so, it does Francis Tibbalds a grave schools), politics, philosophy, economics. He
Tibbalds, there have been numerous well disservice. His own book, Making People- analyses the causes of the 1992 Justice Riots,
intentioned attempts to honour his memory by Friendly Towns, was published shortly after explores eco-systems, enclaves and
means of prizes, project awards and his death. Francis is understandably very eclecticism, and surveys the abundant local
dedicated meetings. It is testimony to his hard to beat in terms of his passion and flora and fauna in his study of the fine-
very great influence on us all that such perception, and the book is shot through with grained heterogeneity of Los Angeles. It is
enterprises should be placed on the same very high calibre examples from his own this heterogeneity which is seen in LA's new
level as those associated with, say, Lewis practice. Kevin Lynch and Lewis Mumford, architecture, an architecture, Jencks says,
Mumford or one of Francis's greatest heroes, although no rivals to Francis in terms of which represents the plurality and multi-
Kevin Lynch. Further, Francis Tibbalds' own graphic ability, could spice an argument with ethnicity of the city, the subcultures rather
practice continues very much in the spirit of vivid language and a poetry which extended than an overriding mono-culture.
its founder to this day. even into highly technical matters. If the At first glance "Heteropolis" is an
What are we to make of this book-cum- work of these three great men is reheated or architecture book of the glossy variety - lots
brochure emerging from the University of turned into scrapbook items by others who do of lovely coloured photographs of buildings.
Central England Faculty of the Built not appear to understand the material before Demographic charts and socio-political
Environment? The publication sets itself, by them, then is it any surprise that the analysis seem rather out of place in this
its dedication 'to the memory of the life and 'product' loses so much in translation? setting. But, says Jencks, this is
work of Francis Tibbalds', a very high Surely Urban Design is far too important to heterogeneity itself and, as he explains in the
standard indeed. Here is a very curious be treated like this. introduction, he "will switch voices suddenly
document of about 75 pages, neither a depending on which tone is more suitable for
layman's guide nor a student's primer, and Neil Parkyn a particular context".
certainly not a manual for professionals. Heteropolis is the city of difference but the
A bewildering variety of poorly reproduced problem that Jencks sees in modern day LA
photographs, amateur looking drawings and HETEROPOLIS is that it is the place where the politics of
quasi-scientific diagrams and symbols of the Los Angeles: The Riots and the Strange universalism (the abstract idealism of US
usual urban 'suspects' fills its margins, Beauty of Hetero-Architecture modern liberalism) clash with the politics of
comprising a tawdry scrap-book of urban Charles Jencks, Academy Editions 1993, difference. His solution to this problem is
design marginalia, from an illegible plan of hardback 24.95, paperback 17.95 the introduction of "double-coding", the
UK Green Belts through to a Corbusian notion of weaving together the two
vision of the future by way of comparative Los Angeles is a city which always seems conflicting philosophies into an intelligent
shopfront proposals. The text, likewise, to polarise opinion - people either love it or strategy of hybridisation to create the
reads as a typical student dissertation in loathe it, it's either "sunshine or noir" as "politics of recognition", a policy of "radical
which academic references are supplied as a Mike Davis puts it, the apocalypse arrived or inclusiveness that overcomes the prevalent

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


BOOK
REVIEWS

inspires Jencks to further abandonment of his 2010) we find that the avant-garde rich inhabit
usual divisive "isms" approach. I certainly exaggerated and distorted houses made of
hope so. This is a good book for anyone who brightly coloured plywood and chainlink
has ever held a view about Los Angeles. fencing, eat out in sophisticated themed
restaurants, go shopping in scaled down
Francesca Morrison fantasy malls, and work either in anonymous
multinational downtown skyscrapers or in
deconstructed designer studio offices.
Outside the compact downtown area - chosen
LOS ANGELES: WORLD CITIES inexplicably for the dust jacket (it could be
Series Editor Maggie Toy almost any major city in the State) - there is
Academy Editions 69.95 an inventive and witty group of young
architects, or school as Charles Jencks has
A sybaritic sun-drenched city sitting, elsewhere referred to them, with a lightness of
Pompeii-like, astride a potential natural touch and formal dexterity, and enough clients
disaster, a place where fantasy and reality to indulge their design skills.
embrace, where - if the luscious photographs A quick glance at the location map
in this book are to be believed - the sky is helpfully provided at the end of the book
always deep blue, except for when it is tinged shows that the projects are almost exclusively
with a scenographic purple hue as the street located in a narrow band stretching from
lights twinkle against the setting s u n - downtown to Santa Monica and Venice
Los Angeles is the second of the projected Beach, some fifteen miles away, the area of
series on world cities. Like London, its greatest personal wealth in the county. Given
predecessor (reviewed in the April 94 issue the emphasis in the text on social and ethnic
of Urban Design Quarterly), it is - as one issues it's disappointing that there are no
would expect with a price tag of nearly 70 - projects from the districts whose populations
a heavy and lavishly produced volume. In are predominantly Hispanic, black or Asian,
two parts, it kicks off with a series of essays or those areas of greatest poverty where we
under the general heading Social and read of "the recent discovery of thousands of
Planning History. Apart from rehearsing a homeless living under a freeway that had
tendency to see things in either/or terms."
lot of well established LA folklore of the "no been enclosed by side walls". Perhaps there
According to Jencks it is the architects'
there there" variety - freeways, earthquakes, is no public housing worthy of illustration?
role to create the framework for this synthesis
by representing all the various cultural bush fires, mud slides, riots, smog, ethnic Despite the rather facile graphic
discourses without judgement. He believes diversity and so on - the five essays end with presentation many of the projects show a
architecture can cast a new light on the multi- the transcript of a forum "Learning from Los preoccupation with the art of place making, a
cultural debate and in several chapters Angeles" held at the Royal Academy in 1993 recurring theme through the work of Charles
devoted to describing this architecture of "en- whose participants, including Ed Soja, Eric Moore and Frank Gehry, the elder statesmen
formality", he presents convincing arguments Owen Moss, Conrad Jameson, Charles of the period, as well as in the projects of
to prove his hypothesis. Jencks and Ralph Erskine, aired many of the younger practices like Morphosis, Eric Owen
The LA architecture of en-formality social and planning issues currently facing Moss and Frank Israel. While Gehry's
redefines public space in a way that allows the conurbation. Loyola Law School is a dignified new
different groups of people to enter into a fluid The second part of the book is a tripartite pedestrian plaza not far from downtown, the
social situation. It suggests new ways of overview of recent architectural projects, Jerde Partnership's shopping malls have all
making creative responses to situations which undated, though starting probably with the the razzmatazz of Disneyland. The private
locus classicus of the current phase of LA residences illustrated - large enough
are at an impasse. Los Angeles, Jencks says,
design, the controversial house extension that sometimes to be like small villages - must be
may not survive if it does not deepen
Frank Gehry built for himself in Santa among the most inventive spatially anywhere.
commitment to the two contradictory
philosophies - it is a city "on the verge of Monica in 1977-8. This section is presented This book brings together a number of
either splitting up or making something under three headings, Los Angeles as it might serious essays covering a wide range of
strange and exciting that no-one has seen have been,... as it is, and... as it will be, each contemporary urban issues facing the city
before". introduced by a short perceptive essay by with a selection of thrilling new-wave
This is Charles Jencks at his most spirited Maggie Toy, the series editor. architectural projects, both of which show
and evangelical. He comes as a prophet, So what impression does this catalogue of that the legendary diversity and exuberance
warning of doom, but at the same time projects give of life in Los Angeles today? In of LA is flourishing; enjoy!
revealing LA's great gifts and unfolding the a city - or rather, county, since that is what
potential it has to become a model world city. LA is - with a population of 13.4 million Peter Howard and Helena Webster
It will be interesting to see if any other polis (expected to grow to 18.1 million by the year

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 1994 1 7


Book Reviews

notion of empties or void and Nitschke cites its origin goes back to the dawn of man.
the Ryoanji rock garden with its fifteen rocks However, the skyscraper is a 20th century
FROM SHINTO TO ANDO in a sea of gravel as being a fine expression of invention and the application to it of
Studies in Architectural Anthropology in this. 'Beyond Fence and Focus, Beyond bioclimatic principles seems to have been
Japan. Gunter Nitschke. Academy Sacred and Profane' is the next essay that noticeably lacking.
Editions 1993, 27.50 begins with the Ise Shrine, passes through the Ken Yeang was a student at the AA in the
This is a collection of essays about Fushin-on tea house and ends with the Lotus 1960s when skyscrapers in his part of the
Nitschke's interest in the 'Anthology of Pond Hall of Honpukuji Temple by Ando. world (South East Asia) were in their infancy.
Architectural and Urban Form in East Asia', The participant actually enters the pond by He did a PhD at Cambridge on eco-
which concentrates on the symbolic. Contrast descending the staircase in the centre in order architecture and today runs a successful and
this with the socio-economic on which he to gain access to the sanctuary - pure poetry. influential practice in Kuala Lumpur.
says traditional architectural history and The reader is left with a colourful picture According to Ken Yeang high-rise
theory is based, revolving around the of ritual fans used in a fire festival, but buildings are sustainable in as much as their
disciplines of archaeology and artistry. He probably the best epilogue is to start at the concentration of activities enables a reduction
emphasises throughout the importance of the beginning again and grapple with those of energy in transportation; but in design
unconscious mind towards common and concepts that passed over your head on the terms they have generally been wasteful of
unchanging threads that explain and direct first reading. A longer and more detailed energy. The incorporation of climatically
our built forms. introduction would have helped in responsive design features would add to the
The essays vary in their intensity and understanding, or perhaps some sort of construction costs but would create
profundity, but all are for the serious scholar summing up at the end. Overall it is an significant savings in operational costs.
to ponder over and definitely not for the exploration without any definitive Such design features include recesses and
casual reader. There are informative plans conclusions which is perhaps why Nitschke balconies on solar-facing facades in order to
and diagrams, many small black and white avoids any drawing together of the ideas at introduce shade, ventilation and space for
photos and larger expansive full colour plates the end. planting (curtain-walling being sustainable
that we have come to expect in books on the only for non-solar facing facades); wind
Japanese arts. Philip Cave scoops on facades to allow natural instead of
In the first essay, the renewal of time, artificial cross-ventilation within the
space and man is explored by reference to buildings; and planting boxes and trellises to
both the Ise Shrine, the most sacred of BIOCLIMATIC SKYSCRAPERS allow vegetation to reduce heat and improve
shrines in Japan that is rebuilt every twenty Ken Yeang. Artemis 24.95 the climatic, as well as ecological and
years, and the celebration of Daijosai, the aesthetic, environment.
first fruit tasting rite. The continuing theme The product of these design principles is a
of time and space is explained in the second sort of 35-storey Hanging Gardens of
essay using Ando's Christian Wedding Babylon. Examples of Ken Yeang's work are
Chapel at Mount Rokko, Kobe, and the old illustrated in his book and can be seen in
hermitage of Shisendo near Kyoto. The Malaysia and elsewhere in South East Asia.
designer of Shisendo, the mystic Ishikawa I f C*tT*1
H U There are, I suppose, three generations of
Jozan, apparently knew that 'what is to be high-rise: the pre-war buildings of New York,
empty must first be filled' - the principle on Chicago and Moscow which are stately and in
which all meditation techniques are based. some cases ornate; the post-war curtain-
Ando is compared with Sen Rikkyo, the great walled boxes; and now the bioclimatic.
16th century tea master, in the design of the fWXTtrttt, VHG Because Malaysia has skipped the first two
7" 9r Fi uet> P
Chapel. The entrance path leads up to the F n Rme* generations, the buildings of the third have
Church, but before entry, Ando created a Fxa-TK/wJ
given the country a distinctive cultural
ninety degree turn to the right with a vertical identity.
slit in the wall that allows a view of the sea -
This is an interesting book but the reader
or infinite space. You then enter a dark
gets the impression that all bioclimatic
passage before seeing a view of the well lit
skyscrapers are (a) Malaysian and (b)
interior of the church - the destination. All
designed by Ken Yeang. Maybe this is true.
this is a preparation for that final goal in a
The last issue of the U D Q featured an The reader is also tempted to ask whether a
similar way to the tea master preparing his
article on Singapore which included vignettes bioclimatic Malaysian skyscraper would look
guests before arriving at the tea house.
of bioclimatic skyscrapers drawn by Ken visually acceptable in London where most
There follows a treatise on the Japanese Yeang. In the wake of this article comes a high-rise buildings belong to the curtain-wall
and Chinese Character ' M a ' , translated by review of Ken Yeang's book. generation. The answer must be a qualified
Nitschke as 'place', where he presents a The concept of the 'bioclimatic' building, yes.
number of uses of the character. Ma was ie one that responds to climatic conditions
adopted by Japanese Buddhists to express the and is energy efficient, is nothing new; indeed Tim Catchpole

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Introduction to
Cullen Tribute

David Rock, whose work with Gordon include.


Cullen included the study of Ware All these theories were applied and developed
introduces the special topic for this issue. over the next 25 years in many consultancies
including his work with me on the Ware report
Although Gordon was 80 when he died in (1973-74). It was not generally known over those
August, he still would have had much to offer consultancy years that he worked under the
because the themes he expounded have a tremendous restriction of poor eyesight. He once
universal relevance. To many, especially the described to me that with one eye, anything he
younger ones amongst us, he will be Mr. looked at had a white blinding light at its middle so
Townscape, but his skills and experience ranged that he had to keep moving his head to be able to
wider than that. We can now begin to put his get a full view of anything; while the other eye was
contribution to urban design and planning into so short-sighted that he needed to be very close to
context, although inevitably this will change with the paper to see anything.
time, as legends do.
Gordon's life has been well listed elsewhere in THE ARCHITECTURAL REVIEW
national obituaries and will be covered in detail in In eulogizing Gordon we must not
AR's October issue. Suffice it to note that he underestimate the milieu and times in which he
joined Regent Street Poly School of Architecture in worked. Just as Gaudi seems less unique when
1933, but never finished the course - what a loss it you see his contemporaries' work in Barcelona, so
would have been to urban design had he qualified! Cullen must be seen as a product and unusually-
Work with Raymond McGrath, Godfrey Samuel gifted chronicler of his working environment and of
and Tecton 1934-36 and wartime planning in the the group he joined at the AR who were plugged organised tables of principles and sub-lists and
West Indies followed, before he joined the AR in into a rich mix of people aware of the sea-changes articles into a series of pictures and captions. He
1949 as art editor, leaving in 1956 to be a in society and its approach to the environment and also took on the campaigning zeal of the AR,
consultant. planning. He was one of four assistant editors to although his anger was suppressed as Nairn's was
His brilliant draughtsmanship for a long time five editors: J. M. Richards, Nikolaus Pevsner, Ian not.
overshadowed the importance of his other creative McCallum, Osbert Lancaster and the owner, H. de
work, especially his writing. He hated being asked C. Hastings. The latter, as Ivor de Wolfe, wrote THE SEEING EYE
to do only perspectives on a scheme, and did so 'Townscape, a Plea for an English Philosophy He was brilliant at quick decision-making,
only when he had to. He was involved in many Founded on the Fine Rock of Sir Uvedale Price' in putting down what then seemed the obvious. My
important awakenings of thought, beginnings of 1949, having used townscape in The Art of work with him at Ware (1973-74) was typical. A
movements and the opening-up of attitudes: Making Urban Landscape' five years before Cullen day's walking around that small Hertfordshire town
Casebook (1949); The Functional Tradition (Lyme joined the AR. produced strong, diagrammatic analyses and
Regis 1950); The Nautical Style; South Bank The eclectic mix of AR's contributors included design sketches which formed the basis for the
Translated (1951); Floorscape (Woodstock Vanessa Bell, Raymond Mortimer, Evelyn Waugh, team's work over the next six months in producing
Unwinding 1952); The Exploring Eye (1958); and Cyril Connolly, John Piper, Osbert Sitwell, Clive that seminal report 'Vivat Ware'. He isolated
whole philosophies of planting (1952), outdoor Bell, Wyndham Lewis and Eric de Mare, all tied himself from the rough and tumble of organisation
lettering, street furniture, and everything visual. All into the boundary-breaking issues of their day. and that real-politik that takes ideas into reality,
that seems passe now, but "environment" in the AR's issues, including townscape, have to be and the financial reality of his proposals - he left
fullest sense was then not part of the formal seen in their planning context, alongside the that to others. Typically he was not interested in
architectural and planning vocabulary. He massive formalisation of town-planning between the following twelve years of my grinding work in
supported Ian Nairn and AR's Outrage (1955) and 1943 and 1951 - the setting up of the Ministry of "caring" for Ware, in applying 'Vivat Ware' - and
Counter Attack (1956). He proposed many urban Town and Country Planning; the Barlow, Uthwatt correctly so, because his great strengths could be
design schemes, eg Barbican 1957, forever and Scott reports; the Acts of 1944 and 1947; the better applied elsewhere.
arguing to get the visual approach back into New Towns and National Parks; the three London He had one disciplinary rule which I admired.
planning - this at a time when comprehensive Plans. Urban design (not then a term) owed much However late it was at night, or however drunk, he
redevelopment was the buzz phrase. He took the to the Beaux Arts tradition of planning - the axial would always pin out a drawing sheet in his studio
visual approach into traffic engineering (Switch on avenue, the cross avenue, the rond-point, the (a hut at the bottom of his garden) and make
- Road Policy 1957). His book Townscape was vista. To apply the Picturesque theories of enough marks on it to attract him back to the
published in 1961. landscaping - irregular, as rich in surprises, as board next morning.
In the 'Sixties, Alcan sponsored the seminal skilful in the use of the happy accident, as nature Gordon's work continually formed a link
series - A Town Called Alcan - with four circuit herself - to the urban scene, as Wolfe did in 1944 between the past and the present in "seeing" the
linear regional plans (1964); The Scanner (1966) and 1949, was new. Even by 1953 the Ministry of environment for what it could be, and giving
where human and physical factors were set out Housing and Local Government's authoritative proper value to that vital interplay between people
and interrelated and the Optic Chain introduced; 'Design in Town and Village' was still largely and traffic, whatever the pressures. He kept his
then Notation (1968), 'the observant layman's rooted in comprehensive redevelopment. eye on the golden horizon as a lesson to us all.
code for his environment". In 1970-72 a group of So Gordon's skill was in chronicling the group's
us worked with him to extend the "map" of human ideas which he did brilliantly in a variety of easily-
and physical factors to include the negative, understood, attractive sketches, diagrams and
something, typically, Gordon had not wanted to words. He loved to transform theories into

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Townscape as a Philosophy of Urban Design

The Oxford English Dictionary cites 1880 Review which, by 1960, were formalised
for the first use of the word 'townscape', and into a regular monthly townscape feature.
William M Whistler and David Reed wrote 1889 for its specific use in the current sense. Typical design issues dealt with in this
the text of this paper in the 1970s for the '... Some of the quaint townscapes (to invent series were the effects of a motorway
Council of Planning Libraries Exchange another word) of our romantic, unspoilt plan on the physical fabric of a town, the
Bibliography no. 1342. It was felt this English towns...'. 1 Clues to the present visual effect of modern large scale
gave a useful background to the ways in meanings of townscape can be found in the development, and the general tidying-up
which Cullen's views contributed to using use of the word by Thomas Sharp in 1948 of pre-industrial towns whose character
townscape as an approach to an urban where he attempts to give a name to the act was deteriorating. 4
design philosophy. of improving cities: '... by an analogy with an The high point of the Architectural
equivalent art practised by the eighteenth- Review's series was the application of the
The word townscape has become century improver of land, it might be visual art of townscape to a theoretical
associated with a variety of concerns in christened Townscape...'. 2 new town, called Civilia. 5 This proposal,
environmental design ranging from the This civic design orientation was given a planned on townscape principles of
conservation of pre-industrial towns to the further refinement by Ivor De Wolfe who inducing drama into the environment and
development of design guides for labels townscape as a visual art of town of providing significant differentiation,
residential areas. The idea of townscape planning that is a contemporary extension of was illustrated through a series of
has been praised as the saviour for our the English picturesque school of landscape photographic collages of modern architec-
urban environment and has been attacked design. 3 De Wolfe sees the emergence of ture. Its popular rejection began to show
as being only concerned with the townscape as a new radical tradition in that the appeal of townscape was more
superficial visual aspects. The purpose of architecture in that it breaks with the modern than the visual art of the ensemble.
this short paper is to present an outline of movement by emphasizing "character" and Concurrent with The Architectural
what townscape is, how it has developed significant differentiation. Also important to Review's emphasis on genius loci came
and what its contribution is as a early development of townscape is Gordon the development of a negative reaction to
philosophy of environmental and urban Cullen's Townscape Casebook which suburban sprawl, which was concisely
design. accompanies De Wolfe's article. Through a articulated by Ian Nairn in an article
series of descriptive headings including "The entitled Outrage.6 In this searing attack
Eye as Fan dancer" and "The Eye as on those who record suburbia as Utopia,
Articulator", Cullen illustrates how the eye Nairn shows how mindless repetition of
might be used by this new visual planner in speculative housing standards is re-
seeing the physical environment as an "art of making Britain into an un-differentiated
the Ensemble". Thus, by the early 1950s visual blur. Outrage became a classic in
townscape has come to mean a theme of this field although its basic message has
urban design which emphasizes the visual remained unheeded as Nairn shows in his
perception of the environment. The Outrage 20 Years After.1
assumption that is made at this time (similar A third theme that became associated with
to the contemporary assumptions about townscape in the early 1960s was the
planning) is that this visual perception and gradual enlargement of the meaning of
consequent "improving" can be accomplished conservation from the preservation of
in an objective manner through an buildings of architectural merit to include
understanding of the emotional effects the preservation of certain building
created by the juxtaposition of physical groups or spaces as important elements in
elements of the environment. the physical setting of the town. A good
early example of this theme is found in
THEMES Tenterden Explored.8 The present
Within this general theoretical framework acceptance of the validity of the
of assessing the physical environment in townscape conservation argument
visual terms, several loosely defined but however is due primarily to the publica-
generally complementary themes in urban tion of The Character of Towns9 which
design became associated with townscape: illustrates concisely what the principles
One major development was an emphasis of townscape conservation are and how
on designing to reinforce the uniqueness they might be achieved.
of place, being sensitive to the genius loci One popular but mistaken idea that has
or the significant differences between one developed as a theme is that good
area and another. This became the cause townscape is only the result of higgledy-
of a series of design studies, usually at piggledy individual additions to the
the village scale, in The Architectural physical environment. This illusion is

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


due primarily to the use of historical
examples which presumably owe their
appeal to their individual charm rather
than being a part of a larger pre-con-
ceived design theme. Recent information
about the extent of design and aesthetic
controls operating in baroque, renaissance
and even medieval times has shown that
classics of townscape such as the English
Cotswold village and the Piazza del
Campo were the result of the right degree
of design intervention. Both Gordon
Cullen and the editors of The Architec-
tural Review have maintained that
townscape is not purely the result of
accident but depends on a degree of pre-
planning to turn chaos into variety within
order. This theme has been the basis of
design guides such as The Essex Guide
for Residential Areas,10 design briefs such
as Vivat Ware" which develops a physical
development framework for an existing
town, and Maryculter: Final Report12
which contains a townscape plan for a
proposed new town.
The fundamental theme of townscape as a
means of providing excitement, drama
and emotional response to the physical
environment is most closely associated to
the work of Gordon Cullen who has
remained the leading figure in its
development. His seminal work, The
Concise Townscape,13 (originally pub-
lished in a longer form as Townscape)
consistently emphasizes that the starting Top: Tenterden Study 1967
point for design is the individual's Above: Townscape Casebook 1949
experience of the environment. This Right: Outrage 1955
theme is developed through several Below: Vlvat Ware 1974
loosely organised concepts. Firstly, there
R E LI B p
is the concept of creating a place. Cullen
points out the physical and visual
elements which allow us to canonise
public space. Secondly, he introduces the
concept of serial vision which illustrates
that the individual's reception of spatial
information is the constant play off
between the existing view and the
emerging view as the observer moves
through urban space. Thirdly,he formu-
lates a casebook of these design devices
such as 'juxtaposition' or 'immediacy'

. *
which cause us to interact either emotion-
ally or actively with the environment. As
well as having developed a significant
proportion of the visual analysis methods
used in The Architectural Review's
>y
townscape articles, Cullen produced The

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 1994 17


Townscape as a Philosophy of Urban Design

Scanner,14 a check list of human and building forms and elements such as arches, SCANNER AND NOTATION
physical criteria necessary for creating an cobbles and local vernacular which carry with In the 1960s Alcan sponsored a series:
urban environment capable of satisfying them the message of stability and acquired A Town called Alcan with four circuit
the range of human needs from physi- strength through aging and familiarity. San linear towns (1964):
ological safety to individual self- Grimaud is the height of townscape as a stage The Scanner (1966), where human and
fulfilment, and Notation,15 a shorthand set. The image is of a quiet provencal village physical factors were set out and
system for evaluating the physical but the reality is a very expensive holiday interrelated:
environment. Cullen's works can be seen resort. Civilia on the other hand is planned Notation (1968) 'the observant layman's
as a formative basis for townscape as a on similar concepts but is built of concrete code for the environment'.
philosophy of urban design. and glass, and the effect of the cultural Right: 'Physical Factors' from The
message is made clear. Scanner
TOWNSCAPE AS A PHILOSOPHY As mentioned, the misunderstanding that Below: 'Indicators' from Notation
Because townscape is lacking a the effect of visual perception is the only
methodology and relies on journalistic theme in townscape, and the belief that CONHCCIOOS SEItuU. VISION SCOUCNCZ .
< im.M ^ <J>* !
flowery language it is sometimes dismissed townscape is actually an intuitive designer's n*7r C O
as not a serious contribution. However, contribution to providing a more satisfying
A l e k s b
townscape is a philosophy of urban design in environment is borne out by recent works of m n f f w a a a ^K

much the same way as le Corbusier's Ville environmental psychologists and writers on CWOUP3 ^

Radieuse is a philosophy of urban design - it visual perception. Several of these writers


wiMmkn* ^ A
is basically an intuitive application by a refer to townscape, or more specifically I
designer of a belief in how people operate in Cullen's The Concise Townscape, as being SKOWTH ^ ^ ^
MMosnet 'Cp-
a city. Corbusier talked about the need for the physical and visual edification of their -1 1
M a W M I ^ WWCWTPW . ~J 1
sunlight, fresh air, flowing open space and theories. - P/UJ p \

ways to facilitate car travel between points. Rapoport and Kantor put forward the
Cullen talks about the possession of space hypothesis that there is a human need for vistas >* o

p JV
accommodating the range of human needs complexity in the visual environment and that -*. ISO
and emotions, and also about traffic and one of the most satisfactory ways to provide rACM MCCTON
movement serving to vitalise areas of the city. this complexity is through ambiguity or the
These are abstract ideas by themselves and it creation of '... visual nuance, however slight,
is the resultant physical form and the visual which gives alternative reactions to the same sense of well being and control of the
perception of the form which can given these building or urban group.' 15 After environment. In transferring this symbolic
terms meaning. substantiating this belief with a sampling of code to analysis of architecture and urban
The significant contribution of townscape empirical research findings, the paper goes design he refers to Cullen's description of
is that it is a design philosophy based upon on to refer to five of Cullen's descriptive enclaves. "... The enclave or the interior
satisfying a fuller range of human needs headings (Combination, Multiple Use, Here open to the exterior and having direct access
including those which are at least partially & There, Projection and Recession) as to both... has the advantage of commanding
met by the visual environment. intuitive interpretations of their more the scene from a position of safety and
The emphasis on visual perception, thoroughly researched hypothesis of strength...". 18
however, has allowed the idea of townscape, complexity. More recently, Eduardo Lozano This, contends Appleton, is the essence of
as advocated by The Architectural Review, to cites Cullen's call for visual variety within a the prospect refuge complement.
make the mistaken presumption that apparent pattern as "... substantially the essence of his Certainly Jane Jacobs' call for diversity in
form can be divorced from content. Two hypothesis that there is a need for a cities is similar to Cullen's ideas about multi-
implications of this incorrect idea are that the combination of plurality of visual inputs..." to use and precincts in the city, while Cullen's
visual message can be abstracted from the provide orientation and variety in the ideas about possession of public space and
cultural message and that the creation of a environment. 17 occupied territory are really the same thing
strong image can be a substitute for content. Research only partially related to that Oscar Newman is describing as creating
Both of these fallacies are summed up in the environment psychology has also mentioned zones of influence and defining public from
visual message of Port Grimaud, the modern the significance of Cullen. The main tenet of private space as the principal argument of his
resort village designed according to Jay Appleton's Prospect Refuge theory is that defensible space ideas.
townscape principles in 1965 and built in a our physiological need for safety in its most
counterfeit pre-industrial vernacular style. basic sense can be expressed as the ability to CONCLUSIONS
The illusion of Grimaud is in believing that see without being seen, and this primordial Thus, summarising townscape as a philosophy
the quaint effect of the various juxtaposed instinct has been sublimated to an aesthetic of urban design, the following points can be
buildings and spaces can be created in a response. Appleton develops from this a made:
totally modern form and imagining that symbolic language in which the presence of Townscape in terms of its visual image owes
townscape appeal has nothing in particular to distant prospects and hiding places in a much of its success and/or failure to the
do with the implications of using certain I landscape scene or painting signals in us a cultural baggage of older environments.

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY O C T O B E R 1 9 9 417


COMMUNITY 8IZE COMPOSITION
Chofc* of cflmoctorlc i*M bMd c B*inc of tmbotenco of: Tho art of thin Aogtenol cfcOftcttrhtlca Projoctod growth
Tlmt eye* Cttchmont KM Boaaonol fluctuations Changa of compoaitlon
(.0. wookly sufflciofKyl
SW limiting community
Orowth of
Icooofnte viobMHy

capacity

PATTERN DENSITY TRANSPORT GIVEN PATTERNS


LOW MIOIUM HIOH TRAFFIC T O PEOPLE PEOPLE T O TRAFFIC BY-LAWS TRENDS INDUSTRIALIZED
D v m 01 privacy M IMC*
Dayflghtlnf BUILDING
health, low lend-uee, random rwArm M m , ppeelbMtty apaea. optimum land uee.
of corporate vteuat groups, deorsvey. amomty of traffic Paaca of mind and eotowrs Crana awing
ptlwn, poor puMc treneport, greater poeeJbWty of vfauaf
ditdeviti lot loduitrioiiitd viable lor puMc Iteneport, Pt^lem of preslmlty: nebt. InvHonmenl Pop-art
budding. cash sale of houoee. viable lor Induetrtellted optimum Induetriellted " -1"" points, Commuting FVi accaaa layouts and Pactocy afting
limited (raffle segregation buMIng, mortgage, horliontel building, council rani, vertical
eegregatlon IRadbum ate.) traffic aagragatlon E n a of contact or Production flow
segregation

LANDSCAPE CATEGORIES CLIMATE AGRICULTURE tr INDUSTRY


WHO natura Arabia land Rough Graan Bait Now Panama of farming
National pant Industrial land TnHHght land Factory farming
Upland! Parkland Suburb Artfldel cfcnete Ctapn Industry
Coastline. estuary Oreen (an City Population drift Automation
InAjetrlel m a l a Fpwet/servlce grids

OPTICS SPACE CHAIN


LIGHT PERSPECTIVE SERIAL VISION
CuMem Iflecti of foreshortening
MAZi
INTERNAL EXTERNAL (BUILT) - DfvWon and orgenitation of
FACTOR EXTERNAL (NATURAL)
Mhouetle
Courtyard Avonue Texture
Snoot Perk end lake Intrualon and eidolon by Growth of epperent alio
Flow of apacaa Square
Artificial kght
Connection: atalra Formal garden The visual globe
liptoretory
rampa

IDENTITY OF SITE SYMPATHY COMBINATION


PLACE AMBIENCE OBJECTS
HOMOGENEITY
City Character of bunding
Hlotorkol appraisal Conformity
Market town
Suburb Vitality Water Style
Ouertler Trees and plants Surprlee
VMego Cnctoeure
Genius tod

Reproducing the image is a hollow success REFERENCES 9. Worskett, Roy, The Character of Towns,
when it is not an accurate reflection of the 1. Hissey, J J, A Tour in a Phaeton through London: Architectural Press, 1969.
social and economic conditions which create the Eastern Counties, London: R Bentley 10. Essex County Council, Design Guide for
it. & Son, 1889, p. 263. Residential Areas, Chelmsford: Essex
Townscape as a method of creating a 2. Sharp, Thomas, Oxford Replanned, County Council, 1973.
stimulating physical environment is significant London: Architectural Press, 1948. 11. Rock Townsend, Gordon Cullen, Arthur
when it is seen as one aspect, perhaps through 3. De Wolfe, Ivor, 'Townscape', Architec- Henderson, consultants, Vivat Ware, East
the production of a townscape plan, of tural Review, Vol. 106, December 1949, Hertfordshire District Council, 1974.
providing a more accommodating pp. 355-362. 12. Gosling, David, Gordon Cullen and
environment. 4. Browne, Kenneth, 'High London', The Kenneth Browne, Maryculter: Final
The real value to be gained from reading The Architectural Review, Vol. 127, J-J 1960, Report, Kincardine C.C., 1974.
Concise Townscape or The Scanner is in being pp. 175-179. 13. Cullen, Gordon, The Concise Townscape,
presented with good physical design Nairn, Ian, Derby Market Place. London: Architectural Press, 1971.
applications of some aspects of human needs Architectural Review, Vol. 130, J-D 1961, Townscape Architectural Press, 1961.
in the visual environment which are being pp. 429-431. 14. Cullen, Gordon, The Scanner, London:
identified by more scientific research in 'Manchester Re-United', Architectural Alcan Industries Ltd, 1966.
environmental psychology. Review, Vol. 132, J-D 1962, pp. 116-120. 15. Cullen, Gordon, Notation: The Observant
Townscape as a philosophy of urban design 5. De Wolfe, Ivor, Civilia, London: Archi- Layman's Guide to His Environment,
takes its examples of physical design from an tectural Press, 1971. London: Alcan Industries Ltd, 1968.
era when time and motion scale was 6. Nairn, Ian, 'Outrage', Architectural 16. Rapoport, Amos and Robert Kantor,
pedestrian and the majority of human contacts Review, Vol. 117, J-J 1955, pp. 364-460. 'Complexity and Ambiguity in Environ-
were face to face. It can be used an important Re-printed by Architectural Press, 1955. mental Design', American Institute of
counter-argument to advocates of an aesthetic 7. Nairn, Ian, 'Outrage 20 Years After', The Planners Journal, July 1965.
based on a higher-speed, less-direct contact Architectural Review, Vol. 158, J-D 1975, 17. Lozano, Eduardo, F, 'Visual Needs in the
society. pp. 328-337. Urban Environment', Town Planning
8. MacManus, Fred and Partners, and Review, Vol. 45, No. 4, 1974.
Gordon Cullen, Tentenden Explored, Kent 18. Appleton, Jay, The Experience of
County Council, 1967. Landscape, London: John Wiley, 1975.

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Townscape
Revisited

There are only three urban design tests still The Major difference between Townscape
in print after thirty three years. Jane Jacobs' and everything that came before it is the
Bob Jarvis re-reads 'Townscape' as a Death and Life of Great American Cities1 and authorial tone. Townscape is written from the
book and explores the devices of word Kevin Lynch's Image of the City2 are two; the heart, not the lectern. Though Sitte 10 and
and image and its language and third, and the one I want to "re-read" here is (Jnwin11 had allowed glimpses of their
construction. Townscape begins with a Gordon Cullen's Townscape3 now truncated personality and instinct - Sitte perhaps in his
casebook in which 'serial vision', shown and published on plan paper in soft wrappers opening chapter, Unwin where in'Of the City
below, are the rewards of the moving eye, as The Concise Townscape4. Survey' he writes of the designer walking the
but an eye which is open and not lazy'. The other contributors to this tribute have ground to be planned, 12 Giedion 13 no sooner
written about Gordon Cullen's professional, offers glimpses of an irrational creative spirit
practical and theoretical importance to urban than it is absorbed into a broader cultural
design. My task is rather different. I want to Zietgiest that sweeps along everyone from
examine why a book I bought as a first year Michelangelo to Jorn Utzon. The rest - even
student (admittedly - although perhaps Thomas Sharp - are sets of lectures,
significantly) alongside Tom Wolfe's Kandy- instructions on what parts aspiring planners
Kolored Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby5 and designers should shape and place to
and a primer on optical illusions in the create desired effects in villages, residential
visual 6 is still in demand when the others on areas, towns and city centres. 14 Only Thomas
those yellowed reading lists have either Sharp's The Anatomy of the Village, popularly
disappeared (Chapin, Keeble, Abercrombie) rather than professionally published, written
or are now collectors items (Thomas Sharp's as a part of the Penguin populist wave of
The English Village, Design in Town and rebuilding Britain after the war
Village). communicates a sense of love of place. 15
I want to examine Townscape above all as By contrast, all three of those books from
a book, as a piece of literature, and briefly that annus mirabilis, 1961, are centred in the
explore the devices of word and image, the individual, personal response, Kevin Lynch
language and construction of the work itself. turns it into an area of scientific inquiry, Jane
This approach is quite different from the Jacobs stands as the street corner social
way Cullen's work is usually placed in the observer. In Townscape we see the world
context of urban design. Two substantial though Cullen's eyes (mainly, it underplays
reviews of the subject emphasise Cullen's the other senses). Only after those exercises
other work - either his practice and the for the senses, after those critical reflections
reports associated with it7 or the ephemera and sketches are there any proposals.
(un-catalogued, unpriced and unobtainable) Maybe it wasn't entirely chance that I
published by Alcan in the mid 1960s.8 This bought it alongside Kandy-Kolored... like
is understandable: David Gosling is a long Wolfe, Cullen's work had matured out of
time collaborator with Cullen as his piece journalism, albeit the Architectural Review
here and his forthcoming edition of Cullen's rather than the New York Herald Tribune.
work records; Broadbent's wider concern is Townscape in this analysis, stands like
to establish a theoretical perspective that is Wolfe's New Journalism16 against the
essentially picturesque and pluralist: so it's diversion of 'objective' modernism and
hardly surprising Broadbent concludes "that reasserts the reporting of experience.
in comparison the Rationalists look more
rigorous" rather than to point to the METHOD AND APPROACH
profundity of Cullen's Message. 9 Townscape is an important book not
because of its content, still less because of its
LITERATURE REFERENCES influence (which Cullen himself dismissed in
But whatever the theoretical strengths of the Introduction to the 1971 Edition) but
The Scanner et al and the practical precisely because of its method and its
demonstrations of A Town Called Alcan and approach. Broadbent emphasises the overt
Maryculter (The Concise) Townscape is all rational charting of The Scanner and
that most readers will ever have seen. What Notation}1
did its 9 pages of introduction, 185 pages of The structure of Townscape is suppressed.
glossy photographs case studies, and (deleted There are no obvious divisions: there are no
from the Concise Townscape...) 117 pages of chapter numbers, the headings to the parts are
Bob Jarvis is a Senior Lecturer in Town Studies and proposals, offer for the identified only by capital headings in slightly
Planning at South Bank University 56s. (2.16s.od) I paid? larger typeface within the flow of short

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


paragraphs well spaced alongside photographs
and drawings. The articulation of the parts on
the title page is hard to discern in the book
itself. The reader's attention is caught now by
a photograph, now by a comment, now by a
cartoon.
The text itself is fragmented. Outside the
Introduction there is never more than a page
without subdivision or heading. Most of it is
alongside or sometimes written into
illustrations. The content and language vary
from theoretical and imperative
categorization (at random 'The essential
function of a town should be visible from a
single glance at the plan' p. I l l ) through
sequential and analytical description to poetic
reverie and reflection. Abstract nouns are
given precise concrete expression in Proposals for Westminster, shown above,
experience of space though time; analogy, and for Pimlico Gardens shown below.
metaphor and neologism are all used in the Town Studies for Evesham, right, and
heading captions. Shrewsbury, below.
Through this the author is always with the
reader ('... arouse one's curiosity as to what
scene will meet our eyes upon reaching...' p.
49), but there are paradoxically few
authoritative instructions or examples. Now
that The Concise... has deleted Proposals as
well as Town Studies this is even more the
case: we are left walking down the Via dei
Servi towards the Duomo early one morning
with just three and a half pages of the
Endpiece's polemic to go.18

POST MODERN
It is precisely this transparency and yet
withdrawal that makes Townscape not a
reactionary book but a truly port-modern one;
so called architectural part-moderns are still
writing as author-dictacts, strutting and
instructing, pointing to their projects, their
rules, in just the same manner as Palladio or
Pugin. Townscape has survived because it is
an open work. 19 The leader not only has to
make the work with the author but there is no
fixed order or combination of the parts and
devices. Doubly so, as there is no single
order in which the places created might
themselves be experienced.
The closest parallel to Townscape lies not
in the literature of urban design (though de
Wolfe's Italian Townscape reinstated it20) but
in literacy theory. Not only does Roland
Barthes The Pleasure of the Text use a similar
fragmented sequence but Barthes, like Cullen
before him, champions the senses.
'(Pleasure)... does not depend on a logic of
understanding... it is something both

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Townscape Revisited

7. Gosling D and Maitland B, Concepts of


Urban Design, Academy Editions,
London, 1984, pp. 48-51.
8. Broadbent, G, Emerging Concepts in
Urban Space Design, Van Nostrand
Reinhold (International), London and
New York, 1990 pp. 217-225.
9. Broadbent, G op. cit. p. 219.
10. Sitte, C, City Planning According to
Artistic Principles, in Collins, G R and
Collins, C C, Camillo Sitte; The Birth of
Modern City Planning Rizzoli, New
York, 1986.
11. Unwin, R, Town Planning in Practice
reprinted in facsimile, Benjamin Blom,
New York, 1971.
12. Unwin, R, op. cit. p. 149-50.
13. Giedion, S, Space Time and Architecture
Harvard University Press, Cambridge,
Mass/OUP, London, 1967.
14. See for instance: Ministry of Housing and
Local Government, Design in Town and
Village, HMSO, London, 1953 and
Gilberd, F, Town Design, Architectural
Press, 1953.
15. Sharp, T, The Anatomy of the Village,
revolutionary and asocial, and it cannot be diminished. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1946.
taken over by any collectivity, any mentality, The essential reason for this is that 16. Wolfe, T, The New Journalism, Picador/
any intellect. 21 Enjoyment is too readily by Townscape, unlike so many urban design Pan, London, 1975.
'the political policeman and the psycho- texts is not written with the arrogance of 17. Cullen, G, Notation and The Scanner
analytical policeman'. 22 Barthes' texts, like the author/architect, it is written from the Alcan Industries, Banbury, 1966, 1968.
Cullen's towns and spaces are to be savoured, heart of experience, to engage not subdue 18. Cullen, G, op. cit., 1971, pp. 193-196.
as sequences, rhythms, fluctuations of the reader who like Barthes, cruises its 19. Eco, U, 'The Poetics of the Open Work'
attention. There is no single prescription. pages/spaces. The Italian edition is titled I in The Role of the Reader Hutchinson,
Maybe we have been wrong, deceived by passaggietti urbani. m London, 1981, pp. 47-67.
the publisher's imprint and the author's 20. de Wolfe, I, The Italian Townscape,
professional practice to read Townscape as a Architectural Press, London, 1963.
handbook for designers. Perhaps it too is a REFERENCES 21. Barthes, R, The Pleasure of the Text, Hill
blueprint for topographical bliss, an English 1. Jacobs, J, The Death and Life of Great and Wang, New York, 1975, p. 22.
picturesque variant of the line than runs from American Cities, first published Random 22. Ibid, p. 57.
Baudelaire through Andre Breton and Louis House, New York, 1961. 23. See Berman, M, All that is solid melts
Aragon's surrealist promenades to the 2. Lynch, K, The Image of the City, first into air, Verso, London, 1983, (Part III),
psychogeography of the Situationiste derive. 23 published MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., Benjamin, W, Charles Baudelaire: A
1961. Lyric Poet in the Era of High Capitalism,
CONCLUSIONS 3. Cullen, G, Townscape, first published, New Left Books, London, 1973; Irwin, A,
"Classics" easily become tokens, books Architectural Press, London, 1961. 'Surrealist Paris', in Places Vol 6:2,
to be cited but not quoted, let alone read 4. Cullen, G, The Concise Townscape, Situationism pp. 56-57, 1990; Thomas, M
or even used. Townscape repays re- originally Architectural Press, London J, Urban Situationism in Planning
Outlook, Autumn, 1975, pp. 27-39, to
reading, closer and more careful attention. 1971.
trace this most radical re-reading.
It has survived over thirty years in print 5. Wolfe, T, The Kandy-Kolored Tangerine-
perhaps as much for its authorial tone and Flake Streamline Baby, Jonathan Cape,
its use of language and illustration as for London 1966.
its message - which has been 6. Carraher, R G and Thurston, J B, Optical
summarised, disputed and re-written often Illusions and The Visual Arts, Reinhold/
enough. Re-reading it after the critical and Studio Vista New York/London; 1966. Proposals to relieve Oxford by building a
theoretical revolutions of recent years, it Townscape is an art of three dimensional new road across the Cherwell and south
emerges enhanced rather than optical illusions. of Broad Walk.

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Working with Cullen

David Gosling collaborator with Gordon


Cullen on a number of projects describes
his experiences of working with Cullen.
Though a great admirer of Gordon Cullen
since his student days at Manchester
University, the dream of working with him
did not actually occur until the mid-1970s.
It was during his halcyon days as art
editor of the Architectural Review from
1946-56 that David found such
enchantment in his drawings, as well as
the lyricism of his words in his
"Townscape" articles, commencing with
the January 1950 special edition of the
"Functional Tradition", which he wrote
with Eric de Mare, the photographer. It
was especially his concept of "serial
vision" which was to have the greatest
influence on him and was, in a sense, a
prophesy of present-day computer
animation systems in urban design.

After my return from the United States in magical combination and everybody truly
1959, I joined the Manchester City Architects believed at the time that the outcome would
Department and in 1962 was given the task be the first major built work in Cullen's
of preparing the urban design plan for part of career. Geoffrey Broadbent, writing in his
the City Centre (the so-called Processional "Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design"
Way). The scheme was sent to Kenneth (Van Nostrand Reinhold 1990, pp. 223-225),
Browne, who had succeeded Cullen as said that "... Cullen is perfectly clear that any
Townscape Editor at the Architectural design study should start with a proper
Review, and he decided to publish it in scientific survey and the Maryculter study
August 1962. This led to my was a model of its kind, taking into account
acquaintanceship with Ian Nairn, who as it did, location, land ownership,
together with Cullen had produced the topography, landscape, existing development,
seminal "Outrage" issue in June 1955. services, geology and subsoil. David
It was perhaps ironical that I should finally Gosling's team then worked out on that basis
meet Gordon Cullen when times had become their proposals for the village's overall form,
very bad for him, both in medical and circulation, population, employment,
employment terms, and at the time when I density... (and so forth). It was within this
Illustration shows overall layout proposed was leaving my professional career as chief framework that Cullen then presented his
for Maryculter. architect of Irvine New Town to start an concept. He saw this in terms of a Habitat
"A sense of Identity can also be generated academic career at Sheffield University. for Houses, a Townscape plan followed by
by the use of landmarks or recognition the detailed treatment of four neighborhoods:
points: a church steeple, a single tree at MARYCULTER East Park, Kaleyards, the Wynds and
the end of a street, a flagpole or a red In 1973, Christian Salvesen Ltd., the house Burnside... more than any other scheme
building in a white street. If these are builders, through its managing director Tom (Broadbent continued) Maryculter shows that
linked together in a network then people Baron, commissioned a masterplan for a far from being a product only of time,
quietly understand where they are in the privately financed new town outside picturesque effect can be generated from
general context. Ambiguity concedes to Aberdeen, and Salvesen agreed to the response to a particular situation; a certain
clarity." appointment of Gordon Cullen and Kenneth site with its contours, its climate and other
Browne as consultants. Ian Nairn acted as local conditions; views out, views in and
David Gosling is Professor of Urban self-appointed critic and Guinness drinker. other visual clues; above all, a desire on the
Design and Director of the Urban design The team, which included Salvesen's young part of the designers to respond to a place
Centre at the University of Cincinnati chief architect, the late Dan Donohue, was a rather than imposing sterile geometry."

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Working with Cullen

In his notes, Cullen introduced his own


urban design concepts as a Habitat for
Houses and said "People live in houses, but
where do the houses live? If they are
homeless, then all we are left with is the
i typical endless, featureless suburbia..." and
he set out guiding principles for the urban
design: fitting the development to the site
J snugly; creating a central nucleus and having
' the necessary authority, scale and incident;
breaking down the housing programme into
distinctive sections, each of which has its
idiosyncrasy and individuality; articulating
the various parts of the development, the one
from the other by means of recognisable
edges; providing a network of landmarks each
of which acts as a rallying point for a
particular zone. In this way recognition and
navigation is considerably simplified;
exploiting topography and planting to
produce a memorable situation; using
enclosure to provide a sense of locality and
place (I am here); leading people from one
experience to another so that unfolding drama
or climax is achieved which sticks in the
memory. If, as a result of these works, a
sense of belonging and identity can be
induced, then this is only to provide what is a
birthright. No one should be asked to live in
anonymity and ambiguity unless they so
choose."
The centre of Maryculter is a carefully
considered sequence of elements along a
"causeway" link across a central bowl of
green space and lakes defined by the terrain.
The settlement is situated in a natural
amphitheatre of land with the houses grouped
around the enclosure and facing inwards to a
central parkland. Urbanity builds up from
the wild country outside the central street
which links the north side of the
amphitheatre to the south. Each village or
housing cluster has its own corner shop
usually located as part of the old farm
steadings and associated with the local
community centre. The centre itself, as
Cullen said "although a single continuous
street is made of a series of linked spaces and
events... there is then the short release of
compression and the substitution of water for
brick and stone. Then the sudden release of
the loch as it passes under the causeway - the
real centre is presented over the water as a
citadel."

DESIGN APPROACH
Perhaps Cullen's greatest contribution to

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


the urban design of Maryculter was his deep as the RIBA urban design prize-winning
understanding of the ecology and topography. thesis by Macdonald & Lees which he
Each of the three villages had its own tutored.
particular character in response to these two
factors, but the southern village, Kaleyards, COMPETITIONS
on a north facing moorland slope was the During that time, Gordon and I worked on
most lyrical. Cullen says, "In the Shetland a number of schemes, including competitions,
Islands the weather is severe, and in order to one of which was the 1975 international
secure a space where plants, including Kale, urban design competition for the Island of
can grow, the crofters have built walled Porto Santo close to Madeira. Though it was
enclosures. Inside these the wind is unplaced, it was an attempt to relate the
tempered and what sun there is benefits the theories of serial vision to ecological and
plants and flowers. Weather conditions here topographical issues. Though essentially
suggest a similar protection for houses. The barren because of lack of a water supply, the
provision of courtyards and enclosed gardens island provided an abundant supply of
'People live in houses but where do the will encourage the growth of plants and do building limestone. The island had constant
houses live?' This sketch defines the much to break down the barrier between wind velocity and fierce tidal currents and, as
overall landscape and strategy for interior and exterior that a severe climate the Portuguese government wanted to
Maryculter into which the houses move. dictates." develop tourism, water and power supplies
were essential. The plan suggested the
Maryculter was never built: it was defeated
creation of a tidal barrage between the main
at public meetings by an unholy alliance of
island and the smaller western isle to provide
the landed aristocracy and Marxist action
hydro-electric power, which in turn would
groups from Aberdeen University, many of
support a narrow gauge electric railway along
whose members squatted in derelict farm
the southern coast, where solar stills would
buildings in the area. The landowners,
distil sea water for the water supply and
having sold their land at a profit to Salvesen,
windmills would pump water to the new
had no wish to see their grouse moors
vineyards as well as the linear villages for
invaded by development. Salvesen decided
tourists. The narrow rail track provided a
not to go to a public enquiry and abandoned
sequence of spatial events linking nuclei of
the scheme. The final ironical outcome for
development, illustrated left.
both groups was that the entire site was
turned into a gigantic stone quarry. There In a 1978 project for the Central Bank of
were funny moments of course, such as the Barbados and the Commonwealth Fund for
Board presentation at the Christian Salvesen Technical Cooperation we produced an urban
headquarters in Edinburgh, which resembled design plan for Church Village, Bridgetown
an embassy complete with the national in partnership with a former Sheffield
consular flags of Scandinavia. At lunch, student, John Ferguson. The government of
Cullen, who by that time had grown an Barbados required a new bank headquarters
enormous beard, said he had "had quite and as "planning gain" construct an open air
1 Overall layout of Maryculter enough of the right-wing conversation" and performing arts centre and plaza to encourage
2 Kaleyards village disappeared downstairs and was discovered the growth of dance which was a flourishing
3 Kaleyards - on either side of the spine by the elegant receptionist fast asleep on the performing art on the island. The key
road are small enclosures containing sofa. She reported to her bosses that "a elements of the plan were: the cathedral and
about six dwellings and enclosed by vagrant had somehow wandered in". Gordon cemetery which were retained as a green
hedging or grassed banks. took similar action on numerous other oasis in the southwest corner of the site; and
Left: part of Porto Santo Competition entry occasions including a meeting at the a small plaza between the cathedral and the
1975 Architectural Press offices in Queen Anne's Central Bank as a busy, small-scale entrance
Gate for a television programme to be plaza linking the Church Village
produced by a Sheffield colleague, Peter development with Trafalgar Square and
Smith. Cullen got bored with the Broad Street. These pedestrian ways in
conversation and fell asleep on the floor. themselves formed a sequence of spaces and
Cullen suggested that a hotel should be built
Gordon Cullen went through incredibly
on the west side of the square to form an
difficult times during the 70s, with little work
entrance gateway. The form of the bank itself
and the likelihood of losing his sight. He
was to have been a series of stepped terraces
joined Sheffield University at my invitation
to allow the building form to be utilised as a
to become a visiting critic had an immensely
series of solar collectors for cooling. The
positive effect on urban design projects, such

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Working with Cullen

scheme was completed by the mid-70s and it provided an important key to the possible
though the celebrated Brazilian landscape visual structure and could act as an urban
designer, Roberto Burle Marx, produced a generator. The Greenwich axis almost takes
successful landscape scheme, the brutal on the mystical form of a ley-line with a
design of the bank building itself by the local significance beyond the linking of two major
architect Mervyn Awon attracted much public monuments but provides a series of reference
criticism and bore little resemblance to the points which enhance the visual structure.
sensitive images of Cullen, but rather a At first Gordon Cullen embraced the idea
regurgitation of the excesses of the Japanese with enthusiasm. He wrote, "In this way we
Metabolists of the early 60s. Gordon construct the internal water world of fantasy,
oodeJftferqallfiV Cullen's drawings were displayed at the scale, and amazement. It is the greatest soul
Royal Academy Summer Exhibition in 1979. - axis in London." But later in 1982, he
The Community Circuit reversed his position and produced his own
LONDON DOCKLANDS visual appraisal and networks. It related
In 1981, a study was commissioned by the studies of key areas of existing development
London Docklands Development Corporation around the perimeter of the peninsula to
and I was invited as consultant to form a suggestions for environmental improvements
Cofnfrtttiar) small in-house design team to work with the and a study of the inner core for new
chief planner, Edward Hollamby, in the development. Beautifully drawn, it
Ftdkr-
preparation of a comprehensive urban design nevertheless failed to provide a strong enough
firiyafvt linV
study for the Isle of Dogs, which included the framework for developers. Now that the
Fllfct (CMtvph B r )
Atmospheric reltoa* Enterprise Zone. The team was established team had split into two factions, the
in mid-1981 and towards the end of the year I corporation permanent team headed by
persuaded the corporation to also appoint Hollamby rejected both sets of proposals and
Cullen as consultant. The final report was produced its own pragmatic plan largely
published in 1982. The execution of the based on current ideas of all the developers
Water. The Central Identity study created unforeseen difficulties. involved as an amalgam of ideas. Basically,
Working with John Ferguson from the corporation rejected the Cullen proposals
Sheffield, we produced alternative planning and the Gosling alternatives as being too
options to indicate a variety of design prescriptive and certainly did not follow the
JsockSate. enfny political ideology of the day. The irony was
opportunities. The proposals were seen as an
amalgam of the public and private realms. that when Olympia and York finally decided
The public realm concerned the public spaces to develop Canary Wharf, they demanded an
formed by new and existing buildings, public urban design framework to protect their own
movement systems, including pedestrian financial interests.

- V " Bengali Bridge routes and rapid transit systems and the The outcome of the fragmentation of the
squares, streets, arcades, parks, and open team is interesting. Most of the original team
spaces which form the urban morphology or were Sheffield graduates and one of them,
physical shape of the plan. The argument David Price, joined Gordon Cullen as his
was that if the skeletal structure of the city - partner in a new practice. It was perhaps the
Pier
the public realm - is sufficiently strong in very best thing that happened to Cullen
M a i n Discovery Lines because it seemed that it gave him a new
terms of visual identity and navigation - then
greater freedom of architectural expression lease on life at the end of his career and for
can be afforded in the private realm. Of the the next seven or eight years he produced
Isle of Dogs three options produced, option three some of his most beautiful work. Though I
Above: Cullen's principles for structuring (illustrated to the right) came closest to an did not work with Price and Cullen apart
development. authentic urban design plan. form the Water Square Proposal for Canary
Right: David Gosling Associates proposed In the whole of the peninsula, Island Wharf in 1988 with Skidmore Owings &
Urban Design Plan (Option Three) and Gardens at the southern tip is the only major Merrill as master planners, I did work on
above this Cullen's aerial view of his own public area giving a dramatic view out subsequent projects in Docklands and
proposals. towards Greenwich. The vista is followed their work with great interest.
breathtaking. The significance of this view is Brian Edwards in his seminal study
that there is a direct axis towards St. Anne's ("London Docklands: urban design in an age
Church, Limehouse, designed by Nicholas of deregulation", Oxford, Butterworth
Hawksmoor in 1714 on the northwest Architecture, 1992, p. 42, p. 48) of
boundary of the Isle of Dogs. Because this Docklands said, "The framework for the Isle
axis crosses key points within the peninsula, of Dogs conceived in the first instance by

26 URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 1994


David Gosling and Gordon Cullen, proved too
prescriptive and far-reaching for the LDDC in
1982. It sought to bring a measure of order to
bear where political will and commercial
pressure had tended rather to pull in the
opposite direction... Gosling and Cullen's
urban design study for the Isle of Dogs sought
to establish a range of development options
within a strong spatial and physical
development... Gosling has subsequently
stated that urban design frameworks are the
best way to weld together existing
communities instead of allowing their
destruction and believes this to be the primary
goal in the reconstruction of declining inner
cities in the post-industrial age."
In an acerbic article of the 1984 LDDC
Exhibition, Louis Hellman in the Architects
Journal (AJ, 19 Sept. 1984, pp. 48-49) also
noted "On my way home I read with pleasure
Gordon Cullen and David Gosling's sensitive
and intelligent analysis of the character of
place, history and visual uniqueness of the
Isle of Dogs and studied Cullen's perceptive
drawings showing how this character could
be echoed and enhanced by careful design
and development. But of course we all know
it never will be. It smacks too much of
planning and that went out with flared
trousers didn't it?"

CONCLUSIONS
If all this sounds a little cynical, then
perhaps it is intended to be. Gordon
Cullen was perhaps one of the greatest
and most misunderstood urban designers
of this century. He never really got to
build anything. He has been a charming
and humorous friend, with a wonderful
family, an irascible and stubborn old man
and a man who shared with me a passion
for pubs in Wraysbury and northwards. It
is for these reasons that David Price and I
want to prepare a sixty year anthology of
his work from the 1930s onwards.

REFERENCES
Gosling D, Cullen, G and Donohue D,
Development Plan for Maryculter New Town
Aberdeen, 1974, Christian Salvesen.
Hollamby E, Gosling D and Cullen G, Isle of
Dogs: A Guide to Design and Development
Opportunities, 1982, LDDC.

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Urban Design Projects
in Practicev
1981-1991

Gordon Cullen enjoyed a tremendous


renaissance in activity for the ten years
before illness forced his unwelcome
retirement from practice. With his death
on 11 August this year it is timely to
remember his contribution to the real
business of urban design and particularly
introduce some of his last works to his
world-wide audience. Little of this work
has been published and it would be
impossible in the limited space available
to describe the projects in detail.
However, as David Gosling has already
mentioned, it his hoped that an anthology
which does justice to him and his work
will be available in the not-too-distant
future.
ISLE OF DOGS undertook north of the border. As real-life
Readers will probably be familiar with the projects they added significant new
study of the Isle of Dogs commissioned in dimensions to "Townscape" theory applied to
1981 by the London Docklands Development cities with both obvious and invisible
Corporation and led by David Gosling. I problems. Gordon used to call the process
have a little further commentary to add to "Urban Psychiatry" which is a very adequate
David's recollections of this project. description of the method used to reaching,
Although many observers have criticised and drawing, the conclusions of the studies.
the product of the LDDC's regime and the The Glasgow project was originally
lack of adherence to a strong urban design conceived as a method of attracting
framework it should be remembered that the investment into the city by demonstrating
original aspirations of the Corporation were how its allure and reputation could be
relatively modest. Gordon's solution to this increased faced with the competition of
dilemma was to produce a "precedent Edinburgh, only forty miles away. The
network" which identified the critical places construction of the M8 motorway had
which should, once developed according to divorced the western and northern districts
his visual prescriptions, make three- from the centre and there was a fear that the
dimensional sense with the sections between city centre would be sacrificed to a sprawl of
the nodes naturally respecting them as they brown-field development. Gordon's solution
became built up. Unfortunately such a was to devise a programme of "implosion"
sophisticated planning tool was beyond the initiated by raising the visual and spatial
comprehension of the "market" and the magnetism of the centre to a point where it
concept was never adopted. Large scale would become the only logical place to
projects, such as Canary Wharf as we see it relocate and redevelop. Buchanan Street and
today, were inadmissible at the time and it the Clyde were singled out for special
would be interesting to observe how the attention and a series of special projects,
visual structure Gordon invented might have when linked together, formed two major
changed with prior knowledge of such an urban systems which intersected at St
Above: Precedent Network for Isle of Dogs intention in the study. He accepted it Enoch's. This was later identified as the site
identifying places critical to Cullen's intellectually as development progressed but for the "Glasgow Tower" competition
proposed strategy. remained frustrated by the lack of urban although we ignored our own advice in our
Top: Glasgow Study cohesion in the Isle of Dogs context. submission and placed it in the river instead!
Right hand page:
Top: View from Stirling Study GLASGOW ABERDEEN
Middle: From Waverley Station The Study of Glasgow City Centre (1983- The study of Aberdeen (1986) was
Competition, Edinburgh 4), commissioned by the Scottish prompted by an elderly road proposal which
Bottom: From Aberdeen Study showing Development Agency, was the first of four it was felt would ruin Union Terrace
overall structure major and several minor exercises we Gardens, the city centre's principle open

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


space. Gordon pointed out that this was not
the only problem facing the city centre and so
the brief was immediately expanded into an
examination of the whole of the central area.
Our two most radical suggestions were the
extension of the railway station to provide a
concourse directly on Union Street and the
extension of the inner harbour to provide a
site for the proposed Petrochemicals
Museum. As with Glasgow, our ambition
was to locate as many dispersed activities
appropriate to the city centre within it rather
than on "soft" sites on its periphery. Only in
this way would the critical mass required for
true regeneration be achieved.

STIRLING AND EDINBURGH


The studies of Stirling and Edinburgh Old
Town (1987-9) were both commissioned as
part of larger projects examining the tourism
potential of these historic locations. At
Stirling we were principally concerned with
creating a powerful route from the castle to
the Forth, which is presently completely cut
off from the town centre but has remarkable
development potential. Traffic and transport
were vital issues which had to be addressed
in both circumstances and in Edinburgh the
major subject of enquiry was the "Royal
Mile", the spine of the Old Town. Although
the street does lead from the castle to the
palace it is really rather shabby and is choked
with vehicles. Our task was to suggest
improvements which would transform it into
one of the great linear urban experiences of
Europe.
With the benefit of the groundwork done
for this study, we decided to develop the
concepts further in order to enter the ideas
competition for Waverley Station as a "long
shot". Gordon's masterly argument caused
him to win first prize and a degree of
recognition in Scotland which had hardly
been made public beforehand.
During the course of the major Scottish
projects we also worked in Greenock,
Aviemore, Gretna Green and Clydebank.
Gordon's enthusiasm for working in
Scotland was immense. Born of parents from
the Shetlands, his Celtic origins were
unleashed in the course of the consultancies
we undertook for the SDA with a passion and
concern for the major cities of his native
country. However, Gordon never ignored
England or Wales, even though he was their
adopted son.

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 1994 29


Urban Design Projects
in Practice - 1981-1991

LONDON, CARDIFF AND THE BLACK


COUNTRY
London Docklands, Cardiff Bay and the
Black Country continued to be examined by
his critical eye and his persuasive
commentary and immaculate drawings.
Furthermore our major built projects in
London allowed him to transform theory into
practice. The two he felt most deeply about
are Swedish Quays and Helsinki Square,
both on the water's edge at Greenland Dock.
The interaction of private and public space,
the aspect and prospect of the dwellings and
their wonderful location distilled these
schemes into the essence of "Townscape" in
new buildings.
Having caught the attention of private
clients with these projects in particular,
Gordon and I were then asked to submit
designs for many other urban design and Above: part of a
architectural essays, including the site of St series of ideas for
Mary Abbot's Hospital in Kensington and Cardiff
the masterplan for the Greenwich Right: Cuba Street,
Peninsula. Gordon's talent for perception London Docklands
simply got better with every project we were Bottom: Helsinki
asked to undertake. Square housing,
London Docklands
CONCLUSIONS
Gordon adored the company of people
who could educate and amuse him. They
were often much younger than himself
which says a great deal about his opinion
of the profession in urban design - he
was, and is, the pinnacle of the "peer
group" and every one of those who had
the fortune to cross his path personally
will remember his ability to give kind and
forceful encouragement simultaneously.
Many people think of Gordon only as a
superlative draughtsman and forget that
he represents the most influential source
of urban design that the twentieth century
has produced in the United Kingdom.
Having had the unique privilege of ten
years of his education, I would remind
readers that Gordon's influence is much
greater than is confined to the pages of
"Townscape". It is up to us to develop
and refine his theories as he wished.

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


English Post-War KEVIN
Planning: A Golden LYNCH
Age? LECTURE

1947 LEGISLATION
By the 1947 Town Planning Act, the major
Sir Peter Shepheard, partner of Shepheard features of the new system - the provisions
Epstein Hunter architects and erstwhile for Green Belts, New Towns and the
Dean of the Graduate School of Fine Arts nationalisation of development rights - were
at the University of Pennsylvania, in place.
presented an anecdotal and entertaining Of these, the advent of comprehensive
review of British post-war urban planning development control was perhaps the most
in his 1994 Kevin Lynch Memorial Lecture important measure. Prior to 1947, the
given in July. It is perhaps true to say that preservation of green space relied on the
few if any "golden ages" withstand close limited potential of public purchase and low
scrutiny, even in the nostalgic hindsight of density zoning was the mechanism for
one so closely involved. But, at a time attempting to control development.
when physical planning at the According to Shepheard, even private
metropolitan scale is showing signs of developers found that the new system worked
returning to the urban design and to their advantage, giving great definition to with low rise offices offering greater potential
planning agenda, it is timely to share in opportunities and ensuring that development for social contact in administrative functions.
the memories of the last real attempt to areas were properly serviced by The "world's most comprehensive planning
determine the overall form of our cities. infrastructure. The Golden Age, such as it legislation" produced disappointing results
was, however, was short-lived. The that were a "tragedy". On the one hand the
At the age of thirty, Shepheard had joined
subsequent failures appear to Shepheard to system was less effective in practice than in
the team of his godfather, Patrick
have involved a combination of causes theory. There was, for example the failure to
Abercrombie, working on his plan for
including the undermining of some of its stem the intrusion of high rise buildings on
London. A good part of the talk focused on
main provisions by politicians and mistakes London's skyline, due in part to the
this pivotal figure in the post-war town
in vision by the planners themselves. One of interference of the Government of the day, as
planning movement. According to
the keystones of the 1947 Act, the in the approval of the Hyde Park Hilton.
Shepheard, Abercrombie had a real genius
for simplifying complex problems so that Compensation and Betterment provision On the other hand, as argued by Walter Bor
they could be easily explained and addressed. offering the possibility of taxing and others in the discussion that followed,
In this he was able to draw on the development, was rapidly knocked out by the the British planning system has been perhaps
considerable talents of the architects and Churchill government and the development of far too comprehensive, aiming at
planners in his team, developing various new towns and communities was slowed "scrutinising everything". The British system
inventive techniques of "presentation for down by the new government. was contrasted with that in the USA and
persuasion". Arthus Ling's depiction of there was some difference of view as to
whether a system that relies almost totally on
London's living communities as organic PLANNING VISION
"blobs" was a good example. the effectiveness of public demand and
In terms of vision, many of the ideas of the
participation and, by implication, the
In the use of simple, but comprehensive architect-planners of the time, as exemplified
effectiveness of lawyers, is any better.
analytical methods, the influence of Geddes in Abercrombie's Plan for London, were
never embodied in legislation but, in some For Shepheard, "seat of the pants"
was to the fore. Simple practical survey
planning could only be effective with
methods were used, including pacing out the respects, as Peter Shepheard admitted,
planners of stature, as seat of the pants flying
physical edge of Greater London in a three nevertheless had major negative
in the Second World War was the preserve of
week slog that left its imprint in the inner consequences for the urban environment.
ace pilots. This raised the question: where
boundary of the subsequent Green Belt. Proposals for the transport system, for
are the modern equivalents of Abercrombie
The post-war planning movement was example, relied too heavily on ring roads,
and Williams-Ellis? By implication, the
portrayed in the historical context of a presaging the M25, but failing to address the
answer seems to be that there is no place for
philosophical lineage from Geddes, through importance of the larger network and of
this type of integrated approach to planning
Unwin and Parker to Clough Williams-Ellis public transport provision. The plan was
in the emaciated "must-do" local government
and Abercrombie, and in contrast to the low based on forecasts that failed to predict both
of today. As Jon Rowland pointed out, by
density zoning and relative "laissez faire" of the post-war population boom and the vast
comparison to the depth and scope of
the inter-war period. The resulting urban increase in road traffic.
Abercrombie's plan for London, today's local
sprawl was the enemy of the new generation For Shepheard, the major new public
authority UDPs are sad, two dimensional
of planners, and the shift of perception that housing schemes brought good space and
shadows. The Golden Age of British Town
came with the Second World War, ensured open space standards but the use of high rise Planning may be largely a myth but in Sir
that their time had come. The war shook up for family accommodation was a "grotesque Peter's words, "local government decline in
British social life, and profoundly changed mistake" (for which architects like Gropius planning is sinful".
attitudes towards social issues and towards and Maxwell Fry bore a large share of the
the land, including inducing a strong responsibility). High rise, in Shepheard's
awareness of the importance of agriculture. view, is good for neither families or offices Tony Lloyd-Jones

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Colin Buchanan
and Partners

THE PRACTICE
Colin Buchanan and Partners is a leading
multi-disciplinary planning and transport
consultancy with more than twenty five
years' experience in the UK and overseas.
The practice was founded in 1964 by the
team that produced the 'Traffic in Towns'
study - still regarded as the fundamental
work on the effects of the private car on our
urban fabric and the need for improved public
transport. Today the consultancy employs
some seventy professional staff including
town planners, urban designers, architects,
market researchers and economists, as well
as traffic and transport specialists.
Operating from UK offices in London,
Stratford above and below Edinburgh, Bristol and Manchester as well as
overseas, the consultancy offers
comprehensive analysis and specialist
services on all aspects of master planning
from initial assessments to policy
implementation. Our wide range of in-house
skills ensures an innovative approach to all
aspects of the development process.

STRATFORD
This commission by the London Borough
of Newham explored regeneration options for
the Town Centre and adjacent railway lands
associated with the potential siting of the
Second Channel Tunnel Terminal at
Stratford. Alternative scenarios were
prepared to demonstrate the development
potential of the Terminal hinterland with the
aim of stimulating increased economic
activity and associated social benefits.

OXFORD
As part of a comprehensive Transport
Feasibility Study for the City of Oxford, the
urban design team worked closely with in-
house traffic engineers to develop a series of
proposals for permanent improvements in the
pedestrian environment in the City Centre.

MIDDLESBOROUGH
A detailed regeneration strategy for East
Middlesborough was prepared following the
Borough Council's successful bid for City
Challenge funds. Based on local public
consultation undertaken by the consultants, a
series of physical upgrading packages was
prepared and costed, leading to an
implementation strategy which is now
underway on site.

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Practice Profile

D e n s e tree and shrub planting


to b r e a k u p long vistas

Smaller grass N e w parking bays


areas for at 9 0 t o r o a d
casual
recreation

Pedestrian

entry points

Wddlesborough above and left


SAUDI ARABIA
The twin 'Industrial Cities' of Jubail and
Yanbu at each end of the trans-Saudi oil and
gas pipelines were both the subject of major
proposals, beginning with an initial site
search (Jubail) thorugh to a radical revision
of the draft Master Plan (Yanbu). There have
been few comparable opportunities since the
British New Towns for fundamental master
planning exercises on this scale that are then
realised on site. The achievements at Jubail
were recognised by a RS Reynolds Award for
Architectural Excellence.

DUBAI
In association with consulting engineers
Maunsell, a Master Plan was prepared for
700 hectares of undeveloped land on the
eastern boundary of Dubai Emirate around Yanbar below Al Mamzar above
the newly-dredged A1 Mamzar Lagoon. The
project began with a series of broad
development options testing different
densities and land uses and led to detailed
urban design guidelines, landscape proposals
for the regional-scale Lagoon Park and
financial feasibility assessments.

Colin Buchanan & Partners


59 Queens Gardens,
London W2 3AF
Telephone 071 258 3799
Fax 071 258 0299
Contact: Neil Parkyn RIBA MRTPI FRSA

Offices also at:


49 Castle St,Edinburgh
9 Elmdale Road, Bristol BS8 1SL
4 Jordan St, Manchester M15 4PY

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


ECD Architects and
Energy Consultants

ECD was established in 1980 with the


specific aim of combining energy research
and consultancy with mainstream
architectural practice. After completing a
series of pioneering low energy housing
schemes in the 1980s, our work is now
concentrated in the fields of urban
regeneration and environmental assessment.
Currently the practice is forty strong with
offices in London and Brussels.
Over the past five years ECD has built up a
strong reputation in estate refurbishment,
much of it involving resident participation in
design and construction with residents in
occupation. These projects have often
involved us in the preparation and
submission of bids for Estate Action or City
Challenge funding.

BARKANTINE ESTATE, ISLE OF DOGS -


TOWER HAMLETS
One example is the Barkantine Estate on
the Isle of Dogs in East London, an estate the
size of a small town with over 1,000
dwellings in low, medium and high rise
construction together with a school, shops,
pub and community centre. Much of the
estate was re-developed in the 1960s but Above: Barkantine Estate showing new
there are in addition buildings dating from architectural language applied to
the 1930s, 40s and 50s and the result is a buildings.
visual hotch-potch. Below and to right: Wornington Green
The physical problems however were fairly Estate showing new entrance structures.
consistent; leaking roofs, rotten windows,
inadequate heating and condensation. The
solution has been to give the buildings a new
suit of clothes to enter the 21st Century; new
roofs and windows, insulated overcladding
and affordable heating. This new
architectural language is designed to
reinforce the 'urban village' feel of the estate
and to create a more unified and coherent
visual environment. The first phase of work
is now complete and illustrates the dramatic
transformation from a grim '60s maisonette
block into a clean crisp piece of modern
architecture.

WORNINGTON GREEN ESTATE, NORTH P r o p o x d New


Police Baae

KENSINGTON
Another recent example of ECD's work in
the fields of urban regeneration is the
Wornington Green Estate within the North New N u r i c r y

Kensington City Challenge area. Wornington


Udt
Green is a 1970s medium rise deck access lCrVf
estate with serious crime and drug related

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Practice Profile

problems typical of this inner city location.


ECD's brief was to consult with the residents
and the Metropolitan Police and develop
proposals to improve access and security.
The solution has been to create seven new
entrance halls together with new lifts, entry
phone installations and restricted access to
individual walkways.
The entrances are located alongside
existing staircase towers. Their curved forms
are intended to create some drama and
excitement in the streetscape. The entrance
halls are built in a pattern of obscure and
translucent glass blocks within a steel grid
framework and are designed to be
illuminated at night.

BALDERTON VILLAGE, NEWARK


For the past three years ECD has been
working on the masterplan for a new
community to be built on the site of a former
mental hospital in Balderton, near Newark in
Nottinghamshire, shown to the left.

BREEAM
In collaboration with the building Research
Establishment ECD have developed
BREEAM, the Building Research
Establishment Environmental Assessment
Method. The original version, designed for
new office developments has been immensely
successful with over 200 assessments now
completed. Subsequent versions now cover
existing occupied offices, retail superstores,
industrial buildings and new housing. The
BALDERTON VILLAGE, NEWARK BREEAM system assesses the environmental
The 230 acre site, shown above, consists impact of a building at three levels - Global,
of predominantly mature parkland into Local and Internal. Credits are awarded for
which the new development has been measures which are better than normal
sensitively inserted. In addition to the practice and an overall rating is then given;
proposed 1150 new homes, some existing Fair, Good, Very Good or Excellent.
buildings are retained and re-used to The BREEAM method provides a valuable
provide business and retail space in the yardstick against which developers and
high density 'urban core'. A new primary occupiers can measure that performance in
school is also planned together with this area, as well as giving design
community and leisure facilities. The professionals a specific environmental agenda
development preserves the natural to work with.
amenity value of the site and provides a ECD actively promotes the concept of
system of pedestrian and cycle routes sustainable development and advises a large
connecting all residential areas with the number of clients on the energy and
centre. High standards of energy environmental aspects of their work.
efficiency are anticipated in all new
buildings together with an environmental ECD Architects and Energy Consultants
code to ensure a model 'green' 11-15 Emerald St, London WC1N 3QL
community. Tel: 071 405 3121
Fax: 071 405 1670
Contact: David Turrent BArch RIBA

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


PRP Architects

PRP Architects (formerly Phippen Randall


and Parkes) see architecture and urban design
as complementary. The design of successful
urban places is as dependent on the way
buildings are grouped together and the design
of the spaces between them as it is on the
design of individual buildings, a fact as true
for towns and cities as for housing develop-
ments. What we recognise as urban space is
generally characterised by (largely)
continuous building forms which separate the
public from the private realm. Two recent
projects demonstrate these views.

WEST SILVERTOWN URBAN VILLAGE


The project for West Silvertown Urban
Village was prepared for a consortium of
three developers in response to a competition
brief from the LDDC for a development of
1,000 houses forming the first, largely
residential, phase of a new Urban Village in
the Royal Victoria Docks.
The potential diversity of architectural
design brought about by three developers
each using their own architects to satisfy their
perceived need to differentiate their products
and satisfy a number of different market
areas required both a comprehensive Master
Plan and a foolproof Design Code if the
overall coherence necessary to justify the use
of the description 'Urban Village' was to be
achieved.
PRP were clear that if this was to be
achieved a Master Plan which firmly
established a 3D urban design was essential.
The Master Plan so produced would need to
establish the position and height of all
buildings thereby ensuring the size and scale
of the spaces between them. This would
ensure the creation of the particular urban
WEST SILVERTOWN character which would be synonymous with
The pattern of development to the south of commencing in the south with two storey West Silvertown.
the spine road comprises terraces of houses adjoining the North Woolwich The proposed Design Code could thus have
mainly two storey houses arranged in Road and increasing up to six storeys been limited to the detailed design of
loosely rectangular forms around private alongside the Dock. horizontal and vertical surfaces, namely to
gardens in the centre. The corners are To the social facilities required in the the design of hard and soft landscape and
turned with small flat blocks two or three brief, which included local shops, a elevational treatments.
storeys high over group garages at village hall and a Medical Centre, were The Master Plan concept was constrained
ground level. The flats are set forward of added a Nursery School and a Primary by an existing spine road. This was utilised
the houses and provide a strong corner School. These facilities are located to separate the higher density development,
which can be used to control space, partly around a public square near the centre of appropriate to the Dockside, to the north
screen parked cars and define discrete the first phase would be mutually adjoining the Dock from the preponderance
areas of the Village. supportive in acting as a catalyst for of lower density family houses to the south
This approach produced a comparatively social contact and assist in the early and so enable the maximum number of
smooth profile in section across the site creation of a 'Village' spirit. Village residents to have views over water.

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Practice Profile

CHALKHILL ESTATE, BRENT


Chalkhill in Brent is an extreme example
of a high density system-built 1960s local
authority housing estate of some 1,200 six to
eight storey flats where traditional urban
characteristics, from access and parking
arrangements, road layout, architectural scale
and detail through to spatial organisation and
social values were ignored in the celebration
of the economies of scale and the apparent
logic of the industrialised production of
structural building components.
The London Borough of Brent invited
teams comprising housing association,
contractor and professionals to put forward
development and financial proposals.
The extent of the technical social and
management problems were such that large
scale demolition was the only answer. The Centre Residential Road
strategy was to work with tenants to create a
new community based on a new supportive
built form of traditional streets and houses.
The existing single access to the estate
would be replaced by a road network
ensuring maximum permeability of vehicles
and pedestrians, avoiding 'dead ends' and
thereby providing strong and permanent links
with the wider community and doing away
with the isolation of residents.
There would be a gradation of scale from
the western end of the site, where there is an
existing estate of traditional houses and flats,
to the eastern end where a new access would
be created together with a new urban park
opposite Brent Town Hall.
The variation in scale and detailed design
of the proposed new buildings, their use to
create a sequence of coherent spaces of
crescents, circus's, squares and courts
combined with a designed road hierarchy of
avenues, streets, roads and mews would lead
to the creation of a legible environment. It
created the opportunity to form a series of CHALKHILL ESTATE, BRENT would create a sequence of distinctive
housing areas each with a strong character The new urban park would act as a hub urban forms. At junctions between major
with which people would be able to identify from which new major routes would and minor roads flat blocks three and four
and make their own. radiate. Chalkhill Road the existing storeys high would define and celebrate
access road would become a tree lined the corners. Dwellings around the urban
Boulevard providing the main artery and park would be on a large scale with a four
PRP Architects linking the urban park in the west to the storey crescent on the principal axis of
82 Bridge Road, Hampton Court new and existing residential areas. the Town Hall. Five storey towers formed
East Molesey, Surrey Wherever practicable open space would gateways into the Park. In the area of
KT89HF be incorporated in private gardens at the existing traditional housing to the east
Tel: 081 941 0606 front and rear of buildings in order to existing public open space would be
Fax: 081 783 1671 transfer maintenance responsibility from rationalised by the creation of private
the Housing Association to the individual gardens for a high proportion of the
Contact: Peter Phippen OBE Dip Arch tenants and owners. existing dwellings and by further
(RWA) RIBA The houses fronting onto Chalkhill Road development where appropriate.

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


WML International

WML International was formed in 1990 as


part of the Whinney Mackay-Lewis PLC
Group of companies with offices in Cardiff
and London. Architectural commissions are
undertaken by the sister companies of
Whinney Mackay-Lewis Partnership in
London and Hoggett Lock-Necrews PLC in
Cardiff with WML International providing an
urban design, planning and development
service to group clients.
Gordon Lewis has been the Managing
Director of the company since its formation
in 1990 and prior to that was the Managing
Director of an American firm of landscape
architects working in the UK. The directors
of WML first "cut their teeth" on major
planning and regeneration projects when they
were selected by Cardiff Bay Development
Corporation as one of the four consultancy
groups to prepare a pre-development
feasibility study for Cardiff Bay. Since then
there has been a dramatic change in the way
clients plan major developments and urban
design has now become a foundation of good
development practice.
Like many consultancy companies, WML
International carries out a wide variety of
commissions ranging from specialist planning
studies to regeneration strategies and urban
design proposals for individual sites.
The last ten years have seen a dramatic
change in the way that society relates to the
built environment. Urban regeneration has
become part of our everyday vocabulary as a
vital task in solving the problems of inner
cities. Successful regeneration however,
cannot be achieved overnight; it is a long
term process that requires clear vision and
committed action.
WML International is a multi-disciplinary
company with architects, urban designers and
planners working together to solve clients'
problems. On many projects they work with
a wider team of transport engineers, highway
designers, chartered surveyors and
economists. This holistic approach, with a NEWPORT enable the town to compete with other
wide variety of professional skills that creates This urban design strategy was part of an regional centres.
a marketable and viable, three-dimensional, overall development strategy for the town, The study area extended to the River Usk
design solution. The planning profession has prepared jointly with Drivers Jonas who where a dual carriageway separates the
grasped the importance of urban design carried out the market analysis and W S town centre from the riverbank. Major
initiatives with many planning departments Atkins the traffic studies. environmental enhancements are
now preparing three-dimensional plans in The strategy identifies retail and proposed and a new landmark pedestrian
addition to land use zoning policies. commercial growth centres within the bridge, linking a new retail development
Much of WML International's work has central area and enhancement initiatives across the dual carriageway to new public
been undertaken in Wales working with local for the public realm and highways to buildings on the waterfront.

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


Practice Profile

authorities and the Urban Development


Department of the Welsh Development
Agency. The first commissions involved the
preparation of development strategies and
then progressed onto detailed regeneration
strategies and urban design studies. A recent
example of that work is the urban design
strategy for Newport.

AMMANFORD
In West Wales WML International worked
with Coopers & Lybrand to prepare a
regeneration strategy for Ammanford. This
was followed by a commission to prepare
action plans setting out the priorities for
development in the first five years. In
addition, studies were carried out on the
central area identifying how the new
pedestrianised High Street could be linked to
the Market and Car Park via a new Public
Square with a reorganized road system. A
New Market Hall building was created as a
focal point at the end of the High Street next
to the main retail stores. The Square is
defined along two sides by the existing
buildings and on the third and fourth edges
by an archway and planted screen on the edge
of the car park. The screen is planned to be
replaced by new retail development forming a
public square around the market hall,
creating a meeting place for the town and a
major entrance into the area from adjacent
riverside land.

SWANSEA VALE Over the years WML International has


The objectives are to create a new urban developed a strong corporate philosophy that
district comprising a mixed commercial, is conveyed through a distinctive visual
residential and recreational development presentation conveyed through colourful
concept sketches.
on 470 acres adjacent to the M4. It is
intended to regenerate East Swansea, Gordon Lewis commented that, "the urban
provide high grade employment land, design profession has become established
reduce housing pressure on West during the last decade. Where it goes now,
will depend upon the integrity of its members
Swansea and provide a 'flagship' for
and quality of the service it gives to clients.
regional growth.
Planners, architects and engineers must
recognize the value of urban design policies
The proposals include: 110 acres of
and promote their integration into
industrial and commercial development
development schemes to create well balanced
generating 4,700 jobs; 132 acres of
environments".
residential development creating 1,800
new homes; golf course development
including driving range, golf school and WML International
golf course; office and hotel sites next to Westgate House
M4 intersections; improved road network Womanby Street
for the north eastern section of the city. Cardiff CF1 2UA
Tel: 0222 231401
AMMANFORD Fax: 0222 374690
Proposed new public square with new
Market Hall shown on left. Contact: Gordon Lewis BSc BArch RIBA

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


PRACTICE INDEX

DIRECTORY OF PRACTICES OFFERING URBAN DESIGN SERVICES AND SUBSCRIBING TO THIS INDEX

The ASH Partnership Building Design Partnership Edward Cullinan Architects Ltd Roger Evans Associates
140A The Broadway PO Box 4WD The Wharf, Baldwin Terrace School Studios
Didcot ,Oxon 0X11 8RJ 16 Gresse Street London N1 7RU Weston on the Green
(also in Glasgow, Edinburgh, London W1A4WD Tel: 071 704 1975 Oxford 0X6 8RG
Liverpool, Manchester) Tel: 071 631 4733 Fax: 071 354 2739 Tel: 0869 350096
Tel: 0235 511481 Fax: 071 631 0393 Contact: John Romer Fax: 0869 350152
Fax: 0235 819606 Contact: Richard Saxon BArch Contact: Roger Evans MA DipArch DipUD
Contact: Simon Rendel MA (Oxon) MICE (Hons)(L'pool) MCD MBIM RIBA Designing buildings and groups of RIBA MRTPI
ALI buildings within urban or rural contexts.
Transport design. Landscape design. The relationship to existing buildings and A specialist urban design practice
Design of urban spaces and Commercial development planning. the making of spaces between buildings is providing services throughout the UK.
streets,feasibility studies for upgrading Sports and Leisure planning. Industrial of particular importance to us, in the Expertise in urban regeneration,
housing and industrial land and transport site planning. Educational campus struggle to re-establish the civic place. development frameworks, master
corridors. Tourism studies. planning. planning, town centre improvement
schemes and visual impact assessment.

W S Atkins Planning Consultants Burrell Foley Fischer DEGW London Ltd Terry Farrell and Company
Woodcote Grove, Ashley Road 15 Monmouth Street, Covent Garden Porters North 8 Crinan Street 17 Hatton Street
Epsom, Surrey KT18 5BW London WC2H 9DA London N1 9SQ London NW8 8PL
Tel: 0372 726140 Tel: 071 836 5097 Tel: 071 239 7777 Tel: 071 258 3433
Fax: 0372 743006 Fax: 071 379 6619 Fax: 071 278 3613 Fax: 071 723 7059
Contact: Joanna Chambers BA BTP MRTPI Contact: John Burrell MA AADip RIBA (also at Glasgow, Manchester, Berlin, Contact: Susan Dawson DipArch RIBA
FRSA Brussels and other European cities)
Multi-disciplinary practice of urban Specialisms: Urban regeneration and Arts Contact: Ken Baker DipArch RIBA Architectural, urban design and planning
planners, landscape designers, transport and Cultural buildings - Museums, services. New buildings, refurbishment,
planners, urban designers, architects and Galleries, Theatres, Cinemas. Planning and Urban Design across Europe. restoration and interiors,masterplanning
environmental planners, specialising in Redevelopment of Redundant Estate Urban regeneration strategies. Civic and town planning schemes. Retail, Con-
Master Plans, Development Frameworks Land, Urban housing. New settlements. Design. New communities and green field ference Centres, Exhibition Halls, Offices,
and Concepts, Development Briefs, New design in Historic Contexts. development. Research and briefing for Railway infrastructure and Railway Devel-
Environmental Assessment, Waterfront buildings and strategies. complex projects. opment, Art Galleries, Museums. Cultural
Environmental Improvements, Town Innovative Urban Design and Planning and Tourist buildings, Television Studios,
Centre renewal, Traffic Management and approaches. Theatres, Housing, Industrial Buildings.
Contaminated land.

Bell Fischer CAMP 5 ECD Architects and Energy FaulknerBrowns


Landscape Architects 35 Alfred Place Consultants Dobson House
160 Chiltern Drive London WC1E7DP 11-15 Emerald Street Northumbrian Way
Surbiton Tel:071 323 3717 London WC1N 3QL Newcastle upon Tyne NE12 0QW
Surrey KT5 8LS Fax: 071 580 6080 Tel: 071 405 3121 Tel: 091 268 3007
Tel: 081 390 6477 Contact: David Rock BArch Fax: 071 405 1670 Fax: 091 268 5227
Fax: 081 399 7903 CertTP (Dunelm) RIBA FCSD FRSA Contact: David Turrent BArch RIBA Contact: Neil F Taylor BA (Hons) DipArch
Contact: Gordon Bell DipLA ALI (Dist) RIBA MBIM
Master planning and analysis, small town ECD Architects specialise in the design of
Landscape architecture, urban design, and village regeneration, physical energy efficient buildings and advise on Urban Design, Environmental and
landscape planning. Environmental and planning, building and area enhancement, the environmental aspects of new Economic Regeneration, Masterplanning,
visual impact assessment. Concept expert witness,architecture consultancy, developments using the Breeam Development and Implementation
design, detail design and project policy formulation, marketing and 'making assessment method. Strategies.
management. UK and overseas. it happen'.

Colin Buchanan & Partners Philip Cave Associates EDAW CR Planning Gillespies
59 Queens Gardens 5 Dryden Street 80-82 Grays Inn Road Environment by Design
London W2 3AF Covent Garden Holborn, London WC1X8NH GLASGOW
Tel: 071 258 3799 London WC2E 9NW (also at Glasgow and Colmar, France) Tel: 041 332 6742
Fax: 071 258 0299 Tel: 071 829 8340 Tel: 071 404 6350 Fax: 041 332 3538
Contact: Neil Parkyn MA DipArch DipTP Fax: 071 240 5800 Fax: 071 404 6337 MANCHESTER
(Dist) RIBA MRTPI Contact: Philip Cave BSc Hons MA (LD) Contact: David Keene BA Dip TP MRTPI Tel: 061 928 7715
ALI Jason Prior BA Dip LA ALI Fax: 061 927 7680
Town planning, urban design, transport OXFORD
and traffic management and market Design led practice seeking innovative yet EDAW CR Planning are part of the Tel: 0865 326789
research from offices in London, practical solutions. Large scale site international EDAW Group providing Fax: 0865 327070
Edinburgh, Bristol and Manchester. planning through to small scale detailed urban design, land use planning, The Practice philosophy provides clients
Specialism in Town Centre projects, design - from studies to constructed environmental planning and landscape with creative and sustainable solutions
including public realm design. projects. Specialist experience in architecture services throughout the UK and a commitment to excellence from
landscape architecture. and Europe. We offer particular expertise inception to completion in Planning, Urban
in market driven development Design, Landscape Architecture,
frameworks, urban regeneration, Architecture, Graphic Design and
masterplanning and implementation. Ecology.

40 URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 1994


PRACTICE INDEX

Greater London Consultants LEITHGOE Landscape Architects and David Lock Associates Ltd Peter McGowan Associates
127 Beuiah Road Environmental Planners 50 North Thirteenth Street The Schoolhouse
Thornton Heath 6 Southernhay West Central Milton Keynes 4 Lochend Road
Surrey CR7 8JJ Exeter EX11JG Milton Keynes MK9 3BP EdinburghEH6 8BR
Tel: 081 7681417 Tel: 0392 210428 Tel: 0908 666276 Tel: 031 555 4949
Fax: 081 771 9384 Fax: 0392 413290 Fax: 0908 605747 Fax: 031 555 4999
Contact: Dr John Parker DipArch ARIBA (also London tel: 071 229 6469) Contact: Will Cousins DipArch DipUD Contact: Peter McGowan DipLA MA (UD)
DipTP FRTPI FRSA Contact: Andrew Leithgoe DipLA FLI RIBA ALI

Services focus on architectural and urban Landscape Assessment, Planning, Strategic planning studies, public Landscape architecture and urban design:
design aspects of planning and environ- Design and Maintenance. Hard and soft inquiries, urban regeneration projects, planning and design. Highways,
ment including: photo-montage studies Landscape solutions. Experienced in master plans, area development pedestrianisation and traffic calming.
especially high building proposals, site working with Architects and Engineers. framework plans, environment New town development. Urban parks and
investigation, traffic, applications, appeals, Clients include PSA/DoE, Local statements. spaces. Sea fronts. Urban Renewal.
marinas, ElA's, feasibility, development Authorities, Property Institutions, Landscapes for housing and industry.
schemes, conservation and security Universities, Private clients.
schemes.

Halcrow Fox and Associates Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners Ltd MacCormac Jamieson Prichard Anthony Meats Urban Design
44 Brook Green Star House 9 Heneage Street 3 High Street
Hammersmith 104- 108 Grafton Road Spitalfields Taplow
London W6 London NW5 4BD London E1 5LJ Bucks SL6 0EX
Tel: 071 6031618 Tel: 071 485 8795 Tel: 071 377 9262 Tel: 0628 666334
Fax: 071 603 5783 Fax: 071 482 4039 Fax: 071 247 7854 Fax: 0628 602676
Contact: Asad A Shaheed BA Arch MArch (also in Newcastle upon Tyne) Contact: David Prichard BSc DipArch Contact: Anthony Meats AA DipL RIBA
Contact: Nicholas Thompson BA BPI MA (Lond) RIBA FRSA
Area and site planning, town centre (UrbDes) MRTPI and lain Rhind BA MPhil
renewal, waterfront regeneration, traffic DipUD (Dist) MRTPI Master-planning, development briefs, Urban design, tourism and development
calming studies, conceptual design, visual urban regeneraion studies, land use planning, conservation and townscape
impact assessment. Independent planning, urban design and studies, rural settlements. Planning in studies, conceptual design.
economics consultancy,combining analysis historic and sensitive sites.
with creativity. Masterplans: all sites, all
uses. Residential schemes. Town centres.
Visual appraisal. Conservation.

Hunt Thompson Associates Livingston Eyre Associates Andrew Martin Associates MPT Associates Urbanologists
79 Parkway 7-13 Cottons Gardens Croxton's Mill, Little Waltham Penthouse Studio, Haresfield House
London NW1 7PP London E2 8DN Chelmsford, Essex CM3 3PJ Brookfield, Wingfield Road
Tel: 071 485 8555 Tel: 071 739 1445 Tel: 0245 361611 Trowbridge Wilts BA14 9EN
Fax: 071 4851232 Fax: 071 729 2986 Fax: 0245 362423 Tel: 0225 751166
Contact: John Thompson MA DipArch Contact: Katherine Melville RIBA ALI Contact: Andrew Martin MAUD DipTP Fax: 0225 751166
RIBA (Distinction) FRICS FRTPI Contact: Michael Tollit PG Dip UD
The design of the space between Dip Arch (Leic) BA(Hons) ARIBA
Architects and urban designers buildings in urban or rural contexts; Strategic, local and master planning, Minst Env Sc
specialising in the problems of physical, master planning and feasibility studies; project co-ordination and facilitation,
social and economic regeneration with an rehabilitation and regeneration of the development briefs and detailed studies, Site development research,
innovatory approach to participatory urban landscape; building the places we historic buildings and conservation. EA Analysis, transport,
community involvement. design. Comprehensive and integrated planning of landscape, master planning,
new and expanded communities, urban design, architectural,
including housing, employment, shopping, historical, geographical
recreation and leisure, transport and interpretation, tourism
environmental considerations. market research surveys.

Derek Latham & Co Llewelyn-Davies Robert MacDonald Associates NFA


St Michaels Brook House 76 Haverstock Hill Falcon House, 202 Old Brompton Road
Derby DE1 3SU 2 Torrington Place London NW3 2BE London SW5 0BU
Tel: 0332 365777 London WC1E7HN Tel: 071 2841414 Tel: 071 259 2223 Fax: 071 259 2242
Fax: 0332 290314 Tel: 071 637 0181 Fax: 071 267 9976 (also at Bangkok, Beijing, Hong Kong,
Contact: Mark Strawbridge Fax: 071 637 8740 Contact: Robert MacDonald BA(Hons) Kuala Lumpur, Los Angeles,
Contact: Jon Rowland AADipl MA RIBA DipArch (Dist) RIBA Melbourne, Paris, Singapore, Vietnam)
Innovative Conservation, Urban Design, and David Walton BA MRTPI FIHT Contact: Peter Verity MArch MCP (Penn)
Architecture, Planning, Landscapes and Robert MacDonald Associates combine RIBA
Interiors. Problem solving by design. Architecture, planning, urban design and the skills of urban design masterplanning,
regeneration, site appraisal and context housing and new communities, beneficial Architectural, Urban Design, Planning,
studies, strategic landscaping. re-use studies for land disposal, planning Landscaping services internationally.
negotiations and architecture. Development Planning, Urban
Regeneration, New Communities,
Waterfront Regeneration, Tourism
Planning and Design.

41 URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 1994


PRACTICE INDEX

Terence O'Rourke pic Taylor Young Urban Design Shepheard Epstein and Hunter Tibbalds Monro Ltd
Everdene House The Studio Architecture Planning and Landscape 31 Earl Street
Wessex Fields, Deansleigh Road 51 Brookfield 14-22 Ganton Street London EC2A 2HR
Bournemouth BH7 7DU Cheadie London W1V1LB Tel: 071 377 6688
Tel: 0202 421142 Cheshire SK8 1ES Tel: 071 734 0111 Fax: 071 247 9377
Fax: 0202 430055 Tel: 061 491 4530 Fax: 071 434 2690 (also at Glasgow)
Contact: Terence O'Rourke DipArch Fax: 061 491 0972 Contact: Steven Pidwill Dip Arch RIBA Contact: Andrew Karski BA (Hons) MSc
(Oxford) DipTP RIBA MRTPI Contact: Stephen Gleave MA DipTP (Dist) Eugene Dreyer MA (City and Regional (Econ) FRTPI
DipUD MRTPI Planning)
Planning and Design Consultancy Multi-disciplinary practice of architects,
specialising in land use planning, Urban Design, Planning and Architecture, master-planning, landscape, planners, urban designers, landscape
landscape architecture, ecology, Development. Public and Private Sectors. urban design, computer modelling, designers, tourism specialists and interior
environmental assessment and urban Town studies, housing, commercial, environmental statements, planning-for- architects. The firm provides consultancy
design. Development Briefs, Master distribution, health and transportation real, public consultation, development services to institutional, public sector and
Plans, Urban Regeneration, Town represent current live' projects. Specialist consultancy. corporate clients.
Studies, Conservation and Public Realm in Urban Design Training.
Strategies.

PRP Architects Rothermel Thomas Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Inc. Travers Morgan Environment
82 Bridge Road 14-16 Cowcross Street 46 Berkeley Street, London W1X 5FP 2 Killick Street
Hampton Court London EC1M 6DR Tel: 071 930 9711 London N1 9JJ
East Molesey Tel: 071 490 4255 Fax: 071 930 9108 Tel: 071 278 7373
Surrey KT8 9HF Fax: 071 490 1251 (also Chicago, New York, Washington, Fax: 071 278 3476
Tel: 081 941 0606 Contact: James Thomas BA (Arch) DipTP San Francisco, Los Angeles, Hong Contact: Marie Burns BA (hons) MAUD
Fax: 081 783 1671 FRIBA FRTPI FRSA FIMgt Kong) Dipl. LA ALI
Contact: Peter Phippen Contact: Roger Kallman
OBE DipArch (RWA) RIBA Urban design, conservation, historic International multi-disciplinary practice. Multidisciplinary Practice of urban
buildings, planning, architecture. Expert Master Planning, Landscape Architecture, designers, landscape architects, planners,
Social and private housing development, witness at planning inquiries. Civil Engineering and Urban Design. ecologists, noise and air pollution
special needs housing, including housing Project types: urban regeneration expertise - undertaking environmental and
for elderly people, mentally handicapped schemes, business park master plans, visual impact assessments, traffic calming
and single people, healthcare, urban university campus design, transportation studies; town centre and waterfront
redevelopment. planning. Associated services: regeneration schemes, contamination
environmental impact assessments, remediation, new build housing and estate
design guidelines, infrastructure refurbishment.
strategies.

EDUCATION INDEX

DIRECTORY OF COURSES PROVIDING URBAN DESIGN EDUCATION AND SUBSCRIBING TO THIS INDEX
University of the West of England, University of Greenwich School of the Built Environment University of Newcastle upon Tyne
Bristol School of Architecture and Landscape Liverpool John Moores University Department of Town and Country
Faculty of the Built Environment Oakfield Lane 98 Mount Pleasant Planning, Claremont Tower
Frenchay Campus Dartford DA1 2SZ Liverpool L3 5UZ University of Newcastle
Coldharbour Lane Tel: 081 316 9100 Tel: 051 231 3209 Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU
Bristol BS161QY Fax: 081 316 9105 Fax: 051 709 4957 Tel: 091 222 7802 Fax: 091 222 8811
Tel: 0272 656261 Contact: Philip Stringer Contact: Professor Chris Couch Contact: Dr Ali Madani-Pour (Town &
Fax: 0272 763895 MA in Urban Design for postgraduate MSc/Diploma in Urban Renewal (Urban Country Planning) or Bill Tavernor
Contact: Richard Guise architecture and landscape students, full Regeneration & Urban Design) 1 year full- (Architecture)
MA/Postgraduate Diploma course in time and part time with credit time or 2 years part-time. MA/Diploma in Urban Design. Joint
Urban Design. Part time 2 days per accumulation transfer system. programme by Dept of Town and Country
fortnight for 2 years, or individual Planning and Dept. of Architecture, on full
programme of study. Project based time, part time, or certificate accumulation
course addressing urban design issues, bases. Integrating knowledge and skills
abilities and environments. from town planning, architecture, and
landscape design.

Edinburgh College of Art/Heriot Watt University of Liverpool University of Westminster Oxford Brookes University (formerly
University Dept of Civic Design School of Urban Development and Oxford Polytechnic)
School of Architecture Abercromby Square Planning Joint Centre for Urban Design
Lauriston Place PO Box 147 35 Marylebone Road Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP
Edinburgh EH3 9DF Liverpool L69 3BX London NW1 5LS Tel: 0865 819403
Tel: 031 221 6071/6072 Tel: 051 794 3119 Tel: 071 911 5000 Fax: 0865 483298
Fax: 031 221 6606/6157 Fax: 051 794 3125 Fax: 071 911 5171 Contact: Dr Georgia Butina or Ian Bentley
Contact: Robert Smart Contact: Michael Biddulph Contact: David Seex Diploma in Urban Design 6 months full
Diploma in Urban Design: 1 year full time Diploma in Civic Design.: 21 months full MA or Diploma Course in Urban Design time or 18 months part time. MA in Urban
or 3 years part time. MSc in Urban time or 33 months part time. Master in for postgraduate architects, town Design 1 year full time or 3 years part
Design: 1 year full time or 3 years part Civic Design: 2 years full-time / 3 years planners, landscape architects and related time. MPhil/PhD by research (full time and
time plus 1 year part time. Recognised by part time. disciplines. One year full time or two part time).
the RIBA for the RIBA Urban Design years part time attendance of two
Diploma. evenings a week plus an additional five to
eight days each year.

42 URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 1994


ENDPIECE
one of the tourist showpieces of
1994 Study Tour
medieval planned town on a
Urban Initiatives remarkable site at the confluence the old German Democratic
35 Heddon Street of the Fulda and the Werra. it Republic, it was evident that
London W1R 7LL Alan Stones describes the was strange to find these houses many buildings were in need of
Tel: 071 287 3644 UDG Study Tour which visited laid out on a regular grid street repair, or vacant awaiting the
Fax: 071 287 9489
the Harz area of Germany in plan. Here, and in Paderborn, return of owners or the arrival of
Contact: Kelvin Campbell BArch RIBA
MRTPI MCIT FRSA May 1994. we encountered the elaborate new purchasers. Streets were
The Harz is the northernmost Weser Renaissance style used for being extensively re-surfaced,
Urban design, transport planning, range of high, wooded mountains town halls in the region west of but fortunately the town had not
infrastructure and development planning in Germany, whose scenery the Harz. suffered the effects of insensitive
to include master planning, town centre attracted and inspired nineteenth modern development.
studies, conservation, environmental century romantic poets and The same cannot be said of
improvements, traffic calming and design
writers. During the Middle Ages those former East German towns
guidelines.
it was Europe's most important which had the misfortune to
centre of mining and coin suffer Allied bombing during the
minting, which brought the area Second World War. In a city like
great prosperity, resulting in the Halberstadt, the cathedral close
WML International Ltd building of many fine towns, the and main Romanesque churches
Westgate House object of our visit. remain, but expediency and lack
Womanby Street
Our outward journey took us of the commercial impetus
Cardiff
South Glam CF1 2UA along the old Hellweg, an ancient Without doubt, the finest present in the West resulted in
Tel: 0222 231401 east-west trading route. What towns we visited were Goslar the rest of the devastated city
Fax: 0222 374690 we had not appreciated and Quedlinburg (shown above), centre being rebuilt in the form
(also at 55-65 Whitfield Street beforehand was that, even before one in the former West, the other of soul-less parallel blocks of
London W1P5RJ) leaving the Westphalian plain, in the former East. In the flats which pay no heed to the
Contact: Gordon Lewis BSc BArch RIBA we were to encounter at Soest the historic street pattern. A priority
eleventh century Goslar was the
first examples of the Saxon seat of the Holy Roman for the assimilation of such
Land planning, urban design, architecture,
timber-framed building style that Emperors, but it was only later towns into the new Germany is
urban regeneration, masterplanning and
development strategies. was to accompany us throughout that the town started to prosper going to have to be the knitting
the rest of the tour. Unlike the as a result of the mining of back together of the original
simple braced frame metals. The Emperors' Hall and urban spaces in order to create a
characteristic of so many other the Cathedral became dilapidated community focus. Otherwise the
regions of Germany, the typical and vanished at the beginning of inhabitants will vote with their
Saxon house is jettied and highly the nineteenth century, but many feet.
decorative, with rolls and swags substantial town houses testify to One of the benefits of the old
under the jetty, and splayed feet the former wealth of the mine- East Germany was the low level
to the upper storey posts owners. We were able to visit of car ownership, which enabled
University of Strathclyde
incorporating sunburst motifs.
Dept of Architecture and Building that of the Siemens family, an extensive rural railway
Science ancestors of the founder of the network to survive. The element
Urban Design Studies Unit electrical engineering firm. The of this network which has the
131 Rottenrow Glasgow G4 0NG typical medieval Goslar house is most assured future is the
Tel: 041 552 4400 ext 3011
arranged around a courtyard, to narrow-gauge Harz railway
Fax: 041 552 3997
one side of which is a timber- system, which reaches all parts
Contact: Dr Hildebrand W Frey, Director,
Urban Design Studies Unit framed hall, whilst on the street of the area, including the
UDSU offers its Postgraduate Course in frontage is a stone-built element, Brocken, the highest mountain,
Urban Design in CPD, Diploma and MSc called a 'kemenate', containing and has steam traction every day
modes. Topics range from the influence sleeping quarters and storage for of the year. This major 'plus' for
of the city's form and structure on tourism makes it possible to see
valuables in case of fire.
balanced development to the design of
This makes for a distinctive Quedlinburg lies at the foot of all the sights of the Harz region
public spaces.
townscape,particularly in a town a castle hill. Within the castle, without the use of a car.
such as Einbeck (shown above), seat during the eleventh century To complete our overview of
on the edge of the Harz, where of the Kings of Saxony, lies the the historic towns of a region, we
This directory provides a service to the inhabitants strive to outdo pre-Romanesque Cathedral of St. visited an early-twentieth-
potential clients when they are looking one another in the gaudiness with Servatius. We were already century attempt at recreating the
for specialist professional advice on which they paint their houses. familiar with buildings of ethos of the German small
projects involving urban design and
Most of these houses seem to Carolingian date from seeing the historic town, the
related matters and to students and
professionals considering taking an date from the sixteenth century, Abbey of Corvey on the Weser a Margarethenhohe development
urban design course. as many towns had disastrous few days previously. The scale for housing Krupp workers at
Those wishing to be included in future fires which destroyed the and elaboration of these churches Essen. It adds up to a civilised
issues should contact John Billingham medieval building stock. The contrasts with the humble and attractive living
26 Park Road, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 same kind of house can be found English Saxon buildings of the environment, but, we felt, did
1DS. Tel 0235 526094. in the former East Germany, not contain sufficient continuous
same period. Various stages of
generally looking more drab and growth of the town of enclosed space to constitute a
in need of maintenance. At Quedlinburg during the Middle town as such.
Hannoversch Miinden, a Ages were detectable. Though

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417


URBAN
DESIGN
GROUP
forum for architects, town planners, engineers & landscape architects

The Urban Design Group, founded sixteen years ago, has to raise the profile of urban design. It has reciprocal
been established to provide high standards of performance membership with a number of complementary
and inter-professional cooperation in planning, organisations including Vision for London, and the British
architecture, urban design, and other related disciplines; Urban Regeneration Association (B.U.R.A.). The U.D.G.
and to educate the relevant professions and the public in has set out an agenda aimed at explaining urban design
matters relating to urban design. Membership is made up and how, using urban design principles, the quality of the
of architects, planners, landscape architects, engineers, environment can be raised. These principles are
surveyors, historians, lawyers, photographers, in fact encapsulated in the U.D.G.s "The Good City". The Urban
anyone interested in the quality of our built environment. Design Group continues to grow. Membership is national,
Local authorities, practices, and universities are also and each region has its own convenor, who organises local
members. The U.D.G. runs a series of public lectures, events. The subscription is 25 per year with a
workshops and other events which are valid for C.P.D. concessionary rate for students of 14. If you would like
The Kevin Lynch Memorial Lecture has attracted such more information on the U.D.G. please contact:
speakers as Leon Krier, Peter Hall, Sir Roy Strong, and Sir
Philip Dowson. Annual study tours are also organised.
The U.D.G. publishes a quarterly magazine dealing with Susie Turnbull, Administrator: tel. 0235 815907
urban design issues and an Urban Design Source Book fax. 0235 819606
which identifies urban design practices, courses and Roger Evans, Regional coordinator: tel. 0869 350096
members. The U.D.G. is working closely with the R.T.P.I. Jon Rowland, Chairman: tel. 071 637 0181

SPIRIT OF ABERCROMBIE
London in the 1990s & Beyond - Planning and Design
A o n e d a y c o n f e r e n c e will be h e l d o n T h u r s d a y 17 N o v e m b e r f r o m 9 . 3 0 a . m at t h e R I B A 6 6 P o r t l a n d Place, L o n d o n
W 1 N 4 A D . T h i s y e a r ' s joint R T P I / R I B A c o n f e r e n c e , s u p p o r t e d by t h e U D G , will f o c u s o n critical p l a n n i n g a n d d e s i g n
i s s u e s in t h e capital, c a r r y i n g f o r w a r d P r o f e s s o r A b e r c r o m b i e ' s v i s i o n a s t h e i n s p i r a t i o n for L o n d o n in t h e next fifty
years.

T h e first s e s s i o n will i n t r o d u c e t h e 1 9 4 4 G r e a t e r L o n d o n P l a n a n d i d e n t i f y its m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t e l e m e n t s . S u b s e q u e n t


s p e a k e r s will f o l l o w the e a r l y c h a p t e r h e a d i n g s of the p l a n o n s u b j e c t s s u c h as p o p u l a t i o n , n e w t o w n s , industry,
c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a n d the G r e e n Belt. E a c h will s u m m a r i s e b r i e f l y the P l a n ' s c o n t e x t , o u t l i n e its i m p a c t , a n d
s p e c u l a t e o n h o w A b e r c r o m b i e w o u l d r e c a s t his v i s i o n n o w .

S p e a k e r s will i n c l u d e Sir Peter S h e p h e a r d , T o n y May, F r a n k Duffy, Ellis H i l l m a n , M e r v y n Miller, C e d r i c Price, J a n i c e


M o r p h e t , T o m Turner, R i c h a r d C o l e , C h a r l e s Knevitt a n d Paul F i n c h .

T h e C o n f e r e n c e will b e c o n c l u d e d by a p e r s o n a l v i e w f r o m P e t e r Hall w h o will a i m to s u g g e s t a n a g e n d a f o r the


next visionary plan.

F u r t h e r details: c o n t a c t M e t a v a n d e r S t e e g e on 0 7 1 5 8 0 5 5 3 3 .

URBAN DESIGN QUARTERLY OCTOBER 199417