7 views

Uploaded by Faisal Mumtaz

Ch8 Exergy a Measure of Work Potential-13!3!2014

- Stirling engg
- 7316881
- Carnot Cycle
- 0908.2076v2
- Second Law of Thermodynamics
- Chakravarthy_Thermodynamic Analysis of Alternatives to CLC
- 1-s2.0-S001793101200066X-main
- Carnot Cycle
- Carnot Cycle
- Angulo Brown 1999
- entropy-19-00182
- Carnot Cycle
- Important Topics For GATE by sk mondal
- 2nd Law Analysis of a Rankine Cycle Using the Wicks Cycle as the Ideal Standard (1)
- Carnot Cycle
- 3102 Ht & Thermo 2014 Primary
- heatenergywebsite
- • Boundary Layer Equations • Non-Dimensional Equations
- Week-4-6th
- Lecture 17

You are on page 1of 13

Objectives

The objectives of Chapter 8 are to:

Examine the performance of engineering devices in light of the second law of thermodynamics.

Define exergy, which is the maximum useful work that could be obtained from the

system at a given state in a specified environment.

Define reversible work, which is the maximum useful work that can be obtained as a system

undergoes a process between two specified states.

Define the exergy destruction, which is the wasted work potential during a process as a result of

irreversibilities.

Define the second-law efficiency.

Develop the exergy balance relation.

Apply exergy balance to closed systems and control volumes.

xke = ke = V2 /2 (kJ/kg) (81)

Where V is the velocity in m/s of the system relative to the environment.

xpe = pe = gz (kJ/kg)

where g is the gravitational acceleration and z is the elevation of the system

relative to a reference level in the environment.

A wind turbine with a 12-m-diameter rotor, as shown in Fig. 86, is to be installed at a location

where the wind is blowing steadily at an average velocity of 10 m/s. Determine the maximum power

that can be generated by the wind turbine.

Solution:

82 REVERSIBLE WORK AND IRREVERSIBILITY

A heat engine receives heat from a source at 1200 K at a rate of 500 kJ/s and rejects the waste heat

to a medium at 300 K. The power output of the heat engine is 180 kW.

Determine the reversible power and the irreversibility rate for this process.

Solution:

th,rev=1-300/1200=75 %

Actual efficiency= 180/500= 0.36 = 36 %

83 SECOND-LAW EFFICIENCY, II

: The expression is called flow (or stream) exergy

Example 88 Exergy Change during a Compression Process

Refrigerant-134a is to be compressed from 0.14 MPa and -

10C to 0.8 MPa and 50C steadily by a compressor. Taking

the environment conditions to be T0= 20C and 95 kPa,

determine the exergy change of the refrigerant during this

process and the minimum work input that needs to be supplied

to the compressor per unit mass of the refrigerant.

The properties of the refrigerant at the inlet and the exit states are

FIGURE 826 The Carnot efficiency c = 1 - T0 /T represents the fraction of the energy transferred from a heat source

at temperature T that can be converted to work in an environment at temperature T0.

This relation gives the exergy transfer accompanying heat transfer Q whether T is greater than or less than T0. When T

>T0, heat transfer to a system increases the exergy of that system and heat transfer from a system decreases it. But the

opposite is true when T < T0. In this case, the heat transfer Q is the heat rejected to the cold medium (the waste heat), and

it should not be confused with the heat supplied by the environment at T0. The exergy transferred with heat is zero when

T = T0 at the point of transfer.

FIGURE 827 The transfer and destruction of exergy during a heat transfer process through a finite temperature

difference.

Exergy Transfer by Work, W

Tuesday 11-3-2014

Therefore, the exergy of a system increases by mc when mass in the amount of m enters, and decreases by the same

amount when the same amount of mass at the same state leaves the system (Fig. 829).

Exergy flow associated with a fluid stream when the fluid properties are variable can be determined by integration from

where Ac is the cross-sectional area of the flow and Vn is the local velocity normal to dAc.

Note that exergy transfer by heat Xheat is zero for adiabatic systems, and the exergy transfer by mass Xmass is zero for

systems that involve no mass flow across their boundaries (i.e., closed systems).

The total exergy transfer is zero for isolated systems since they involve no heat, work, or mass transfer.

FIGURE 829 Mass contains energy, entropy, and exergy, and thus mass flow into or out of a system is accompanied

by energy, entropy, and exergy transfer.

86 THE DECREASE OF EXERGY PRINCIPLE AND EXERGY DESTRUCTION

Exergy Destruction

Irreversibilities such as friction, mixing, chemical reactions, heat transfer through a

finite temperature difference, unrestrained expansion, nonquasiequilibrium

compression or expansion always generate entropy, and anything that generates

entropy always destroys exergy.

The exergy destroyed is proportional to the entropy generated, as can be seen from

Eq. 831, and is expressed as

FIGURE 831 The exergy change of a system can be negative, but the exergy destruction cannot.

A pistoncylinder device contains 0.05 kg of steam at 1 MPa and 300C. Steam now

expands to a final state of 200 kPa and 150C, doing work. Heat losses from the system

to the surroundings are estimated to be 2 kJ during this process.

Assuming the surroundings to be at T0 = 25C and P0 =100 kPa, determine

(a) the exergy of the steam at the initial and the final states,

(b) the exergy change of the steam,

(c) the exergy destroyed, and

(d) the second-law efficiency for the process.

Thermodynamics II Sciences/ Ch8 7 of 3 Dr. Nasser T. Ahmad

Thermodynamics II Sciences/ Ch8 8 of 3 Dr. Nasser T. Ahmad

Thermodynamics II Sciences/ Ch8 9 of 3 Dr. Nasser T. Ahmad

88 EXERGY BALANCE: CONTROL VOLUMES

FIGURE 842 Exergy is transferred into or out of a control volume by mass as well as heat and work

transfer.

Steam enters a turbine steadily at 3 MPa and 450C at a rate of 8 kg/s and exits at 0.2 MPa

and 150C, (Fig. 845). The steam is losing heat to the surrounding air at 100 kPa and

25C at a rate of 300 kW, and the kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.

Determine (a) the actual power output, (b) the maximum possible power output, (c) the

second-law efficiency, (d) the exergy destroyed, and (e) the exergy of the steam at the

inlet conditions.

Thursday 13-3-2014

Thermodynamics II Sciences/ Ch8 11 of 3 Dr. Nasser T. Ahmad

Thermodynamics II Sciences/ Ch8 12 of 3 Dr. Nasser T. Ahmad

Xdestoyed=T0*Sgen

- Stirling enggUploaded byAhmadi Rafe'i
- 7316881Uploaded byAh M ED
- Carnot CycleUploaded byAbhisek Bhattacharya
- 0908.2076v2Uploaded byAlejandro Saenz
- Second Law of ThermodynamicsUploaded byba_nguyen_20
- Chakravarthy_Thermodynamic Analysis of Alternatives to CLCUploaded byluh06002
- 1-s2.0-S001793101200066X-mainUploaded bySouadHadjadj
- Carnot CycleUploaded byAdrian R. Manzano
- Carnot CycleUploaded byAman Anshu
- Angulo Brown 1999Uploaded byaldo
- entropy-19-00182Uploaded byPudretexD
- Carnot CycleUploaded byBL Verma
- Important Topics For GATE by sk mondalUploaded byBenevant Mathew
- 2nd Law Analysis of a Rankine Cycle Using the Wicks Cycle as the Ideal Standard (1)Uploaded byCatalina Naranjo Santaella
- Carnot CycleUploaded byglorfrank
- 3102 Ht & Thermo 2014 PrimaryUploaded byAkmal Bhatti
- heatenergywebsiteUploaded byapi-218568201
- • Boundary Layer Equations • Non-Dimensional EquationsUploaded bymsnaghavi
- Week-4-6thUploaded byJunaid K Jumani
- Lecture 17Uploaded byvic
- ThermoUploaded byarora_bb
- Heat TransferUploaded bygulshansavale
- chem-1010 eportfolioUploaded byapi-339701501
- Engineeringthermodynamics Short Questions and AnswersUploaded byKeerthi Varman
- Heat and TemperatureUploaded byPhipit Pushpitasari
- 2008.pdfUploaded byBIPIN SHARMA
- IRJET-Waste Heat Recovery from Porous LPG Gas Burner Used for CookingUploaded byIRJET Journal
- physics.pdfUploaded bykirtveluz
- Addtional Flaws(Process)Uploaded byrajeshvalluri12345
- DWT Dehydration Drying MachineUploaded bylangpu2013

- CD Labels-WPTS - CopyUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- Gdn8novUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- text for cvUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- 11 Eng Final Version of the ReportUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- GDN 21-11-2017Uploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- GDN 21-11-2017Uploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- ContactsUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- 03.12.2017-.pdfUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- 03.12.2017-.pdfUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- Graduate brochure CHENG.pdfUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- 1992_effluent.pdfUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- Shakeel CV-Electrical Electronics EngineerUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- FaizyUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- Gdn20novUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- ReadMeMapV8iSS3_April2012.pdfUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- 201708080932000Uploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- FirdousUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- MowUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- Medical RecordUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- Purpose of StudyUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- LabelUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- Fiqh Us Sunnah (Five Volumes)Uploaded byKOri ShOzo
- Assignment 1Uploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- Proposal CoverUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- CoverSHEET.pdfUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- 11-Fe-, Ti-, Zr- and Al-pillared clays for efficient catalytic pyrolysis of mixed plastics.pdfUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- 13-Feedstock Recycling of Polyethylene Over AlTUD-1 Mesoporous CatalystUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- 12Uploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- 10`Uploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- 2nd Order Linear EqnsUploaded byVishal Vaksh

- DC Air Conditioner 12 Volt 24 volt 48 Volt DC Air Conditioners DC Solar Air ConditioningUploaded byVitor Mesquita
- Atomic StructureUploaded byrehmania78644
- Solar Inverter StepUploaded byKhashane Willy Mohale
- Grade 11 Physics Exam Cheat SheetUploaded byEduardo
- India's National Solar Mission (JNNSM) - National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)Uploaded byKiran Apsunde
- Lect21HydroPower1-2012 [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded byaminmomin
- Gasifier Study-2-125.pdfUploaded byKalyanHalder
- Copenhagen_2025Uploaded bysasha_peta
- energies-08-08887Uploaded byAbdussalamElhanashi
- Welcome ProjectsUploaded byBilal Ahmad
- Potential Energy ProblemsUploaded byIqbal A Mir
- New Aether Sink Model for Gravity Inetrnational JournalUploaded byarg0naut
- The Conservation of EnergyUploaded byVhic Estefani
- 14 techno economic ccc226.pdfUploaded bymhdsoleh
- ICREU_2014_Sum_CUploaded byRachapudi Suman
- 4-5 Deccan Mech CombineUploaded byARZeeshan
- MB 1009 SmartGrid-JapanUploaded byPrabir Padhy
- Calculation of Deuteron InteractionUploaded byMilan Petrik
- Copy of Bmi_ict2Uploaded byElderick Nicolas
- Trifilar SuspensionUploaded byIsfand Ayaz
- Aclaim Biomass Gasifier GT Write UpUploaded byJorge Mario Del Cid
- Spring Pendulum Lab.docUploaded byspd bahril
- Paper 5704Uploaded byrenu
- 1 (1).pdfUploaded byImrul Huda Ayon
- NCSE MCQ QBUploaded bysadiksnm
- Effective Energy Management.docxUploaded bypriyaa03
- Physics I Problems (55).pdfUploaded bybosschellen
- Notes2AF11Uploaded bySefer Avdiaj
- CHE123 LQ1Uploaded byConrad Monterola
- Wolfson Eup3 Ch34 Test BankUploaded byifghelpdesk