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The objectives of Chapter 8 are to:

Examine the performance of engineering devices in light of the second law of thermodynamics.
Define exergy, which is the maximum useful work that could be obtained from the
system at a given state in a specified environment.
Define reversible work, which is the maximum useful work that can be obtained as a system
undergoes a process between two specified states.
Define the exergy destruction, which is the wasted work potential during a process as a result of
Define the second-law efficiency.
Develop the exergy balance relation.
Apply exergy balance to closed systems and control volumes.

81 Exergy: Work Potential of Energy

Exergy of kinetic energy:

xke = ke = V2 /2 (kJ/kg) (81)
Where V is the velocity in m/s of the system relative to the environment.

Exergy of potential energy:

xpe = pe = gz (kJ/kg)
where g is the gravitational acceleration and z is the elevation of the system
relative to a reference level in the environment.

Example 81 Maximum Power Generation by a Wind Turbine

A wind turbine with a 12-m-diameter rotor, as shown in Fig. 86, is to be installed at a location
where the wind is blowing steadily at an average velocity of 10 m/s. Determine the maximum power
that can be generated by the wind turbine.

Thermodynamics II Sciences/ Ch8 1 of 3 Dr. Nasser T. Ahmad


Maximum power =m * (ke) = (1335 kg/s)(0.05 kJ/kg) = 66.8 kW


Example 83 The Rate of Irreversibility of a Heat Engine

A heat engine receives heat from a source at 1200 K at a rate of 500 kJ/s and rejects the waste heat
to a medium at 300 K. The power output of the heat engine is 180 kW.
Determine the reversible power and the irreversibility rate for this process.
th,rev=1-300/1200=75 %
Actual efficiency= 180/500= 0.36 = 36 %

Quize on Thurday 20-3-2014 on Ch 8


84 Exergy Change of a System

: The expression is called flow (or stream) exergy

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Example 88 Exergy Change during a Compression Process
Refrigerant-134a is to be compressed from 0.14 MPa and -
10C to 0.8 MPa and 50C steadily by a compressor. Taking
the environment conditions to be T0= 20C and 95 kPa,
determine the exergy change of the refrigerant during this
process and the minimum work input that needs to be supplied
to the compressor per unit mass of the refrigerant.

The properties of the refrigerant at the inlet and the exit states are


Exergy by Heat Transfer, Q

FIGURE 826 The Carnot efficiency c = 1 - T0 /T represents the fraction of the energy transferred from a heat source

Thermodynamics II Sciences/ Ch8 3 of 3 Dr. Nasser T. Ahmad

at temperature T that can be converted to work in an environment at temperature T0.

This relation gives the exergy transfer accompanying heat transfer Q whether T is greater than or less than T0. When T
>T0, heat transfer to a system increases the exergy of that system and heat transfer from a system decreases it. But the
opposite is true when T < T0. In this case, the heat transfer Q is the heat rejected to the cold medium (the waste heat), and
it should not be confused with the heat supplied by the environment at T0. The exergy transferred with heat is zero when
T = T0 at the point of transfer.

FIGURE 827 The transfer and destruction of exergy during a heat transfer process through a finite temperature

Thermodynamics II Sciences/ Ch8 4 of 3 Dr. Nasser T. Ahmad

Exergy Transfer by Work, W

Exergy Transfer by Mass, m

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Therefore, the exergy of a system increases by mc when mass in the amount of m enters, and decreases by the same
amount when the same amount of mass at the same state leaves the system (Fig. 829).
Exergy flow associated with a fluid stream when the fluid properties are variable can be determined by integration from

where Ac is the cross-sectional area of the flow and Vn is the local velocity normal to dAc.
Note that exergy transfer by heat Xheat is zero for adiabatic systems, and the exergy transfer by mass Xmass is zero for
systems that involve no mass flow across their boundaries (i.e., closed systems).
The total exergy transfer is zero for isolated systems since they involve no heat, work, or mass transfer.

FIGURE 829 Mass contains energy, entropy, and exergy, and thus mass flow into or out of a system is accompanied
by energy, entropy, and exergy transfer.
Exergy Destruction
Irreversibilities such as friction, mixing, chemical reactions, heat transfer through a
finite temperature difference, unrestrained expansion, nonquasiequilibrium
compression or expansion always generate entropy, and anything that generates
entropy always destroys exergy.
The exergy destroyed is proportional to the entropy generated, as can be seen from
Eq. 831, and is expressed as

Thermodynamics II Sciences/ Ch8 5 of 3 Dr. Nasser T. Ahmad

FIGURE 831 The exergy change of a system can be negative, but the exergy destruction cannot.


FIGURE 832 Mechanisms of exergy transfer.

EXAMPLE 811 Exergy Destruction during Expansion of Steam

A pistoncylinder device contains 0.05 kg of steam at 1 MPa and 300C. Steam now
expands to a final state of 200 kPa and 150C, doing work. Heat losses from the system
to the surroundings are estimated to be 2 kJ during this process.
Assuming the surroundings to be at T0 = 25C and P0 =100 kPa, determine
(a) the exergy of the steam at the initial and the final states,
(b) the exergy change of the steam,
(c) the exergy destroyed, and
(d) the second-law efficiency for the process.

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FIGURE 842 Exergy is transferred into or out of a control volume by mass as well as heat and work

EXAMPLE 815 Second-Law Analysis of a Steam Turbine

Steam enters a turbine steadily at 3 MPa and 450C at a rate of 8 kg/s and exits at 0.2 MPa
and 150C, (Fig. 845). The steam is losing heat to the surrounding air at 100 kPa and
25C at a rate of 300 kW, and the kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.
Determine (a) the actual power output, (b) the maximum possible power output, (c) the
second-law efficiency, (d) the exergy destroyed, and (e) the exergy of the steam at the
inlet conditions.
Thursday 13-3-2014

Thermodynamics II Sciences/ Ch8 10 of 3 Dr. Nasser T. Ahmad

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Quiz on Ch 8 on Thurday 20-3-2014

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