You are on page 1of 16

Improvement of food safety in school kitchens during a long-term intervention

period: a strategy based on the knowledge, attitude and practice triad

43 The objective of the present study was to evaluate the development of food

44 safety scores in school meal services during the application of a systematic

45 intervention based on the knowledge, attitude and practice triad. A total of


46 public schools were included in the study. School meal services were

47 every three months with a checklist, which resulted in eight evaluations over

48 years. A program was developed and implemented in all the schools during

49 period that was comprised of three steps: 1) theoretical training, 2)

50 implementation of action plans in situ and 3) weekly visits to motivate food

51 handlers and monitor good practices. These steps were designed to promote

52 changes in the attitudes and practices of food handlers. An ascending linear

53 function was observed for the school meal services general adequacy

54 percentage over time. Positive developments were also observed regarding

55 buildings and facilities, processes and procedures, distribution of meals,

43 The objective of the present study was to evaluate the development of food

44 safety scores in school meal services during the application of a systematic

45 intervention based on the knowledge, attitude and practice triad. A total of


46 public schools were included in the study. School meal services were

47 every three months with a checklist, which resulted in eight evaluations over

48 years. A program was developed and implemented in all the schools during

49 period that was comprised of three steps: 1) theoretical training, 2)

50 implementation of action plans in situ and 3) weekly visits to motivate food

51 handlers and monitor good practices. These steps were designed to promote

52 changes in the attitudes and practices of food handlers. An ascending linear

53 function was observed for the school meal services general adequacy

54 percentage over time. Positive developments were also observed regarding

55 buildings and facilities, processes and procedures, distribution of meals,


Foodborne diseases are considered to be an emerging problem and are

65 currently a subject of major concern for the governments of various countries

66 throughout the world. Affecting both developed and developing countries,


67 individual in the world is at risk of foodborne disease (WHO, 2007).

68 Food- and water-borne diseases contribute significantly to mortality due

69 to diarrhea, responsible for 2.2 million deaths every year, mainly children in

70 developing countries (FAO/WHO, 2008). However, the magnitude of the

71 problem is believed to be even greater due to underreporting and the lack of


72 health monitoring systems, even in developed countries (Seaman & Eves,

73 2006).

74 Several factors contribute to the incidence of foodborne disease,

75 including population growth, growth of highly vulnerable population groups,


76 of basic sanitation, increased food production and distribution and changes in

77 consumer behavior towards a preference for high-risk foods (Motarjemi &

78 Kferstein, 1999). These factors are associated with human development and

79 society rather than directly associated with food handlers.

80 Nonetheless, studies report that the inadequate handling of food is

81 considered the main causal mechanism of foodborne disease and is directly


83 related to several outbreak cases (Howes, McEwan, Griffiths & Harris, 1996;

84 Greig, Todd, Bartleson & Michaels, 2007). Outbreaks usually involve cases of

85 inadequate cooking temperatures and storage and cross-contamination

86 between raw foods and ready-to-eat foods. MANUSCRIPT In these cases, food
handlers are

87 estimated to be responsible for 97% of foodborne outbreaks (Egan, Raats,

88 Grubb, Eves, Lumbers, Dean & Adams, 2007).

89 Thus, strategies should be employed to ensure that food handlers know

90 good practices for food handling and that they use these practices in their

91 environment. The most widely used strategy is training, which is considered


92 be an important method to increase knowledge and skills (Medeiros, Cavalli,

93 Salay & Proenca, 2011). However, Ehiri, Morris and McEwen (1997) reported

94 that Good Hygiene Practice training, which involves only scientific

95 communication, is not an effective strategy for changing practices in the

96 workplace. ACCEPTED Rennie (1994) stated that knowledge alone does not
result in

97 changes in food hygiene practices. Failure to change behavior following


98 programs was also observed in other studies, which indicates that knowledge

99 and practice are not always associated (Cook & Casey, 1979; Park, Kwak &

100 Chang, 2010). This theory may be even more consistent than is observed in

101 literature, as scientific bias may cause articles that report negative results or

102 intervention failures to remain unpublished (Dirnagl & Lauritzen, 2010;


103 2011).

104 Therefore, new methods to promote good practices in food service are

105 needed to guarantee the quality of food provided. This assumption becomes
106 even more important in the context of school meal programs because these


107 programs are meant to provide food to children and young people to

108 their growth and biopsychosocial development (Oliveira, Brasil & Taddei,

109 One of the most important public policies of the Brazilian federal

110 government to ensure the health of the population MANUSCRIPT is the

provision of school

111 meals, through the NSFP (National School Feeding Program). The program

112 began in 1955 and over the years changes have occurred in its management

113 until it was established, in 1979, as the NSFP. Currently this program

114 through transfer of financial resources, the food supply for all students (from

115 care centers, elementary schools, high schools and general education for

116 and adults) enrolled in public and philanthropic schools in Brazil.


117 45.6 million of school meals are served every day in Brazil (Peixinho, 2013).

118 Brazils Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) law does not specifically

119 address ACCEPTED school kitchens, ruled by laws applied to industrial

kitchens. It must be

120 considered that school kitchens are, generally, adapted rooms or similar to

121 home kitchens, resulting in great difficulty in following GMP laws (Oliveira,

122 & Taddei, 2008). Thus, this program deserves special attention in relation to

123 food handling and the risks the ready-to-eat food can pose to students health

124 food is mishandled.

125 The objective of the present study was to evaluate trends in sanitation
126 and hygiene conditions within school meal services during the application of

127 systematic intervention program based on the knowledge, attitude and


128 triad.

2. Methods


131 The present study included all public schools (n=68) of a highly

132 developed municipality of So Paulo (Brazil) with a 0.8340 Human

133 Development Index (UNDP, 2000). Schools participating in the study covered

134 age groups involved in basic education, including kindergarten, preschool,

135 elementary, middle and high schools for young people and adults. A total of

136 food handlers participated in the intervention and were distributed among

137 school meal services being evaluated.

138 None of the school meal services had implemented the Hazard Analysis

139 and Critical Control Points (HACCP) program before the intervention.


141 2.1 Checklist and application

142 A good practice checklist was developed based on current legislation in

143 Brazil, including CVS-18 (So Paulo, 2008), RDC 216 (Brazil, 2004) and CVS-6

144 (So Paulo, 1999), and on the food standards present in the Codex

145 Alimentarius (2003). The checklist contained ninety-five items divided into

146 eleven thematic areas: area one - receipt, containing six questions; area two -

147 storage, containing seventeen questions; area three - processes and

148 producedures, containing twenty questions; area four distribution of meals,

149 containing four questions; area five - pest control management, containing
150 questions; area six - controls and records, containing four questions; area

151 seven - waste management, containing six questions; area eight health and

152 safety of employees, containing three questions; area nine - water control,

153 containing four questions; area ten - equipment and utensils, containing


154 questions and area eleven - structure and buildings, containing fourteen

155 questions. The checklist questions were given a score of one point for

156 conditions and zero for non-compliant conditions.

157 Trained nutritionists applied the list MANUSCRIPT to all schools participating
in the

158 study, thereby providing a diagnosis of the sanitation and hygiene conditions

159 the school meal services. This diagnosis stage was identified as time zero (t0)

160 of the intervention.

161 After applying the checklist, fitness scores were calculated for each

162 thematic area. The scores were calculated as the number of points achieved

163 the thematic area divided by the maximum number of points possible for that

164 particular area and then converted into a percentage. The same procedure

165 followed to generate an overall adequacy score. This variable included all

166 scores ACCEPTED obtained across the ninety-five items and corresponded to
a mean

167 adequacy for all thematic areas.

168 After discussing the strengths and weaknesses observed in each school

169 meal service, an intervention program was proposed.

170 This intervention program was monitored by repeated applications of the

171 same checklist used in the diagnostic stage. The checklist was applied every

172 three months, for a total of eight evaluations performed over a two-year
173 (t0, t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6 and t7). The purpose of this application was to

174 the behavior of the scores of each thematic area and the total scores of

175 meal services after the intervention program was implemented.

176 2.2 Intervention program


177 The proposed intervention program provides a new form of intervention

178 to promote good practices in food service as it combines strategies and

179 concepts presented in other studies. The knowledge, attitude and practice

180 serves as the central axis of the intervention MANUSCRIPT program (Bas,
Ersun & Kivanc,

181 2006; Sharif & Al-Malki, 2010) and the program evaluation uses hybrid

182 (combination of internal and external evaluation) (Bourgeois, Hart, Townsend


183 Gagn, 2011); the program also includes scheduled monitoring of good

184 practices (Bader, Blonder, Henriksen & Strong, 1979) and motivation of food

185 handlers (Seaman, 2010).

186 Systematization of the intervention model was adapted from Seaman

187 (2010) (Figure 1).

188 The intervention consisted of three stages: 1) theoretical training focused

189 on improving ACCEPTED knowledge, which was held every six months; 2)
good practices

190 evaluation and implementation of in situ action plans to correct


191 and to align practices, every three months and 3) weekly visits to all school

192 kitchens to monitor action plans and motivate food handlers. The first and

193 second stages were conducted by nutritionists outside of the school meal
194 services (external assessment and intervention) and the third stage was

195 conducted by trained tutors and staff from the municipality (internal

196 and intervention).

197 A total of five twelve-hour theoretical trainings were performed. Each

198 training included three breaks for meals. These trainings were conducted in

199 classrooms with a maximum of thirty food handlers in each group. They

200 included dialogical lectures and projected presentations on the following



201 food contamination, receiving, storage, processes and production,


202 pest control, waste management, food handlers health and safety,

203 environmental hygiene, equipment and utensils, visitor procedures, operation


204 the milk dispensary, records and controls, MANUSCRIPT quality assurance,
procedures for

205 freezing goods, sampling and interpersonal relationships. All training topics

206 were selected based on the results obtained from the assessments carried

207 with the school meal services. Food handlers were given handouts and

208 materials on the topics covered in training. External evaluating nutritionists

209 provided the instruction at this stage. At the end of the training, all food

210 were given an assessment with questions about the topics covered.

211 The second stage of the intervention, which corresponds to the action

212 plan, was planned and performed individually and in situ within the school

213 services by a team from outside the municipality, during the same week in

214 the quarterly ACCEPTED evaluation was held. The aim of this stage was to
correct specific
215 inadequacies observed in each school kitchen. During this stage,
inadequacies 216 regarding good practices were noted for all food handlers and
targets were

217 drawn up for the next evaluation to be implemented in three months.

218 The action plan consisted of the following items: identification of

219 inadequacies, determination of corrective actions, individual orientation of


220 food handlers with the demonstration of correct procedures, observation of


221 handlers practices and goals for the next quarterly review. Order requests

222 submitted to the school board and the school meal services coordinator when

223 structural problems were noted, equipment and utensils were needed or any

224 other factor regarding management and/or use of resources was identified.


225 The third stage included an individualized weekly visit to each school

226 meal service performed by tutors. These tutors were food handlers who had

227 been trained to develop monitoring for school meal services and were
therefore 228 considered internal evaluators. During this MANUSCRIPT stage,
food handlers were invited by

229 the tutors to report any difficulties in the workplace and to make suggestions

230 improvement of the sanitation practices. This stage was also designed to

231 monitor the progress of action plans by evaluating the adequacy of the

232 procedures performed.

233 At the end of each quarterly assessment, a report was issued and copies

234 were sent to the municipalitys school food sector for referrals relating to

235 management, procurement and reforms.

236 2.3 Data Analysis

237 Trend ACCEPTED analysis using regression models was chosen for the data
238 analysis. This analysis facilitated evaluation of the behavior of the dependent

239 variable (Y), the good practices adequacy percentage, in relation to the

240 evaluation periods (X). A total of eight evaluations occurred every three

241 First, scatter diagrams were made showing the relationship between the

242 adequacy percentages and the time variables to verify the type of

243 between these variables.

244 The time variable (X) was centralized, therefore "X-11.5" was used,

245 where 11.5 is the mean time in months of the study period. This procedure

246 prevents collinearity between terms of the regression equation.


247 First, the simplest linear regression model was tested (Y = 0 + 1X).

248 Based on the function identified in the scatter diagram, models of higher

249 were also tested, including second degree (Y = 0 + 1X + 2X2), third

degree (Y

250 = 0+ 1X + 2X2 + 3X3) and exponential (ln (Y) = ln (0) + (1X))


251 The model that showed greater statistical significance and normal

252 residuals was considered the best-fit. Models with p<0.05 were considered

253 significant.


255 3. Results and Discussion

256 A total of 512 evaluations were performed, corresponding to eight

257 assessment points for each of the sixty- eight school meal service research

258 participants.

259 3.1 Evaluation of the Intervention program

260 Table 1 shows the regression models for each thematic area evaluated.

261 The first value of the equation is the mean adequacy percentage followed by

262 increment (positive or negative) after each intervention; the explanatory


263 (r) and significance (p) of each model are also listed.

264 An ascending linear function was identified for the overall adequacy

265 percentage, showing that the intervention strategy used explains 87% of the

266 improvement in good practice scores over the observation period (p <0.01).

267 Therefore, the intervention strategy tends to bring food services into line with

268 health legislation. Bader et al. (1978) evaluated food service establishments


269 and showed that sites that received four health inspections per year obtained

270 final good practice scores 47% higher than sites that only had one inspection

271 performed. This result shows that systematic and frequent visits help in the

272 motivation and monitoring of food services; MANUSCRIPT therefore, they

improve good

273 hygiene practices.

274 Figure 2 shows the regression models of the thematic area variables

275 over the eight ratings. Reduction in the overall adequacy percentage in

276 ten (fourth assessment) was observed (Figure 2A). In addition to the overall

277 percentage, small reductions occurred in the following thematic areas:

278 equipment and utensils, buildings and facilities (Figure 2A), processes and

279 procedures, controls and records (Figure 2B) and storage (Figure 2C). These

280 adequacy percentage reductions coincided with holiday periods for the food

281 handlers. Absence from the workplace most likely led handlers to resume

282 incorrect ACCEPTED practices that had previously been corrected. Therefore,
283 should be continued and strengthened especially after holiday periods to

284 inadequacies. Furnari, Molino, Bruno, Quaranta, Laurenti and Ricciardi (2002)

285 observed that ongoing training reduced the resistance of food handlers to

286 food handling knowledge in their practice.

287 When the thematic areas were analyzed separately, positive increments

288 were observed in the following areas: buildings and facilities (p=0.01),

289 processes and procedures (p<0.01), meal distribution (p<0.01), integrated


290 management (p<0.01), health and safety of employees (p<0.01), water


291 (p<0.01) and equipment and utensils (p<0.05). In this case, the positive

292 was demonstrated with linear and coefficient of determination models above


293 0.50 for all tests. This indicates that up to 50% of the variation between

294 evaluations can be explained as a function of time, and therefore, of the

295 intervention.

296 Using a quadratic model, favorable MANUSCRIPT development was observed

in the

297 controls and records thematic area (Figure 2B). This model indicates that

298 despite positive development, in the period between the second and fourth

299 assessment, there was a reduction in correct practices in relation to the

300 completion of temperature control sheets and labels with usage information

301 food validity. Lockis, Cruz, Walter Faria, Granato & Sant'Ana (2011), in a cross-

302 sectional study of school meal services, observed that the filing of records

303 controls was the third largest inadequacy observed with respect to good
304 practices. These results show that food handlers may exhibit resistance to the

305 completion of records and controls, but the intervention proposed here

306 improved ACCEPTED adequacy in this area by 33.4% over two years.

307 Positive effects of food safety-related interventions in terms of changing

308 practices have been observed in different contexts, such as hospitals (El

309 Salem, Fawzi & Abdel Azeem, 2008), street food vending (Choudhury,

310 Goswami & Mazumder, 2011), small businesses (Bush, Paleo, Baker, Dewey,

311 Toktogonova & Cornelio, 2009) and with those responsible for food services

312 (Kassa, Silverman & Baroudi, 2010). However, no studies have been

313 using strategies with school meal services that demonstrate a positive effect

314 practices.

315 The thematic areas of integrated pest management (Figure 2B) and

316 health and safety of employees (Figure 2D) reached nearly 100% adequacy,


317 with 98.6% and 95.3% adequacy, respectively. For integrated pest

318 management, the most influential positive factor was adjustment in the

319 frequency of chemical control use and the archiving of probative documents.

320 About the thematic area of health and safety MANUSCRIPT of employees, the

321 adequacy, purchasing of utensils and frequency of medical exams


322 to the achieved adequacy.

323 The waste management thematic area showed a negative increment

324 (p<0.01), and the receiving and storing blocks did not change significantly

325 between assessments. Handlers most likely failed to prioritize these activities
326 relation to others because they were identified as low risk for foodborne

327 disease. Internal evaluators may also not have prioritized these steps, failing

328 monitor them and propose corrections.

329 Such ACCEPTED factors depend on the perception of risk involved. Food

330 were shown to have reasonable perception of foodborne illness risks in a


331 performed with school meal services (Da Cunha, Stedefeldt & De Rosso,

332 This perception increased with participation in mandatory training. Lower

333 adequacy percentages for waste management have also been reported

334 et al., 2011; Cardoso, Ges, Almeida, Guimares, Barreto, da Silva,


335 Vidal Jr., Silva & Huttner, 2011) and may be a reflection of the low perception

336 risk for this activity by food handlers in these locations.

337 3.2 Practical implications

338 The intervention strategy used combined internal and external

339 evaluation. This combination provides results closer to reality and facilitates


340 planning of interventions. Internal assessment provides deep insight into the

341 organization and work, facilitating decision-making (Bourgeois et al. 2011).


342 internal evaluator tends to understand cultural and political motivations


343 behavior in the service (Conley-Tyler, 2005) MANUSCRIPT . Moreover, the

344 understands well the nature of the results, and thus the results can be used

345 more effectively (Minnett, 1999). The external evaluator has greater access

346 information because people tend to be more sincere about their problems

347 people who are not involved in their daily routine (Conley-Tyler, 2005).

348 Additionally, the external evaluator more easily identifies errors inserted into

349 work routines, evaluating the service with greater objectivity and reduced

350 which is fundamental, especially with regards to summative assessments

351 (Conley-Tyler, 2005; Bourgeois, Hart, Townsend & Gagn, 2011).

352 Another important practical implication is that in 2007 Brazil began to

353 work together ACCEPTED with the World Food Programme (WFP) of the Food

354 Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in the structuring of


355 feeding programs in several countries in Latin America, the Caribbean and

356 Africa (Organization of American States, 2008). The development and

357 improvement of materials to ensure food security cannot only benefit the

358 Brazilian school feeding program, but also help other countries that

359 with Brazil.

361 4. Conclusion


362 The systematic intervention strategy proposed by the present study was
363 effective in improving school meal services adequacy in terms of food

364 hygiene laws.

365 The strategy was important for the MANUSCRIPT improvement of sanitation

366 hygiene conditions regarding structural issues, controls and records and food

367 handling activities, all of which are essential for quality assurance. Activities

368 before and after food handling, such as raw material receiving, storage and

369 waste disposal, were not prioritized by food handlers. Handlers most likely

370 identified such actions as low risk for food contamination. However, this

371 hypothesis needs to be tested.

372 Another important finding observed in this study was the reduction in the

373 overall adequacy percentage after food handlers' holiday periods. Permanent

374 intervention ACCEPTED strategies should be prioritized with emphasis on the

period after

375 vacation periods and sick leave.

376 Importantly, intervention strategies for food handlers practices, even

377 successful ones, should not be observed as a panacea for problems involving

378 foodborne diseases. Several aspects influence sanitation and hygiene


379 in food service units, and those responsible must carry out constant

380 food handler motivation, structural reforms and quality assurance of food and

381 raw materials, among other actions.

382 The performance of this strategy may be observed in other food service

383 areas, such as restaurants, hospitals and even the street food.