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COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND GAMING

Q- 1. What is computer graphics?


Answer- The term computer graphics includes almost everything on computer that is not text or
sound. It is an art of drawing pictures, lines, charts, etc. using computers with the help of
programming. Or we can say that graphics is the representation and manipulation of image data
by computer with the help from specialized software and hardware. Graphic designing is done
using the various available softwares for computers which can produce the 3D images in the
required shape and dimension. Computer graphics help us in getting the real display experiences.

Q- 2. Write the important applications of computer graphic?


Answer- Following are the applications of computer graphic
1. Computer graphics is used in the field of computer aided design.
2. It is used to produce illustrations for reports or to generate slide for with projections.
3. Computer graphic methods are widely used in both fine are and commercial are applications.
4. The artist uses a combination of 3D modeling packages, texture mapping, drawing programs
and CAD software.
5. In the field of entertainment CG methods are now commonly used in making motion pictures,
music videos and television shows.
6. Computer-generated models of physical, financial and economic systems are often used as
educational aids.

Q-3 What are the raster and vector graphics?


Answer- The Raster and Vector graphics can be explained as-
RASTER- In computer graphics image, or BITMAP, is a dot matrix data structure representing a
generally rectangular grid of pixels or points of color, viewable via a monitor, paper, or other
display medium. Raster image are stored in image files with varying formats.

VECTOR- Vector graphics is the use of geometrical primitives such as points, lines, curves, and
shapes or polygon, which are all based on mathematical expressions, to represent image in
computer graphics. Vector, in this context, implies more than a straight line.

Q-4 Write the difference between vector and raster graphics?


Answer-Following are the differences between vector and raster graphics-
1. Raster or Bitmap images are resolution dependent because of this its not possible to increase
or decrease their size without sacrificing on image quality.
While vector based image are not dependent on resolution. The size of vector image image can
be increased or decreased without affecting image quality.
2. Raster or bitmap images are always rectangular in shape, Vector image, however, can have any
shape.
3. Unlike raster image, vector image cant be use for realistic images. This is because vector
images are made up of solid color areas and mathematical gradients, so they cant be used to
show continuous tones of a colors in a natural photograph.

Q-5 What is scaling in computer graphics?


Answer- In computer graphic, image scaling is the process of resizing a digital image. scaling is
a non-trivial process that involves a trade off between efficiency, smoothness and sharpness.
With bitmap graphics, as the size of an image is reduced or enlarged, the pixels which comprise
the image become increasingly visible, making the image appear soft if pixels are averaged, or
jagged if not.

Q-6 What are the hardware devices used for computer graphics?
Answer- The hardwares devices used for the computer graphics are-
Input Devices
Keyboard, Mouse, Data tablet, Scanner, Light pen, Touch screen, Joystick
Output Devices
Raster Devices- CRT, LCD, LED, Plasma screens, Printers
Vector Devices- Plotters, Oscilloscopes

Q-7 What are the features of inkjet printers?


Answer- Features of inkjet printers are-
1. They can print 2 to 4 pages per minute.
2. Resolution is about 360d.p.i. Therefore better print quality is achieved.
3. The operating cost is very low. The only part that requires replacement is ink cartridge.
4. Four colors cyan, yellow, magenta, black are available.

Q-8 What are the advantages of electrostatic plotters?


Answer- Following are the advantages of electrostatic plotters-
1. They are faster than pen plotters and very high quality printers.
2. Recent electrostatic plotters include a scan conversion capability.
3. Color electrostatic plotters are available. They make multiple passes over the paper to plot
color picture.

Q-9 What is meant by scan code?


Answer- When a key is pressed on the keyboard, the keyboard controller places a code carry to
the key pressed in to the part of the memory called as the keyboard buffer. This code is called as
scan code.

Q-10 Define Random and Raster scan displays? OR Tell something about different kinds of
displays.
Answer- Random scan is a method in which display is made by electronic beam, which is
directed only to the points or parts of the screen where picture is to be drawn.
The Raster scan system is a scanning technique in which the electron sweep from top to bottom
and from left to right. The intensity is turned on or off to light and un-light the pixel.

Q 11. Explain the merits and demerits of DVST.


Ans. The merits and demerits of direct view storage tubes (DVST) are as follows:

1. It has a flat screen.

2. Refreshing of screen is not required.

3. Selective or part erasing of screen is not possible.

4. It has poor contrast.

5. Performance is inferior to the refresh CRT.


Q 12. What do you mean by emissive and non-emissive displays?
Ans. EMISSIVE:
The emissive display converts electrical energy into light energy. The plasma panels, thin film
electro-luminescent displays are the examples.
NON-EMISSIVE:
They are optical effects to convert the sunlight or light from any other source to graphic form.
Liquid crystal display is an example.

Q 13. Explain the merits and demerits of Plasma panel display.


Ans. ADVANTAGES:

1. Refreshing is not required.

2. Produce a very steady image free of Flicker.

3. Less bulky than a CRT.

DISADVANTAGES:

1. Poor resolution of up to 60 d.p.i.

2. It requires complex addressing and wiring.

3. It is costlier than CRT.

Q 14. What is persistence?


Ans. The time it takes the emitted light from the screen to decay one tenth of its original intensity
is called as persistence.

Q 15. What is resolution?


Ans. The maximum number of points that can be displayed without an overlap on a CRT is
called as resolution.

Q 16. What is Aspect Ratio?


Ans. The ratio of vertical points to the horizontal points necessary to produce length of lines in
both directions of the screen is called Aspect Ratio. Usually the aspect ratio is .

Q 17. Define pixel?


Ans. Pixel is shortened forms of picture element. Each screen point is referred to as pixel.

Q 18.What is frame buffer?


Ans. Picture definition is stored in a memory area called frame buffer or refresh buffer.

Q 19.What is an output primitive?


Graphics programming packages provide function to describe a scene in terms of these basic
geometric structures, referred to as output primitives.
Q 20.Define polygon?
A polygon is any closed continues sequence of line segments ie, a polyline whose last node point
is same as that of its first node point. The line segments form the sides of the polygon and their
intersecting points form the vertices of the polygon.

Q 21.Distinguish between convex and concave polygons?


If the line joining any two points in the polygon lies completely inside the polygon then, they are
known as convex polygons. If the line joining any two points in the polygon lies outside the
polygon then, they are known as concave polygons.

Q 22.What is seed fill?


One way to fill a polygon is to start from a given point (seed) known to be inside the polygon
and highlight outward from this point i.e neighboring pixels until encounter the boundary pixels,
this approach is called seed fill.

Q 23.What is scan line algorithm?


One way to fill the polygon is to apply the inside test. i.e to check whether the pixel is inside the
polygon or outside the polygon and then highlight the pixel which lie inside the polygon. This
approach is known as scan-line algorithm.

Q 24.What is tiling patterns?


The process of filling an area with rectangular pattern is called tiling and rectangular fill patterns
are sometimes referred to as tiling patterns.

Q 25.What is an active edge list in the scan line algorithm?


The active edge list for a scan line contains all edges crossed by that scan line.

Q 26.What is a winding number?


Winding number method is used to check whether a given point is inside or outside the polygon.
In this method give a direction number to all the edges which cross the scan line. If the edge
starts below the line and ends above scan line give direction as -1 otherwise1. Fr polygons or two
dimensional objects, the point is said to be inside when the value of winding number is nonzero.

Q 27.What is aliasing?
In the line drawing algorithms, all rasterized locations do not match with the true line and have to
represent a straight line. This problem is severe in low resolution screens. In such screens line
appears like a stair-step. This effect is known as aliasing.

Q 28.What is antialiasing?
The process of adjusting intensities of the pixels along the line to minimize the effect of aliasing
is called antialiasing.

Q 29.What is Transformation?
Transformation is the process of introducing changes in the shape size and orientation of the
object using scaling rotation reflection shearing & translation etc.
Q 30.What is translation? (Remember the matrix)
Translation is the process of changing the position of an object in a straight-line path from one
coordinate location to another.

Q 31.What is rotation? (Remember the matrix)


A 2-D rotation is done by repositioning the coordinates along a circular path

Q 32.What is scaling? (Remember the matrix)


The scaling transformations change the shape of an object and can be carried out by multiplying
each vertex (x,y) by scaling factor Sx,Sy where Sx is the scaling factor of x and Sy is the scaling
factor of y.
Q 33.What is shearing? (Remember the matrix)
The shearing transformation actually slants the object along the X direction or the Y direction as
required.ie; this transformation slants the shape of an object along a required plane.

Q 34.What is reflection? (Remember the matrix)


The reflection is actually the transformation that produces a mirror image of an object. For this
use some angles and lines of reflection.

Q 35.Distinguish between window port & view port?


A portion of a picture that is to be displayed by a window is known as window port. The display
area of the part selected or the form in which the selected part is viewed is known as view port.

Q 36.Define projection?
The process of converting the description of objects from world coordinates to viewing
coordinates is known as projection

Q 37.What you mean by parallel projection?


Parallel projection is one in which z coordinates is discarded and parallel lines from each vertex
on the object are extended until they intersect the view plane.

Q 38.What do you mean by Perspective projection?


Perspective projection is one in which the lines of projection are not parallel. Instead, they all
converge at a single point called the center of projection.

Q 39.What are the different types of parallel projections?


The parallel projections are basically categorized into two types, depending on the relation
between the direction of projection and the normal to the view plane. They are orthographic
parallel projection and oblique projection.

Q 40.What is orthographic parallel projection?


When the direction of the projection is normal (perpendicular) to the view plane then the
projection is known as orthographic parallel projection

Q 41.What is orthographic oblique projection?


When the direction of the projection is not normal (not perpendicular) to the view plane then the
projection is known as oblique projection.

Q 42.What is an axonometric orthographic projection?


The orthographic projection can display more than one face of an object. Such an orthographic
projection is called axonometric orthographic projection.

Q 43.What is cavalier projection?


The cavalier projection is one type of oblique projection, in which the direction of projection
makes a 45-degree angle with the view plane.

Q 44.What is cabinet projection?


The cabinet projection is one type of oblique projection, in which the direction of projection
makes a n angle of arctan (2)=63.4- with the view plane.

Q 45.What is Fractals?
A Fractal is an object whose shape is irregular at all scales.

Q 46.What are the different ways of specifying spline curve?


Using a set of boundary conditions that are imposed on the spline.
Using the state matrix that characteristics the spline
Using a set of blending functions that calculate the positions along the curve path by specifying
combination of geometric constraints on the curve

Q 47.What are the important properties of Bezier Curve?


It needs only four control points
It always passes through the first and last control points
The curve lies entirely within the convex half formed by four control points.

Q 48.Define computer graphics animation?


Computer graphics animation is the use of computer graphics equipment where the graphics
output presentation dynamically changes in real time. This is often also called real time
animation.

Q 50.Define frame?
One of the shape photographs that a film or video is made of is known as frame.

Q 51.What is key frame?


One of the shape photographs that a film or video is made of the shape of an object is known
initially and for a small no of other frames called keyframe.

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1. What is the resolution of screen?


2. What is full form of pixel? --- picture element.
3. Explain working of CRT.
4. What is refresh rate?
5. Explain DDA line algorithm. What is its full form?
6. Explain bresenhams line drawing algo.
7. Explain bresenhams circle drawing algo.
8. What is 8-way symmetry in a circle drawing algorithm?
9. Which is better DDA or bresenhams?
10. What are different character generation algorithms?
11. Explain cohen-sutherland algorithm for line clipping
12. Explain Sutherland-Hodgemen algorithm for polygon clipping.
13. Can a line clipping algorithm be used for polygon clipping?

Ans : No, because it gives an open object instead of an enclosed polygon.

14. Which is better seed fill or scanline filling algorithm?


15. What is inside test?
16. Explain winding number test . explain even-odd test
17. Different anti-aliasing techniques.
18. Tell the steps to perform rotation about arbitrary point
19. Tell the steps to perform rotation about arbitrary axis.
20. What is Bezier curve.
21. What is B-spline
22. What is fractal line?
23. What is a segment?
24. Explain painters algorithm.
25. Explain Warnocks algorithm.
26. Explain z-buffer algorithm.
27. Write logic to
a. Draw dashed line
b. Draw dotted line
c. Or any similar logic can be asked

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Study different QT functions that are used in all programs.

Study the Animation practical well.

IMP: Must be theoretically clear with the algo. that you have implemented.