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Fuel 140 (2015) 192–200

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Effects of diesel injection pressure on the performance and emissions
of a HD common-rail diesel engine fueled with diesel/methanol dual
Junheng Liu a, Anren Yao b, Chunde Yao a,⇑
State Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China

h i g h l i g h t s 

The common-rail diesel engine was fueled with diesel/methanol dual fuel. 
Increasing injection pressure would improve fuel economy of DMDF engine. 
Effect of injection pressure on DMDF combustion characteristic was analyzed. 
Effect of injection pressure on emissions of DMDF engine was investigated.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The diesel/methanol dual fuel (DMDF) combustion mode was conducted on a turbo-charged, inter-
Received 29 May 2014 cooling diesel engine with 6-cylinder for the heavy duty (HD) vehicle. In DMDF mode, methanol is
Received in revised form 15 August 2014 injected into the intake port to form lean air/methanol premixed mixture, and then ignited by the
Accepted 28 September 2014
direct-injected diesel fuel in cylinder. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of diesel injection pres-
Available online 13 October 2014
sure on the characteristics of performance and exhaust emissions from the engine with common-rail fuel
system. The experimental results show that at low injection pressure, the IMEP of DMDF mode is lower
than that of pure diesel combustion (D) mode. COVIEMP of DMDF mode firstly decreases and then
Diesel engine
Dual fuel
increases with increasing injection pressure, and it remains under 2.1% for all the tests. It is found that
Methanol the combustion duration in DMDF mode becomes shorter, the maximum cylinder pressure and the peak
Engine performance heat release rate increase, and CA50 gets close to the top dead center as the injection pressure increases.
Emission BSFC of DMDF mode decreases with the increase of injection pressure, and is lower than that of D mode
for injection pressure over 115 MPa. Both of NOX and smoke emissions are reduced in DMDF mode. But
smoke decreases and NOX increases as the diesel injection pressure increases in DMDF mode. DMDF gen-
erates lower NO and CO2 emissions, while produces higher HC, CO, andNO2 emissions compared to D
mode. As the diesel injection pressure increases, CO and HC emissions are decreased, however, CO2
and NO2 emissions are slightly increased.
Ó 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction exhaust emissions of diesel engines and there is a trade-off
relationship between them. It is a hotspot to research the simulta-
Diesel engines are widely used in transportation industry and neous reduction of both NOX and smoke emissions. The combined
construction machines owing to their high fuel efficiency and application of in-cylinder combustion optimization and after treat-
durability. However, the NOX and smoke emissions are the main ment devices is adopted to meet regulatory requirements [1,2].
Besides, alternative fuel is one of the effective means to reduce
exhaust emissions and slow down the petroleum consumption
Abbreviations: DMDF, diesel/methanol dual fuel; D, pure diesel combustion;
[3,4]. Methanol is a widely investigated alternative fuel of diesel
IMEP, indicated mean effective pressure; COVIMEP, coefficient of variations of IMEP;
BSFC, brake specific fuel consumption; FSN, filter smoke number. engine for its low cost, easy storage and wide distribution. Due
⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 22 2740 6649; fax: +86 22 2738 3362. to its high latent heat of vaporization and oxygen content,
E-mail address: (C. Yao).
0016-2361/Ó 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fig. which is rich in coal but poor in petroleum results were compared with those of the engine fueled with diesel and natural gas. which is fueled with intake port and diesel fuel consumption were measured by two AVL fuel mass injected methanol and direct-injected diesel fuel. The diesel supply system was a com- delivery advance angles. Under DMDF mode. formal. The specifications of the test engine are performance and emissions of a diesel engine operating on biodie. in-line 6-cylinder.19] have been conducted to investigate the combus. a turbo- and NOX emissions. [18] found that transferred to a combustion analyzer (IndiModul. in-line. Li et al. torque (Nm/r/min) 1490/1300–1500 diesel and methanol fuel. . while results as Yao’s. [12. precious studies were mainly Intake value opening 15°CA before top dead center concentrated on the application of the fumigation methanol in Intake value closing 64. was recorded using a crank angle encoder mounted at the free tion and emission characteristics of a diesel/alcohol reactivity con. power (kW/r/min) 249/1900 bustion and emissions characteristics in a diesel engine fueled with Max. Crank angle position researches [18. to the fumigation method. but increase the unburned methanol. Zhu et al. Huang 0.5 diesel engine. The brake thermal efficiency had a slight increase for the injectors added to the intake manifold. experiments [15. the cyl- was beneficial to the decreases of HC and soot emissions. Their experimental results showed that NOX and NO concentrations were measured with a chemilumines- the DMCC method could reduce the NOX and soot emissions cence detector (CLD) analyzer. and few Exhaust value opening 64.6 blends were more effective in reduction of PM and NOX emissions SL. Methanol was injected increasing injection pressure could cause the reduction of smoke into the intake manifolds of each cylinder with a pressure of opacity. Liu et al. Nowadays. AVL) of 500 kW. investigated recently [14–20]. while increase NOX emission. 1 shows the schematic of diesel-methanol blends in a diesel engine for various fuel diagram of the test engine. The blend method needs to add some additives to the mixtures 2. CO2 and smoke emissions using a piezo-electric type pressure sensor (6125C. charged. Due to diesel fuel and methanol being practically non-miscible. Bore  stroke (mm) 126  130 and allows a higher percentage of methanol fuel to be applied in a Displacement (L) 9. than the ethanol blends. common rail diesel engine dehyde. the increase of HC and CO emissions for both of the fumi- gation methanol and the methanol blends could be effectively Items Specifications reduced by the DOC.726 Compression ratio 17. Furthermore. and acetaldehyde emissions. has been widely flow meters. CO and HC emissions. / Fuel 140 (2015) 192–200 193 methanol has the potential to reduce smoke and NOX emissions In this study. [8] compared the is used in this study. and they gas before the experiment. They found that the ignition delay. turbocharged. crankshaft with resolution of 0. industrial flue gases or the rail diesel engine. AVL) and online exhaust gas analyzers methanol compound combustion (DMCC) scheme which belongs (AMA i60. The engine was modified with a methanol rail and six methanol sions. intercooled.42 MPa to form homogeneous methanol/air mixture and metha- et al. and the NO2 concentration was simultaneously but increase the CO and HC emissions.8°CA before top dead center reports about the effects of fuel injection parameters on the com.13] investigated the combustion and emissions behaviors nol injection was controlled by the ECU. Experimental setup and method methanol-diesel blends with additives and fumigation methanol.16] conducted on a naturally-aspirated direct.8°CA after top dead center the naturally-aspirated direct-injection diesel engine. injection diesel engine with fumigation methanol showed same and the unburned methanol was measured as part of the HC. The engine speed and torque are controlled sel-methanol blends and biodiesel-ethanol blends.8] showed that in Table 1 Test engine specifications. [17] investigated the performance CO2 and CO were measured with an infrared detector (IRD) ana- and exhaust emissions of a single cylinder DI diesel engine fueled lyzer. However. the mon rail system produced by Denso Company. AVL) were installed to measure the exhaust emissions. fuel alone. Cheung et al. The methanol automatically by an electrical dynamometer (DynoRoad 504/4. the fumigation Fuel injection system Common rail methanol is more flexible in the proportion of methanol and diesel. [11] car. Exhaust value closing 15°CA after top dead center Max. The important in China. general. Test engine system to satisfy homogeneity and prevent phase separation and has been investigated by some researchers [7. some research. theoretical installed at the head of the sixth cylinder. the DMDF combustion is investigated as a new [5–9]. AVL) which com- with premixed methanol advancing the start of injection of diesel bined up to a charge amplifier. The injection pres- maximum cylinder pressure and NOX emission increased as the sure and injection timing of the common rail system were fuel delivery advance angle increased. [14] proposed a diesel/ A smoke meter (415SE. All gas analyzers were calibrated with zero gas and standard with methyl ester injection and methanol carburetion. Sayin et al. Other defined as the difference between NOX and NO concentrations. but generated higher HC and CO emis. J. Literatures [5. Type 6-cylinder. The methanol consumption The fumigation method.1° crank angle. engine. [6] found that To investigate the effect of diesel injection pressure on the biodiesel blended with methanol could simultaneous reduce PM performance and exhaust emissions in a DMDF engine. Haribabu et al.1. Kistler) and improvement of fuel economy. HC was measured by a flame lionization detector (FID) analyzer.8]. Methanol is almost exclusively produced from fossil fuels combustion mode for NOX and PM reduction from the diesel (production via syn-gas) and biomass. presented in Table 1. Yao et al. A methanol pump blended fuels with 5% methanol and ethanol. controlled by a separate electronic control unit (ECU) was used ried out a research using methanol-diesel blends and they found to supply methanol to the methanol rail. respectively. These signals were trolled compression ignition (RCCI) engine. In each operating condition. direct injection Compared with the methanol blends method. the applications of methanol fuel on the diesel engine are mainly 2. Methanol production from coal is especially injection fuel to ignite the air/methanol premixed mixtures. diesel fuel is used as a pilot atmosphere [10]. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of diesel ers have turned their attentions to produce methanol from black fuel injection pressure on the performance and emissions liquor gasification or the reaction of hydrogen and CO2 recovered characteristics in a 6-cylinder turbocharged intercooled common- from fossil fuel-burning power plants. The in-cylinder pressure was measured found there was better reduction of NOX. controlled by the base engine ECU. Results inder pressure data were collected over 150 continuous cycles and [18] also showed that both advancing the injection timing and raising methanol fraction were favorable to avoid engine knock and improve thermal efficiency.

05% – Torque 0–3000 Nm 0.20].6 Methanol consumption 0–50 kg/h 0. times of diesel. To investigate the engine performance and exhaust emissions in D mode and DMDF mode according to the variation of diesel injec- 2.0–8.5 Exhaust gas analyzer NOX 0–10.9 HC 0–10. Notice that the latent heat of vaporization of methanol is about 4 process. In DMDF mode.1% – Fuel mass flow meter Diesel consumption 0–125 kg/h 0. 1. The Table 3 cylinder pressure data were averaged to eliminate the effect of Properties comparison of diesel and methanol [5.000 ppm 10 ppm 2. The steady state tests were repeated at least twice to ensure that the results are repeatable Density at 20 °C (kg/m3) 830 790 within the experimental uncertainties. The injection of the DMDF mode was consistent with that of D mode. Throughout the whole test given in Table 4. Table 3 shows the general properties of the two fuels.0 – fur content less than 350 ppm. analyzed with a combustion analysis system (IndiCom. respectively.8 NO 0–10.4 CO2 0–20 Vol% 0. The engine load and speed with D mode and then carried out with DMDF mode.12% 0. Diesel and methanol fuel Latent heat of evaporation (kJ/kg) 250 1110 Cetane number P49 3–5 Burning range (%) 1.5–26 The diesel fuel used in this study is commercial diesel with sul.4 CO 0–5000 ppm 5 ppm 1. And the methanol substitution ratio is defined Table 2 Accuracy and uncertainty of measured parameters. while the cooling water temperature was controlled at 80 ± 3 °C.22 . The parameters of diesel fuel and methanol were controlled respec. but the cetane value of methanol is much lower.01 MPa 0. torque of 447 Nm and 1192 Nm.5% 1. cycle-to-cycle variations. / Fuel 140 (2015) 192–200 Methanol tank Methanol pump Methanol inlet Methanol rail Signal output DMDF ECU Methanol injector Throttle position Pressure regulating Coolant-Temp Engine speed Intake manifold valve Intercooler Signal input 6-cylinder common-rail diesel engine Fresh air Electric dynamometer Exhaust Pressure Engine control Turbocharger transducer system Exhaust Smokemeter Gas analyzer Fig. Instrument Measured parameters Range Accuracy Uncertainty (%) Electric dynamometer Speed 0–5000 r/min 0. the diesel fuel injection Experiments were conducted at different injection pressures at quantity was decreased and meantime the methanol injection the engine maximum torque speed of 1400 r/min with the output quantity was increased to keep the engine output torque constant. AVL).3. is produced from coal and the purity of methanol is greater than 99.002FSN 0.000 ppm 20 ppm 2. Content of O (%) – 50 Sulfur (mg/kg) 350 0 Autoignition temperature (°C) 250 450 2.4–7. the intake air temperature was controlled at 40 ± 3 °C. Liu et al. The methanol used does not contain sulfur. Kinematic viscosity at 20 °C (mm2/s) 3. methanol substitution ratios at different injection pressures are tively with their own dedicated ECU.9%. corresponding to engine loads of In this study.000 ppm 10 ppm 3. and then the heat release rate was calcu- Properties Diesel Methanol lated based on the cylinder pressure.12% 0.2.5 19.5 Pressure transducer Cylinder pressure 0–20 MPa 0. Test method and conditions tion pressures. Experiments were firstly carried out consumption maintained at about 45%.194 J. each experiment was carried out with the fixed injection timing of 0°CA.7 Content of C (%) 86 38 of each instrument and the experimental uncertainty are given in Content of H (%) 13 12 Table 2.6 5. The measuring accuracy Low heating values(MJ/kg) 42. the proportion of methanol replacement of diesel fuel 30% and 80%. The schematic diagram of the testing engine.7 Smoke meter Smoke 0–10 FSN 0.

5 culated using the following equation.d is the instantaneous mass consumption rate of diesel fuel with D mode in kg/h.22 36.01 2.01 48. Engine load (%) Diesel injection D DMDF pressure (MPa) Diesel (kg/h) Diesel (kg/h) Methanol (kg/h) Methanol substitution ratio (%) 30% 70 13. as shown in Fig.d IMEP/ MPa 1. In general. qm.38 7.0 the increase of friction loss between piston ring and cylinder liner.1% among all the tests.92 44.76 43.67 80% 70 34. J.91 18. And the peak cylinder pressure port lowers inlet temperature.0 sumption rates of diesel fuel and methanol with DMDF mode in kg/h.10 2. When the injection pressure is higher than 115 MPa. It is shown engine load.5 modes. 1.44 48.d 2.5 3. fuel atomization COVIMEP for D mode increases as injection pressure increases but obviously improves. two combustion modes and different injection pressures at 80% tion pressures at 80% engine load are given in Fig.35 48. Before ignition. This is because that the maximum cylinder pressure increases as injection pressure increases [21].96 as the percentage reduction of diesel fuel consumption with DMDF Engine speed:1400r/min D mode compared to D mode under the same conditions and is cal. 2.a  Q LHV. Results and discussion 2. respectively. The COVIMEP of DMDF mode first decreases and then those of D combustion mode. 3 gives the cylinder pressure and heat release rate for the The COVs of IMEP in D mode and DMDF mode at different injec.33 18. Effect of fuel injection pressure on combustion characteristics 1. All these lead to increase atomization and accelerated combustion rate as the diesel injec- the peak pressure and friction loss between piston ring and cylin.35 50. / Fuel 140 (2015) 192–200 195 Table 4 Engine test conditions of the experiment.33 46.d and QLHV. methanol slows down the pressures.42 17. Pb is the effective power of D the engine.52 85 13. At lower fuel injection pressure. the cylinder gas temper- increases as the diesel injection pressure increases. 0.5 The BSFC of DMDF mode is calculated using the following equation. combustion rate and extends the combustion duration. 0. Fig.65 19.0 0. 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Meantime.92 18. It is shown that the 1.0 Engine speed:1400r/min DMDF Engine load 80% 2. so the IMEP of DMDF mode is higher than that of D mode.a represent the low heating values of diesel and methanol in MJ/kg.45 6.57 115 13.51 85 33.a are instantaneous mass con. The COVIMEP ature is lower and further reduces due to the vaporization of meth- of DMDF mode remains under 2.61 48.d  qm. It is considered that methanol injected into intake the lower diesel injection pressure.85 100 13. cylinder temperature is higher and more fuel less than 1% at 130 MPa.0 70 85 100 115 13 0 70 85 100 115 13 0 qm. The anol.68 IMEP increases with fuel injection pressure increasing under both 0.77 45. At 70 MPa. Compared with D mode.54 15.d and qm.04 33.91 17. respectively. It is attributed to the improved diesel is burned in the premixed combustion. IMEP in DMDF mode is lower at low injection pressure but a little higher at high injection pres. 3.31 19. tion pressure increases. and the trend is more obvious at diesel mode.49 36.64 18.d  Q LHV.d þ qm.52 6. Engine load 80% DMDF 2.5 Fig.67 42. which results in 0. 2(a) shows the IMEP of D mode and DMDF mode for differ- ent injection pressures at 80% engine load. Diesel injection pressure/ MPa ven by the engine will increase with the fuel injection pressure (b) COVIMEP increases.0 st ¼  100% ð1Þ qd. 2(b). qd.47 115 33. the cylinder pressure of DMDF mode that COVIMEP of DMDF mode is higher than that of conventional is lower than that of D mode. thus leads to DMDF combustion and heat release rate of DMDF mode occur later and are lower than instability.71 49.55 130 13.48 15.52 0.00 29. results in low pressure in-cylinder and friction loss. Liu et al.d Pb (a) IMEP where QLHV.53 36. the power consumption of the common-rail pump dri.1.a BSFC ¼  100% ð2Þ Diesel injection pressure /MPa Q LHV.42 6.0 COV IMEP/% 3. der liner.66 6.25 140 13.43 100 33. The IMEP and COVIMEP of the two combustion modes at different injection sure.5 where qd.40 1.90 20. methanol has lower cetane number and higher . 3.87 130 33.41 7. Fig.

the cylinder pressure and heat release rate of DMDF Fig. 5. As the fuel injection Pressure/ MPa 6 200 pressure increases. CA50 is the crank angle of burning center and reflects the economy of the combustion process [22]. The CA50 of 30% engine load is earlier than that of 80% load. and the cooling different injection pressures.196 J. At 30% load. the combustion starts earlier.5 21. Liu et al. compared with D mode. There are two rea- 2 sons for the large divergence of the pressure curve before ignition. at the 23. It is found that the combustion of DMDF mode starts (b) Combustion duration of the DMDF mode a little earlier. the heat release rate curve moves forward. The influence of fuel injection pressure and engine load on CA50 300 Engine speed:1400r/min 100MPa and the combustion duration of DMDF mode are shown in Fig. as given in Table 3. 100 Because the higher engine load means more fuel consumption.D and the ignition delay is shortened as the injection pressure 600 12 70MPa. 4 shows the changes in cylinder pressure and heat release Diesel injection pressure /MPa rate of DMDF combustion at different injection pressures and engine loads. At 80% load.9 Fig. the methanol substitution ratio is relatively low at 0 0 -20 0 20 40 60 80 115 MPa. effect of methanol with high latent heat of vaporization will be decreased. CA50 and combustion duration of the DMDF mode for different diesel mode increase with the increases of injection pressure. 4(b). 5(a). 2 0 0 -2 0 0 20 40 60 Engine speed:1400r/min Engine load 30% Crank Angle /°CA Engine mode: DMDF Engine load 80% (a) Engine load 30% 30 28. the peak cyl- Heat release rate/ J/°CA 130MPa.6 Pressure/ MPa 10 11.DMDF increases. 8 Engine load 30% 115MPa The CA50 is defined as the crank angle where the 50% of the total Heat release rate/ J/° CA 140MPa heat release. This is injection pressures. Moreover. as shown in Fig.2 Engine load 80% Heat release rate/ J/° CA 20 12 115MPa 13.6 400 10 8 6 200 0 4 70 85 100 115 130 140 Diesel injection pressure /MPa 2 (a) CA50 of the DMDF mode 0 0 -20 0 20 40 60 Engine speed:1400r/min Engine load 30% Crank Angle /°CA Engine mode: DMDF Engine load 80% Combustion duration/ °CA (b) Engine load 80% 80 66. which means methanol ratio is low and diesel fuel ratio Crank Angle /°CA is high in this condition.D Engine load 80% 130MPa. Secondly. both the peak cylinder pressure and the temperature Fig.DMDF inder pressure and heat release rate obviously increase with the 10 increase of injection pressure. 60 41. the heat release rate increases and its corresponding phase advances.5 injection pressure of 130 MPa. Cylinder pressure and heat release rate of the two combustion modes at of combustion chamber and cylinder wall increase.9 is delayed. the ignition timing of DMDF mode 20 19. as the injection pressure increases. as given in Fig.1 13. when the injection Pressure/ MPa 400 pressure is lower than 100 MPa. the high latent heat of vaporiza- 8 tion of methanol and poor fuel atomization lead to lower the cylin- 6 der pressure.6 600 CA50/ °CA 14 Engine speed:1400r/min 85MPa 100MPa 20. 5. 0 70 85 100 115 130 140 Fig.7 40 latent heat of evaporation. . However. Firstly. / Fuel 140 (2015) 192–200 Engine speed:1400r/min reasonable because the atomization of diesel fuel is improved 14 70MPa. 3. but the peak cylinder pressure and the maximum heat release rate of DMDF combustion both increase significantly. 4 and CA50 gets close to the top dead center. the compression 4 200 pressure curve before ignition with 115 MPa injection pressure is higher than those with lower injection pressure. 4. Cylinder pressure and heat release rate of DMDF mode for different diesel injection pressures.

3 and the heat release rate. 6. / Fuel 140 (2015) 192–200 197 which. Effect of fuel injection pressure on engine performance pressure increases from 70 MPa to 130 MPa.4 187. This can be attributed In order to compare the fuel economy of D mode and DMDF mode.7°CA to 21.6 NOX / ppm 200 NOX/NOX* NOX / ppm 150 400 0. and that of 30% load reduces from 41. 6 shows the BSFC of D 300 mode and DMDF mode with different injection pressures at 80% Engine speed:1400r/min D engine load.0 0 0. the combustion increase of the fuel injection duration. Fig. However.0 70 85 100 115 130 140 70 85 100 115 130 Diesel injection pressure /MPa Diesel injection pressure /MPa (a) NOX emissions of 30% eng ine load (b) NOX emissions of 80% engine load 800 1.0 Engine speed:1400r/min Engine speed:1400r/min Engine load 80% 300 Engine load 30% 0.5°CA. Secondly.0 1. Liu et al.9°CA to 23.2 200 0. the BSFC is used in this study.8 800 0. fuel preparation and fuel duration becomes shorter.4 0. leads to a to two reasons.5°CA. the BSFCs of DMDF and D mode are 187. This is because the increase of injection pressure will increase the premixed combustion ratio 198. tion pressure increases. couple with fuel injection pulse-width extended. Effect of fuel injection pressure on engine emissions 0 70 85 100 115 130 70 85 100 115 130 Fig. due to the release. NO2 and NO/NOX of the two modes at 30% engine load Fig. the diesel injection rate gets faster as injec- prolonged combustion duration and a delayed CA50. At 130 MPa.2 0 0.0 70 85 100 105 130 140 70 85 100 105 130 140 Diesel injection pressure /MPa (c) NO. respectively. NOX.6 NO/NO X 400 Mode: DMDF 0. the result is opposite when the injection pressure 100 is higher than 115 MPa. 7(a) and (b) give the NOX emissions of D and DMDF modes Diesel injection pressure /MPa with different injection pressures at 30% and 80% engine loads. of the cumulative heat release to 90% of the cumulative heat the combustion duration increases with higher load.3 stant volume combustion. 7. it can be observed that NOX emissions in both modes load. In Fig. NO2 and NO/NOX of the two modes versus diesel injection pressures. It is considered that the increase of injection 1.4 200 0.8 250 NOX/NOX* 0. Firstly. The BSFC of the engine decreases as the injection pres- Engine load 80% DMDF 250 sure increases in the both modes. NO. as shown in Fig. the BSFC of DMDF mode is higher than that of the D mode.6 600 0. With the increase of injection pressure.0 NOX NO Engine speed:1400r/min Engine load 30% NO2 0. When the injection pressure is below 150 115 MPa.8 NO X .3.4 100 0. 50 3. NO. 5(b). . the heat release rate increases The combustion duration is defined as the crank angle from 5% with the higher injection pressure. BSFC of the two modes for different diesel injection pressures at 80% engine general. J.2 50 0 0.4 g/kW h.3 g/kW h and 190. NO 2 / ppm 600 NO/NOX Mode: D 0. increase as the fuel injection pressure increases and the engine load increases. which leads to the improvement of con- BSFC/ g/(kw·h) 200 190. duration of 80% load reduces from 66. when the injection 3. At the same injection pressure. The combustion combustion duration.2.2 202.

The decrease of NOX emissions in DMDF mode are 0. methanol produces 200 400 600 800 1000 OH radical at oxidation process [27].3% at 30% engine load. and NO2 is converted back to NO with the Diesel injection pressure /MPa following route: NO2 + O ? NO + O2. and is around 0.0 70 85 100 115 130 140 emissions [14].00 0.6 engine load. The NOX formation rate is strongly dependent on the oxygen 0. increase the speed of mixture Engine speed:1400r/min Engine load 30%. the unburned methanol increases in the exhaust gas. The trade-off relation of NOX and smoke at different injection pressures. Secondly. which will oxidize soot pre.1 115 115 130 the smokeless of methanol flame. Engine load 80%.4 70 DMDF mode. NO2 emission and NO/NOX of Smoke / FSN Engine load 80% DMDF mode and D mode for different injection pressures at 30% 0. and thus leads to reduce the NOX 0. resulting in the improvement of more com.10 0.6 Engine load 30%.8 which represents the ratio of the NOX of DMDF mode to the NOX Smoke/Smoke* of D mode.15] showed that DOC can of soot precursor [29]. however. methanol injected during the intake stroke lowers the intake air temperature and the combustion temperature. sures at 30% and 80% engine loads. Smoke/Smoke* Engine speed:1400r/min Fig.D accelerate oxidation. The average reduction of NOX emission is about 42.230FSN to 0. 9.0 80% load with DMDF mode. NO2 of DMDF mode increases about 4 times of that from D mode. the methanol with premixed form decreases 0.05 0. Fig. the aromatic hydrocarbon is the main component Fig.DMDF plete combustion.2 caused by the following mechanisms. increases as injection pressure increases but remains Engine speed:1400r/min Smoke / FSN Engine load 30% 0. methanol con- taining 50% oxygen. It is observed that DMDF combustion mode has the potential decreases with the increase of injection pressure.15 at 30% load. The injected methanol leads (b) Engine load 80% to more low-temperature regions in cylinder.55 and 0.05 0. smoke emission of DMDF mode reduces from 0.4 the NO of DMDF mode is lower than that of D mode. Secondly.00 0.8 will weaken the cooling effect of methanol. which indicates the ratio of smoke emission of sions for the two modes according to the increase of injection pres- DMDF mode to that of D mode. The average value of NO/NOX is about 0. There are several reasons leading to the decrease of smoke emission with 0. Hori et al. as the injection pressure increases from 70 MPa to NOX and smoke emission in the DMDF mode.D formation and evenness. NOX/NO⁄X. Thirdly. In addition. due to no C–C bond in methanol molecule structure and 0. The relative ratio of smoke.7 face area between diesel fuel and air.82 at 80% load.15 0. and thus the NOX emissions increase as the injec- tion pressure increases [23]. methanol increases the oxygen content that may promote the formation of NOX. 8. which will restrain Fig. simultaneously.DMDF Engine load 80%. Smoke emission of DMDF mode sure. 100 100 Thirdly.25 1. Fourthly. can significantly decrease the benzene concentration. It is found that NO increases as injection pressure increases.60 0.20 0.20 0. Here. there also exists the trade-off relationship of engine load. 0. the average reduction is about 23.0 70 85 100 115 130 that NO is converted to NO2 mainly through the following reaction: NO + HO2 ? NO2 + OH. Previ- Fig. combustion temperature and high temperature duration [24]. 8 illustrates a comparison of the smoke emissions between ous studies [30.246 0.2 at DMDF mode.4 concentration.73 and 0.912 at D mode.6 lower than 1.2 85 85 the center of the diesel spray where the air/fuel ratio is low [5].3 the proportion of diffusion combustion. It is considered that the increase of engine load leads to a higher in-cylinder gas temperature. and is between 0. . different injection pressures. [25] suggest 0. with the increase of 130 MPa. At 80% ditional diesel engine.10 0. The relative ratio of NOX. 9 shows the relationship between NOX and smoke emis- smoke/smoke⁄. / Fuel 140 (2015) 192–200 pressure leads to increase the peak cylinder pressure and the peak 0. the replacement of diesel 140 130 0. 7(c) shows the NO emission. Smoke emissions and relative ratio of D to DMDF smoke emissions at the conversion of NO2 back to NO. As the tra- trend of smoke emission is more obvious at high load. Firstly. which 0. This is because the increase of fuel injection pressure can improve the fuel spray atomization. The value of NOX/NO⁄X is between 0. and raise the combustion temperature to 0.0 reduces the source of soot emission. the DMDF mode Diesel injection pressure /MPa can expedite combustion rate and reduce the duration of high tem.0. NO/NOX represents the ratio of NO and NOX.31] show that the alcohol fuel in premixed flames the DMDF mode and the D mode at different fuel injection pres.198 J.039FSN.25 1. and the decrease for reducing NOX and smoke emissions. Liu et al. and 0. could effectively improve the oxygen ratio at 0. and the alcohol fuel has obvious inhibitory greatly reduce NO2 emissions. (a) Engine load 30% perature.14% at 0. effect on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Furthermore. in DMDF mode.5 70 Injction pressure Smoke / FSN increases increase of diesel injection pressure but is lower than 1. and more NO is converted to NO2 and the NO2 is pre- served as the injection pressure increases. The value of smoke/smoke⁄ increases with the 0. Previous researches [5. increase the contact sur- 0. NOX / ppm cursor with a higher chance during diffusion combustion phase [28]. which is con- ducive to the production of NO2 with methanol being the source of HO2 radical [26].0 heat release rate. Firstly.

85 NOX and smoke emissions from DMDF mode are reduced over all test conditions. 1500 increases with injection pressure increasing but is lower than 1. injection pressure. there is an obvious increase in CO and HC 0. 10 0. CO2/CO⁄2.1% among all the test injection pressures.40 0. but lower at the injection pressure over 0. emissions of D mode and DMDF mode at 80% load. some studies [5. 10(b) shows that CO emission of DMDF mode is higher com- the D mode. but pared with that of D mode.95 12 115 MPa. 70 85 100 115 130 Diesel injection pressure /MPa Acknowledgements (c) CO 2 Fig. 10(c) shows the relative ratio of CO2. 10. especially at low injection pressure. Firstly. However. the combustion of DMDF mode starts a little later due to the ignition delay of methanol. National Natural Science Foundation of China (Contract No. which reduces the degree of the fuel oxidation to gen- erate CO2. At the DMDF Diesel injection pressure /MPa mode.75 emissions but a reduction in CO2 from DMDF mode. Thirdly. increasing the smoke emission sharply. due to the scavenging process.70 slight increase in CO2 emission. methanol generates less CO2 compared to diesel fuel. both of CO 2 / % CO2/CO2* 8 7. Liu et al. There is also 6 0. without burning during the valve overlap. Meantime the HC and CO are higher in 500 DMDF mode.80 a significant increase in NO2 emission at DMDF mode. 0 70 85 100 115 130 70 85 100 115 130 lead to a slight increase of the CO2 concentration. and decreases with the increase of decreases as the injection pressure increases. This means that NOX HC emission. ration. at 80% load. As Engine load 80% Fig. CO and CO2 emissions of the two The authors acknowledge the financial support from the modes. the in-cylinder combustion becomes better and the CO and HC emissions decrease.03 7. the combustion duration decreases and CA50 of heat release (b) CO moves close to the top dead center with the increase of fuel injec- tion pressure. 1. which represents the ratio of CO2 concentration of DMDF mode to that of D mode. but is lower than that of D mode. Compared with Fig. a flat trade-off curve between NOX and ing at the chamber wall and crevice effect lead to the increase of smoke is presented for the DMDF mode.2 times of that of D mode. flame quench- However. Fig. compared to D mode. It D is found that the CO2 concentration in DMDF mode increases with HC/ ppm DMDF the increase of injection pressure. 10(c) shows the CO2 concentration of the two modes accord- 2000 Engine speed:1400r/min ing to the increase of fuel injection pressure at 80% engine load. the cooling effect of methanol and the lean can be decreased by reducing the injection pressure without mixture of methanol and air causes poor combustion quality. and increases with increases of injection pres- 1000 sure. When the injection pressure increases from 70 MPa to 130 MPa. This might be caused by the significant CO oxi- sons that cause the average HC emission of DMDF mode reaches dation rate reduction due to the cooling effect of methanol evapo- 23. However.11%. Effects of diesel injection pressure on HC. Compared with D mode. Fig. Conclusions D The engine performance and emissions characteristics of a 6- 2000 DMDF Engine speed:1400r/min Engine load 80% cylinder common-rail diesel engine fueled with DMDF mode for different diesel injection pressures were investigated. 1000 This is because when the same calorific value of fuels are consumed completely during the combustion. There are several rea. With the increase of injection pressure. 4 Compared to D mode. The maximum 0 cylinder pressure and the peak heat release rate in the DMDF mode 70 85 100 115 130 70 85 100 115 130 increase as the fuel injection pressure increases. the HC in DMDF mode increases significantly. CO and CO2 the HC emission of DMDF mode decreases by 49. With increas- 2 ing the injection pressure. and the main 1500 results are drawn as follows: CO/ ppm The IMEP of DMDF mode is higher than that of D mode at high injection pressure. / Fuel 140 (2015) 192–200 199 injection pressure the smoke decreases but the NOX increases. . and a 0 0. there is a reduction in CO and HC. Secondly.14] have shown that after DOC some of the methanol-air premixed mixture escapes from cylinder fumigation methanol would not cause too much CO and HC emissions.90 NOX increases and smoke decreases as the injection pressure increases in DMDF mode.00 BSFC of DMDF mode decreases with the increasing fuel injec- 14 Engine speed:1400r/min tion pressure. COVIMEP of DMDF mode first decreases and then increases with increase in diesel injection pressure. 10 shows the effect of injection pressure on HC. J. Diesel injection pressure /MPa (a) HC 4. The BSFC for DMDF mode is higher than that of D Engine load 80% mode at most cases. and it remains under 500 2.

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