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www.elsevier.com/locate/ijh

in an inclined tube: The eect of the boundary conditions

A. Barletta *

Universita` di Bologna, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Energetica, Nucleare e del Controllo Ambientale (DIENCA), Laboratorio di Montecuccolino,

Via dei Colli 16, Bologna I-40136, Italy

Received 29 October 2006; received in revised form 29 April 2007; accepted 19 July 2007

Available online 27 September 2007

Abstract

The necessary condition for the onset of parallel ow in the fully developed region of an inclined duct is applied to the case of a cir-

cular tube. Parallel ow in inclined ducts is an uncommon regime, since in most cases buoyancy tends to produce the onset of secondary

ow. The present study shows how proper thermal boundary conditions may preserve parallel ow regime. Mixed convection ow is

studied for a special non-axisymmetric thermal boundary condition that, with a proper choice of a switch parameter, may be compatible

with parallel ow. More precisely, a circumferentially variable heat ux distribution is prescribed on the tube wall, expressed as a sinu-

soidal function of the azimuthal coordinate # with period 2p. A p/2 rotation in the position of the maximum heat ux, achieved by set-

ting the switch parameter, may allow or not the existence of parallel ow. Two cases are considered corresponding to parallel and non-

parallel ow. In the rst case, the governing balance equations allow a simple analytical solution. On the contrary, in the second case, the

local balance equations are solved numerically by employing a nite element method.

2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Mixed convection; Non-axisymmetric heat ux; Laminar ow; Parallel ow; Inclined duct

least for the simpler geometries: parallel plane channel, cir-

The subject of laminar mixed convection in vertical or cular or annular duct, rectangular duct. However, if one

inclined ducts deserves a special interest for its applications deals with inclined ducts, the condition of parallel ow

in the design of cooling systems for electronic devices or for can be considered as an exception rather than a rule. This

solar collectors. Several authors have presented theoretical conclusion is a direct consequence of the observation that,

or experimental investigations most of which have been in an inclined duct, the buoyancy force vector has a non-

reviewed, for instance, in Aung (1987). The literature of vanishing projection on the plane of the duct cross-section.

the last decades includes many papers presenting theoreti- In the fully developed region, the transversal components

cal investigations of buoyancy-induced ows in vertical of the buoyancy force are normally responsible for the

or inclined ducts. Some of these papers (Lavine, 1988; onset of a secondary ow that makes velocity a non-paral-

Barletta and Zanchini, 1999, 2001; Chamkha et al., 2002; lel helicoidal vector eld. It must be pointed out that, in

Buhler, 2003; Weidman, 2006; Magyari, 2007) describe this reasoning, geometry matters. In fact, for a parallel

analytical solutions with reference to fully developed paral- plane channel, parallel ows are still possible when the

lel ows. In fact, parallel ow represents the condition that channel is inclined, for the more commonly employed

allows a drastic simplication of the governing balance thermal boundary conditions (Lavine, 1988; Barletta and

Zanchini, 2001). For dierent geometries of the duct

*

Tel.: +39 051 6441703; fax: +39 051 6441747. cross-section, as circular, annular or rectangular, this is

E-mail address: antonio.barletta@mail.ing.unibo.it not true.

0142-727X/$ - see front matter 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijheatuidow.2007.07.008

84 A. Barletta / Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow 29 (2008) 8393

Nomenclature

A function of X and Y, Eq. (9) x, y dimensionless Cartesian coordinates, Eq. (10)

b dimensionless constant, Eq. (10) X, Y, Z Cartesian coordinates

B constant, Eq. (9) Y unit vector in the Y-direction

g gravitational acceleration

g modulus of the gravitational acceleration Greek symbols

Gr Grashof number, Eq. (10) a thermal diusivity

k thermal conductivity b coecient of thermal expansion

Nu Nusselt number, Eq. (38) ek dimensionless kinetic energy of secondary ow,

P dierence between the pressure and the hydro- Eq. (42)

static pressure # angular cylindrical coordinate

Pr Prandtl number, Eq. (10) H dimensionless temperature, Eq. (10)

qw(#) incoming wall heat ux, Eq. (2) K dimensionless parameter, Eq. (33)

q0 constant wall heat ux, Eq. (2) l dynamic viscosity

r dimensionless radial coordinate, Eq. (10) m kinematic viscosity

R radial cylindrical coordinate n dimensionless switch parameter, Eq. (2)

R0 duct radius . mass density

Re Reynolds number, Eq. (10) .0 mass density at temperature T0

T temperature u tilt angle of the duct axis

T0 average temperature in a duct cross-section, Eq. X dimensionless parameter, Eq. (33)

(11)

u dimensionless axial velocity component, Eq. Superscripts, Subscripts

0

(10) 2D vector obtained by projection in the (X, Y)-

u1(r), u2(r) dimensionless functions of r, Eq. (23) plane

Uz axial velocity component max, min maximum, minimum value in a duct cross-

U0 average velocity in a duct cross-section, Eq. (12) section

U velocity

In a recent paper (Barletta, 2005), a criterion to establish linear cases, this boundary condition yields what can be

whether parallel ow in an inclined duct is possible or not considered a fundamental solution for the analysis of non-

has been discussed. This criterion is in fact a necessary con- axisymmetric ows by means of Fourier series (Barletta

dition for parallel ow and, as such, precludes the possibil- et al., 2003). It is shown that the same thermal boundary

ity of a parallel velocity eld when it is not fullled. In condition may yield parallel or non-parallel ow depending

Barletta (2005), it is shown that parallel ow is possible on the value of a switch parameter that yields a p/2 rota-

only if the temperature gradient, the unit vector in the axial tion in the wall heat ux distribution. In the case of parallel

direction and the gravitational acceleration are everywhere ow, the governing balance equations admit a straightfor-

coplanar vectors. The necessary condition is tested in the ward analytical solution. In the case of non-parallel ow, a

case of a parallel plane channel, showing that the widely simple analytical solution of the balance equations is not

studied boundary condition of isothermal walls with possible and the study is performed numerically by

unequal temperatures is compatible with parallel ow. employing a nite element solution procedure. A further

However, the compatibility holds only if the channel is objective of the present paper is to extend the criterion

tilted in the direction orthogonal to the boundary planes. for parallel ow discussed in Barletta (2005) and recalled

If, on the other hand, the channel is tilted in the direction in the next section, in order to include duct ows with an

parallel to the boundary planes, no parallel ow is possible axial temperature change as well as duct ows in a uid-

(Barletta, 2005). saturated porous medium. The latter task is accomplished

The aim of the present paper is to extend the analysis in two short appendices.

presented in Barletta (2005), in order to show that proper

thermal boundary conditions may allow the onset of paral- 2. Necessary condition for parallel ow

lel ow also for duct geometries dierent from the parallel

plane channel. Reference is made to an inclined circular Let us analyze mixed convection ow in an inclined duct

tube. The prescribed boundary condition is a simple non- with an arbitrary cross-sectional shape. Let us choose

axisymmetric thermal boundary condition, namely a wall Cartesian coordinates (X, Y, Z) such that the duct cross-

heat ux sinusoidally varying in the angular direction. In section belongs to the (X, Y)-plane and the Z-axis is parallel

A. Barletta / Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow 29 (2008) 8393 85

to the duct axis. In other words, the duct cross-section cor- metric wall heat ux. A sketch of the duct and of the

responds to a domain D in the (X, Y)-plane. origin of the angular coordinate with respect to the gravi-

As it has been shown in Barletta (2005), by invoking the tational eld is given in Fig. 1. As it is shown by this gure,

validity of the Boussinesq approximation and by assuming the tilt angle between the duct axis and the direction of the

that the boundary conditions imply an axially invariant gravitational acceleration is u and the vector g 0 is given by

temperature eld T, i.e. oT/oZ = 0, the following statement

g0 g sin uY; 1

holds

A parallel ow solution of the local balance equations, i.e. where Y is the unit vector in the Y-direction. The incoming

a solution such that U 0 = 0, exists in the fully developed wall heat ux is expressed as

region only if the temperature eld is such that oT p

g0 $0 T 0, at every position in the domain D. qw # k q0 sin # n ; 2

oR RR0 2

In this statement, symbols U 0 and g 0 denote the two-

dimensional projections on the (X, Y)-plane of the uid where (R, #) are two-dimensional polar coordinates, while

velocity U and of the gravitational acceleration g, while n is a dimensionless switch variable which can be equal

$0 is the two-dimensional gradient (o/oX, o/oY). either to 0 or 1. On account of Eq. (2), one obtains in this

In Appendix A, it is shown that the above statement case that the circumferentially averaged wall heat ux van-

holds also for cases such that the temperature eld under- ishes. Moreover, let us assume that the eect of viscous dis-

goes an axial change, oT/oZ 5 0. Moreover, in Appendix sipation is negligible and that the ow is fully developed.

B, it is shown that the same statement holds not only for As a consequence, both the velocity eld U and the temper-

a clear uid, but also for the case of ows in a uid-satu- ature eld T are invariant in the axial direction, namely

rated porous medium according to the DarcyForchheimer oU/oZ = 0 and oT/oZ = 0. Thus, the governing equations

model. In the present paper, the term clear uid will be can be written as

used, following the common practice of treatises on con-

vective ow in porous media, in order to denote the classi- $0 U0 0; 3

0 0 0 0 0 02 0

cal NavierStokes ow when compared to seepage ow in a .0 U $ U .0 bT T 0 g $ P lr U ; 4

porous medium. oP

The condition for the existence of parallel ow implies .0 U0 $0 U z .0 bT T 0 gz lr02 U z ; 5

oZ

that, for a non-vertical duct (g 0 5 0), this special ow solu- .0 cp U0 $0 T kr02 T : 6

tion for the fully developed regime can be found only if the

thermal boundary conditions are such that either the vector

eld $0 T is a parallel eld with the same direction as the

vector g 0 or the uid changes its temperature only in the

axial direction, i.e. $0 T 0. The latter case can hardly be

arranged in practice. On the other hand, in the former case,

two-dimensional heat transfer occurs in the direction paral-

lel to g 0 and in the axial direction. One can easily conclude

that, for a vertical duct (g 0 = 0), a parallel ow solution

always exists. Roughly speaking, the necessary condition

for parallel ow in a non-vertical duct is that the isotherms

on a plane transversal to the ow direction must be parallel

straight lines orthogonal to the direction of g 0 . Such a con-

dition can be hardly fullled whenever the duct is not a

parallel plane channel. In fact, for a plane channel, the

geometry of the boundaries allows one to get parallel

straight isotherms in the uid, for instance, by prescribing

uniform temperatures on both the boundary walls (Bar-

letta, 2005). For a dierent geometry of the duct, the nec-

essary condition for parallel ow can be fullled only by

prescribing more complicated thermal boundary condi-

tions, as it is shown in the next section with reference to

a circular duct.

lar duct having radius R0 and subjected to a non-axisym- Fig. 1. Sketch of the inclined tube.

86 A. Barletta / Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow 29 (2008) 8393

(4) and (5) with respect to Z, one obtains

If n = 0, a solution of Eqs. (2) and (13)(17) can be

oP

$0 0; 7 found such that H is a function only of the Cartesian coor-

oZ dinate y. Thus, as a consequence of Eq. (1), the condition

o2 P for parallel ow, g0 $0 T 0, is fullled. One can easily

0: 8

oZ 2 nd that

Eqs. (7) and (8) allow one to infer that eld P can be un- H y r sin #: 19

iquely represented as It must be pointed out that the boundary condition equa-

tion (2) with n = 0 is the only one that is compatible with

P X ; Y ; Z AX ; Y BZ; 9

parallel ow for u 5 0. In fact, the parallel ow condition

where B is a constant. implies that H depends only on y and, thus, Eq. (17) can be

Note that the elds U 0 and T can be determined by solv- satised in this case only if H is a linear function of y. Fi-

ing Eqs. (3), (4) and (6). In other words, these elds are not nally, the constraint equation (18) leads to the conclusion

inuenced by the axial component Uz. The latter compo- that H must be proportional to y and the proportionality

nent can be obtained as a last step of the solution proce- constant can be set to 1 by a proper redenition of q0.

dure, i.e. by solving Eq. (5). To summarize, parallel ow implies the validity of Eq.

Let us introduce the dimensionless quantities, (19) and yields the thermal boundary condition equation

(2) with n = 0.

2R0 U0 Uz T T0 Since the ow is parallel, u 0 = 0 and the axial velocity

u0 ; u ; Hk ; component u fulls the equation

m U0 q 0 R0

X Y R 4R2 . A 2R20 B o2 u o2 u Gr cos u b

x ; y ; r ; a 0 20 ; b ; H 0; 20

R0 R0 R0 l lU 0 ox2 oy 2 4Re 2

2R0 U 0 8gbq0 R40 m together with the no-slip condition for r = 1. In order to

Re ; Gr 2

; Pr :

m km a determine u, it is convenient to express Eq. (20) in cylindri-

10 cal polar coordinates

r sin # 0: 21

are given by or2 r or r2 o#2 4Re 2

Z R0 Z 2p A solution of Eq. (21) that fulls the no-slip boundary

1

T0 2 dR d#RT ; 11 condition

pR0 0 0

Z R0 Z 2p u1; # 0; 22

1

U0 2 dR d#RU z : 12 can be sought in the form

pR0 0 0

ur; # u1 r u2 r sin #: 23

Thus, Eqs. (3)(6) can be rewritten as

By substituting Eq. (23) in Eq. (21), one obtains a pair of

ou0x ou0y ordinary dierential equations

0; 13

ox oy d2 u1 1 du1 b

0; 24

ou0 ou0 oa o2 u0x o2 u0x dr2 r dr 2

u0x x u0y x 2 ; 14

ox oy ox ox2 oy 2 d2 u2 1 du2 u2 Gr cos u

! 2 r 0; 25

ou0y ou0y Gr sin u oa o2 u0y o2 u0y dr2 r dr r 4Re

u0x u0y H 2 2 ; 15

ox oy 2 oy ox2 oy subjected to the boundary conditions

2 2 u1 1 0 u2 1: 26

ou ou Gr cos u ou ou

u0x u0y Hb2 ; 16

ox oy 2Re ox2 oy 2 One obtains

Pr 0 oH 0 oH o 2 H o2 H b

ux uy 2 2: 17 u1 r 1 r2 ; 27

2 ox oy ox oy 8

Gr cos u

On account of Eq. (11), the dimensionless temperature H u2 r r1 r2 : 28

32Re

must full the constraint

The value assumed by the constant b can be obtained by

Z 1 Z 2p imposing the constraint (12), thus yielding

dr d#rH 0: 18

0 0 b 16: 29

A. Barletta / Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow 29 (2008) 8393 87

X Gr sin u; K cos u 33

in the case of isothermal Poiseuille ow. This result could Re

have been expected since, as shown by Eq. (23), the buoy- and Pr. By this optimized parametrization, the limiting

ancy-induced term u2(r) sin# in the expression of u(r, #) has case of a vertical duct (u ! 0) can be dealt with by taking

a vanishing average value in a duct cross-section. Finally, the limit X ! 0. On the other hand, the limiting case of a

the transverse distribution of the dimensionless dierence horizontal duct (u ! p/2) can be treated by taking the limit

between the pressure and the hydrostatic pressure, repre- K ! 0. Note that the optimized parametrization in terms

sented by function a(r, #), is obtained from Eqs. (14), (15) of X and K is similar to that introduced by Lavine (1988).

and (19). These equations yield Eq. (32) reveals that, for a vertical duct, the value of b is

Gr sin u 2 2 in any case 16. Therefore, one can base the numerical solu-

ar; # r sin #: 30 tion procedure on the guess that b = 16 for every other pos-

4

sible value of the tilt angle u or, stated dierently, for every

Function a(r, #) can be determined only up to an arbitrary possible values of X and K. The physical meaning of this

additive constant. In Eq. (30), this constant has been xed guess is that the dimensionless axial pressure drop is not

so that a = 0 for r = 1 and # = 0. Eqs. (19), (23) and (27) inuenced by the buoyancy eect. Stated dierently, buoy-

(30) show that the dimensionless solution is governed by ancy does not aect the relation between the mass ow rate

parameters Gr and Re as well as by the tilt angle u and does and the axial pressure gradient. Thus, this relation is the

not depend explicitly on Pr. same that holds in the case of isothermal ow (Poiseuille

ow). In order to test the reliability of this guess, one pre-

3.2. The case n = 1 scribes the additional constraint induced by Eq. (12),

namely

If n = 1, on account of Eq. (2), the incoming wall heat Z Z 2p

1 1

ux qw(#) is proportional to cos #, i.e. to x. Then, the gra- 1 dr d#ru 0: 34

p 0

dient of T cannot be everywhere parallel to g 0 that is direc- 0

ted along the y-axis. One thus concludes, in this case, that it The method to get the numerical solution involves two

is impossible to have a parallel ow solution, unless u = 0. steps. First, one solves Eqs. (13)(15) and (17), that is noth-

For u = 0, the duct is vertical and g 0 = 0, so that the con- ing but a 2D natural convection problem in a circular cav-

dition g0 $0 T 0 is satised at every point inside the ity. Then, one uses the obtained numerical values of u 0 and

duct. In this case, a simple analytical solution is allowed. H to solve Eq. (16) and thus obtain u. While the elds u 0

Eq. (17) reduces merely to the Laplace equation for H. and H depend only on Pr and X, the eld u depends also

Hence, consistently with the thermal boundary condition, on K.

one has One can easily check that, for xed values of Pr, Eqs.

(13)(17) as well as the boundary conditions prescribed at

H x r cos #: 31

r=1

Following a procedure similar to that described in Section oH

3.1, one gets u 0; cos # 35

or

2 Gr undergo two fundamental symmetries

ur; # 21 r 1 r cos # ; 0 0 1

64Re ux ! u0x

0 1

b 16; ar; # 0: 32 x ! x B 0 C

B y!y C B uy ! u0y C

B C B C

This analytical solution for the vertical duct can be em- B C)B B u!u C C; 36

@ X ! X A B C

ployed as a benchmark to test the numerical solution @ H ! H A

procedure. K ! K

a!a

For u 5 0, the non-parallel laminar solution can be 0 0 1

obtained numerically by employing a Galerkin nite ele- 0 1 ux ! u0x

x!x B 0 C

ment method, implemented through the software package B y ! y C B uy ! u0y C

B C B C

Comsol Multiphysics ( Comsol, AB). Although the ow B C)B B u!u C C: 37

has a 3D nature due to the secondary ow in the xy-plane, @ X!X A B C

@ H ! H A

the numerical solution, based on Eqs. (13)(17), is obtained K ! K

by a purely 2D procedure. Eqs. (13)(17) reveal that the a!a

solution depends on four governing parameters: Re, Gr, On account of these symmetries, one can restrict the anal-

Pr and the tilt angle u. However, one can manage these ysis to positive values of both X and K.

parameters in order to hide the dependence on u. In fact, The Nusselt number can be dened as

the four governing parameters can be reduced to three by

2R0 q0 2

noticing that Eqs. (13)(17) depend only on Nu : 38

kT max T min Hmax Hmin

88 A. Barletta / Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow 29 (2008) 8393

It must be pointed out that the maximum and minimum Poiseuille prole. On the other hand, stronger dierences

values of H always occur on the duct wall r = 1. In the appear in the other three plots, where the ow reversal phe-

cases of parallel ow, dened either by Eqs. (19) and nomenon arises. The onset of ow reversal takes place next

(23)(30) or by Eq. (32), one has Nu = 1. Indeed, the con- to (r = 1, # = 3p/2), or (x = 0, y = 1). In fact, when

vective heat transfer between the hotter and the cooler K > 0, this position represents the coolest one for upward

parts of the duct wall is entirely due to the secondary ow. ow and the hottest one for downward ow. The value

of K corresponding to the onset of ow reversal can be eas-

4. Discussion of the results ily found out by checking the sign of ou/or evaluated at

(r = 1, # = 3p/2). On account of Eqs. (23), (27), (28), one

4.1. The parallel ow case (n = 0) infers that ow reversal takes place when

sented in Fig. 2. This gure displays plots of u(r, #) for dif-

ferent values of the governing parameter K. It is easily

veried that, for K = 50, the z-velocity prole presents a What happens in the case K < 0 is easily established from

maximum next to 2 and displays a not too marked asym- Eqs. (23), (27), (28), by noticing that the transformation,

metry with respect to rotations around the z-axis. In this

sense, it does not dier much from the isothermal ow K ! K; # ! # p; 40

A. Barletta / Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow 29 (2008) 8393 89

that, for K < 0, the onset of ow reversal takes place next Numerical solution (n = 1): comparison with the analytical benchmark

solution (in italic) for X ! 0 and Pr = 7

to (r = 1, # = p/2) for

K umax umin

K < 64: 41

50 2.24683 0.00000

2.24682 0.

2.73003 0.184723

The non-parallel ow is studied for a liquid with Pr = 7.

The computational domain is the dimensionless duct cross- 200 3.84788 1.21167

3.84800 1.21168

section, i.e. the unit circle. Seven structured meshes with an

increasing number of quadrangular elements from 1600 to 500 7.39422 4.73249

4900 are dened in this domain in order to test the grid 7.39431 4.73249

independence. Four quantities are monitored in order to

check the gridindependence: the maximum value umax 1000 13.3852 10.7200

13.3855 10.7200

and the minimum value umin of u, the value of the Nusselt

number Nu and the value of the quantity 2000 25.4017 22.7348

Z Z 2p 25.4018 22.7354

1 1 ru02

ek dr d# : 42

p 0 0 2 5000 61.4776 58.8119

61.4789 58.8123

The latter quantity represents the dimensionless kinetic en-

The numerical solution is obtained with X = 107.

ergy associated with the secondary ow and thus is indepen-

dent of K. The grid independence has been tested with

reference to a rather critical ow condition, namely quantity has a unique value for a vertical duct. Since this

X = 107 and K = 104. The results are compared in Table 1. special ow is a parallel one, the expected value of ek should

This table shows that the renements succeed in driving be zero. In fact, the numerically predicted value of ek is

the numerical simulations to convergence. The parameter rather small: 1019.

most aected by the grid renement is ek. However, the rel- In the following, the cases examined refer to 102 6

ative change of ek between the grid with 3600 elements and X 6 107 and 107 6 K 6 104. The choice K = 107 is a

that with 4900 elements (36% increase) is 0.03%, while the

other quantities umax, umin and Nu undergo changes around

0.005%. Moreover, the left hand side of Eq. (34) has values Table 3

lower than 2 1015 in all the cases examined, thus conrm- Numerical solution (n = 1): values of umax, umin, Nu and ek for Pr = 7

ing the validity of the guess b = 16. As a result of the grid X K = 107 K = 102 K = 103 K = 104

independence test, in the following, the mesh with 4096 ele- 10 2

umax 2.000 2.613 12.05 108.2

ments will be used. umin 0.000 0.1030 9.385 105.5

Another check on the reliability of the numerical code is Nu 1.106 1.106 1.106 1.106

ek 0.06339 0.06339 0.06339 0.06339

the comparison with the benchmark analytical solution

(Section 3.2) in the case of a vertical duct, X ! 0. Table 2 103 umax 2.000 2.258 7.605 63.72

umin 0.000 0.000 4.971 61.08

refers to dierent positive values of K and displays the cal-

Nu 1.705 1.705 1.705 1.705

culated values of umax and umin. As it is shown by this table, ek 0.6491 0.6491 0.6491 0.6491

the comparison between the numerical solution, obtained

104 umax 1.999 2.100 5.059 37.97

for X = 107, and the benchmark analytical solution reveals umin 0.000 0.000 2.440 35.34

a very good agreement, which, in most cases, holds for the Nu 2.668 2.668 2.668 2.668

rst 5 signicant digits. Being ek independent of K, this ek 2.608 2.608 2.608 2.608

105 umax 2.000 2.048 3.930 26.39

Table 1 umin 0.000 0.000 1.327 23.76

Numerical solution (n = 1): grid independence test with structured meshes Nu 3.854 3.854 3.854 3.854

having increasing renements, for X = 107, K = 104 and Pr = 7 ek 7.498 7.498 7.498 7.498

umin 0.000 0.000 0.6907 16.85

1600 elements 14.9298 12.2820 7.45612 56.2996

Nu 5.417 5.417 5.417 5.417

2025 elements 14.9330 12.2856 7.45412 56.2186

ek 20.54 20.54 20.54 20.54

2500 elements 14.9349 12.2867 7.45318 56.1743

3025 elements 14.9353 12.2875 7.45256 56.1484 107 umax 2.001 2.016 2.863 14.94

3600 elements 14.9353 12.2876 7.45229 56.1323 umin 0.000 0.000 0.3073 12.29

4096 elements 14.9357 12.2881 7.45212 56.1237 Nu 7.452 7.452 7.452 7.452

4900 elements 14.9359 12.2882 7.45195 56.1149 ek 56.12 56.12 56.12 56.12

90 A. Barletta / Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow 29 (2008) 8393

good approximation of the limit K ! 0, i.e. the limit of a tant features: the Nusselt number and the quantity ek are

horizontal duct. Table 3 displays the values of umax, umin, increasing functions of X; the onset of ow reversal (nega-

Nu and ek. It must be pointed out that both Nu and ek, tive values of umin) takes place with higher threshold values

being constructed from the elds u 0 and H, do not depend of K as X increases. Physically, an increasing value of X

on the governing parameter K. Table 3 reveals two impor- means a stronger secondary ow. This implies obviously

Fig. 3. Case n = 1. Plots of H (isotherms) and u 0 (proportional arrow plots) for dierent values of X.

A. Barletta / Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow 29 (2008) 8393 91

the increasing values of Nu and ek, but also the delayed able temperature dierences are present within the duct

onset of the ow reversal phenomenon, induced by the cross-section.

smaller temperature dierences in the duct cross-section. Table 3 shows that a horizontal duct (K = 107) displays

In fact, the ow reversal phenomenon is due to a su- values of umin and umax compatible with the Poiseuille

ciently intense buoyancy force that may cause locally a velocity prole, whatever is the value of X. This means that

uid ow in the direction opposite to the mean ow. This the coupling between the secondary ow and the axial ow

suciently intense buoyancy force arises when consider- induced by the convective derivative term in Eq. (16) has a

92 A. Barletta / Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow 29 (2008) 8393

negligible eect in this case. For all the values of X and K The dimensionless pressure drop in the axial direction,

considered in Table 3, the left hand side of Eq. (34) has val- b, is not inuenced by the buoyancy eect, i.e. it is inde-

ues lower than 4 1015. pendent of X and of K. The Nusselt number and the

The inuence of the parameters K and X on the velocity dimensionless kinetic energy ek associated to the second-

and temperature eld is also pointed out in Figs. 3 and 4. ary ow are both increasing functions of X.

Fig. 3 shows that, for lower values of X, the shape of the The coupling eect between the secondary ow and the

isotherms implies a mainly conductive heat transfer in the axial ow in the special case of a horizontal tube

x-direction, while a dominant thermal stratication in the (K ! 0) is induced only by the convective derivative

direction of g 0 (y-direction) occurs for higher values of X. term in the axial momentum balance and is rather small.

Fig. 3 shows also that the secondary ow is almost every- In fact, in all the cases examined, the axial velocity pro-

where directed in the #-direction, when X is small. On le for the horizontal tube has negligible dierences

the other hand, as X increases, stronger secondary ow from the isothermal Poiseuille prole.

occurs in the neighborhood of # = 0 and # = p, where

the maximum incoming and outgoing heat uxes are pre- Appendix A. Parallel ow for a clear uid

scribed. Fig. 4 reveals that the change in the shape of the

isotherms as X increases implies a displacement in the posi- In the following, it will be shown that the restrictive

tions of the maximum and minimum values of u. For assumption of an axially invariant temperature eld can

X = 102, the position of the maximum axial velocity corre- be released without altering the validity of the necessary

sponds to a value of # intermediate between 0 and p/2. For condition for parallel ow. Let us consider mixed convec-

X = 104, this position is denitely on the plane # = p/2. tion ow of a clear uid in an inclined duct, such that

The latter feature is connected to the thermal stratication the cross-section has an arbitrary shape. Let us choose a

in the direction of g 0 shown in Fig. 3. Cartesian coordinate frame (X, Y, Z) as in Section 2.

In the fully developed region, where

5. Conclusions oU o~.T ; T 0

0; 0; A:1

oZ oZ

Fully developed and laminar mixed convection in an

inclined circular tube has been analyzed. The thermal the mass, momentum and energy balance equations can be

boundary condition prescribed at the duct wall is a non- expressed according to the Boussinesq approximation as

axisymmetric heat ux varying sinusoidally in the angular $0 U0 0; A:2

direction. It has been shown that this thermal boundary 0 0 0 0 0 02 0

condition has a rather special feature: it can be made .0 U $ U ~.T ; T 0 g $ P lr U ; A:3

compatible with parallel ow by a proper setting of a oP

.0 U0 $0 U z ~.T ; T 0 gz lr02 U z ; A:4

switch parameter n. In fact, parallel ow in an inclined oZ

duct dierent from a parallel plane channel is an excep- oT o2 T

tion rather than a rule, and this thermal boundary condi- .0 cp $0 U0 T U z k r02 T 2 lU: A:5

oZ oZ

tion provides precisely the exception. A dierent tuning of

the switch parameter or, stated dierently, a (p/2)-rota- In Eqs. (A.1)(A.5), U represents the viscous dissipation

tion of the wall heat ux distribution restores the rule, function and ~.T ; T 0 .T .0 , where .(T) is the tem-

i.e. non-parallel ow. While, in the parallel ow case, perature-dependent mass density evaluated through the

the governing balance equations admit a simple analytical equation of state.

solution, the solution found in the non-parallel ow case If one assumes U 0 = 0, Eq. (A.3) yields

has been obtained following a numerical nite element ~.T ; T 0 g0 $0 P 0: A:6

procedure. This numerical solution has been found in 0

Since g is a constant vector, by evaluating the two-dimen-

the case Pr = 7, that means, approximately, water at

sional curl of both sides of Eq. (A.6), one obtains

room temperature. The main features of this solution

are the following: 0 $0 ~.T ; T 0 g0 $0 P g0 $0 ~.T ; T 0

g0 $0 .T b.T g0 $0 T : A:7

The secondary ow velocity and the temperature eld

depend on a unique parameter, X, whose value is deter- Eq. (A.7) ensures the validity of the parallel ow condition

mined by the uid properties and by the duct radius, by reported at the beginning of Section 2.

the amplitude of the wall heat ux distribution, q0, and

by the tilt angle, u. As a consequence, also the Nusselt Appendix B. Parallel ow in a DarcyForchheimer porous

number depends only on X. medium

The axial ow velocity component depends on X and on

another dimensionless parameter, K, that is determined The necessary condition for the occurrence of parallel

by the same quantities involved in the denition of X ow can be stated also in the case of stationary ow in a

as well as by the mass ow rate. uid-saturated porous medium. Let us consider mixed con-

A. Barletta / Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow 29 (2008) 8393 93

vection ow in an inclined duct lled with a porous med- local validity of the constraint g0 $0 T 0. The proof

ium, such that the cross-section has an arbitrary shape. coincides with that given in the preceding appendix. In-

Let us assume the validity of DarcyForchheimer law as deed, if the ow is parallel (U 0 = 0), Eq. (B.4) coincides

well as of the Boussinesq approximation, so that with Eq. (A.6).

l F.

U p0 jUjU $P ~

.T ; T 0 g; B:1

K K References

where K is the permeability of the medium and F is Forch-

Aung, W., 1987. Mixed convection in internal ow. In: Kakac, S., Shah,

heimer coecient. The velocity U represents the local aver- R.K., Aung, W. (Eds.), Handbook of Single-Phase Convective Heat

age velocity of the uid often called Darcy seepage velocity. Transfer. Wiley, New York (Chapter 15).

The local mass balance still implies that $ U 0 and the Barletta, A., 2005. On the existence of parallel ow for mixed convection

local energy balance equation is given by in an inclined duct. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer

48, 20422049.

l

.0 cp U $T ^kr2 T U2 ; B:2 Barletta, A., Zanchini, E., 1999. On the choice of the reference temperature

K for fully-developed mixed convection in a vertical channel. Interna-

tional Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 42, 31693181.

where ^k is the average thermal conductivity of the uid-sat-

Barletta, A., Zanchini, E., 2001. Mixed convection with viscous dissipa-

urated porous medium. As is well known, the term lU2/K tion in an inclined channel with prescribed wall temperatures.

on the right hand side of Eq. (B.2) represents the viscous International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44, 42674275.

dissipation contribution. Barletta, A., Lazzari, S., Zanchini, E., 2003. Non-axisymmetric forced and

In the fully developed region dened through Eq. (A.1), free ow in a vertical circular duct. International Journal of Heat and

Mass Transfer 46, 44994512.

the governing equations can be expressed as Buhler, K., 2003. Special solutions of Boussinesq-equations for free

$0 U0 0; B:3 convection ows in a vertical gap. Heat and Mass Transfer 39, 631

q 638.

l 0 F .0 0

U p U U02 U 2z $0 P ~ .T ;T 0 g0 ; B:4 Chamkha, A.J., Grosan, T., Pop, I., 2002. Fully developed free convection

K K of a micropolar uid in a vertical channel. International Communi-

q cations in Heat and Mass Transfer 29, 11191127.

l F. oP

U z p0 U z U02 U 2z ~ .T ;T 0 gz ; B:5 Lavine, A.S., 1988. Analysis of fully developed opposing mixed convection

K K oz between inclined parallel plates. Warme- und Stoubertragung 23,

oT o2 T l

249257.

.0 cp $0 U0 T U z ^k r02 T 2 U02 U 2z : Magyari, E., 2007. Normal mode analysis of the fully developed free

oZ oZ K convection ow in a vertical slot with open to capped ends. Heat and

B:6 Mass Transfer 43, 827832.

Weidman, P.D., 2006. Convection regime ow in a vertical slot:

It is easily shown that, as in the case of a free uid, the nec- continuum of solutions from capped to open ends. Heat and Mass

essary condition for the occurrence of parallel ow is the Transfer 43, 103109.

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