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www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt

ducts

G.J. Hwang a, S.C. Tzeng a, C.Y. Soong b,*

a

Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30043, ROC

b

Rotating Fluids and Vortex Dynamics Laboratory, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of

Technology,Taoyuan, Taiwan 33509, ROC

Received 29 October 1999; received in revised form 12 July 2000

Abstract

This study develops a novel technique of computer-aided parametric analysis (CAPA) to formulate simple corre-

lations for thermal ow characteristics in a complex convective ow system. To demonstrate the validity of the tech-

nique, fully developed mixed convection in uniformly heated horizontal ducts of square and circular cross-sections are

employed as illustrative examples. The eects of secondary ow generated by the thermal buoyancy force are included.

The CAPA technique employs characteristic quantities, constant factors and multi-term relationships to convert the

governing equations into a set of algebraic equations. Relatively, this technique generates more extensive results than

the conventional order-of-magnitude and scaling analyses. With the aid of limited data from numerical results (or

measurements), formulas for evaluating the cross-sectional averages of axial velocity and temperature, the strength of

secondary vortices, friction factors and the heat transfer rates at various Pr and ReRa can be derived. Comparisons of

the present results and the direct numerical solutions manifest quite satisfactory performance of the CAPA technique.

Merits of the CAPA technique are: (1) less eort required in the developing procedure, (2) clear parameter-dependence

of the thermal ow characteristics, and (3) convenience in using the resultant correlations of algebraic form. 2001

Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Computer-aided parametric analysis; Mixed convection; Duct ow; Secondary ow eect; Friction and heat transfer

correlations

Although the number of non-dimensional parameters

In the 17th century, Newton originated the concept depends on the number of governing dimensional vari-

of dynamical similarity. Forty years later, Euler was the ables and their rank of dimensional matrix, there are

rst who discussed unit and dimensions in physical re- many combinations of the dimensionless parameters.

lationships. In 1822, Fourier applied the geometrical Consequently, little progress has been made after the

concept of dimension to physical quantities in heat ow early stage of development.

problems. Near the end of the 19th century, Reynolds, In recent years, great progress has been made in

Rayleigh, and many other researchers [1] successfully numerical simulation of physics and engineering, but the

applied the idea of dimensional analysis. Vaschy in 1892, direct numerical computation of full NavierStokes

Riabouchinsky in 1911 and Buckingham [2,3] reported equations and the energy equation is still not cost-

the establishment of the PI method. Buckingham out- eective. In addition, even with a large amount of

numerical results, it is still not very easy to extract the

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +886-3-390-8102; fax: +886-3- parametric dependence and the physical senses involved.

389-1519. Therefore, simplication of the equations through

E-mail address: cysoong@ccit.edu.tw physical consideration is indispensable. Schlichting [4]

http://www.ccit.edu.tw/RFVDLab (C.Y. Soong). successfully applied an order-of-magnitude analysis

0017-9310/01/$ - see front matter 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 0 1 7 - 9 3 1 0 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 2 4 5 - 3

1858 G.J. Hwang et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 18571867

y and z directions or in r, / and z

A cross-sectional area (m2 ) directions

Ai ; A0i ; A00i constant factors, i 1; 2; . . . ; 6 X; Y;Z Cartesian coordinates (m)

C parameter C1 D3e =4lv Re=w x; y; z dimensionless Cartesian coordinates

C1 axial pressure gradient dPo =dZ

N=m3 Greek symbols

C2 axial temperature gradient oT =oZ a thermal diusivity m2 =s)

(K/m) b coecient of thermal expansion (1/K)

De equivalent hydraulic diameter 4A=S h dimensionless temperature difference

(m) T Tw =C2 De PrC

f friction factor 2sw =qW

2 l viscosity N s=m2

g gravitational acceleration (m=s2 ) m kinematic viscosity (m2 =s)

h average heat transfer coecient N; n dimensional and dimensionless vorticity

(W=m2 K) (unit of N is 1/s)

Kf thermal conductivity of uid (W/(m K)) q density kg=m3

Nu Nusselt number hDe =Kf sw wall shear stress N=m2

Po axial pressure distribution which is a W; w dimensional and dimensionless stream

function of Z only (N=m2 ) function (unit of W is m2 =s)

Pr Prandtl number m=a Superscript

q constant wall heat ux (W=m2 s) cross-sectionally averaged quantity

Ra Rayleigh number gbC2 D4e =ma

Re Reynolds number W De =m Subscripts

S circumference of cross-section (m) b bulk quantity

T local temperature (K) c characteristic quantity

Tw wall temperature (K) o condition for pure forced convection

U; V ; W velocity components in X, Y and Z di- q constant wall heat ux

rections or in R, / and Z directions (m/s) w wall condition

(OMA) to the boundary layer ow over a at plate. and rational correlation for buoyancy eects in rotation-

Cheng et al. [5] used the same technique to analyze induced mixed convection ow.

mixed convection ow in the thermal entrance region of The purpose of this study is to develop a technique of

horizontal rectangular channels. One can derive dimen- parametric analysis of mixed convection. By formulating

sionless parameters from the ratios of individual terms and solving a set of simple algebraic equations and in-

in the governing equations and the associate boundary voking the aid of less numerical solutions or experimental

conditions. However, the OMA technique derives no data, a functional relationship between thermal-ow

simple algebraic relations among these parameters. characteristics and the governing parameters can be

The technique of using a two-term relation from the formulated. In the cases considered in the present work,

physical similitude is known as scaling or scale analysis only two point data obtained by numerical computations

(SA). Bejan [6] applied this SA technique to various heat (or experimental data) are needed to determine the con-

transfer problems. Krane and Incropera [7] reported a stant factors in the correlation. To keep the complete

scaling analysis of the unidirectional solidication of a physical eects, in the present computer-aided parametric

binary alloy. Due to the ow complexity, the two-term analysis (CAPA) technique, all terms in the momentum

relationship from the physical similitude may not fully and energy balance equations are retained. Simple ex-

describe the mechanism of transport phenomena. The pressions of the secondary ow eects are also introduced

conventional scaling analysis deals with a simple ow into the correlation. Finally, a set of correlations for ow

system by comparing two terms in balance equations to and heat transfer characteristics of mixed convection

get the order-of-magnitude of certain physical quantity. with the presence of secondary ow can be completed.

For a complex ow problem, only some dimensionless

parameters can be resulted by this class of techniques.

Multiple-term relation would be more appropriate. In a 2. Basic equations

recent work by Soong and Chyuan [8], for example,

three and four terms of tangential and radial momentum The thermal uid ow considered in the present

equations, respectively, were used to develop concise study is steady and laminar in a hydrodynamically and

G.J. Hwang et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 18571867 1859

thermally fully developed region of a horizontal square Eqs. (1)(3) can be cast into the dimensionless form,

duct or a horizontal circular pipe. The axial pressure and

uon=ox von=oy r2 n RaCoh=ox; 6

temperature gradients are constant and the peripheral

wall temperature is uniform. Fig. 1(a) displays the

physical model and the coordinate system. In the present uow=ox vow=oy r2 w 4; 7

analysis, Cartesian coordinates system is applied to both

cases of square channel and circular pipe. The viscous Pruoh=ox voh=oy r2 h w; 8

dissipation and compressibility eects in the energy

and the vorticity and stream function relations, (4a) and

equation are neglected. The Boussinesq approximation

(4b), become

is assumed to be valid. After a cross-dierentiation in

cross-sectional plane, the governing equations for a n r2 w ov=ox ou=oy; 9a

thermal ow fully developed in Z direction [9] are u ow=oy; v ow=ox; 9b

written as

U oN=oX V oN=oY mr2 N bgoT =oX ; 1 where r2 o2 =ox2 o2 =oy 2 . The solution contains

two independent parameters RaC and Pr [9]. The value

of Pr ranges from 0 to 500 in the present study. Con-

U oW =oX V oW =oY 1=qoPo =oZ mr2 W ;

sequently, the boundary conditions at channel walls can

2 be written as

U oT =oX V oT =oY W oT =oZ ar2 T ; 3 ow=on w h 0; 10

where where n is a unit normal to the channel wall. The

2 boundary value of stream function at the channel walls

N r W oV =oX oU =oY ; 4a

is W 0. The symmetry condition is not assumed and

U oW=oY ; V oW=oX : 4b the computation is performed over the whole cross-

By employing the following dimensionless variables and section of the channel and it demonstrates that the ow

parameters, and temperature elds remain symmetric in the ranges of

RaC and Pr considered. In the present work, the nu-

x X =De ; y Y =De ; u UDe =m; merical solution of vorticityvelocity formulation, Eqs.

v VDe =m; w WDe =mC; (6)(8), (9a) and (9b), plays a complementary role to

h T Tw =C2 De PrC; C1 oPo =oZ; 5 support the development of CAPA. The PDE system is

discretized by utilizing the power-law scheme [10]. The

C2 oT =oZ; C C1 D3e =4ml;

boundaryvorticity method [11] is used to solve the

Ra gbC2 D4e =ma; Pr m=a; vorticity transport equation and the SIS algorithm [12] is

1860 G.J. Hwang et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 18571867

applied for solution of the resultant dierence equations. nitudes with governing parameters. Similar to the tech-

The iteration is terminated when the variables satisfy the niques of SA and OMA, the characteristic quantities are

criterion as used for representing the corresponding ow variables,

X and the ratios of characteristic quantities for the deriv-

n1

e Fi;n1 n 5

j Fi; j =Fi; j 6 5 10 ; atives in the governing equation. As shown in Table 1,

i; j

the CAPA technique introduces a positive or negative

where F represents W; n; w, and h. The subscripts i and j sign by considering the physical meaning of each term in

show the ith and the jth grid in x and y directions, re- the governing equation. On the contrary, the SA and

spectively. The superscript n indicates the nth iteration. OMA techniques do not consider any sign. The CAPA

The numerical errors are less than 0.12%, when using the technique also uses constant factors to make up the

mesh points of 41 41. The detailed procedure of nu- dierence in the magnitudes of the ratios of character-

merical solution has been given in the literature [9] and istic quantities and the derivatives. Finally, the PI

will not be repeated here. method shows only an unknown function with non-

After computation, C converts to the Reynolds dimensional parameters, the SA technique yields only

number Re W De =m by the relation C Re=w. Fol- dimensionless parameters, and the OMA technique

lowing the conventional denitions, the expressions for provides the dimensionless partial dierential equations

the friction parameter f Re and the Nusselt number Nu with non-dimensional parameters. The present CAPA

are technique will give a set of algebraic equations with

parameters. As seen in Table 1, the OMA and CAPA

2

f Re 2sw =qW W De =m 2=w; 11 techniques can fully describe the physics in the transport

phenomena of the problem. The present CAPA tech-

Nu hDe =Kf w=4wh=w; 12 nique dramatically simplies the process in solving a set

of algebraic equations instead of solving PDE with the

where w and wh are the cross-sectional averages evalu- OMA technique.

ated by using Simpson's rule.

3.2. Development of parametric analysis by CAPA

technique

3. CAPA technique

Consider the case of Pr 0:73 and RaC

3.1. Comparison of CAPA and other methods 105 ReRa 1:385 104 , Fig. 2(a) shows the dimen-

sionless isotherms and constant axial velocity lines and

Before developing the CAPA for the mixed convec- Fig. 2(b) shows the stream function and secondary ow

tion ows in ducts, a comparison of CAPA and other velocity vector on cross-plane of a square duct. To il-

techniques is to be presented rst. In the CAPA analysis, lustrate the CAPA technique, Fig. 2(c) shows the sche-

the parametric correlations are directly derived from the matic diagram for dimensional temperature and axial

governing equations and it is assumed that the proles velocity on the plane x 0:5. Fig. 2(d) depicts the sec-

of velocity components and temperature distribution ondary ow velocities on the planes x 0:25, x 0:75

remain unchanged in their shapes but changed in mag- and y 0:5. The present CAPA technique assumes that

Table 1

Comparison of PI method, SA, OMA and CAPA techniques

Characterstics Analysis

PI method SAa OMA CAPA

Sign NA + PDE

Factor NA Unit PDE Constant

TT relationb NA Oneone Oneone Multiple terms

Equation for N-D. Unknown function NAd PDEe Algebraic

parametersc

Physics in T.P.f No May be partially Fully Fully

a

SA: Scale analysis based on the book written by Bejan [6].

b

TT: Term to term.

c

N-D: Non-dimensional.

d

NA: Not applicable.

e

PDE: Partial dierential equation.

f

T.P.: Transport phenomena.

G.J. Hwang et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 18571867 1861

Fig. 2. Field and cross-sectional average properties of mixed convection at Pr 0:73 and RaC 105 in a square duct: (a) temperature

and axial velocity; (b) stream function and vector distributions; (c) averages or characteristic quantities of temperature and axial

velocity; (d) cross-sectional ow rate.

the temperature, axial velocity, and secondary ow for dependent and independent variables, the original

patterns in the ranges of parameters investigated do not PDEs are then turned into that of algebraic form. Each

deviate much from the ones shown in this gure. The term involves a constant factor in order to make up the

cross-sectional averages of temperature and the axial approximations. In a resultant equation of n terms, ac-

velocity, respectively, are considered as the characteristic tually, only n 1 terms need this kind of factors. For

temperature and axial velocity, and the maximum value example, with scales of the velocity components and

of the stream function on the cross-plane is used to their derivatives

characterize the total secondary ow rate.

U oW=oY Wc =De ; V oW=oX Wc =De ;

In working procedure of the CAPA technique, by

employing the properly dened characteristic quantities oW =oX Wc =De ;

1862 G.J. Hwang et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 18571867

2 2 N r2 W in Eq. (1). By substituting Tc Tw in

o W =oY Wc =D2e ;

Eq. (15b) into (16b) and introducing dimensionless

and the factors A04 and A004 , the terms in the axial mo- stream function w Wc =m and A2 A02 A5 , one has

mentum Eq. (2) can be expressed as A02 A5

A1 w2 w ReRa 0 17a

U oW =oX V oW =oY A04 Wc =De Wc =De ; 13a A6 Prw 1

1=qoPo =oZ C1 =q; 13b or

2

mr W A004 mWc =D2e : 13c A1 A6 Pr 2 1 A2

w3 w w ReRa 0:

Combining Eqs. (13a)(13c) with A4 A04 =A004 and A03 A1 A6 Pr A1 A6 Pr A1 A6 Pr

1=A004 , nally, one has an algebraic relation 17b

A4 A03 m 2 14a

De De q De a1

wM N as Q > 0;

3

or p 18

/ a1

C1 Wc m 2 Q cos as Q < 0;

Wc A03 A4 2 2 : 14b 3 3

q De De

where

It is seen that the inertia term of the original equation is

A1 A6 Pr 1 A2

replaced by A4 Wc =De Wc =De , in which the ratio Wc =De a1 ; a2 ; a3 ReRa;

stands for the mean secondary ow velocity U, Wc in- A1 A6 Pr A1 A6 Pr A1 A6 Pr

dicates the maximum value of stream function at vortex

center, Wc represents the mean axial velocity, and the 3a2 a21 9a1 a2 27a3 2a21

Q ; R ;

constant A4 makes up the dierence between the 9 54

magnitudes of U oW =oX V oW =oY and Wc =De q

p q

p

Wc =De . The rst term with a constant A03 on the RHS M

3

R Q3 R2 ; N

3

R Q3 R2 ;

of Eq. (14a) represents the pressure-gradient term. The

R

last one with a negative sign is for the viscous term. cos / p :

Eqs. (14a) and (14b) tells that the pressure gradient Q2

drives the ow and is balanced by the inertia force and

By employing the dimensionless mean velocity

the viscous force. This describes the physics of transport

w Wc De =mC and temperature h Tc Tw =C2 De PrC

phenomena.

and putting A3 4A03 , Eqs. (14b) and (15b) change to the

Following the procedure mentioned above, the en-

dimensionless forms,

ergy equation (3) is turned into

A3

Wc T c T w Tc Tw w ; 19

A6 A5 Wc C2 a 15a 1 A4 w

De De D2e

or A5 w

h : 20

1 A6 Prw

Wc a

Tc Tw A5 Wc C2 A6 2 2 15b

De De Instead of solving w shown in Eq. (18), one may also

solve it reversely by nding the value of ReRa in

where (Tc Tw ) indicates the mean temperature dier- Eq. (17a) and (17b) with an increment of w from the zero

ence between the uid and the wall. Thermal convection value, i.e.,

in the axial direction, A5 C2 Wc , is balanced by the

thermal convection, A6 Wc =De Tc Tw =De , and the ReRa A1 w 1 A1 A6 w2 A6 Prw3 =A2 : 21

heat conduction, aTc Tw =D2e .

For the vorticity transport equation (1), one has With this value of w, one may obtain the dimensionless

mean axial velocity w and mean temperature dierence h

Wc 1 Wc Wc Tc Tw

A1 m 4 A02 bg 16a from Eqs. (19) and (20) for the corresponding ReRa.

De De D2e De De Following the conventional denitions of f Re in

or Eq. (11), one can readily obtain the ratio of friction

factors as

D3e

A1 W2 W A02 bgTc Tw 0: 16b f Re=f Reo 1 A4 w; 22

m2

G.J. Hwang et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 18571867 1863

0m A02 bg : 28

For the denition of Nu in Eq. (12), the mixed mean D4e De

temperature dierence wh=w is the same as the mean

temperature dierence, h in the CAPA technique. Con- By substituting Tc Tw of Eq. (5) into (8), one has

sequently, the Nusselt number relation is 1 A2

w2 w ReRa 0: 29

A6 Pr A6 Pr

Nu=Nuo 1 A6 Prw; 23

Then one has a positive solution for w,

where Nuo is the Nusselt number for w 0. Eqs. (22) s

and (23) give simple expressions of the eects of sec- 1 1 A2

ondary ow on the friction factor and Nusselt number, w ReRa: 30

2A6 Pr 4A26 Pr2 A6 Pr

respectively. The present expressions (22) and (23) are

disclosed in the literature for the rst time. The value of stream function will be zero for nite ReRa

and Pr ! 1. The zero limiting value can be observed

3.3. Limiting case of Pr ! 0 also from Eq. (17b). The ratio of friction factors in

Eq. (22) yields

For the case of Pr ! 0, the thermal convection in the

f Re

ow direction is balanced by the conductive heat 1 A4 w

transfer in the cross-sectional plane. The convection f Reo

term in the cross-sectional plane is not important. By A4 p

1 1 4A2 A6 PrReRa 1 1:0

using the characteristic quantities, the energy equation 2A6 Pr

becomes 31

Tc Tw

A5 Wc C2 a 24a for an innite Prandtl number. The ratio of Nusselt

D2e number becomes

r

or Nu 1 1

1 A6 Prw A2 A6 PrReRa: 32

a Nuo 2 4

Tc Tw A5 Wc C2 : 24b

D2e

The constant factors can be determined by using a few

By substituting Tc Tw into the vorticity transport data from numerical solutions of the governing PDEs

equation (16b), one has (or the measurements if available). For w 0 at

ReRa 0, the numerical data of pure forced convection

A1 w2 w A2 ReRa 0: 25 determine A3 and A5 . For a given Pr and ReRa, the

mixed convection data determine A4 and A6 . However,

This equation can be obtained readily by multiplying in the present study, the values of ReRa are chosen by

Eq. (17b) by A1 A6 Pr and putting Pr 0. The solution for considering the minimum percentage RMS error at 11

positive w is points over the range of ReRa. Tables 2 and 3 list the

s factors Ai ; i 1; 2; . . . ; 6 for Pr 0500.

1 1 A2

w 2

ReRa: 26

2A1 4A1 A1

4. Results and discussion

The ratio of friction factors can be written as a function

of ReRa. In the present study, the CAPA technique yields

f Re simple correlations for combined free and forced lami-

1 A4 w

f Reo nar convection in ducts for Prandtl number ranging

A4 p from 0 to 500 and ReRa 0 to around 1 105 . It covers

1 1 4A1 A2 ReRa 1 : 27 the liquid metal for small Pr, gases, water, and engine

2A1

oils for large Pr. The CAPA technique provides a

Note that the Nusselt number ratio is Nu=Nuo 1:0 method to derive simple and accurate correlation for-

for Pr 0. mulas of a complex thermal uid ow with the support

of only few data from numerical calculations or exper-

3.4. Limiting case of Pr ! 1 imental measurements.

To demonstrate the eectiveness of the CAPA tech-

In the case of large Prandtl number, Pr ! 1, the nique, ow pattern of one pair of counter-rotating

buoyancy force is balanced by the viscous force in the vortices in mixed convection duct ows is selected. The

vorticity transport equation (16a), i.e., value of the stream function is zero on the square

1864 G.J. Hwang et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 18571867

Table 2

The corresponding factors for mixed convection in a horizontal square ducta

Factors Prandtl No. (Pr)

0 0.01 0.1 0.73 7.2 100 500

2 2 2 1

A1 1:632 10 1:846 10 2:165 10 1:128 10 1.759 40.977

A2 5:560 105 5:560 105 5:563 105 5:561 105 5:570 105 5:577 105 5:573 105

A4 1:362 102 3:431 102 4:347 102 4:761 102 2:434 102 2:541 102 2:581 102

A6 8:776 101 1:080 101 9:529 102 8:906 102 8:645 102 7:992 102

a

A3 1:404 101 and A5 4:820 102 for all Prandtl numbers. These factors are evaluated at ReRa 14:0 and 10,444.3 for

Pr 0, ReRa 14:0 and 33,094.6 for Pr 0:01, ReRa 14:0 and 61,807.5 for Pr 0:1, ReRa 14:0, and 91,591.5 for Pr 0:73,

ReRa 14:0, and 68,603.4 for Pr 7:2, ReRa 14:0, and 10,532.6 for Pr 100, and ReRa 1:4 and 140.2 for Pr 500.

Table 3

The corresponding factors for mixed convection in a horizontal circular ducta

Factors Prandtl No. (Pr)

0 0.01 0.1 0.73 7.2 100 500

2 2 2 1

A1 6:909 10 6:951 10 7:482 10 1:685 10 2.172 3.408

A2 7:743 104 7:736 104 7:736 104 7:782 104 7:791 104 7:750 104 7:750 104

A4 5:138 102 6:174 102 6:509 102 4:188 102 1:262 102 1:044 102 1:038 102

A6 1.870 3:124 101 8:940 102 5:248 102 4:177 102 3:577 102

a

A3 4:921 101 and A5 1:903 101 for all Prandtl numbers. These factors are evaluated at ReRa 49:2 and 4054.5 for Pr 0,

ReRa 49:2 and 4153.9 for Pr 0:01, ReRa 49:2 and 4166.7 for Pr 0:1, ReRa 49:2, and 92,182.8 for Pr 0:73, ReRa 49:2, and

4804.3 for Pr 7:2, ReRa 49:2, and 349.7 for Pr 100, and ReRa 49:3 and 147.8 for Pr 500.

it is maximum in the sense of absolute value at the center

of counter-rotating vortices. The maximum value of the

stream function may be regarded as the secondary ow

rate of one of the vortices. It is seen that the stream

function is a signicant variable in the present para-

metric analysis. The relationships of the stream function

and ReRa to the Prandtl number in the range Pr 0500

are plotted in Fig. 3. The results show that the stream

function of CAPA ts well with the numerical solutions.

The RMS of the percentage error is about 2.79% for

Pr 0:73. The errors for the other Prandtl number are

also shown in Fig. 3.

To illustrate the accuracy of the technique on the

mean axial velocity, the numerical solution is used to

obtain A3 and A4 in Eq. (19). In Fig. 4, comparison of

the mean axial velocity with the numerical solution is

made for various Prandtl numbers. A maximum of

0.58% dierence from the numerical solution for

Pr 0:73 is observed. The dierences for the other Fig. 3. Comparison between w predicted by CAPA and nu-

Prandtl numbers are also shown in Fig. 4. merical solutions for mixed convection in a square duct.

The temperatures with ReRa for Pr 0500 are

shown in Fig. 5. The results of the simple algebraic

equation of the CAPA technique agree well with nu- with RMS dierence in percentage. The maximum dif-

merical predictions. With the CAPA technique, the ference between the CAPA results and the numerical

ratios of friction factor and Nusselt number can be ex- predictions is 0.65% for Pr 0:73. Fig. 7 shows the

pressed by Eqs. (22) and (23), respectively. Fig. 6 shows comparisons of the evaluated buoyancy eects on heat

the friction parameter f Re=f Reo for Pr 0500 transfer performance. It is noted that, as Nu=Nuo is

G.J. Hwang et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 18571867 1865

Fig. 4. Comparison between w predicted by CAPA and nu-

CAPA and numerical solutions for mixed convection in a

merical solutions for mixed convection in a square duct.

square duct.

Fig. 7. Comparison between Nu=Nuo predicted by CAPA and

merical solutions for mixed convection in a square duct.

numerical solutions for mixed convection in a square duct.

dierent Pr get close to each other and show weak

Pr-dependence. The RMS dierences of Nu=Nuo A technique of CAPA has been developed for de-

are slightly larger than those of f Re=f Reo . This is riving simple and quite accurate formulas with the aid of

due to an over-simplication of the non-linear term only few numerical data for a complex convective ow

wh=w to h. system. The CAPA technique formulates a set of alge-

The corresponding results for circular ducts are braic equations from the original conservative equations

shown in Figs. 8 and 9, respectively. These two gures with considerations of multi-term relationships, physical

demonstrate that the correlations (22) and (23) are also meaning, sign and scale of each term, and proper

available to the mixed convection in circular ducts. For constant factors for approximation. It is much easier

clarity, the value of ReRa is used in Fig. (9). to solve the resultant algebraic equations of the

1866 G.J. Hwang et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 18571867

These two simple correlation equations have not been

reported in the literature yet. The maximum deviation

between the correlations and the numerical data is no

more than a few percent for Pr 0 to 500 and ReRa

01 105 .

For limiting cases of Pr ! 0 and Pr ! 1, the ratios

of friction factor and Nusselt number can be written

explicitly in terms of ReRa or PrReRa in Eqs. (27), (31)

and (32). These equations provide an ecient evalua-

tion of the ow and heat transfer results ReRa or

PrReRa. Finally, we have complete correlations for

ow and heat transfer characteristics of mixed con-

vection in the presence of secondary ow, which are

not possible to obtain by use of conventional scaling

analysis.

With proper considerations, the CAPA technique

could be extended to the thermal ow in rectangular

Fig. 8. Comparison between f Re=f Reo predicted by channels of aspect ratio other than unity. However, it

CAPA and numerical solutions for mixed convection in a cir-

should be noted that the present version of CAPA still

cular duct.

has some restrictions. It is not appropriate for the ows

involving pure three-dimensionality, unsteadiness or

turbulence at very high Re and/or very high Ra. To

implement the CAPA technique for analysis of the

above-mentioned complex ows is a challenge but

worthwhile work.

References

1964.

[2] E. Buckingham, On physically similar systems: illustrations

of the use of dimensional equations, Phys. Rev. 4 (1914)

345376.

[3] E. Buckingham, Model experiments and the form of

empirical equation, Trans. ASME 37 (1915) 263296.

[4] H. Schlichting, Boundary Layer Theory, seventh ed.,

McGraw-Hill, New York, 1979.

[5] K.C. Cheng, S.W. Hong, G.J. Hwang, Buoyancy eects on

Fig. 9. Comparison between Nu=Nuo predicted by CAPA and laminar heat transfer in the thermal entrance region of

numerical solutions for mixed convection in a circular duct. horizontal rectangular channels with uniform wall heat ux

for large Prandtl number, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 15

(1972) 18191836.

[6] A. Bejan, Heat Transfer, Wiley, New York, 1993.

characteristic quantities than to solve the original system [7] M.J.M. Krane, F.P. Incropera, A scaling analysis of the

of partial dierential equations. unidirectional solidication of a binary alloy, Int. J. Heat

In the present study, the CAPA technique has been Mass Transfer 39 (1996) 35673579.

implemented to yield simple correlations for the laminar [8] C.Y. Soong, C.H. Chyuan, Investigation of buoyancy

eects in non-isothermal rotating ows by scaling analysis

fully developed mixed convection in horizontal square

and a novel similarity model, Chin. J. Mech. 14 (1998) 193

and circular ducts for Prandtl numbers from 0 to 500

207.

and ReRa 01 105 . The range of Prandtl numbers [9] F.C. Chou, G.J. Hwang, Combined free and forced

includes the liquid metal of small Pr, gases, water, and laminar convection in horizontal rectangular channels for

engine oils of large Pr. By the CAPA technique, the high ReRa, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 62 (1984) 830836.

ratio of cross-sectional (peripheral) averages of friction [10] S.V. Patankar, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow,

factor, f Re=f Reo 1 A4 w, and the ratio of McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.

G.J. Hwang et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 18571867 1867

[11] G.J. Hwang, K.C. Cheng, Boundary vorticity method for [12] S.L. Lee, A strongly implicit solver for two-dimension

convective heat transfer with secondary ow application to elliptic dierential equations, Numer. Heat Transfer B 16

the combined free and forced laminar convection in (1989) 161178.

horizontal tubes, in: Proceedings of the Fourth Inter- [13] M.R. Spiegel, Mathematical Handbook of Formulas and

national Heat Transfer Conference, Versailles, Paris, vol. 4, Tables, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968, pp. 3233.

Paper No. NC3.5, 1970.

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