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International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497

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Analysis of ow reversal for laminar mixed convection in a


vertical rectangular duct with one or more isothermal walls
A. Barletta *
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Energetica, Nucleare e del Controllo Ambientale (DIENCA), Universit
a di Bologna. Viale Risorgimento 2,
I-40136 Bologna, Italy
Received 12 April 2000; received in revised form 11 November 2000

Abstract
An investigation of laminar and fully developed mixed convection in a vertical rectangular duct is presented. The
analysis refers to thermal boundary conditions such that at least one of the four duct walls is kept isothermal. The
evaluation of the velocity eld and of the temperature eld is performed analytically. The limiting case of free con-
vection, i.e. the case of pure buoyancy-driven ow, is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the following sets of
thermal boundary conditions: (A) two facing duct walls are kept isothermal with dierent temperatures and the others
are kept insulated; (B) two facing duct walls have a uniform wall heat ux and the others are kept isothermal with the
same temperature. In both cases, the conditions for the onset of ow reversal are obtained. The friction factor is
evaluated. It is shown that this parameter depends only on the duct aspect ratio in case (A), while it depends also on the
ratio between the Grashof number and the Reynolds number in case (B). 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights
reserved.
Keywords: Laminar ow; Mixed convection; Rectangular duct; Analytical methods

1. Introduction boundary conditions, namely an axially uniform wall


heat ux and a peripherally uniform wall temperature.
Several analyses of heat transfer in ducts with non- Iqbal et al. [3] present an analysis of combined forced
circular cross section are available in the literature. In and free ow in vertical ducts such that the shape of the
most cases, the studies in this eld are stimulated by the cross section is a regular polygon. This study includes
need for enhancing heat transfer, for instance in the square ducts and refers to H1 and H2 boundary con-
design of compact heat exchangers or of solar collectors. ditions. The latter boundary condition applies to a duct
A wide literature refers to the simplest non-circular with both axially and peripherally uniform wall heat
ducts, i.e., parallel-plate and rectangular ducts. Hartnett ux. A numerical solution for fully developed mixed
and Kostic [1] provide a very deep review of the most convection in an inclined rectangular duct is provided
important results on heat transfer in rectangular ducts, for H1 boundary conditions in a paper by Ou et al. [4].
both for forced and for mixed convection ows. One of More recently, Aparecido and Cotta [5] develop an in-
the rst theoretical analyses of laminar convection in vestigation of laminar forced convection in the thermal
rectangular ducts can be found in Han [2]. In this paper, entrance region of a rectangular duct with uniform wall
one can nd an analytical solution of momentum and temperature, by employing a generalized integral trans-
energy balance equations in the case of fully developed form technique. Nonino and Del Giudice [6] provide a
mixed convection in a rectangular duct with H1 numerical study of laminar mixed convection in the
entrance region of a horizontal rectangular duct with an
arbitrary combination of uniformly heated and adia-
*
Tel.: +39-51-2093-295; fax: +39-51-2093-296. batic sides of the rectangle. Gao and Hartnett [7,8]
E-mail address: antonio.barletta@mail.ing.unibo.it (A. present analyses of fully developed forced convection in
Barletta). a rectangular duct which refer either to laminar ow of a

0017-9310/01/$ - see front matter 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 0 1 7 - 9 3 1 0 ( 0 1 ) 0 0 0 1 6 - 3
3482 A. Barletta / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497

Nomenclature u average value of u x; y in the region


f0 < x < 1; 0 < y < r=2g
a; b length of the rectangle sides U Z-component of the uid velocity
C1 r; C2 r functions dened by Eqs. (29) and (58), U0 mean uid velocity in a duct section
respectively x; y dimensionless coordinates dened in
D 2ab=a b, hydraulic diameter Eq. (8)
f Fanning friction factor, dened in X; Y;Z rectangular coordinates
Eq. (16) w arbitrary real variable employed in
F x; y arbitrary function Eqs. (24) and (25)
g magnitude of the gravitational
a thermal diusivity
acceleration
b volumetric coecient of thermal
Gr Grashof number, dened in Eq. (8)
expansion
Gr=Rerev threshold value of Gr=Re for the onset
of ow reversal DT reference temperature dierence
k thermal conductivity g dimensionless parameter dened in
n; m positive integers Eq. (8)
M arbitrary real number employed in h dimensionless temperature, t g
Eqs. (24) and (56) k dimensionless parameter dened in
p pressure Eq. (8)
P dierence between the pressure and the l dynamic viscosity
hydrostatic pressure m kinematic viscosity, l=q0
qw wall heat ux q mass density
Re Reynolds number, dened in Eq. (8) q0 mass density for T T0
t dimensionless temperature dened in r aspect ratio dened in Eq. (8)
Eq. (8) sw;m average wall shear stress
T temperature
T0 mean temperature in a duct section Superscripts
T1 ; T2 wall temperatures  nite Fourier sine transform dened by
u dimensionless velocity dened in Eq. (8) Eq. (48)
u dimensionless velocity dened in  double nite Fourier sine transform
Eq. (31) dened by Eq. (18)

power-law uid [7] or to slug ow [8]. Both these papers the eight fundamental H2 boundary conditions consid-
investigate the eight fundamental combinations of uni- ered by Gao and Hartnett [7,8].
formly heated and adiabatic sides of the rectangle. By As is well known, the parallel-plate channel is a
means of an implicit nite dierence scheme, Chung et al. limiting case of a rectangular duct with a very small
[9] investigate thermally-developing forced convection in aspect ratio. Several investigations of the fully developed
a rectangular duct with laminar ow and H2 boundary mixed convection in vertical or inclined parallel-plate
conditions. Spiga and Morini [10] yield an extension of channels either with uniform and unequal wall temper-
the treatment proposed by Gao and Hartnett [8] in order atures [1417] or with uniform wall heat uxes [15,16]
to determine analytically the developing Nusselt number are available in the literature. These theoretical studies
and the thermal entrance length. By employing the are mainly concerned with the modications of the ve-
vorticityvelocity formulation, Lee [11] presents a nu- locity proles induced by the buoyancy eect, with a
merical investigation of buoyancy-induced heat and special interest for the conditions which lead to ow
mass transfer in a vertical rectangular duct such that reversal. Indeed, ow reversal occurs when the buoyancy
three sides are adiabatic, while the fourth is either iso- force is so strong that there exists a domain within the
thermal or isoux. A theoretical investigation of buoy- duct where the uid velocity has a direction opposite to
ancy induced ow in the fully developed region of a the mean uid ow. As a consequence, in the fully de-
vertical rectangular duct with two isothermal walls and veloped region, the conditions for ow reversal are de-
two adiabatic walls has been performed by McBain [12]. termined when one obtains the threshold value of the
In a recent paper [13], the eect of viscous dissipation on ratio between the Grashof number Gr and the Reynolds
slug ow heat transfer in the thermal entrance region of number Re beyond which the phenomenon of ow re-
rectangular ducts has been analysed with reference to versal takes place.
A. Barletta / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497 3483

The aim of the present paper is to improve the ana- velocity eld is solenoidal, it is easily inferred that U
lyses performed in the case of vertical parallel-plate cannot depend on Z. As a consequence, the momentum
channels [1416], by investigating the fully developed balance equations along the directions X, Y and Z yield
mixed convection in vertical rectangular ducts. More oP oP
precisely, the temperature and velocity elds as well as 0; 0; 1
oX oY
the friction factor will be evaluated analytically for a
given value of Gr=Re, with reference to thermal  2 
oP o U o2 U
boundary conditions such that at least one of the four q0 gbT T0 l 0; 2
sides of the duct is kept isothermal. Then, the conditions oZ oX 2 oY 2
for the onset of ow reversal will be determined. Special where P p q0 gZ is the dierence between the
attention will be devoted to a pair of sample cases: (A) pressure and the hydrostatic pressure. The reference
two facing sides are isothermal with dierent tempera- temperature T0 , which appears in Eq. (2), should ensure
tures and the others are insulated; (B) two facing sides the best conditions for the validity of the linear relation
have a uniform wall heat ux and the others are iso- between the local mass density and the local tempera-
thermal with the same temperature. Finally, the limiting ture
case of pure buoyancy-driven ow, i.e., free convection,
will be investigated. q q0 1 bT T0 : 3

The usual structure of the Boussinesq approximation


can be maintained even if the reference temperature T0 is
2. Governing equations varying in the streamwise direction. Indeed, in that case,
one neglects the change of q0 in the streamwise direction.
In this section, the set of balance equations governing The latter assumption is Morton's hypothesis [18,19]
the combined forced and free ow in a vertical rectan- and is widely employed in the literature, whenever the
gular duct is written in a dimensionless form. thermal boundary conditions are such that a net heating
Let us consider the steady laminar ow of a New- or cooling of the uid occurs.
tonian uid in a vertical rectangular duct with innite As is discussed in [20], the requirement that T0 must
length. Moreover, let us assume that the Boussinesq yield the smallest errors in the use of Eq. (3) is fullled if
approximation holds and that the viscous dissipation as the reference temperature T0 coincides with the mean
well as the temperature changes of the thermal con- temperature in a duct section, i.e.
ductivity k and of the dynamic viscosity l can be ne- Z a Z b
glected. A drawing of the system examined and of the 1
T0 dX dY T : 4
coordinate axes is reported in Fig. 1. Let us assume that ab 0 0
the ow is parallel, i.e. that the only non-vanishing
component of the velocity eld is the Z-component, U. Eq. (1) implies that P depends only on Z. If Eq. (2) is
Since the Boussinesq approximation implies that the derived with respect to Z, one obtains
oT dT0 1 d2 P
: 5
oZ dZ q0 gb dZ 2

By employing Eq. (4), Eq. (5) allows one to conclude


that dP =dZ is a constant and that oT =oZ coincides with
dT0 =dZ. As a consequence, the energy balance equation
can be expressed as
 2 
dT0 o T o2 T d2 T0
U a : 6
dZ oX 2 oY 2 dZ 2

Moreover, one can easily infer that oT =oZ depends


neither on X nor on Y, i.e., the quantity oT =oZ is uni-
form in a duct section. Therefore, if at least one of the
duct walls is isothermal, then oT =oZ vanishes identically.
In the following, it will be assumed that one or more
duct walls are kept isothermal with a temperature T1 , so
that oT =oZ 0. Under this hypothesis, Eq. (6) can be
rewritten as
o2 T o2 T
0: 7
Fig. 1. Drawing of the duct and of the coordinate axes. oX 2 oY 2
3484 A. Barletta / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497
Z r Z
The balance equations can be expressed in a dimen- 2sw;m 1 2r ou r
ou
f dy dy
sionless form by introducing the quantities: q0 U02 Re 1 r2 0 ox x0 0 ox x1
Z 1 Z 1 #
T0 T U X Y ou ou
t ; u ; x ; y ; dx dx : 16
DT U0 a a 0 oy y0 0 oy yr

b U0 D gbDTD3
r ; Re ; Gr ; If one performs a double integration of both sides of Eq.
a m m2
T1 T0 2
a dP (10) with respect to x in the interval 0 6 x 6 1 and with
g ; k : 8 respect to y in the interval 0 6 y 6 r, by employing Eqs.
DT lU0 dZ
(12) and (16), one obtains the following relation between
In Eq. (8), D 2ab=a b is the hydraulic diameter the parameters f and k
and the mean velocity U0 is dened as 2r2
Z a Z b f Re k: 17
1 1 r2
U0 dX dY U ; 9
ab 0 0 The solution of Eqs. (10)(14) together with a suitable
set of thermal boundary conditions yields the functions
while DT is a reference temperature dierence. The latter
ux; y and tx; y as well as the parameters k and g. More
quantity can be properly xed once the thermal
precisely, Eqs. (10)(14) show that one can rst deter-
boundary conditions have been chosen.
mine tx; y by solving Eq. (11) with given thermal
On account of Eqs. (2), (7) and (8), the momentum
boundary conditions. Then, Eq. (12) can be employed to
balance equation and the energy balance equation can
obtain g. By substituting tx; y in Eq. (10) and by
be expressed as
utilizing the boundary conditions expressed by Eq. (14),
o2 u o2 u 1 r2 Gr one determines the function ux; y. Finally, the con-
t k; 10 straint given by Eq. (13) allows one to nd out the
ox2 oy 2 4r2 Re
parameter k.
It should be pointed out that, for every choice of the
o2 t o2 t thermal boundary conditions, Eqs. (11) and (12) ensure
0: 11
ox2 oy 2 that the dimensionless temperature eld tx; y is inde-
pendent of the dimensionless velocity eld ux; y. In
Additional constraints fullled by the functions tx; y particular, the evaluation of tx; y can be performed
and ux; y are provided by Eqs. (4) and (9), namely through the solution of a stationary and two-dimen-
Z 1 Z r
sional heat conduction problem.
dx dy t 0; 12
0 0
3. Evaluation of the velocity eld
Z 1 Z r
dx dy u r: 13 In this section, the dimensionless velocity eld ux; y
0 0 is evaluated under the assumption that the dimension-
less temperature eld tx; y has been previously ob-
The velocity eld fulls no-slip boundary conditions at
tained.
the duct walls. As a consequence, the boundary con-
Let us assume that the rst steps of the solution
ditions satised by the dimensionless velocity eld can
procedure of Eqs. (10)(14) have been performed, so
be expressed as
that tx; y and g have been determined. Then, the di-
ux; 0 ux; r u0; y u1; y 0: 14 mensionless velocity eld ux; y can be obtained by
employing the nite Fourier transforms method. In
The average wall shear stress with respect to the particular, the double nite Fourier sine transform of an
perimeter of the duct is dened as arbitrary function F x; y in the domain 0 6 x 6 1,
Z b Z b 0 6 y 6 r is dened as [21]
l oU oU Z 1 Z r  mpy 
sw;m dY dY 
2a b 0 oX X 0 0 oX X a F n; m dx dy F x; y sinnpx sin ;
Z a Z a  0 0 r
oU oU
dX dX : 15 18
oY 0 oY Y 0 0 Y b
where n and m are positive integers. On account of the
On account of Eq. (15), the Fanning friction factor is properties of the nite Fourier transforms widely dis-
given by cussed in [21] and of the boundary conditions given by
A. Barletta / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497 3485
 
Eq. (14), Eq. (10) can be rewritten as an algebraic p coshMpw 1=2
1
equation, namely 4M 2 coshMp=2
  X1
sin2n 1pw
m2  1 r2 Gr  ; 24
p2 n2 2 u t 2n 1M 2 2n 12
r 4r2 Re n1
r
k 1 1n 1 1m : 19 X
1
nmp2 p3 sin2n 1pw
w1 w : 25
 8 n1 2n 13
Eq. (19) allows the evaluation of un; m, one obtains
As a consequence of Eqs. (24) and (25), the double in-
 kr3 1 1n 1 1m
un; m nite sum on the right-hand side of Eq. (23) can be
nmp4 r2 n2 m2 written as a single innite sum either as

Gr 1 r2 t n; m 4k X1
: 20 ux; yjGr=Re!0
Re 4p2 r2 n2 m2 p3 n1
 

Once the transform un; m has been determined, the cosh2n 1py r=2
 1
dimensionless velocity ux; y can be evaluated by em- cosh2n 1pr=2
ploying the inversion formula [21] sin2n 1px k
 x1 x
 mpy  2n 13 2
4X 1 X 1 
F x; y F n; m sinnpx sin : 21 4k X1
cosh2n 1py r=2
r m1 n1 r
p3 n1 2n 13 cosh2n 1pr=2
By substituting Eq. (20) in Eq. (21), one is led to the  sin2n 1px; 26a
expression
or as
16r2 k
ux;y 4 4r2 k X 1
1
p ux; yjGr=Re!0
X1 X 1 p n1 2n 13
3
sin2n 1px  
 coshx 1=22n 1p=r
m1 n1 2n 12m 1r2 2n 12 2m 12  1
  cosh2n 1p=2r
2m 1py 1 r2  
 sin 2n 1py k
r p2 r  sin yr y
 r 2
Gr X 1 X 1
t n;m  mpy 
 sinnpxsin : 4r2 k X
1
coshx 1=22n 1p=r
Re m1 n1 r n m
2 2 2 r 
p3 n1 2n 13 cosh2n 1p=2r
22  
2n 1py
 sin : 26b
In the limit Gr=Re ! 0, the velocity ux; y tends to co- r
incide with the rst term on the right-hand side of Eq.
(22), namely The expression which appears in Eq. (26a) agrees with
2
the classical mathematical form of the dimensionless
16r k
ux; yjGr=Re!0 velocity for fully developed isothermal ow in a rec-
p4 tangular duct available, for instance, in [23]. Although
1 X
X 1
sin2n 1px
 Spiga and Morini [22] emphasize the very fast conver-
m1 n1 2n 12m 1r2 2n 12 2m 12 gence of the double series expression given by Eq. (23), it
  is quite obvious that both the single series expression
2m 1py
 sin : 23 which appears in Eq. (26a) and that which appears in
r
Eq. (26b) converge faster and, as a consequence, are
The dimensionless velocity distribution expressed by preferable.
Eq. (23) occurs in the absence of buoyancy forces, i.e., In [22], a table with values in the limit Gr=Re ! 0 of
in the case of forced convection. The expression of the the ratio ux; y=k at dierent positions in the duct cross-
dimensionless velocity eld given by Eq. (23) is equal section is reported for r 1. A comparison between
to the one obtained in the case of isothermal ow by these values and those evaluated by employing Eq. (26a)
Spiga and Morini [22]. On the other hand, by em- is performed in Table 1. This table shows that the rela-
ploying Fourier series expansions in the interval tive discrepancy ranges from 0.29% to 0.64%. Since
0 6 w 6 1, the following mathematical identities are analytical solutions are involved, these relative discrep-
easily proved: ancies are not so small. This circumstance is somewhat
3486 A. Barletta / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497

Table 1 Eq. (28), the latter condition implies that the friction
Values of ux; y=k for Gr=Re ! 0 and r 1 factor is not aected by buoyancy, i.e., that fRe does not
x; y ux; y=k evalu- ux; y=k depend on Gr=Re.
ated by Eq. (26a) Ref. [22] As a consequence of Eq. (28), in the special case of
(0.5, 0.5) 0.07367135 isothermal ow, i.e., in the limit Gr=Re ! 0, the friction
(0.5, 0.75) (0.75, 0.5) 0.05733491 0.05750080 factor is given by
(0.6, 0.6) 0.06874431 24
(0.6, 0.75) (0.75, 0.6) 0.05549793 0.05566930 f RejGr=Re!0
1 r2
(0.75, 0.75) 0.04528616 ( ) 1
(0.85, 0.75) (0.75, 0.85) 0.03236660 0.03252332 192r X
1
tanh2n 1p=2r
(0.85, 0.85) 0.02360474  1
p n1
5
2n 15
(0.9, 0.75) (0.75, 0.9) 0.02356374 0.02371376
(0.9, 0.9) 0.01307145  C1 r: 29

It can be easily shown that, in the limit r ! 0, the right-


hand side of Eq. (29) tends to 24. Indeed, in this limit,
unexpected, since we have just shown that the expression one recovers the well-known value of fRe for isothermal
of the dimensionless velocity distribution found by Spiga ow in a parallel-plate channel. Moreover, it is easily
and Morini [22] is mathematically coincident with the veried that function C1 r dened by Eq. (29) is such
right-hand side of Eq. (26a). Probably, Spiga and Mo- that C1 r C1 1=r, for every r. This conclusion is
rini [22] have employed a truncated double-series ex- expected, since C1 r yields the value of fRe for iso-
pression of the velocity eld with an insucient number thermal uid ow, and this quantity depends only on the
of terms to ensure a satisfactory convergence. shape of the duct. Obviously, two rectangular ducts with
On account of Eqs. (26b), Eq. (22) can be rewritten as aspect ratios r and 1=r, respectively, have the same
shape. Values of C1 r are reported in Table 2. These
k
ux; y yr y values support a fair agreement with the values of fRe
2
for the case Gr=Re ! 0 provided in [23].
4r2 k X1
coshx 1=22n 1p=r A special case is obtained when dP =dZ ! 0. In this
p3 n1 2n 13 cosh2n 1p=2r case, Eq. (2) shows that the ow is driven only by the
  buoyancy force and by the viscous force, i.e., free con-
2n 1py 1 r2
 sin vection occurs. On account of Eqs. (8) and (17), the
r p2 r
above limit implies that both k ! 0 and f ! 0. Strictly

Gr X X t n; m
1 1  mpy 
 sinnpx sin : speaking, this conclusion is legitimate only if, in the limit
Re m1 n1 r n m
2 2 2 r dP =dZ ! 0, the mean velocity U0 does not vanish.
27 Otherwise, both k and f would be ill-dened. Therefore,
if U0 is nonzero in the limit of free convection, its value
The parameter k can be easily evaluated by substituting can be determined by employing Eq. (28), namely
Eq. (27) into Eq. (13). Then, on account of Eq. (17), through the condition

one obtains the following expression of the friction Gr p4 r
factor fRe:
Re dP =dZ!0 41 r2
24 (  ) 1
f Re X1 X 1
t 2n 1;2m 1
1 r2  :
m1 n1 2n 12m 1r2 2n 12 2m 12
41r2 Gr P1 P1 
t 2n 1;2m 1
1 p4 r Re m1 n1 2n 12m 1r2 2n 12 2m 12 30
 192r
P1 tanh2n 1p=2r :
1 p5 n1 2n 15 Since Eq. (8) yields Gr=Re gbDT D2 =mU0 , Eq. (30)
28 allows one to evaluate the residual mean uid velocity
U0 in the limit dP =dZ ! 0. Eq. (30) is obviously mean-
By employing the denition of double nite Fourier sine ingless when the double series on the right-hand side is
transform expressed by Eq. (18), the following statement zero. Indeed, if the thermal boundary conditions are
is easily proved. If the thermal boundary conditions lead such that the double series on the right-hand side of Eq.
to a dimensionless temperature distribution tx; y which (30) vanishes, then the mean velocity U0 tends to zero in
is either antisymmetric with respect to the midplane the limit dP =dZ ! 0. As it has been pointed out above,
x 1=2 or antisymmetric with respect to the midplane this circumstance occurs if tx; y is either antisymmetric

y r=2, then t 2n 1; 2m 1 0 for every pair of with respect to the midplane x 1=2 or antisymmetric
positive integers n; m. Obviously, on account of with respect to the midplane y r=2.
A. Barletta / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497 3487

Table 2 In the following, Eqs. (27) and (28) will be employed to


Values of C1 r, C2 r and C1 r=C2 r investigate two special sets of thermal boundary condi-
r C1 r C2 r  100 C1 r=C2 r tions. The set (A) is dened by the conditions
0 24 1 0
oT
0.01 23.6763 )5.16875 458.067 0; T X ; 0; Z T1 ;
0.05 22.4770 )4.84033 464.369 oX X 0
33
0.1 21.1689 )4.44158 476.607 oT
0; T X ; b; Z T ;
oX X a
2
0.2 19.0705 )3.68865 517.005
0.3 17.5121 )3.00627 582.518
0.4 16.3681 )2.40639 680.192 while the set (B) is as follows:
0.5 15.5481 )1.89191 821.818

0.6 14.9800 )1.45640 1028.56 oT
0.7 14.6054 )1.08949 1340.57 k qw ; T 0; Y ; Z T1 ;
oY Y 0
0.8 14.3778 )0.780656 1841.76 34
0.9 14.2610 )0.520724 2738.68 oT
k qw ; T a; Y ; Z T1 :
1.0 14.2271 )0.302051 4710.16 oY Y b
1.25 14.3778 0.102837 )13981.1
1.5 14.7118 0.359586 )4091.32 A schematic representation of these sets of thermal
1.75 15.1202 0.516842 )2925.50 boundary conditions is reported in Fig. 2.
2 15.5481 0.607983 )2557.32
2.25 15.9683 0.655921 )2434.48
2.5 16.3681 0.676156 )2420.76 4. Case (A): two isothermal and two adiabatic walls
2.75 16.7424 0.678985 )2465.79
3 17.0897 0.671146 )2546.34
In this section, the dimensionless temperature eld
3.5 17.7069 0.639296 )2769.75
4 18.2328 0.599676 )3040.44
tx; y for the set (A) of thermal boundary conditions is
4.5 18.6827 0.559806 )3337.36 evaluated. Then, the dimensionless velocity eld and
5 19.0705 0.522442 )3650.26 the friction factor are obtained through Eqs. (27) and
10 21.1689 0.299701 )7063.33 (28).
20 22.4770 0.158532 )14178.2 A convenient choice of the reference temperature
100 23.6763 0.033016 )71711.2 dierence is, in this case, DT T1 T2 . In this section,
1 24 0 1 it will be assumed that T1 > T2 , so that DT > 0.
Moreover, this assumption implies that Gr=Re > 0
Let us dene corresponds to upward mean ow (U0 > 0), while
Gr=Re < 0 corresponds to downward mean ow
Re mU (U0 < 0). On account of Eqs. (8) and (33), the thermal
u u : 31
Gr gbDT D2 boundary conditions are expressed in the following di-
mensionless form:
Then, in the limit dP =dZ ! 0, Eq. (27) yields
 ot
1 X
1 r2 X 1
t n; m 0; tx; 0 g;

u x; y ox x0
p2 r m1 n1 r2 n2 m2 35
 mpy  ot
0; tx; r g 1:
 sinnpx sin : 32 ox x1
r

(A) (B)

Fig. 2. Thermal boundary conditions.


3488 A. Barletta / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497

It can be easily veried that the solution of Eq. (11) with 4r2 k X1
coshx 1=22n 1p=r
the boundary condition expressed by Eq. (33) is a one- p3 n1 2n 13 cosh2n 1p=2r
dimensional solution which can be written as  
2n 1py 1 r2
y  sin
tx; y g : 36 r 16p3
r  
Gr X1
cosh2x 1np=r 2npy
 sin ; 41
Substitution of Eq. (36) in Eq. (12) allows one to obtain Re n1 n3 coshnp=r r
g 1=2. As a consequence of Eq. (18) and of Eq. (36),
one is led to the expression where the Fourier series expansion
 r X1  
t n; m 1 1n 1 1m : 37 p3 1 2npy
2nmp2 yr yr 2y sin ; 42
3r3 n1
n3 r
Eqs. (28) and (37) allow one to conclude that the fric-
tion factor is not inuenced by the buoyancy eect, in the interval 0 6 y 6 r, has been employed. As is easily

since Eq. (37) yields t 2n 1; 2m 1 0. Indeed, Eq. veried, in the limit a ! 1 and r ! 0, the expression of
(36) with g 1=2 implies that tx; y is antisymmetric ux; y given by Eq. (41) is considerably simplied. More
with respect to the midplane y r=2. Therefore, one precisely, in this limit, the terms containing the innite
obtains sums tend to zero while the rst term yields a non-
vanishing contribution. By employing Eqs. (8), (39) and
f Re C1 r; 38
(41), one obtains
and, on account of Eqs. (17) and (29),     
1 Gr Y Y Y
( ) 1 ux; y j a!1 6 1 2 1 : 43
12 192r X1
tanh2n 1p=2r r!0 48 Re b b b
k 2 1 : 39
r p5 n1 2n 15
Indeed, the right-hand side of Eq. (43) coincides with the
Moreover, one can conclude that the set (A) of thermal well-known velocity prole for laminar and fully devel-
boundary conditions is such that the mean velocity U0 oped ow in a vertical parallel-plate channel with uni-
tends to 0 in the limit dP =dZ ! 0. Eqs. (27) and (37) form and unequal wall temperatures [14,17].
yield As is shown in [14,17], Eq. (43) implies that, in a
parallel-plate vertical channel, ow reversal next to the
k cool wall (Y b) occurs if Gr=Re > 288. On the other
ux; y yr y
2 hand, at the hot wall (Y 0), the ow reversal condition
4r2 k X 1
coshx 1=22n 1p=r is fullled when Gr=Re < 288. Indeed, the one-di-
p n1 2n 13 cosh2n 1p=2r
3
mensional velocity prole expressed through Eq. (43) is
  left invariant by the combined transformation
2n 1py 1 r2
 sin Y ! b Y , Gr=Re ! Gr=Re. As a consequence of this
r p4
symmetry, one can investigate the condition of ow re-
Gr X X
1 1
sin2n 1px versal at the cool wall for upward mean ow and then

Re m1 n1 2n 1mr2 2n 12 4m2 extend easily the result to ow reversal at the hot wall
  for downward mean ow. The velocity distribution for a
2mpy
 sin : 40 rectangular duct expressed by Eq. (41) is symmetric
r
under the transformation x ! 1 x. Moreover, this
On account of Eq. (24), Eq. (40) can be rewritten as velocity distribution is left invariant by the combined
transformation y ! r y, Gr=Re ! Gr=Re. There-
k
ux; y yr y fore, one can restrict the investigation to the onset of
2
ow reversal next to the cool wall (y r) with reference
4r2 k X 1
coshx 1=22n 1p=r
to upward mean ow. In this case, an analysis of the
p3 n1 2n 13 cosh2n 1p=2r velocity proles given by Eq. (41) allows one to infer
 
2n 1py 1 r2 Gr X1
1 that the onset of ow reversal occurs next to the corners
 sin (x 0, y r) and (x 1, y r). Indeed, on account of
r 16p Re n1 n3
3
    Eq. (41), one can prove that the derivative ou=oy van-
cosh2x 1np=r 2npy ishes at the point (x 0, y r). Moreover, the deriva-
 1 sin
coshnp=r r tive o2 u=oxoy at y r tends to 1 for x ! 0 if
" #
2
1 r Gr yr y Gr=Re > 8kr2 =1 r2 , while it tends to 1 for x ! 0
k r 2y if Gr=Re < 8kr2 =1 r2 . Therefore, on account of Eqs.
24r3 Re 2
(17) and (29), one can conclude that the threshold value
A. Barletta / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497 3489

of Gr=Re above which ow reversal occurs next to the negative values of the ratio Gr=Re. On account of Eqs.
corners (x 0, y r) and (x 1, y r) is (8) and (34), the thermal boundary conditions are ex-
  pressed in the following dimensionless form
Gr 8kr2
4C1 r: 44 ot
Re rev 1 r2 1; t0; y g;
oy y0
The values of C1 r reported in Table 2 allow one to 47
ot
evaluate the threshold value Gr=Rerev for a given as- 1; t1; y g:
oy yr
pect ratio r.
On account of Eqs. (31) and (41), in the limit
The solution of Eq. (11) with the boundary condition
dP =dZ ! 0, one obtains the following expression of
expressed by Eq. (47) is two-dimensional and can be
u x; y:
obtained by the use of the nite Fourier transforms. By
1 r2 1 r2 dening the function hx; y tx; y g and by con-
u x; y yr yr 2y sidering the nite Fourier sine transform with respect to
48r 3 16p3
X cosh2x 1np=r
1   x [21]
2npy
 sin : 45 Z 1
n3 coshnp=r r
n1 ~ y
hn; dx hx; y sinnpx; 48
0
It is easily veried that the distribution u x; y is sym-
metric with respect to the line x 1=2 and antisym- Eqs. (11) and (47) yield
metric with respect to the line y r=2. More precisely
o2 h~
u x; y is positive in the region f0 < x < 1; 0 < y np2 h~ 0;
< r=2g, while it is negative in the region f0 < x oy 2
49
< 1; r=2 < y < rg. The right-hand side of Eq. (45) oh~ 1 1n oh~ 1 1n
agrees with the expression, found by McBain [12], for ; :
oy np oy np
y0 yr
the fully developed velocity prole of free convection in
a vertical rectangular duct with two adiabatic walls and The solution of Eq. (49) is given by
two facing isothermal walls with dierent temperatures.
By employing Eqs. (29) and (45), one can easily show ~ y 1 1n coshnpy r=2
hn; : 50
that the average value of u x; y in the region np2 sinhnpr=2
f0 < x < 1; 0 < y < r=2g is given by
Therefore, on account of the inversion formula of nite
 1 r2 Fourier sine transforms [21], one obtains
u : 46
82 r2 C1 r=2 4 X1
cosh2n 1py r=2
tx; y g
On account of Eq. (46), one can easily evaluate u by p n1 2n 12 sinh2n 1pr=2
2

employing the values of C1 r reported in Table 1. One  sin2n 1px: 51


can easily show that u is a rapidly increasing function of
r for r < 5:0449, reaches a maximum for r 5:0449 As a consequence of Eq. (51), the constraint expressed
and, for higher aspect ratios, undergoes a slow decrease. by Eq. (12) allows one to obtain the following expression
The maximum value of u is 5:6107  10 3 . It is easily of g:
veried that u ! 1=768 for r ! 0, while u ! 1=192
16 X 1
1 1
for r ! 1. g ; 52
rp4 n1 2n 14 6r

where the identity [24]


5. Case (B): two isoux and two isothermal walls
X
1
1 p4
53
In this section, the dimensionless temperature eld n1 2n 1 4
96
tx; y for the set (B) of thermal boundary conditions is
evaluated in order to study the dimensionless velocity has been employed.
eld ux; y and the friction factor fRe obtained by Eqs. By employing Eqs. (18), (51) and (52), one readily
(27) and (28). obtains the double nite Fourier sine transform of
In this case, the reference temperature dierence is tx; y, namely,
chosen as DT aqw =k. As a consequence, a positive  
 1 p mr cothnpr=2
value of the ratio Gr=Re means either upward mean ow t n; m
p3 n 6m nr2 n2 m2
with uid heating (qw > 0) or downward mean ow with
uid cooling (qw < 0). Obviously, the reverse applies for  1 1n 1 1m : 54
3490 A. Barletta / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497

Substitution of Eq. (54) into Eq. (27) yields Gr=Rerev;2 where no ow reversal occurs. One can
" # prove that the threshold value Gr=Rerev;1 is negative
1 r2 Gr while Gr=Rerev;2 is positive and that both these
ux; y k
24r3 Re threshold values depend on r. For positive values of
(
yr 4r2 X
y 1
coshx 1=22n 1p=r Gr=Re slightly greater than Gr=Rerev;2 , an onset of ow
 reversal occurs next to the four corners of the duct. On
2 p n1 2n 13 cosh2n 1p=2r
3

 ) the other hand, for negative values of Gr=Re slightly


2n 1py 1 r2 Gr smaller than Gr=Rerev;1 , an onset of ow reversal is
 sin
r 4p3 r Re displayed next to the midpoints of the isoux bound-
X
1
cosh2n 1py r=2 sin2n 1px aries, namely the points (x 1=2, y 0) and (x1=2,

n1 2n 13 cosh2n 1pr=2 y r). Indeed, on account of Eqs. (17), (55), (57) and
2y r1 r2
(58), one can prove that Gr=Rerev;1 and Gr=Rerev;2 can
4p3 r2
be expressed as
Gr X1
sinh2n 1py r=2 sin2n 1px  
 ; 55 Gr 1920p5 r3
Re n1 2n 13 sinh2n 1pr=2
Re rev;1 1 r2
( )
where Eqs. (24) and (25) as well as the Fourier series X1
1
2
expansion  p 8
n1 2n 12 cosh2n 1p=2r
2 ( )
p tanhMpr=2 X
1
1
2
16Mr  4 p 8
  n1 2n 12 cosh2n 1p=2r
coshMpy r=2 2y r sinhMpy r=2 ( )
 X
1
coshMpr=2 r sinhMpr=2 1
 p5 960r 5
X 1
2m 1 sin2m 1py=r n1 2n 1 sinh2n 1pr
; 56 ( )
m1 r2 M 2 2m 12 2 X
1
tanh2n 1p=2r
5r2 p5 192r
n1 2n 15
in the interval 0 6 y 6 r, have been employed. ( )! 1
Eqs. (28), (29) and (54) allow one to evaluate the X
1
1n
2
friction factor fRe as follows:  p 32r ;
n1 2n 12 sinh2n 1pr
Gr
f Re C1 r C2 r ; 57 60
Re
 
where function C1 r is dened in Eq. (29) and C2 r is Gr 12rC1 r
: 61
given by Re rev;2 1 12rC2 r
C2 r C1 r1 r2
( Eq. (57) implies that, in the case of purely free convec-
5r2 3 2 X1
tanh2n 1p=2r tion, i.e., in the limit dP =dZ ! 0, the mean velocity U0

1440r 3 3p n1
5
2n 15 does not vanish and that its value can be determined
) through the condition
2 X 1
1
5 2 : 58
p r n1 2n 15 sinh2n 1pr Gr C1 r
: 62
Re dP =dZ!0 C2 r
Then, the parameter k can be easily evaluated by em-
ploying Eqs. (17), (29), (57) and (58). In Table 2, values
of C2 r are reported. Moreover, Eqs. (31) and (55) imply that, in the limit
In Eq. (58), the double innite sums have been dP =dZ ! 0, the dimensionless velocity u x; y can be
written as single innite sums by utilizing Eq. (24) in- expressed as
tegrated in the interval 0 6 w 6 1, Eq. (56) integrated in
the interval 0 6 y 6 r, Eq. (53) and the identity [24] 1 r2
u x; y
24r3
X
1
1 p6 (
6
: 59 yr y 4r2 X
1
coshx 1=22n 1p=r
n1 2n 1 960 
2 p n1 2n 13 cosh2n 1p=2r
3

An analysis of the velocity proles given by Eq. (55)  ) 2


2n 1py 1 r
allows one to infer that, for any choice of the aspect  sin
r 4p r
3
ratio r, there exists an interval Gr=Rerev;1 < Gr=Re <
A. Barletta / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497 3491

X
1
cosh2n 1py r=2sin2n 1px 6.1. Case (A)
 3
n1 2n 1 cosh2n 1pr=2
As a consequence of Eqs. (38) and (44), the values of
2
2y r1 r function C1 r reported in Table 2 allow one to evaluate
4p3 r2 both the friction factor and the threshold value of Gr=Re
X
1
sinh2n 1py r=2sin2n 1px for the onset of ow reversal. Therefore, these quantities
 3
: 63 are decreasing functions of r for r < 1, reach a mini-
n1 2n 1 sinh2n 1pr=2
mum for r 1 and increase for r > 1. This feature is
expected in the case of the friction factor, since this
quantity must be invariant under the change r ! 1=r.
On the other hand, this behaviour is not trivial in the
6. Discussion of the results case of Gr=Rerev , since this quantity is inuenced by the
thermal boundary conditions and the change r ! 1=r
In this section, some features of the solutions found does not leave invariant the thermal boundary condi-
in the preceding sections for cases (A) and (B) are de- tions. If one considers upward mean ow (Gr=Re > 0),
scribed. then one concludes that the smallest threshold value of

Fig. 3. Set (A) of thermal boundary conditions: plots of ux; y for Gr=Re 200.
3492 A. Barletta / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497

Gr=Re for the onset of ow reversal occurs when the gion next to the corner between the cool wall and an
aspect ratio is 1, i.e., for a square duct. This value is adiabatic wall and that this region becomes larger as the
Gr=Rerev 56:9083. On account of Table 2 one infers ratio Gr=Re increases. Fig. 5 displays the behaviour of
that, in the limit r ! 0, Gr=Rerev 96. If one employs the distribution u x; y for purely free convection in the
the polynomial solution which holds in this limit and cases r 0:5, r 1 and r 2. These plots reveal an
which is expressed by Eq. (43), one obtains a threshold evident antisymmetry with respect to the plane y r=2.
value for the onset of ow reversal equal to 288. At rst Moreover, they show how the average value u of
sight, these results disagree. However, one should re- u x; y in the region f0 < x < 1; 0 < y < r=2g is an in-
mind that the polynomial solution given by the right- creasing function of r. Indeed, as it has been pointed out
hand side of Eq. (43) holds for a rectangular duct with a in section 4, u increases with r for r < 5:0449.
very small aspect ratio and far from the shorter
boundary walls. On the other hand, the values of 6.2. Case (B)
Gr=Rerev which can be obtained by utilizing Eq. (44)
and Table 2 refer to the onset of ow reversal at the On account of Eq. (57), the quantity fRe for a given
corner between two neighbouring walls, i.e. in a region pair (r; Gr=Re) can be evaluated by employing the values
where the polynomial solution expressed by Eq. (43) of C1 r and C2 r reported in Table 2. One can easily
cannot hold even for extremely small values of r. verify that C2 r is negative for r K 1:1752, vanishes for
Fig. 3 refers to Gr=Re 200 and displays the di- r ' 1:1752 and is positive for r J 1:1752. Therefore,
mensionless velocity distributions with reference to three one can infer that fRe is a linearly decreasing function of
dierent aspect ratios: 0.5, 1 and 2. These plots illustrate Gr=Re for r K 1:1752, is independent of Gr=Re for
the eect of ow reversal, which occurs for all the three r ' 1:1752, is a linearly increasing function of Gr=Re for
choices of the aspect ratio. The onset of ow reversal for r J 1:1752. For instance, if one considers a case of uid
upward mean ow is shown in Fig. 4 where the aspect heating (qw > 0) with upward mean ow (U0 > 0),
ratios 0.5 and 1 are considered. This gure refers to the buoyancy reduces fRe when the aspect ratio is lower
plane y 0:9r, i.e., a plane parallel to the cool wall and than about 1.1752, does not aect the value of fRe when
very next to this boundary. Fig. 4 shows that, both for the aspect ratio is equal to about 1.1752, increases fRe
r 0:5 and for r 1, the ow reversal occurs in a re- when the aspect ratio is greater than about 1.1752. Table
1 reveals that the eect of buoyancy on the friction
factor is specially strong for very small aspect ratios. It
should be pointed out that, for the boundary conditions
(B), the limit r ! 0 is somewhat pathologic. In fact, the
isothermal walls become negligibly smaller than the
isoux walls in this limit and, as a consequence, they
become inecient in transferring all the heat supplied by
(received from) the isoux walls, in order to full the
requirement oT =oZ 0. Obviously, the solution found
in section 3 holds only if oT =oZ 0.
Table 2 shows also that a local maximum of C2 r
occurs in the interval 2.5 < r < 3. More precisely, one
can prove that the local maximum is found for
r 2:6749. In this table, the values of C1 r=C2 r are
reported. On account of Eq. (62), these values yield the
quantity Gr=Re in the limit dP =dZ ! 0, i.e., in the limit
of purely free convection. One can easily show that
C1 r=C2 r is a positive increasing function of r for
r K 1:1752, is singular for r ' 1:1752, it is a negative
increasing function of r for 1:1752 K r K 2:4161, it is a
negative decreasing function of r for r J 2:4161. For
instance, if one considers a case of uid heating (qw > 0),
purely free convection implies an upward mean ow
(U0 > 0) for r K 1:1752, no mean ow (U0 0) for
r ' 1:1752, a downward mean ow (U0 < 0) for
r J 1:1752. Distributions of u for purely free convec-
tion are reported in Fig. 6 with reference to the aspect
Fig. 4. Set (A) of thermal boundary conditions: plots of u vs x ratios r 0:5, r 1 and r 2. As is shown in Fig. 6,
for y 0:9r. the qualitative features of the distribution of u depend
A. Barletta / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497 3493

Fig. 5. Set (A) of thermal boundary conditions: plots of u x; y in the limit dP =dZ ! 0.

strongly on the aspect ratio. Eqs. (13), (31) and (62) the other hand, if the heat transfer process is such that
imply that, in the limit dP =dZ ! 0, the mean value of u Gr=Re > 0, the threshold value of Gr=Re for the onset
in a duct cross-section must be equal to C2 r=C1 r. of ow reversal increases monotonically with r. Illus-
Indeed, as is easily deduced by employing either Table 2 trations of the onset of ow reversal are provided in
or Fig. 6, the mean value of u* is denitely positive for Fig. 7, which refer to a square duct (r 1). Frame (a)
r 0:5 and denitely negative for r 2. of this gure represents the dimensionless velocity dis-
The onset of ow reversal can be predicted by em- tribution at the plane x 0:02 for positive increasing
ploying the data reported in Table 3. If the heat values of Gr=Re. The plots show that the ow reversal
transfer process is such that Gr=Re < 0, i.e., either if arises at the corners between an isothermal wall and an
U0 > 0 and qw < 0 or if U0 < 0 and qw > 0, the isoux wall. For slightly greater values of Gr=Re, an
threshold value of jGr=Rej for the onset of ow reversal onset of ow reversal occurs also next to the midline of
depends non-monotonically on the aspect ratio. In the isothermal walls. The plot for Gr=Re 700 illus-
particular, jGr=Rerev;1 j displays a local maximum for trates an instance of ow reversal in a neighbourhood
r ' 0:81066 and a local minimum for r ' 4:7284. On of the whole isothermal wall x 0. Frame (b) of Fig. 7
3494 A. Barletta / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497

Fig. 6. Set (B) of thermal boundary conditions: plots of u x; y in the limit dP =dZ ! 0.

represents the dimensionless velocity distribution at the independent of Gr=Re, the dimensionless velocity ux; y
plane y 0:02 for negative values of Gr=Re. In this depends on Gr=Re. In Fig. 8, two plots of ux; y have
case, ow reversal arises next to the midline of the been drawn for Gr=Re 1200 and for Gr=Re 1200,
isoux walls. respectively. As one should expect on account of Table
Finally, in Fig. 8, plots of the dimensionless tem- 3, the plot of ux; y for Gr=Re 1200 displays a ow
perature distribution and of the dimensionless velocity reversal in the neighbourhood of the isothermal walls.
distribution are reported for a square duct. While the On the other hand, a ow reversal next to the midline of
dimensionless temperature tx; y given by Eq. (51) is the isoux walls occurs for Gr=Re 1200.
A. Barletta / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497 3495

Table 3 sionless temperature distribution can be determined


Values of Gr=Rerev;1 and Gr=Rerev;2 independently of the dimensionless velocity eld. An
r Gr=Rerev;1 Gr=Rerev;2 analytical solution of the momentum balance equation
0 0 0 has been found by employing the method of nite
0.01 5.75486 2.82365 Fourier transforms. This solution yields the dimen-
0.05 28.7885 13.1056 sionless velocity distribution and the friction factor
0.1 58.1694 24.1172 whenever the dimensionless temperature is known. The
0.2 122.894 42.0469 following general feature of this solution has been
0.3 200.000 56.8869 pointed out.
0.4 284.078 70.4316 If the dimensionless temperature distribution tx; y is
0.5 361.053 83.7783 either antisymmetric with respect to the midplane
0.6 418.140 97.6193
x 1=2 or antisymmetric with respect to the mid-
0.7 450.463 112.399
plane y r=2, then the friction factor is not aected
0.8 460.906 128.404
0.9 455.994 145.818 by buoyancy, i.e. the quantity fRe does not depend
1.0 442.202 164.753 on the ratio Gr=Re.
1.25 396.182 219.046 Two special cases have been investigated: (A) a duct
1.5 355.431 283.139 with two facing walls kept isothermal with dierent
1.75 325.627 356.183 temperatures and the others kept insulated; (B) a duct
2 304.956 436.905 with two facing walls with a uniform wall heat ux
2.25 290.825 523.931 and the others kept isothermal with the same temper-
2.5 281.190 615.996 ature.
2.75 274.620 712.041
The main features of the solution in case (A) are the
3 270.145 811.232
following.
3.5 265.078 1016.67
4 262.902 1228.91 The friction factor is not inuenced by buoyancy, i.e.,
4.5 262.170 1445.98 it does not depend on the ratio Gr=Re.
5 262.179 1666.67 The onset of ow reversal takes place either at the
10 268.491 3966.94 corners between the cool wall and the adiabatic walls
20 275.457 8707.48 for upward mean ow Gr=Re > 0 or at the corners
100 282.948 47054.2 between the hot wall and the adiabatic walls for
1 1 1 downward mean ow Gr=Re < 0.
On the other hand, the behaviour of the solution in
case (B) can be described as follows.
The friction factor is inuenced by buoyancy. More
7. Conclusions precisely, the quantity fRe depends linearly on the
ratio Gr=Re.
An analysis of mixed convection in a vertical rect- The onset of ow reversal takes place either at the
angular duct with, at least, one isothermal wall has four corners of the duct in the case Gr=Re > 0 or next
been performed with reference to the region of fully to the midline of the isoux walls in the case
developed ow. It has been shown that the dimen- Gr=Re < 0.

Fig. 7. Set (B) of thermal boundary conditions: (a) plots of u vs y for r 1 and x 0:02; (b) plots of u vs x for r 1 and y 0:02.
3496 A. Barletta / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 34813497

Fig. 8. Set (B) of thermal boundary conditions: plots of tx; y and ux; y for r 1.

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