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Notes for Acts of Teaching: Chapter 6

PLANNING INSTRUCTION Kinds of Objectives:


Cognitive Domain
Pros and Cons of Instructional Planning
mental intellectual tasks
- decide what to teach
- Blooms Taxonomy - knowledge, understanding,
- how to teach it
application, analysis, evaluation, and synthesis.
- how to assess and evaluate
Affective Domain
- Finding time to get things done most reported
- attitudinal, emotional, and valuing goals for
problem
learners.
Planning Is Especially Beneficial for New - Process from receiving or attending, responding,
Teachers valuing, organization, and characterization.
Why? Psychomotor Domain
1. Because you do not have any experience to draw - process from perception, set, guided response,
upon. mechanism, complex or overt response, adoption,
2. Because you are unsure to yourself and your and organization.
skills. (it provides security and confidence)
3. Because you do not know what to expect and *Another Way of Classifying Learning Outcomes
what to do. - by Gage
4. Because it will give you time to think and plan. 1. Verbal Information knowledge
Failing to plan is planning to fail 2. Intellectual Skill how to do something mentally
- Planning maybe Mandated plan books to submit 3. Cognitive Strategies learning ways of thinking
to your mentors and this time it is good to over and solving problems including how to learn.
plan 4. Motor Skills
5. Attitudes
Deciding What to Teach
- teacher determining what to teach Writing Specific Objectives
* State Standards and How They Are Developed - expected to know and be able to do.
- it is the states legal responsibility - you should mention the following in your
- should be based on societal expectation, nature objectives
and needs and advice from professional education A Audience
societies. B Behavior you want to achieve
*What State Standards Look Like C Condition (answers how, for example given
- some are specific some are general, it differs from the .., the students will..)
each other. D Degree of proficiency
*The Power of State Standards
- basis of proficiency tests. *The Value of Specific Objectives
- have a clear and specific learning objectives in
Instructional Objectives mind.
*What Instructional Objectives Look Like - Counterpoint
- describes what the learners must know and be able Not all educators think teachers should use specific
to do instructional objectives. On the contrary, they
- be general and specific (p. 175) believe use of such objectives may be
counterproductive.
*The Kinds of Objectives We Use Result in Three - Specific objectives, because they are so precise,
Different Kinds of Learning: Cognitive, Affective, are difficult to write.
Psychomotor - There are times when students should be given
- cognitive, humanistic, and behavioural. learning situations without predetermined, specific
- also differs in level (acquisition and practice) learning objectives.
- must be specific of what kind and level
Notes for Acts of Teaching: Chapter 6
*When Are Objectives Good? student prior knowledge broadly state the
- Is it: relevant, promotes the three domains, knowledge, skills, or attitudes students will acquire
promotes ranges of levels in each domain, specific, as a result of engaging in this unit.
achievable. 4. The body contains the unit's content, activities,
and sequence of instruction. Included are a topical
Preparing Instructional Plans of Varying
outline, activities, resources, and a time frame.
Duration
- The topical outline presents the main
- How much and what kind of instruction do
points and supporting points of the content.
students need to accomplish these objectives?
- The activities section denotes in general
*The "Long and Short" of Planning
what the class or individuals can do in order
- Planning is long-term, immediate-term, and short-
to accomplish the unit objectives.
term.
- Also included in the body is the list of
- Long-term - entire year or for a semester-long
instructional materials and other resources
course
that might be useful.
- Immediate-term - middle-range, or unit planning,
- A time frame describes when the unit will
how courses can be broken into chunks, parts, or
begin and end and when students will
units, each with a particular theme.
undertake particular activities.
- Short-term - week and for daily lessons
5. The assessment section describes how learners
will be evaluated in terms of achievement and
*Preparing Long-Range Plans: Yearly and Semester
satisfaction.
Plans
6. A bibliography presents a list of resources useful
1. Your objective.
to teachers in preparing and teaching this unit.
2. Your time line.
3. Needed resources.
*Preparing Lesson Plans
- specifically what and how something will be
*Preparing Unit Plans
learned within a brief period, usually one or a few
- several types of units:
class hours.
1. Resource units are mostly prepared by and are
- defines a daily plan. It is even more detailed. It is
available from state education departments, special
an effort to ensure that on that day, every activity
interest groups, government agencies, and
will go well.
businesses.
2. Teaching units are prepared by a teacher or
Parts of Lesson Plan:
teachers for use with a particular group of learners.
1. Objectives.
3. Experience units are more of a "happening" than
- relevant to the curriculum; promote learning
a preplanned unit. Teachers and students merely
outcomes across the cognitive, psychomotor, and
decide what they will generally do from day to day
affective domains; reasonably promote a range of
and from lesson to lesson.
levels of understanding (low and high) within each
4. Integrated units are especially appropriate at the
domain; be written specifically enough that it is
elementary level. Integrated units combine study
clear what each student must know and be able to
from several fields.
do; and be achievable by your students.
2. Resources.
- Parts of a Unit Plan
- What is available to assist learners?
1. The title denotes the topic or theme under study.
3. Set Induction.
2. The introduction provides the rationale or reason
- Set induction or anticipatory set are terms used to
why the unit is important to the course and in its
indicate the need to start the lesson by capturing
own right. It should explain, in terms meaningful to
learner attention and interest. Interest contributes to
students, why this unit is important.
learning because, among other things, it stimulates a
3. The general objectives and preassessment of
Notes for Acts of Teaching: Chapter 6
personal, emotional network of associations. By What are some things I learned from this teaching
relating new learning to prior knowledge, experience?
associations, and connections also are more
apparent. *Resources Useful When Planning
4. Methodology. - Curriculum Guide will tell you what you are
- How will teaching and learning proceed? Here you expected to teach.
describe how learning will take place. - Instructional Materials include those things that
assist student learning of the curriculum. They
5. Assessment.
include: Resource units, Textbooks and other print
- How will learning be determined? This includes
material and nonprint material.
two things: how you plan to monitor students'
learning during instruction and how you plan to
*Collaborative, Cooperative, or Team Planning
evaluate learning at the lesson's conclusion.
- Teacher-team planning often occurs when courses
6. Closure.
of study or units are being prepared. Two or more
- How will the lesson be concluded? what is a good
teacher heads often are better than one. Team
finish? Normally it takes the form of a review that
planning results in sharing purposes, materials,
gets students to summarize what they have learned
expectations, and instructional ideas.
and connect it to prior and future learning.
- Teacher-pupil planning is based on the notions
7. Reflection.
that students should learn how to guide or direct
- Now it's time to consider the experience you and
their own learning and that they have the motivation
your students have had and to learn from it.
and ability to do so.
Did the students learn and were they satisfied?
What might have been done to increase
achievement and satisfaction?