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Material Removal Processes (CH# 19, 20, 21, and 22)


Theory of Metal Machining (CH#19)
- The machining process is using cutting tools to remove excess materials from the
work piece. The remained portion is the desired part shape.
- Machining action involves shear deformation
- It produces very accurate dimension (0.01 mm or higher), and smooth surface finish
(0.4 m or better)
- Usually, casting or deforming process generates a rough shape or dimension; then
using machining process produces the final dimension and surface finish.
- Machining operation includes Milling (peripheral or face milling), Turning, and
Drilling.
Fig 19.3: (a) Turning, (b) Drilling, (c) Peripheral milling, (d) Face milling

Fig. 19.4 (a) Single-point tool showing rake face, flank, and tool point; (b) a helical
milling cutter, representative of tools with multiple cutting edges

Cutting Mechanism for Machining Process

Fig. 19.13 Orthogonal model for turning process (p.488)

Fig. 19.2 Cutting action involves shear deformation of work material to form a chip, and as
chip is removed, new surface is exposed: (a) positive and (b) negative rake tools

Cutting Conditions
- Cutting speed v [m/min] the primary motion direction, the velocity of the cutting
tools relative to the workpiece.
- Depth of cut d [mm] the distance for cutter projects below the original surface.
- Feed f [mm/rev], for turning or [mm/tooth] for milling relative lateral movement btw
tool and workpiece.
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- Feedrate F [mm/min] for both turning and milling time derivative of the feed, the
velocity of the tool lateral motion.
- Spindle speed N [rpm ]=[rev/min] part rotating speed (for turning) or tool rotating
speed (for milling).
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- Material Removal Rate (RMR) mm - removed the workpiece volume per unit
min
time.
Rough Cut remove large amount of materials as rapidly as possible, and leave
some materials (called stock) on the workpiece for subsequent finish cut. Rough cut
uses large MRR, f = 0.4~1.25 mm/rev, d = 2.5~20 mm
Finish Cut achieve the final dimension, tolerance, and surface finish; f around
0.125~0.4 mm/rev, d =0.7 2 mm.

Chip Formation in Machining


Orthogonal Cutting Model
A simplified 2 Dimensional model, neglects geometric complexity

Fig. 19.13 Orthogonal model for turning process

ls

Fig. 19.6 Orthogonal cutting: (a) as a three-dimensional process, and (b) how it reduces to
two dimensions in the side view (Fig. 19.13)
- = Shear angle l s Shear plane; = Rake angle; to = Chip thickness before chip
formation; to area is the material to be removed; tc = Chip thickness after chip formation;
Chip thickness ratio r = to
1
tc
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Mechanism of Chip formation (orthogonal model)


Fig 19.7 Shear strain during chip formation: (a) chip formation depicted as a series of
parallel plates sliding relative to each other, (b) one of the plates isolated to show shear
strain, and (c) shear strain triangle used to derive strain equation
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Ex 19.1 (P.481)
Actual chip formation

Fig. 19.8 More realistic view of chip formation, showing shear zone rather than shear
plane. Also shown is the secondary shear zone resulting from tool-chip friction
Two shear zones of chip formation

Primary shear zone the primary shear action area, in reality, the shear
deformation occurs within a thin shear zone, rather than a plane of zero thickness.
Since this zone in only a few thousands of an inch, it can be modeled as a plane
Secondary shear zone due to the friction contact btw chips and the tool

Chip formation depends on the types of materials and cutting conditions


(Fig. 19.9)
(a) Discontinuous chip brittle mtr. (ex. cast iron) at low cutting speed, and (large
feed and d.o.c.) irregular surface. This causes high tool-chip friction.
(b) Continuous chip ductile mtr. cutting at high cutting speed, and smaller feed (f)
and depth of cut (d) good surface. This causes low tool-chip friction.
(c) Continuous chip with BUE (built-up edge) ductile mtr. with low-to-medium
cutting speed rough surface.

Tool-chip friction causes portions of chip to adhere to rake face


BUE formation is cyclical; it forms, then breaks off
(d) Serrated chip for difficult-to-machine metals with high cutting speed
Semi-continuous chip formed (saw-tooth appearance)

difficult-to-machine metals are Ti alloys, nickel-based alloys, stainless


steels.

Cutting Force and Power

Enable to select a machine tool with proper powers (from users view point)
Enable to design the machine stiff enough to withstand the high cutting force
presented during cutting, which may cause excessive distortion and furthermore
leads to inaccurate machining (from machine designers view point).
Cutting forces can be measured by a force dynamometer.

Fig. 19.13
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(1) Cutting force Fc - It is the primary cutting force, which is the largest force
(accounts for largest power required).
(2) Feed force Ff (or called thrust force Ft ) - Acts in the feedrate direction.
It accounts for very small percentage of power required since feedrate is usually very
small compared to the cutting speed v.
(3) Radial force Fr - The smallest force involves during cutting, which can be
neglected.

Force relationship

Fig. 19.10 Forces in metal cutting: (a) forces acting on the chip in orthogonal cutting (b)
forces acting on the tool that can be measured

Primary shear zone


Shear force ( Fs ) on the shear plane, which causes shear deformation
Normal force ( Fn ) to shear
Shear stress = Fs = Fs Sin
As To W

where the area of shear plane A s = ls W = To W , and W = chip width


Sin

Secondary shear zone (due to the friction btw chips and tools)
Friction force (F) = N,
Normal force (N) to friction
Moving direction
F
N
F N
= the friction coefficient = tan , = friction angle, the angle btw F and N = the
min angle that makes the mass slide down automatically.
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We have introduced some forces, Fs , Fn , F, and N. However, these forces cannot be


measured; the only measurable forces are Fc , Ft , and Fr , using dynamometers.
Therefore, we want to find the relationship btw ( Fs , Fn , F, and N) and ( Fc , Ft , and
Fr ), i.e., find ( Fs , Fn , F, and N) in terms of ( Fc , Ft , and Fr ).

Fig. 19.11 Force diagram showing geometry relationships among forces


The angle relationship for ( , , )

E
C

D F

A
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G A

D

Find ( Fs , Fn , F, and N) in terms of ( Fc and Ft )


F = Fc sin + Ft cos
N = Fc cos - Ft sin
Fs = Fc cos + Ft sin
Fn = Fc sin + Ft cos

Example 19.2 (p.486)


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To find Fc and Ft , if I give you the shear strength S,


which is easily obtained from machining handbook.

(19.13)

(19.14)

(19.13)

(19.14)
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Merchant Equation
How large the shear angle will be, to get the best performance?

Fig. 19.12 Effect of shear plane angle

Power and Energy in Machining

vf
10
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Example 19.3 (p.487)


Example 19.4 (p.489)

Table 19.2 (P.490)


The values in Table 19.2 (U) are based on two assumptions:
(a) to = 0.25 mm (0.01 in)
(b) the cutting tool is sharp.
Size Effect the correction factor is in Fig. 19.14
Sharpness effect sharpness factor, 1, 1.1, and 1.25

Energy distributions (tool, work, and chip) during cutting

Figure. Typical distribution of total cutting energy among the tool, work, and
chip as a fun. of cutting speed (supplement)

Cutting temperature (p.491)


- The high temp reduces the tool life, and causes dimensional inaccuracy. Usually, using
coolant to reduce the cutting temp.
- Of the total energy consumed in machining, nearly all of it (98%) is converted into
heat.
- The tool-chip interface is usually over 600 oC
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The purpose of using coolant


Reducing the cutting temp, extending the tool life, and obtaining better
dimension accuracy
Lubrication, which reduces the friction btw the tool-chip and tool-workpiece
Flush the chips, chip cleaning (a critical point for customers)

Machining Operations and Machine Tools (Ch#20)


Operations Related to Turning (Fig. 20.6)
Fig. 20.7 Diagram of an engine lathe showing its principal components
Fig. 20.8 Methods of Holding Workpiece in a Lathe (a) Holding the work
between centers, (b) chuck, (c) collet, and (d) face plate
Turning Operation
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(20.1)

(20.2)

(20.3)

(20.4)

Machine Time T = Do L/fv (20.5)


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RMR
(20.6)

Milling Operation (Ch#20.4)


The cutter rotates instead of part. The rotating axis of the
cutter is perpendicular to the direction of feed motion.
It can be separated into: (1) peripheral milling and (2) face
milling.
Figure 20.17 Two basic types of milling operations: (a) peripheral milling
or plain milling, and (b) face milling or end milling

Peripheral milling
Figure 20.18 Peripheral milling: (a) slab milling, (b) slotting, (c) side
milling, (d) straddle milling, and (e) form milling.
Peripheral milling can be separated into (a) up milling and (b)
down milling (Figure 20.19)
(1) Up milling (or called conventional milling)
Cutting speed direction is opposite to the feed direction.
Pull up the part
Chip from thin to thick
(2) Down milling (or called climb milling)
Cutting speed direction is the same as feed direction
Hold down the part
Chip from thick to thin
Longer tool life due to the chip length is shorter
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Face milling
Figure 20.20 Face milling: (a) conventional face milling, (b) partial face
milling, (c) end milling, (d) profile milling, (e) pocket milling, and (f)
surface contouring.
Cutting Conditions in Milling

(20.13)

(20.14)

Fig. 20.21 Slab (peripheral) milling


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Fig. 20.21

(20.17)

(20.16)

(20.15)

Fig. 20.22
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Fig. 20.22 Top view of face milling

(B) If the cutter is offset to one side, w < d/2

(20.19)

(20.20)

Machining processes
An accurate process in terms of dimension accuracy and surface
finish.
Milling machines: Figure 20.23 to 28
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Ch#21 Cutting Tools Technology

Three types of tool failure


Fracture failure due to the excessive cutting force. If the cutting force is too
large, the tool will break.
Temperature failure due to the high cutting temp. If the cutting temp is too high,
it softens the cutter due to temp effect, and make the cutter easier to deform into
plastic deformation, means fails
Gradual wears tool wear gradually on the cutting edge due to the long time
cutting.

Tool wears
Crater wear on top of the rake face due to the chip sliding against the rake face.
Flank wear on the flank face due to contact btw the flank face and the newly
generated part surface.
Figure 21.1 Types of wear
Fig. 21.2 (a) Crater wear and (b) flank wear

Tool Life (# 21.1.2)


Tool flank wear vs. cutting time

Figure 21.3 Tool (flank) wear as a function of time. Crater wear follows a similar
growth curve

Three region of tool wear


(1) Break-in period tool wear rapidly
(2) Steady-state wear region uniform wear rate (a linear function). If a harder mtr.
is cut, the slope is higher, likewise if increasing the cutting speed.
(3) Failure region wear rate begins to accelerate

Cutting speed effect on the tool flank wear

Figure 21.4 Effect of cutting speed on tool flank wear for three cutting speeds for a tool
life criterion of 0.5mm (0.02 in)
The tool life is defined as the cutting time that the cutter can be used before fracture.
But in practical uses, the tool is replaced before it breaks. This is because
(1) the breaking may damage the part or is difficult to recover from the middle
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process;
(2) the tool wear is rapidly near fracture that results in producing unqualified
parts.

Taylor Tool Life Equation

- Taylor plotted the relationship btw the cutting speed and tool life in log-log
scale. It became a linear relationship.

Figure 21.4 Effect of cutting speed on tool flank wear for 3 cutting speeds.

Figure 21.5 Natural log-log plot of cutting speed vs. tool life (correction for 4th version)

v T n C , called Taylor tool life equation


Where n and C depend on the workpiece and tool materials, and cutting conditions
(feed and depth of cut).
In practical uses for mass production, the cutter is changed by part number counts.
The tool wear information is provided by the tool vendors or from machining
handbooks. Some experienced technicians judge the tool replacement by sound
emitting or from changes of ship shapes.
Example 21.1

Table 21.2
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Tool Materials
Tool failures are due to the high cutting temp and cutting force. Therefore, good
cutting tool materials have the following properties:
(1) Good toughness
(2) Good hot hardness .
(3) Good wear resistance

Figure 21.6 Typical hot-hardness relationships for selected tool materials

Tool Geometry (Ch#21.2)


Two categories:
Single point tools
Used for turning, boring, shaping, and planning
Multiple cutting edge tools
Used for drilling, reaming, tapping, milling, broaching, and sawing

Fig. 21.8 Two methods of chip breaking: (a) groove-type and (b) obstruction-type chip
breakers

Figure 21. 9 three ways of holding the cutting edge for a single point tool: (a) solid tool,
(b) brazed insert, and (c) mechanical clamped insert for cemented carbides and other hard
tool material.
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Considerations in Machining (Ch#22)


Machinability (Ch#22.1)
Denotes the relative ease of a material can be machined using appropriate tooling and
cutting conditions.
Depends on: work material, Type of machining operation, tooling, and cutting
conditions
Machinability rating (MR) MR = 1 (100%) for B1112 steel (the based material)
If MR > 1, means better machinability and materials are easier to machine)
If MR < 1, materials are more difficult to machine

Mechanical Properties and Machinability


Hardness
High hardness means abrasive wear increases so tool life is reduced
Strength
High strength means higher cutting forces, specific energy, and cutting
temperature
Ductility
High ductility means tearing of metal to form chip, causing chip disposal
problems and poor finish

Example 22.1 (p. 576)

Table 22.1 (p.577)

Tolerance and Surface Finish (#22.2)


Tolerances
Machining provides high accuracy relative to most other shape-making processes

Table 22.2 (p.578)

Surface finish in machining


(1) Geometric factor
(A) type of machining operation, ex. peripheral or face milling
(B) cutting tool geometry (most importantly - nose radius)
(C) machining condition, ex. feed
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Figure 22.1 Effect of geometric factor in determining the theoretical finish (a) effect of nose
radius, (b) effect of feed, and (c) effect of end cutting edge angle.

Theoretical surface roughness (p.580)


Theoretical arithmetic average surface roughness, For turning operation and face
milling operation with insert tooling:

Ri = f2 (22.1)
32( NR )
f = feed, NR = nose radius on the tool point

The unit for R i is in or mm, and usually converted into micrometer ( m )

(2) Work material factors


Work material factors affect the surface finish includes:
Built-up edge (BUE) effects, particles are deposited on the newly created
surface.
Chip curling back to the work damages the surface.
Tearing the work surface, during the chip formation when machining ductile
materials.
Discontinuous chips cause surface crack when machining brittle materials.
Friction between tool flank face and newly generated surface
The above work material factors are influenced by cutting speed and rake angle.
Therefore, if the cutting speed and rake angle are increased, the surface finish will
be improved.
An empirical ratio is developed to convert the ideal roughness value into an estimate
of actual surface roughness value. Fig 22.2 shows the ratio of actual to ideal surface
roughness as a function of speed for different materials.

R a = rai R i (22.2)

Where R a = the estimated value of actual roughness; rai = ratio of actual to


ideal surface roughness from Fig. 22.2; R i = ideal roughness from Eq. (22.1)

Figure 22.2 Ratio of actual surface roughness to ideal surface roughness for several
materials.

Example 22.2 (p.580)


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(3) vibration and machine tool factor


The factors are related to the machine tool, tooling operation, and setup in the
operation. They include chatter or vibration in the machine tool.
Chatter or vibration in machining operation can result in pronounced waviness in
the work surface. When chatter occurs, distinctive noise is made, and easily heard.
Chatter occurs when the operation speeds are closed to the natural frequency of a
machine.

Possible steps to reduce or eliminate vibration in Machining (Avoid Chatter)


(1) Adding stiffness or damping to the setup
(2) Keeping the operation speeds away from the natural frequency of the machine
tool.
(3) Reducing feeds and depth of cut to reduce forces in cutting
(4) Changing the cutter design to reduce the forces
(5) Use a cutting fluid

Process Planning is to choose the proper manufacturing processes to fabricate


the designed product.
The selection is based on the design requirements specified in the part print

Considerations
Quality, surface finish, dimension tolerance
Production rate,
Cost, operation, tooling, machinability
Flexibility, product changes
Characteristics, special manufacturing process

Cost Production Rate Quality Flexibility

High (Tooling) High (Die)


Casting Mid to Low Low
Low (labor) Low (Sand)
High (Tooling)
Metal forming High Med to Low Low
Low (labor)
High (Labor)
Machining Low High High
Mid (Tooling)
- end -